GAS1

Gene Summary

Gene:GAS1; growth arrest specific 1
Location:9q21.33
Summary:Growth arrest-specific 1 plays a role in growth suppression. GAS1 blocks entry to S phase and prevents cycling of normal and transformed cells. Gas1 is a putative tumor suppressor gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:growth arrest-specific protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GAS1 (cancer-related)

Wang K, Zhu X, Zhang K, et al.
Gas1 Knockdown Increases the Neuroprotective Effect of Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Against Glutamate-Induced Cell Injury in Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells.
Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2016; 36(4):603-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Growth arrest-specific 1 (Gas1) protein acts as an inhibitor of cell growth and a mediator of cell death in nervous system during development and is also re-expressed in adult neurons during excitotoxic insult. Due to its structural similarity to the glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor family receptors α (GFRα), Gas1 is likely to interfere with the neuroprotective effect of GDNF. In the present study, we investigated the expression profile of Gas1 during glutamate insults in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells as well as the influence of Gas1 inhibition on the protective effect of GDNF against glutamate-induced cell injury. Our data showed that Gas1 expression was significantly increased with the treatment of glutamate in SH-SY5Y cells. The silencing of Gas1 by small interfering RNA promoted the protective effect of GDNF against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity as well as cell apoptosis, which effect was likely mediated through activating Akt/PI3 K-dependent cell survival signaling pathway and inhibiting mitochondrial-dependent cell apoptosis signaling pathway via Bad dephosphorylation blockade. In summary, this study showed the synergistic effect of Gas1 inhibition and GDNF against glutamate-induced cell injury in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, which information might significantly contribute to better understanding the function of Gas1 in neuronal cells and form the basis of the therapeutic development of GDNF in treating human neurodegenerative diseases in the future.

Segovia J, Zarco N
Gas1 is a pleiotropic regulator of cellular functions: from embryonic development to molecular actions in cancer gene therapy.
Mini Rev Med Chem. 2014; 14(14):1139-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cellular homeostasis is governed by a precise regulation of the molecular mechanisms of action of several proteins in a given time. There is a group of proteins that have a particular role depending on the cellular context in which they are present and are known as pleiotropic proteins. The Gas1 (Growth Arrest Specific 1) gene was isolated from a subtraction library from serum arrested versus growing NIH3T3 mouse fibroblast. Gas1 is a member of the alpha receptors (GFRα) for the family of GDNF ligands (GFL), we have previously shown that Gas1 acts as a negative modulator of the GDNF-induced intracellular signaling and induces cell arrest and apoptosis. This modulating activity is the cause of the capacity of Gas1 to act as a tumor suppressor. On the other hand, several studies have shown the interaction between Gas1 and Hh (Hedgehog) proteins to potentiate the positive regulation of this pathway, which is involved in the development of the nervous system, and in both the origin and progression of different tumors. This review summarizes our current understanding of the structure of Gas1 and the molecular mechanism of action in different cellular functions, both during embryonic development, in the adult and its effects inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis of cancer cells.

Yadav DS, Chattopadhyay I, Verma A, et al.
A pilot study evaluating genetic alterations that drive tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer in Northeast India.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(9):9317-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
The susceptibility of an individual to oral cancer is mediated by genetic factors and carcinogen-exposure behaviors such as betel quid chewing, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption. This pilot study was aimed to identify the genetic alteration in 100 bp upstream and downstream flanking regions in addition to the exonic regions of 169 cancer-associated genes by using Next Generation sequencing with aim to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of tobacco- and betel quid-associated oral cancer of Northeast India. To understand the role of chemical compounds present in tobacco and betel quid associated with the progression of oral cancer, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and insertion and deletion (Indels) found in this study were analyzed for their association with chemical compounds found in tobacco and betel quid using Comparative Toxogenomic Database. Genes (AR, BRCA1, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with arecoline which is the major component of areca nut. Genes (BARD1, BRCA2, CCND2, IGF1R, MSH6, and RASSF1) with novel deletion and genes (APC, BRMS1, CDK2AP1, CDKN2B, GAS1, IGF1R, and RB1) with novel insertion were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1 which is produced by fermented areca nut. Genes (ADH6, APC, AR, BARD1, BRMS1, CDKN1A, E2F1, FGFR4, FLNC, HRAS, IGF1R, IL12B, IL8, NBL1, STAT5B, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with aflatoxin B1. Genes (ATM, BRCA1, CDKN1A, EGFR, IL8, and TP53) with novel SNP were found to be associated with tobacco specific nitrosamines.

Zhang YW, Zheng Y, Wang JZ, et al.
Integrated analysis of DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiling reveals candidate genes associated with cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(6):896-909 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
DNA methylation plays a critical role during the development of acquired chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to identify candidate DNA methylation drivers of cisplatin (DDP) resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The A549/DDP cell line was established by continuous exposure of A549 cells to increasing concentrations of DDP. Gene expression and methylation profiling were determined by high-throughput microarrays. Relationship of methylation status and DDP response was validated in primary tumor cell culture and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) samples. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and response to DDP were determined in vitro and in vivo. A total of 372 genes showed hypermethylation and downregulation in A549/DDP cells, and these genes were involved in most fundamental biological processes. Ten candidate genes (S100P, GDA, WISP2, LOXL1, TIMP4, ICAM1, CLMP, HSP8, GAS1, BMP2) were selected, and exhibited varying degrees of association with DDP resistance. Low dose combination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and trichostatin A (TSA) reversed drug resistance of A549/DDP cells in vitro and in vivo, along with demethylation and restoration of expression of candidate genes (GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2). Forced expression of GAS1 in A549/DDP cells by gene transfection contributed to increased sensitivity to DDP, proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis enhancement, and in vivo growth retardation. Together, our study demonstrated that a panel of candidate genes downregulated by DNA methylation induced DDP resistance in NSCLC, and showed that epigenetic therapy resensitized cells to DDP.

López-Ornelas A, Vergara P, Segovia J
Neural stem cells producing an inducible and soluble form of Gas1 target and inhibit intracranial glioma growth.
Cytotherapy. 2014; 16(7):1011-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AIMS: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal primary brain tumor and current treatments have not improved its prognosis. Therefore, new strategies and therapeutic agents should be investigated. Growth arrest specific-1 (Gas1) is a protein that induces cell arrest and apoptosis of gliomas and a soluble form, tGas1, increases these effects acting in both autocrine and paracrine manners. Moreover, neural stem cells (NSCs) can be used as a vehicle to transport therapeutic molecules because they have innate tropism towards tumors.
METHODS: Lentiviral vectors were used to obtain NSCs capable of expressing tGas1 in a regulated manner. The ability of engineered NSCs to track and reach GBM in vivo, produce tGas1, and their efficacy decreasing tumor growth and increasing the overall health and survival time of nude mice implanted with GBM were assessed.
RESULTS: The overexpression of tGas1 from NSCs decreased viability and induced cell arrest and apoptosis of GBM cells and also, albeit in a reduced manner, of NSCs themselves. NSCs migrate from one cerebral hemisphere to the contralateral, reach GBM, express the tGas1 transgene when induced by tetracycline and produce the protein. Tumor volume decreased by 77% compared with controls, and tGas1 improved the overall health and increased the survival time of mice implanted with GBM by 75%.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that tGas1 has an antineoplastic effect, and the results support the potential of tGas1 as an adjuvant for the treatment of gliomas.

Atsumi T, Singh R, Sabharwal L, et al.
Inflammation amplifier, a new paradigm in cancer biology.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(1):8-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tumor-associated inflammation can induce various molecules expressed from the tumors themselves or surrounding cells to create a microenvironment that potentially promotes cancer development. Inflammation, particularly chronic inflammation, is often linked to cancer development, even though its evolutionary role should impair nonself objects including tumors. The inflammation amplifier, a hyperinducer of chemokines in nonimmune cells, is the principal machinery for inflammation and is activated by the simultaneous stimulation of NF-κB and STAT3. We have redefined inflammation as local activation of the inflammation amplifier, which causes an accumulation of various immune cells followed by dysregulation of local homeostasis. Genes related to the inflammation amplifier have been genetically associated with various human inflammatory diseases. Here, we describe how cancer-associated genes, including interleukin (IL)-6, Ptgs2, ErbB1, Gas1, Serpine1, cMyc, and Vegf-α, are strongly enriched in genes related to the amplifier. The inflammation amplifier is activated by the stimulation of cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-17, and IL-6, resulting in the subsequent expression of various target genes for chemokines and tumor-related genes like BCL2L11, CPNE7, FAS, HIF1-α, IL-1RAP, and SOD2. Thus, we conclude that inflammation does indeed associate with the development of cancer. The identified genes associated with the inflammation amplifier may thus make potential therapeutic targets of cancers.

Ma Y, Qin H, Cui Y
MiR-34a targets GAS1 to promote cell proliferation and inhibit apoptosis in papillary thyroid carcinoma via PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 441(4):958-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are fundamental regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and are implicated in tumorigenesis of many cancers. MiR-34a is best known as a tumor suppressor through repression of growth factors and oncogenes. Growth arrest specific1 (GAS1) protein is a tumor suppressor that inhibits cancer cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through inhibition of RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Both miR-34a and GAS1 are frequently down-regulated in various tumors. However, it has been reported that while GAS1 is down-regulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), miR-34a is up-regulated in this specific type of cancer, although their potential roles in PTC tumorigenesis have not been examined to date. A computational search revealed that miR-34a putatively binds to the 3'-UTR of GAS1 gene. In the present study, we confirmed previous findings that miR-34a is up-regulated and GAS1 down-regulated in PTC tissues. Further studies indicated that GAS1 is directly targeted by miR-34a. Overexpression of miR-34a promoted PTC cell proliferation and colony formation and inhibited apoptosis, whereas knockdown of miR-34a showed the opposite effects. Silencing of GAS1 had similar growth-promoting effects as overexpression of miR-34a. Furthermore, miR-34a overexpression led to activation of PI3K/Akt/Bad signaling pathway in PTC cells, and depletion of Akt reversed the pro-growth, anti-apoptotic effects of miR-34a. Taken together, our results demonstrate that miR-34a regulates GAS1 expression to promote proliferation and suppress apoptosis in PTC cells via PI3K/Akt/Bad pathway. MiR-34a functions as an oncogene in PTC.

Daino K, Imaoka T, Morioka T, et al.
Loss of the BRCA1-interacting helicase BRIP1 results in abnormal mammary acinar morphogenesis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74013 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BRIP1 is a DNA helicase that directly interacts with the C-terminal BRCT repeat of the breast cancer susceptibility protein BRCA1 and plays an important role in BRCA1-dependent DNA repair and DNA damage-induced checkpoint control. Recent studies implicate BRIP1 as a moderate/low-penetrance breast cancer susceptibility gene. However, the phenotypic effects of BRIP1 dysfunction and its role in breast cancer tumorigenesis remain unclear. To explore the function of BRIP1 in acinar morphogenesis of mammary epithelial cells, we generated BRIP1-knockdown MCF-10A cells by short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated RNA interference and examined its effect in a three-dimensional culture model. Genome-wide gene expression profiling by microarray and quantitative RT-PCR were performed to identify alterations in gene expression in BRIP1-knockdown cells compared with control cells. The microarray data were further investigated using the pathway analysis and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) for pathway identification. BRIP1 knockdown in non-malignant MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells by RNA interference induced neoplastic-like changes such as abnormal cell adhesion, increased cell proliferation, large and irregular-shaped acini, invasive growth, and defective lumen formation. Differentially expressed genes, including MCAM, COL8A1, WIPF1, RICH2, PCSK5, GAS1, SATB1, and ELF3, in BRIP1-knockdown cells compared with control cells were categorized into several functional groups, such as cell adhesion, polarity, growth, signal transduction, and developmental process. Signaling-pathway analyses showed dysregulation of multiple cellular signaling pathways, involving LPA receptor, Myc, Wnt, PI3K, PTEN as well as DNA damage response, in BRIP1-knockdown cells. Loss of BRIP1 thus disrupts normal mammary morphogenesis and causes neoplastic-like changes, possibly via dysregulating multiple cellular signaling pathways functioning in the normal development of mammary glands.

Gurung B, Feng Z, Iwamoto DV, et al.
Menin epigenetically represses Hedgehog signaling in MEN1 tumor syndrome.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(8):2650-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited tumor syndrome that includes susceptibility to pancreatic islet tumors. This syndrome results from mutations in the MEN1 gene, encoding menin. Although menin acts as an oncogenic cofactor for mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) fusion protein-mediated histone H3 lysine 4 methylation, the precise basis for how menin suppresses gene expression and proliferation of pancreatic beta cells remains poorly understood. Here, we show that menin ablation enhances Hedgehog signaling, a proproliferative and oncogenic pathway, in murine pancreatic islets. Menin directly interacts with protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), a negative regulator of gene transcription. Menin recruits PRMT5 to the promoter of the Gas1 gene, a crucial factor for binding of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand to its receptor PTCH1 and subsequent activation of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, increases repressive histone arginine symmetric dimethylation (H4R3m2s), and suppresses Gas1 expression. Notably, MEN1 disease-related menin mutants have reduced binding to PRMT5, and fail to impart the repressive H4R3m2s mark at the Gas1 promoter, resulting in its elevated expression. Pharmacologic inhibition of Hedgehog signaling significantly reduces proliferation of insulinoma cells, and expression of Hedgehog signaling targets including Ptch1, in MEN1 tumors of mice. These findings uncover a novel link between menin and Hedgehog signaling whereby menin/PRMT5 epigenetically suppresses Hedgehog signaling, revealing it as a target for treating MEN1 tumors.

Wang H, Zhou X, Zhang Y, et al.
Growth arrest-specific gene 1 is downregulated and inhibits tumor growth in gastric cancer.
FEBS J. 2012; 279(19):3652-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of malignancy-related mortality in the world, and malignant growth is a crucial characteristic in gastric cancer. In our previous study, we found that growth arrest-specific gene 1 (GAS1) suppression was involved in making gastric cancer cells multidrug-resistant by protecting them from drug-induced apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the potential role of GAS1 in the growth and proliferation of gastric cancer. We demonstrated that GAS1 expression was decreased in gastric cancer, and patients without GAS1 expression showed shorter survival times than those with GAS1 expression. Both gain-of-function (by overexpression of GAS1) and loss-of-function (by GAS1-specific small interfering RNA knockdown) studies showed that increased GAS1 expression significantly reduced the colony-forming ability of gastric cancer cells in vitro and reduced cell growth in vivo, whereas decreased GAS1 expression had the opposite effects. Moreover, upregulation of GAS1 induced cell apoptosis, and downregulation of GAS1 inhibited apoptosis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that GAS1 could induce gastric cancer cell apoptosis, at least in part through modulating the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and the activity of caspase-3. Taken together, our results strongly indicate that GAS1 expression was decreased in gastric cancer and was predictive of a poor prognosis. Restoration of GAS1 expression inhibited cell growth and promoted apoptosis of gastric cancer cells, at least in part through modulating the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and activating caspase-3, suggesting that GAS1 might be used as a novel therapeutic candidate for gastric cancer.

Singh U, Roswall P, Uhrbom L, Westermark B
CGGBP1 regulates cell cycle in cancer cells.
BMC Mol Biol. 2011; 12:28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: CGGBP1 is a CGG-triplet repeat binding protein, which affects transcription from CGG-triplet-rich promoters such as the FMR1 gene and the ribosomal RNA gene clusters. Earlier, we reported some previously unknown functions of CGGBP1 in gene expression during heat shock stress response. Recently we had found CGGBP1 to be a cell cycle regulatory midbody protein required for normal cytokinetic abscission in normal human fibroblasts, which have all the cell cycle regulatory mechanisms intact.
RESULTS: In this study we explored the role of CGGBP1 in the cell cycle in various cancer cell lines. CGGBP1 depletion by RNA interference in tumor-derived cells caused an increase in the cell population at G0/G1 phase and reduced the number of cells in the S phase. CGGBP1 depletion also increased the expression of cell cycle regulatory genes CDKN1A and GAS1, associated with reductions in histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation in their promoters. By combining RNA interference and genetic mutations, we found that the role of CGGBP1 in cell cycle involves multiple mechanisms, as single deficiencies of CDKN1A, GAS1 as well as TP53, INK4A or ARF failed to rescue the G0/G1 arrest caused by CGGBP1 depletion.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that CGGBP1 expression is important for cell cycle progression through multiple parallel mechanisms including the regulation of CDKN1A and GAS1 levels.

Jiang Z, Xu Y, Cai S
Down-regulated GAS1 expression correlates with recurrence in stage II and III colorectal cancer.
Hum Pathol. 2011; 42(3):361-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Growth arrest-specific gene 1 had been associated with cell-cycle arrest, proliferation, and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlations between clinicopathologic factors and survival time and growth arrest-specific gene 1 expression in patients with stage II and III colorectal cancer (CRC). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed in 64 fresh CRC tissues to examine growth arrest-specific gene 1 mRNA expression. Six metastasis-derived and primary-derived cell lines were subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting for further examination of both mRNA and protein concentrations. Growth arrest-specific gene 1 protein was immunostained in 118 paraffin-embedded specimens. Growth arrest-specific gene 1 expression was down-regulated both in tissues with recurrence and in metastasis-derived cell lines. Expression was unrelated to sex, age, tumor grade, or lymphovascular or perineural invasion. However, it was positively related to disease-free survival time (P < .05). Furthermore, lower growth arrest-specific gene 1 expression indicated a poorer survival rate (P < .05; log-rank test). Multivariate analysis also showed weak growth arrest-specific gene 1 protein expression to be an independent adverse prognosticator (P < .05). Taken together, our results support the idea that growth arrest-specific gene 1 contributes to predicting metastasis or recurrence in stage II and III CRC.

López-Ornelas A, Mejía-Castillo T, Vergara P, Segovia J
Lentiviral transfer of an inducible transgene expressing a soluble form of Gas1 causes glioma cell arrest, apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2011; 18(2):87-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gliomas are the most frequent primary tumors of the central nervous system, and their clinical prognosis remains very poor. Because of the characteristics of gliomas, gene therapy appears as a potentially relevant strategy for their treatment. However, the inability of viral vectors to transfer the therapeutic genes to a significantly high number of tumor cells, due to their limited diffusion and distribution, remains a critical obstacle for their application treating gliomas. We have demonstrated that the overexpression of growth arrest specific1 (Gas1) induces cell arrest and apoptosis and eliminates glioma cells in vitro and when implanted in mice. To improve the therapeutic range of Gas1, we generated lentiviral vectors coding for a soluble form of Gas1. Here, we show that cells infected with this virus produce the mutant protein, that acting both in autocrine and paracrine manners, causes death of infected and neighbor cells, thus importantly enhancing the effect of Gas1. Furthermore, the administration of this vector, or cells expressing it, inhibit the growth of tumors inoculated in mice. We present a gene therapy strategy that increases the effect of the therapeutic molecule by eliminating not just the infected cells that express Gas1, but neighbor non-infected cells.

Zhao L, Pan Y, Gang Y, et al.
Identification of GAS1 as an epirubicin resistance-related gene in human gastric cancer cells with a partially randomized small interfering RNA library.
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(39):26273-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epirubicin has been widely used for chemotherapeutic treatment of gastric cancer; however, intrinsic and acquired chemoresistance remains an obstacle to successful management. The mechanisms underlying epirubicin resistance are still not well defined. Here we report the construction and application of a partially randomized retrovirus library of 4 x 10(6) small interfering RNAs to identify novel genes whose suppression confers epirubicin resistance in gastric cancer cells SGC7901. From 12 resistant cell colonies, two small interfering RNAs targeting GAS1 (growth arrest-specific 1) and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), respectively, were identified and validated. We identified a previously unrecognized chemoresistance role for GAS1. GAS1 suppression resulted in significant epirubicin resistance and cross-resistance to 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin in various gastric cancer cell lines. GAS1 suppression promoted multidrug resistance through apoptosis inhibition, partially by up-regulating the Bcl-2/Bax ratio that was abolished by Bcl-2 inhibition. GAS1 suppression induced chemoresistance partially by increasing drug efflux in an ATP-binding cassette transporter and drug-dependent manner. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein) but not MRP-1 were up-regulated, and targeted knockdown of P-gp and BCRP could partially reverse GAS1 suppression-induced epirubicin resistance. Verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, could reverse P-gp substrate (epirubicin) but not non-P-gp substrate (5-fluorouracil and cisplatin) resistance in GAS1-suppressed gastric cancer cells. BCRP down-regulation could partially reverse 5-fluorouracil but not cisplatin resistance induced by GAS1 suppression, suggesting 5-fluorouracil but not cisplatin was a BCRP substrate. These results suggest that GAS1 might be a target to overcome multidrug resistance and provide a novel approach to identifying candidate genes that suppress chemoresistance of gastric cancers.

Wang L, Sun Y, Jiang M, et al.
FOS proliferating network construction in early colorectal cancer (CRC) based on integrative significant function cluster and inferring analysis.
Cancer Invest. 2009; 27(8):816-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim is to setup single distinguished molecular network. We constructed FOS proliferating network from 22 colorectal samples of the same GEO dataset by GRNInfer tool and DAVID based on linear programming and a decomposition procedure with integrated Kappa statistics and fuzzy heuristic clustering. In the control, we found no proliferating subnetwork. In CRC, we identified one FOS proliferating module (SFRP2, ADAMTS1, SYNPO2, VIP, ADAM33 inhibition to FOS and MGP, FOSB activation to FOS. FOS activation to IGFBP5, LGI1, GAS1 and FOS inhibition to VIP). These results may be useful for developing novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in CRC.

Domínguez-Monzón G, Benítez JA, Vergara P, et al.
Gas1 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of human primary gliomas in the absence of Shh.
Int J Dev Neurosci. 2009; 27(4):305-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Growth arrest specific1 (Gas1) is a protein expressed during development and when cells arrest their growth. The potential of Gas1 as an adjuvant in the treatment of cancer, and its role as a tumor suppressor have also been proposed. In this work we are addressing the molecular mechanisms by which Gas1 induces cell arrest and apoptosis of cancer cells, using primary cultures of human gliomas as a model. We had previously demonstrated the structural relationship between Gas1 and the alpha receptors for the Glial-cell line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (GDNF) family of ligands, and showed that Gas1 acts by inhibiting the intracellular signaling induced by GDNF. There are also reports indicating that Gas1 positively cooperates with Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) during embryonic development and in this paper we analyzed the potential interactions between Gas1 and Shh. We show that human gliomas do not express Shh, whereas GDNF and the molecular components necessary to transduce its signaling are present in human gliomas. Furthermore, the over-expression of Gas1 induces cell arrest, apoptosis and prevents the activation of Akt, a crucial mediator of survival and cellular proliferation pathways. In the present work, we present evidence demonstrating that Gas1 exerts its effects inhibiting cell growth and inducing apoptosis of glioma cells in the absence of Shh.

Gobeil S, Zhu X, Doillon CJ, Green MR
A genome-wide shRNA screen identifies GAS1 as a novel melanoma metastasis suppressor gene.
Genes Dev. 2008; 22(21):2932-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis suppressor genes inhibit one or more steps required for metastasis without affecting primary tumor formation. Due to the complexity of the metastatic process, the development of experimental approaches for identifying genes involved in metastasis prevention has been challenging. Here we describe a genome-wide RNAi screening strategy to identify candidate metastasis suppressor genes. Following expression in weakly metastatic B16-F0 mouse melanoma cells, shRNAs were selected based upon enhanced satellite colony formation in a three-dimensional cell culture system and confirmed in a mouse experimental metastasis assay. Using this approach we discovered 22 genes whose knockdown increased metastasis without affecting primary tumor growth. We focused on one of these genes, Gas1 (Growth arrest-specific 1), because we found that it was substantially down-regulated in highly metastatic B16-F10 melanoma cells, which contributed to the high metastatic potential of this mouse cell line. We further demonstrated that Gas1 has all the expected properties of a melanoma tumor suppressor including: suppression of metastasis in a spontaneous metastasis assay, promotion of apoptosis following dissemination of cells to secondary sites, and frequent down-regulation in human melanoma metastasis-derived cell lines and metastatic tumor samples. Thus, we developed a genome-wide shRNA screening strategy that enables the discovery of new metastasis suppressor genes.

Rizzi F, Belloni L, Crafa P, et al.
A novel gene signature for molecular diagnosis of human prostate cancer by RT-qPCR.
PLoS One. 2008; 3(10):e3617 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (CaP) is one of the most relevant causes of cancer death in Western Countries. Although detection of CaP at early curable stage is highly desirable, actual screening methods present limitations and new molecular approaches are needed. Gene expression analysis increases our knowledge about the biology of CaP and may render novel molecular tools, but the identification of accurate biomarkers for reliable molecular diagnosis is a real challenge. We describe here the diagnostic power of a novel 8-genes signature: ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ), adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC), spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT), histone H3 (H3), growth arrest specific gene (GAS1), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and Clusterin (CLU) in tumour detection/classification of human CaP.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The 8-gene signature was detected by retrotranscription real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in frozen prostate surgical specimens obtained from 41 patients diagnosed with CaP and recommended to undergo radical prostatectomy (RP). No therapy was given to patients at any time before RP. The bio-bank used for the study consisted of 66 specimens: 44 were benign-CaP paired from the same patient. Thirty-five were classified as benign and 31 as CaP after final pathological examination. Only molecular data were used for classification of specimens. The Nearest Neighbour (NN) classifier was used in order to discriminate CaP from benign tissue. Validation of final results was obtained with 10-fold cross-validation procedure. CaP versus benign specimens were discriminated with (80+/-5)% accuracy, (81+/-6)% sensitivity and (78+/-7)% specificity. The method also correctly classified 71% of patients with Gleason score<7 versus > or =7, an important predictor of final outcome.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The method showed high sensitivity in a collection of specimens in which a significant portion of the total (13/31, equal to 42%) was considered CaP on the basis of having less than 15% of cancer cells. This result supports the notion of the "cancer field effect", in which transformed cells extend beyond morphologically evident tumour. The molecular diagnosis method here described is objective and less subjected to human error. Although further confirmations are needed, this method poses the potential to enhance conventional diagnosis.

Martinelli DC, Fan CM
The role of Gas1 in embryonic development and its implications for human disease.
Cell Cycle. 2007; 6(21):2650-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Growth Arrest Specific Gene 1 (Gas1) has long been regarded as a cell cycle inhibitor of the G(0) to S phase transition. How GAS1, a GPI-anchored plasma membrane protein, directs intracellular changes without an extracellular ligand or a transmembrane protein partner has been puzzling. A recent series of biochemical and molecular genetic studies assigned the mammalian Hedgehog (HH) growth factor to be a ligand for GAS1 in vitro and in vivo. HH has enjoyed considerable attention for its profound role in embryonic patterning as a classic morphogen, i.e. inducing various cell types in a concentration-dependent manner. GAS1 appears to help transform the HH concentration gradient into its morphogenic activity gradient by acting cooperatively with the HH receptor, the 12-transmembrane protein Patched 1 (PTC1). These findings provoke intriguing thoughts on how HH and GAS1 may coordinate cell proliferation and differentiation to create biological patterns. The role of HH extends to human genetic diseases, stem cell renewal, and cancer growth, and we consider the possibility of GAS1's involvement in these processes as well.

Luo X, Pan Q, Liu L, Chegini N
Genomic and proteomic profiling II: comparative assessment of gene expression profiles in leiomyomas, keloids, and surgically-induced scars.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2007; 5:35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Leiomyoma have often been compared to keloids because of their fibrotic characteristic and higher rate of occurrence among African Americans as compared to other ethnic groups. To evaluate such a correlation at molecular level this study comparatively analyzed leiomyomas with keloids, surgical scars and peritoneal adhesions to identify genes that are either commonly and/or individually distinguish these fibrotic disorders despite differences in the nature of their development and growth.
METHODS: Microarray gene expression profiling and realtime PCR.
RESULTS: The analysis identified 3 to 12% of the genes on the arrays as differentially expressed among these tissues based on P ranking at greater than or equal to 0.005 followed by 2-fold cutoff change selection. Of these genes about 400 genes were identified as differentially expressed in leiomyomas as compared to keloids/incisional scars, and 85 genes as compared to peritoneal adhesions (greater than or equal to 0.01). Functional analysis indicated that the majority of these genes serve as regulators of cell growth (cell cycle/apoptosis), tissue turnover, transcription factors and signal transduction. Of these genes the expression of E2F1, RUNX3, EGR3, TBPIP, ECM-2, ESM1, THBS1, GAS1, ADAM17, CST6, FBLN5, and COL18A was confirmed in these tissues using quantitative realtime PCR based on low-density arrays.
CONCLUSION: the results indicated that the molecular feature of leiomyomas is comparable but may be under different tissue-specific regulatory control to those of keloids and differ at the levels rather than tissue-specific expression of selected number of genes functionally regulating cell growth and apoptosis, inflammation, angiogenesis and tissue turnover.

Pan Q, Luo X, Chegini N
Genomic and proteomic profiling I: leiomyomas in African Americans and Caucasians.
Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2007; 5:34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Clinical observations indicate that leiomyomas occur more frequently in African Americans compared to other ethnic groups with unknown etiology. To identify the molecular basis for the difference we compared leiomyomas form A. Americans with Caucasians using genomic and proteomic strategies.
METHODS: Microarray, realtime PCR, 2D-PAGE, mass spectrometry, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Using Affymetrix U133A array and analysis based on P ranking (P < 0.01) 1470 genes were identified as differentially expressed in leiomyomas compared to myometrium regardless of ethnicity. Of these, 268 genes were either over-expressed (177 genes) or under-expressed (91 genes) based on P < 0.01 followed by 2-fold cutoff selection in leiomyomas of A. Americans as compared to Caucasians. Among them, the expression E2F1, RUNX3, EGR3, TBPIP, ECM2, ESM1, THBS1, GAS1, ADAM17, CST6, CST7, FBLN5, ICAM2, EDN1 and COL18 was validated using realtime PCR low-density arrays. 2D PAGE coupled with image analysis identified 332 protein spots of which the density/volume of 31 varied by greater than or equal to 1.5 fold in leiomyomas as compared to myometrium. The density/volume of 34 protein-spots varied by greater than or equal to 1.5 fold (26 increased and 8 decreased) in leiomyomas of A. Americans as compared to Caucasians. Tandem mass spectrometric analysis of 15 protein spots identified several proteins whose transcripts were also identified by microarray, including 14-3-3 beta and mimecan, whose expression was confirmed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
CONCLUSION: These findings imply that the level rather than the ethnic-specific expression of a number of genes and proteins may account for the difference between leiomyomas and possibly myometrium, in A. Americans and Caucasians. Further study using larger sample size is required to confirm these findings.

Benítez JA, Arregui L, Vergara P, Segovia J
Targeted-simultaneous expression of Gas1 and p53 using a bicistronic adenoviral vector in gliomas.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2007; 14(10):836-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
The targeted expression of transgenes is one of the principal goals of gene therapy, and it is particularly relevant for the treatment of brain tumors. In this study, we examined the effect of the overexpression of human gas1 (growth arrest specific 1) and human p53 cDNAs, both under the transcriptional control of a promoter of the human glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfa2), employing adenoviral expression vectors, in glioma cells. We showed that the targeted overexpression of gas1 and p53 (AdSGas1 and AdSp53, respectively) in rat glioma cells (C6) reduced the number of viable cells and induced apoptosis. Moreover, the adenovirally targeted expression of these genes also reduced tumor growth in vivo. Unexpectedly, there was no additive effect when both gas1 and p53 were simultaneously expressed in the same cells using a bicistronic adenoviral vector. We suggest that Gas1 does not act in combination with p53 in the C6 and U373 glioma cell lines, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Our results indicate that the targeted expression of tumor suppressor genes (gas1 and p53) regulated by the gfa2 promoter, together with adenoviral vectors may provide an interesting approach for adjuvant selective glioma gene therapy.

Vachani A, Nebozhyn M, Singhal S, et al.
A 10-gene classifier for distinguishing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2007; 13(10):2905-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The risk of developing metastatic squamous cell carcinoma for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is very high. Because these patients are often heavy tobacco users, they are also at risk for developing a second primary cancer, with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (LSCC) being the most common. The distinction between a lung metastasis and a primary LSCC is currently based on certain clinical and histologic criteria, although the accuracy of this approach remains in question.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Gene expression patterns derived from 28 patients with HNSCC or LSCC from a single center were analyzed using penalized discriminant analysis. Validation was done on previously published data for 134 total subjects from four independent Affymetrix data sets.
RESULTS: We identified a panel of 10 genes (CXCL13, COL6A2, SFTPB, KRT14, TSPYL5, TMP3, KLK10, MMP1, GAS1, and MYH2) that accurately distinguished these two tumor types. This 10-gene classifier was validated on 122 subjects derived from four independent data sets and an average accuracy of 96% was shown. Gene expression values were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR derived on 12 independent samples (seven HNSCC and five LSCC). The 10-gene classifier was also used to determine the site of origin of 12 lung lesions from patients with prior HNSCC.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that penalized discriminant analysis using these 10 genes will be highly accurate in determining the origin of squamous cell carcinomas in the lungs of patients with previous head and neck malignancies.

Kokkinakis DM, Brickner AG, Kirkwood JM, et al.
Mitotic arrest, apoptosis, and sensitization to chemotherapy of melanomas by methionine deprivation stress.
Mol Cancer Res. 2006; 4(8):575-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Methionine deprivation stress (MDS) eliminates mitotic activity in melanoma cells regardless of stage, grade, or TP53 status, whereas it has a negligible effect on normal skin fibroblasts. In most cases, apoptosis accounts for the elimination of up to 90% of tumor cells from the culture within 72 hours after MDS, leaving a scattered population of multinucleated resistant cells. Loss of mitosis in tumor cells is associated with marked reduction of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1 transcription and/or loss of its active form (CDK1-P-Thr(161)), which is coincident with up-regulation of CDKN1A, CDKN1B, and CDKN1C (p21, p27, and p57). Expression of the proapoptotic LITAF, IFNGR, EREG, TNFSF/TNFRSF10 and TNFRSF12, FAS, and RNASEL is primarily up-regulated/induced in cells destined to undergo apoptosis. Loss of Aurora kinase B and BIRC5, which are required for histone H3 phosphorylation, is associated with the accumulation of surviving multinucleated cells. Nevertheless, noncycling survivors of MDS are sensitized to temozolomide, carmustin, and cisplatin to a much greater extent than normal skin fibroblasts possibly because of the suppression of MGMT/TOP1/POLB, MGMT/RAD52/RAD54, and cMET/RADD52, respectively. Sensitivity to these and additional genotoxic agents and radiation may also be acquired due to loss of cMET/OGG1, reduced glutathione reductase levels, and a G(2)-phase block that is a crucial step in the damage response associated with enhancement of drug toxicity. Although the genes controlling mitotic arrest and/or apoptosis in response to low extracellular methionine levels are unknown, it is likely that such control is exerted via the induction/up-regulation of tumor suppressors/growth inhibitor genes, such as TGFB, PTEN, GAS1, EGR3, BTG3, MDA7, and the proteoglycans (LUM, BGN, and DCN), as well as the down-regulation/loss of function of prosurvival genes, such as NFkappaB, MYC, and ERBB2. Although MDS targets several common genes in tumors, mutational variability among melanomas may decide which metabolic and signal transduction pathways will be activated or shutdown.

Lapouge G, Millon R, Muller D, et al.
Cisplatin-induced genes as potential markers for thyroid cancer.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005; 62(1):53-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the uncontested role of p53 in cycle arrest/cell death after cisplatin treatment, to date the question whether wild-type p53 confers a resistant or sensitive status on the cell is still a matter of debate. Isogenic and isophenotypic human thyroid papillary carcinoma cell line variants for p53 differently expressed cycle genes after cisplatin treatment. Seven genes (CDC6-related protein, CCNC, GAS1, TFDP2, MAPK10/JNK3, WEE1, RPA1) selected after expression on an Atlas human cell cycle array were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. While cisplatin treatment increased their expression in p53 wild-type cells it decreased it in cells with inactivated p53 and had no or less effect on cells with mutated p53. These results show that in a well-defined system, different alterations of p53 can lead to a different regulation of genes and hence to either resistance or sensitivity to cisplatin. Moreover for the first time, MAPK10/JNK3 was identified in human thyroid cells and tissue. Four of the genes (CDC6-related protein, CCNC, GAS1 and TFDP2) were decreased in human papillary carcinoma tissues. Relevance of these genes (especially a decrease in GAS1 in thyroid papillary carcinoma) in various malignant pathologies has already been shown. These genes may be explored as new markers in advanced thyroid cancer such as metastatic and anaplastic forms displaying p53 alterations.

Shain SA
Exogenous fibroblast growth factors maintain viability, promote proliferation, and suppress GADD45alpha and GAS6 transcript content of prostate cancer cells genetically modified to lack endogenous FGF-2.
Mol Cancer Res. 2004; 2(11):653-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Understanding processes regulating prostate cancer cell survival is critical to management of advanced disease. We used prostate cancer cell transfectants genetically modified to be deficient in either endogenous fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) or endogenous FGF-2 to examine FGF maintenance of transfectant survival and proliferation and FGF-2-regulated expression of transfectant growth arrest DNA damage (GADD) and growth arrest sequences (GAS) family genes (known modulators of cell cycle progression and survival) and the AS3 gene (an androgen-modulated effector of prostate cell proliferation). When propagated in the absence of exogenous FGFs, FGF-2-deficient transfectants undergo exponential death, whereas FGF-1-deficient transfectants proliferate. Exogenous FGF-1, FGF-2, FGF-7, or FGF-8 promote survival and proliferation of FGF-2-deficient transfectants and enhance FGF-1-deficient transfectant proliferation. Transfectants express FGF receptor FGFR1, FGFR2(IIIb), FGFR2(IIIc), and FGFR3 transcripts, findings consistent with the effects of exogenous FGFs. FGF-2-deficient transfectants express high levels of AS3, GADD45alpha, GADD45gamma, GAS8, and GAS11 transcripts and moderate levels of GADD153, GAS2, GAS3, and GAS6 transcripts and lack demonstrable GAS1 or GAS5 transcripts. FGF withdrawal-mediated death of FGF-2-deficient transfectants did not significantly affect cell AS3, GADD153, GADD45gamma, GAS2, GAS3, GAS7, GAS8, or GAS11 transcript content, whereas GADD45alpha and GAS6 transcript content was elevated. These studies establish that endogenous FGF-2 dominantly regulates prostate cancer cell survival and proliferation and that exogenous FGFs may assume this function in the absence of endogenous FGF-2. Additionally, we provide the first evidence that FGFs regulate prostate GADD45alpha and GAS6 transcript content. The latter observations suggest that GADD45alpha and GAS6 proteins may be effectors of processes that regulate prostate cancer cell survival. Additional studies are required to examine this possibility in detail.

Caporali A, Davalli P, Astancolle S, et al.
The chemopreventive action of catechins in the TRAMP mouse model of prostate carcinogenesis is accompanied by clusterin over-expression.
Carcinogenesis. 2004; 25(11):2217-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clusterin (CLU) protein is widely distributed in animal tissues and is involved in many different processes, including apoptosis and neoplastic transformation. Green tea catechins (GTC) are known to exert chemopreventive effects in many cancer models, including transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice that spontaneously develop prostate cancer (CaP). We report here that growth of SV40-immortalized human prostate epithelial cells (PNT1A) as well as tumorigenic, poorly differentiated prostate cancer cells (PC-3) was potently inhibited by EGCG, the major green tea catechin, while normal human prostate epithelial cells were not significantly affected. IC(50) doses of EGCG for 24 h caused caspase cascade activation and CLU protein accumulation in both cells lines but not in normal cells, in which CLU remained undetectable. While 100% of TRAMP mice developed CaP, only 20% of those receiving 0.3% GTC in drinking water developed the neoplasm. In TRAMP mice, the CLU gene was dramatically down-regulated during onset and progression of CaP. In GTC-treated TRAMP mice in which tumor progression was chemoprevented, CLU mRNA and protein progressively accumulated in the prostate gland. CLU dropped again to undetectable levels in animals in which GTC chemoprevention failed and CaP developed. Up-regulation of histone H3 and down-regulation of growth arrest-specific gene 1 (Gas1) mRNAs in CaP-developing TRAMP mice demonstrated a high proliferation rate in tumors, while the opposite occurred in the glands of GTC chemoprevented animals. Failure of GTC chemoprevention caused induction of both histone H3 and Gas1 and down-regulation of CLU. Immunohistochemistry experiments confirmed CLU down-regulation during CaP onset and progression, and CLU sustained expression in chemoprevented TRAMP mice. A possible role for CLU as a novel tumor-suppressor gene in the prostate is thus suggested.

Zamorano A, Mellström B, Vergara P, et al.
Glial-specific retrovirally mediated gas1 gene expression induces glioma cell apoptosis and inhibits tumor growth in vivo.
Neurobiol Dis. 2004; 15(3):483-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
We recently reported that the targeted expression of growth arrest specific 1 (Gas1) induces apoptosis in glioma cells. Because the vast majority of gliomas present genetic alterations that reduce their ability to undergo apoptosis, a gene therapy strategy aimed at reinstating apoptotic processes in glioma cells is an interesting approach for the treatment of these tumors. We used a retroviral gene transfer system to transduce C6 glioma cells with a transgene in which the expression of a full-length human gas1 cDNA is under the transcriptional control of a human promoter of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (gfa2). In vitro experiments showed that the retroviral transfer of gas1 significantly reduces the number of viable cells, and induces apoptosis in C6 cells, through the activation of caspase-3. Furthermore, retroviral-mediated transfer of gas1 to gliomas implanted in nude mice induces a significant inhibition of tumor growth, accompanied by increased caspase-3 activation. In the present experiments, we have taken advantage of the property of retrovirus to transfer transgenes exclusively to proliferating cells, together with the use of a glial specific promoter, to selectively target the expression of gas1, a pro-apoptotic gene, to glioma cells.

Scaltriti M, Brausi M, Amorosi A, et al.
Clusterin (SGP-2, ApoJ) expression is downregulated in low- and high-grade human prostate cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2004; 108(1):23-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clusterin is overexpressed during tissue and cell involution and downregulated in proliferating cells. Its role in cell survival, cell death and neoplastic transformation remains debated. We studied the expression and distribution of clusterin mRNA and protein in human prostate carcinoma (CaP) specimens of different degrees of malignancy. Fresh CaP specimens were obtained from 25 patients subjected to long-term androgen ablation before surgery. Clusterin expression was studied by Northern and Western analysis, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, in comparison with Gas1 and histone H3 mRNA (markers of cell quiescence and S phase of the cell cycle, respectively). Clusterin is downregulated in CaP in comparison with matched benign controls. In low-grade CaP, clusterin colocalized with Gas1 to the stromal compartment, and in some glands, the basal lamina was heavily stained. In high-grade CaP clusterin stained the remnants of stromal matrix while histone H3 localized to cancer cells, which were very rarely clusterin positive. High clusterin expression was found in the branches of a nerve infiltrated by tumor. The periglandular clusterin expression found in low-grade CaP could result from induction of quiescence and/or apoptosis of prostatic fibroblasts lining those glands in which tumor invasion is at an initial stage, involving basal lamina. In advanced CaP, the staining of the remnants of the extracellular matrix suggests a role for clusterin in the process of dismantling the stromal organization caused by cancer progression.

Gartel AL, Shchors K
Mechanisms of c-myc-mediated transcriptional repression of growth arrest genes.
Exp Cell Res. 2003; 283(1):17-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Constitutive expression of the proto-oncogene c-myc results in oncogenic activation and contributes to progression of a wide range of human and animal tumors. Myc executes its multiple activities mostly through transcriptional regulation of the target genes. The special interest of this review is the mechanism of transcriptional repression of cell cycle inhibitors by Myc. Myc suppresses expression of cell cycle/growth arrest genes gas1, p15, p21, p27, and gadd34, -45, and -153. It appears that Myc represses growth arrest gene transcription by at least two distinct mechanisms. One mechanism is limited to the binding of Myc-Max heterodimers to the Inr element in their promoters and inhibition of Miz-1 or other transcriptional activators via the C-terminal domain of c-Myc. This mechanism requires DNA binding of the Myc-Max complex to Inr sequences. The other mechanism is dependent on c-Myc binding to the Sp1 transcription factor via the c-Myc central region and inhibition of Sp1 transcriptional activity. At this time it is not entirely clear which Sp1-containing promoters will be repressed by c-Myc and what other modes of c-Myc transcriptional repression may exist. The ability of c-Myc to repress transcription of growth arrest genes may contribute to its potential to promote proliferation and oncogenesis.

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