Gene Summary

Gene:GATA4; GATA binding protein 4
Aliases: TOF, ASD2, VSD1, TACHD
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the GATA family of zinc-finger transcription factors. Members of this family recognize the GATA motif which is present in the promoters of many genes. This protein is thought to regulate genes involved in embryogenesis and in myocardial differentiation and function, and is necessary for normal testicular development. Mutations in this gene have been associated with cardiac septal defects. Additionally, alterations in gene expression have been associated with several cancer types. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Apr 2015]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor GATA-4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (57)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (3)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 8
  • Young Adult
  • CpG Islands
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Rectal Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Childhood Cancer
  • GATA4 Transcription Factor
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Xenopus Proteins
  • Down-Regulation
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Breast Cancer
  • GATA6 Transcription Factor
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Adolescents
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Epigenetics
  • DNA Methylation
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Transcription Factors
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Transfection
  • GATA5 Transcription Factor
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Lung Cancer
  • Carcinoma
  • Cancer DNA
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Gene Silencing
  • Granulosa Cell Tumor
  • Messenger RNA
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Ovarian Cancer
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: GATA4 (cancer-related)

Färkkilä A, Zauli G, Haltia UM, et al.
Circulating levels of TNF-related apoptosis inducing-ligand are decreased in patients with large adult-type granulosa cell tumors-implications for therapeutic potential.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(9):11909-11916 [PubMed] Related Publications
Targeted treatments are needed for advanced adult-type granulosa cell tumors (AGCTs). We set out to assess tumor tissue and circulating levels of TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a promising anti-cancer cytokine, in patients affected by AGCT. We analyzed tissue expression of TRAIL in 127 AGCTs using immunohistochemistry or RT-PCR. Soluble TRAIL was measured by means of ELISA from 141 AGCT patient serum samples, as well as the conditioned media of 15 AGCT patient-derived primary cell cultures, and the KGN cell line. Tissue and serum TRAIL levels were analyzed in relationship with clinical parameters, and serum estradiol, FSH, and LH levels. We found that AGCT samples expressed TRAIL mRNA and protein at levels comparable to normal granulosa cells. AGCT cells did not release soluble TRAIL. TRAIL protein levels were decreased in tumors over 10 cm in diameter (p = 0.04). Consistently, circulating TRAIL levels correlated negatively to tumor dimension (p = 0.01). Circulating TRAIL levels negatively associated with serum estradiol levels. In multiple regression analysis, tumor size was an independent factor contributing to the decreased levels of soluble TRAIL in AGCT patients. AGCTs associate with significantly decreased tumor tissue and serum TRAIL levels in patients with a large tumor mass. These findings encourage further study of agonistic TRAIL treatments in patients with advanced or recurrent AGCT.

Kondratyeva LG, Sveshnikova AA, Grankina EV, et al.
Downregulation of expression of mater genes SOX9, FOXA2, and GATA4 in pancreatic cancer cells stimulated with TGFβ1 epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Dokl Biochem Biophys. 2016; 469(1):257-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
We show characteristic morphological changes corresponding to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) program fulfillment in PANC1 cell line stimulated with TGFβ1. Our results support downregulation of E-cadherin protein. We show 5- and 28-fold increase in SNAI1 and SNAI2 expression levels and 25- and 15-fold decrease in CDH1 and KRT8 expression levels, respectively, which confirms the EMT-program fulfillment. We demonstrate downregulation of expression of pancreatic master genes SOX9, FOXA2, and GATA4 (2-, 5-, and 4-fold, respectively) and absence of significant changes in HES1, NR5A2, and GATA6 expression levels in the cells stimulated with TGFβ1. Our results indicate the absence of induction of expression of PTF1A, PDX1, HNF1b, NEUROG3, RPBJL, NKX6.1, and ONECUT1 genes, which are inactive in PANC1 cell line after the EMT stimulated by TGFβ1.

Cai J, Zhang Z
An Analysis of IL-10/IL-10R Genetic Factors Related to Risk of Colon Cancer and Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Han Chinese Population.
Clin Lab. 2016; 62(6):1147-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at high risk of developing colon cancer and represent a valuable patient cohort for studying the correlation between chronic inflammation and cancer formation. Cytokines play key roles in the regulation of systemic inflammation, local tissue damage, and immunomodulation involved in tumor development and progression. Therefore, functional polymorphisms in genes that encode cytokines and cytokine receptors represent potential candidate genes associated with carcinogenesis. The present study aimed to ascertain if any of the candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammation-related genes IL-10/IL-10R are associated with colon cancer or IBD in Han Chinese population.
METHODS: A case-control study in a Chinese Han cohort was conducted and included 375 patients with colon cancer, 278 patients with IBD, and 382 age and gender matched healthy controls. Genotyping of four candidate SNPs (IL-10 rs1800896, rs1800872, rs3024505, and IL-10R rs9610) was performed and analysis was done using the MassARRAY system based on the MALDI-TOF MS platform.
RESULTS: The C allele at rs1800872 may be a protective factor incolon cancer (OR = 0.770; 95% CI: 0.653 - 0.909; p = 0.002). A decreased risk of colon cancer in patients with rs1800872 AC genotype (OR = 0.794; 95% CI, 0.664 - 950; p = 0.011), CC genotype (OR = 0.589; 95% CI, 0.372 - 0.933; p = 0.022) or AC/CC genotype (OR = 792; 95% CI, 0.678 - 0.925; p = 0.003) was observed, compared with the common AA genotype. Conversely, carriers of the variant T allele of rs3024505 flanking the IL-10 gene were at increased risk of IBD (OR = 1.999; 95% CI: 1.174 - 3.401; p = 0.009). Compared with the common CC genotype, carrying heterozygous (OR = 1.762; 95% CI, 1.030 - 3.012; p = 0.036), or heterozygous and homozygous combined (OR = 1.874; 95% CI, 1.105 - 3.177; p = 0.018) at the IL-10 rs3024505, was associated with increased risk of IBD. Stratified analysis showed that a positive association was identified between the AC/CC genotype at IL-10 rs1800872 and tumor stage (p = 0.029).
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the variants in the IL-10 gene may change the risk of both colon cancer and IBD. The C allele at rs1800872 may be a protective factor in colon cancer and the T allele at rs3024505 may be a risk factor in IBD in a Han Chinese population.

Shao X, Gao D, Wang Y, et al.
Application of metabolomics to investigate the antitumor mechanism of flavopiridol in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2016; 1025:40-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Flavopiridol is reported to have potent antitumor effects by inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). However, most studies of flavopiridol focus on specific genes and kinases, so the antitumor mechanism needs further elucidation at the metabolic level. In the present study, an UPLC/Q-TOF MS metabolomics approach was used to investigate its antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Comparing flavopiridol-treated MCF-7 cells with vehicle control, 21 potential biomarkers involved in five metabolism pathways were identified. Two pathways involving glutathione metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism showed that glutathione (GSH) and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) levels were reduced while their oxidized products oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and lysophosphatidylcholines (LysoPCs) were greatly increased. Further investigation showed an apparent accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Thus, we suggest that oxidative stress was provoked in MCF-7 cells to reduce the GSH and PCs levels and cause mitochondria lesions. Moreover, cell cycle analysis showed that flavopiridol blocked cells at G1 stage, which was consistent with the depletion of spermidine and spermine that are believed to promote cancer progression. Taking these together, we concluded that flavopiridol could induce oxidative stress and cell cycle arrest, which finally lead to cell apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. This study provides a new strategy for studying the antitumor mechanism of flavopiridol, which could be used for its further improvement and application.

Flodrova D, Toporova L, Macejova D, et al.
A comparative study of protein patterns of human estrogen receptor positive (MCF-7) and negative (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines.
Gen Physiol Biophys. 2016; 35(3):387-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the present study, we analyzed the cell lysates of human tumour cell lines representing two major clinically different types of breast cancer. Our main goal was to show the differences between them on proteomic level. Gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF MS analysis was used for proteins determination. Exactly 98 proteins were unequivocally identified and 60 of them were expressed differentially between MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cell lines. Among the proteins reported here, some well-known breast cancer markers (e.g., annexin A1, annexin A2 and vimentin) were identified in the MDA-MB-231 cell line and thus we were able to distinguish both cell lines sufficiently.

Abdullah Al-Dhabi N, Srigopalram S, Ilavenil S, et al.
Proteomic Analysis of Stage-II Breast Cancer from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Tissues.
Biomed Res Int. 2016; 2016:3071013 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring disease among women worldwide. The early stage of breast cancer identification is the key challenge in cancer control and prevention procedures. Although gene expression profiling helps to understand the molecular mechanism of diseases or disorder in the living system, gene expression pattern alone is not sufficient to predict the exact mechanisms. Current proteomics tools hold great application for analysis of cancerous conditions. Hence, the generation of differential protein expression profiles has been optimized for breast cancer and normal tissue samples in our organization. Normal and tumor tissues were collected from 20 people from a local hospital. Proteins from the diseased and normal tissues have been investigated by 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS. The peptide mass fingerprint data were fed into various public domains like Mascot, MS-Fit, and Pept-ident against Swiss-Prot protein database and the proteins of interest were identified. Some of the differentially expressed proteins identified were human annexin, glutathione S-transferase, vimentin, enolase-1, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, Cyclin A1, hormone sensitive lipase, beta catenin, and so forth. Many types of proteins were identified as fundamental steps for developing molecular markers for diagnosis of human breast cancer as well as making a new proteomic database for future research.

Chai Y, Wang G, Fan L, Zhao M
A proteomic analysis of mushroom polysaccharide-treated HepG2 cells.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:23565 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The anti-tumor properties of fungal polysaccharides have gained significant recognition in Asia and tropical America. In this study, the differential expression of proteins in normal HepG2 cells and those treated with polysaccharides that had been isolated from Phellinus linteus (PL), Ganoderma lucidum (GL) and Auricularia auricula (AA) was investigated. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE), a total of 104 protein spots were determined to be overexpressed in these cells compared with noncancerous regions. A total of 59 differentially expressed proteins were identified through MALDI-TOF-MS. In addition, 400 biological processes (BP), 133 cell components (CC) and 146 molecular functions (MF) were enriched by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, and 78 KEGG pathways were enriched by pathway enrichment. Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) analysis demonstrated the interaction networks affected by polysaccharides in HepG2 cells. Then, DJ-1 and 14-3-3 were identified as the key proteins in the networks, and the expression of the mRNA and proteins were evaluated using Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting (WB), respectively. The results were in agreement with the 2DE. These results provided information on significant proteins of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and form an important basis for the future development of valuable medicinal mushroom resources.

Lentjes MH, Niessen HE, Akiyama Y, et al.
The emerging role of GATA transcription factors in development and disease.
Expert Rev Mol Med. 2016; 18:e3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The GATA family of transcription factors consists of six proteins (GATA1-6) which are involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes. GATA1/2/3 are required for differentiation of mesoderm and ectoderm-derived tissues, including the haematopoietic and central nervous system. GATA4/5/6 are implicated in development and differentiation of endoderm- and mesoderm-derived tissues such as induction of differentiation of embryonic stem cells, cardiovascular embryogenesis and guidance of epithelial cell differentiation in the adult.

Yang XD, Zhao SF, Zhang Q, et al.
Gelsolin rs1078305 and rs10818524 polymorphisms were associated with risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Chinese Han population.
Biomarkers. 2016; 21(3):267-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gelsolin (GSN) is one of the most abundant actin-binding proteins, and is involved in cancer development and progression.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study including 201 patients with OSCC and 199 healthy controls was conducted. Seventeen single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of GSN were investigated by Sequenom Mass ARRAY and iPLEX-MALDI-TOF technology.
RESULTS: Through comparison of the 17 SNPs on GSN gene between the two groups, SNP rs1078305 and rs10818524 were verified to be significantly associated with an increased risk of OSCC. For GSN rs1078305, the TT genotype was associated with increased risk for OSCC (OR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.11-3.32, p = 0.028). CT/TT variants were also associated with increased risk for OSCC compared to the CC genotype (OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25-3.84, p = 0.032).
CONCLUSION: The rs1078305 and rs10818524 SNPs of GSN were associated with increased risk for OSCC development in a Chinese Han population.

Zaidi AH, Kelly LA, Kreft RE, et al.
Associations of microbiota and toll-like receptor signaling pathway in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize known molecules from microbes and have an established role in tumorigenesis. Using a rat model of esophageal adenocarcinoma, and human clinical samples, we investigated genes central to TLR-mediated signal transduction and characterized the esophageal microbiome across the spectrum of esophageal adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis.
METHODS: We surgically induced bile/acid reflux in rats and their esophagi were harvested at 40 weeks post-surgery. Tissue samples from the model were selected for gene expression profiling. Additionally, for rat and human samples microbiome analysis was performed using PCR-ESI-MS-TOF technology with validation by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
RESULTS: Gene expression results in the rat model indicated a significant upregulation of TLRs 1-3, 6, 7 and 9 in EAC compared to normal epithelium. PCR-ESI-MS-TOF analysis revealed a prevalence of Escherichia coli in Barrett's esophagus (60%) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (100%), which was validated by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In the human clinical samples, Streptococcus pneumonia was detected in high abundance in gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus (50-70%) in comparison to tumor adjacent normal epithelium, dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma (20-30%). E. coli was detected in the Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma groups but was absent in the tumor adjacent normal epithelium, dysplasia, and the gastroesophageal reflux disease groups.
CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated an association between the TLR signaling pathway and E. coli hinting towards possible early molecular changes being mediated by microbes in the rat model of esophageal adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis. Studies on human clinical samples also corroborate results to some extent; however, a study with larger sample size is needed to further explore this association.

Gong WJ, Yin JY, Li XP, et al.
Association of well-characterized lung cancer lncRNA polymorphisms with lung cancer susceptibility and platinum-based chemotherapy response.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(6):8349-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in carcinogenesis and drug efficacy. Platinum-based chemotherapy is first-line treatment for lung cancer chemotherapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of well-characterized lung cancer lncRNA genetic polymorphisms with the lung cancer susceptibility and platinum-based chemotherapy response. A total of 498 lung cancer patients and 213 healthy controls were recruited in the study. Among them, 467 patients received at least two cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy. Thirteen polymorphisms in HOXA distal transcript antisense RNA (HOTTIP), HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR), H19, CDKN2B antisense RNA 1 (ANRIL), colon cancer-associated transcript 2 (CCAT2), metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1), and maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) genes were genotyped by allele-specific MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. We found that patients with HOTTIP rs5883064 C allele or rs1859168 A allele had increased lung cancer risk (P = 0.01, P = 0.01, respectively). CCAT2 rs6983267 (P = 0.02, adenocarcinoma) and H19 rs2107425 (P = 0.02, age under 50 years) showed strong relationship with lung cancer susceptibility. CCAT2 rs6983267, H19 rs2839698, MALAT1 rs619586, and HOTAIR rs7958904 were associated with platinum-based chemotherapy response in dominant model ((P = 0.02, P = 0.04, P = 0.04, P = 0.01, respectively). ANRIL rs10120688 (P = 0.02, adenocarcinoma) and rs1333049 (P = 0.04, small-cell lung cancer), H19 rs2107425 (P = 0.02, small-cell lung cancer) and HOTAIR rs1899663 (P = 0.03, male; P = 0.03, smoker) were associated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy. HOTTIP, CCAT2, H19, HOTAIR, MALATI, ANRIL genetic polymorphisms were significantly associated with lung cancer susceptibility or platinum-based chemotherapy response. They may be potential clinical biomarkers to predict lung cancer risk and platinum-based chemotherapy response.

Gandhi D, Tarale P, Naoghare PK, et al.
Integrative genomic and proteomic profiling of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells reveals signatures of endosulfan exposure.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016; 41:187-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is known to induce multiple disorders/abnormalities including neuro-degenerative disorders in many animal species. However, the molecular mechanism of endosulfan induced neuronal alterations is still not well understood. In the present study, the effect of sub-lethal concentration of endosulfan (3 μM) on human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) was investigated using genomic and proteomic approaches. Microarray and 2D-PAGE followed by MALDI-TOF-MS analysis revealed differential expression of 831 transcripts and 16 proteins in exposed cells. A gene ontology enrichment analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes and proteins were involved in variety of cellular events such as neuronal developmental pathway, immune response, cell differentiation, apoptosis, transmission of nerve impulse, axonogenesis, etc. The present study attempted to explore the possible molecular mechanism of endosulfan induced neuronal alterations in SH-SY5Y cells using an integrated genomic and proteomic approach. Based on the gene and protein profile possible mechanisms underlying endosulfan neurotoxicity were predicted.

Wan X, Li X, Yang J, et al.
Genetic association between PIK3CA gene and oral squamous cell carcinoma: a case control study conducted in Chongqing, China.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):13360-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PIK3CA has been shown to be involved in many malignant tumors. This study was designed to determine the expression level of PIK3CA in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the association of gene polymorphisms of PIK3CA with OSCC in Chinese population. The expression of PIK3CA was detected by real-time PCR in tumor and pericarcinomatous tissues of 10 OSCC patients. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PIK3CA (rs1607237, rs17849079, rs2677764, rs2699887, rs4855094, rs4975596, rs6443624, rs7651265 and rs7736074) in blood of 113 OSCC patients and 184 normal controls were genotyped using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) assay. The gene expression of PIK3CA was significantly higher in tumor tissues of OSCC patients than that in pericarcinomatous tissues (P = 0.012). An increased frequency of the C allele of PIK3CA rs1607237 was observed in OSCC patients as compared with controls; However, the significance was lost after Bonferroni correction (P = 0.048, pc = 0.576). In further stratification analysis, although the frequencies of PIK3CA rs4975596 A allele in male patients and rs1607237 C allele in female patients were increased (P = 0.032, P = 0.020, respectively), the significance was also missing when Bonferroni correction was performed (P c = 0.384, (P c = 0.24, respectively). The prevalence of other SNPs of PIK3CA did not differ between OSCC patients and controls. The expression of PIK3CA was increased in OSCC tumors; however, none of the nine tested SNPs of PIK3CA was associated with susceptibility to OSCC in the studied population.

Dong HC, Cui XB, Wang LH, et al.
Type-specific detection of human papillomaviruses in Kazakh esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by genotyping both E6 and L1 genes with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(10):13156-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Many studies have suggested a relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, findings are inconclusive, potentially because of geographic heterogeneity and variations in detection methods.
OBJECTIVES: We sought to further investigate the prevalence of HPV with a new detection method, the MassARRAY Sequenom technique, in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas occurring in patients belonging to Kazakh populations in Xinjiang, China.
STUDY DESIGN: In the present study, a novel genotyping method for detecting 30 HPV genotypes, specifically by genotyping both the HPV E6 and L1 genes with multiplex PCR using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (PCR-MS) was first adopted to evaluate HPV genotypes in 89 esophageal cancer samples and 49 matched adjacent normal esophageal tissues.
RESULTS: Six HPV genotypes (HPV6, HPV16, HPV33, HPV39, HPV51, and HPV82) were present in at least 51.7% of the esophageal carcinoma tissues, which was significantly greater than 28.6% prevalence among controls (P < 0.05). HPV16 was the most common of all the genotypes investigated (HPV16 prevalence in carcinoma tissue: 49.4%; odds ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 1.39-6.53). HPV-positive ESCC patients were generally younger than HPV-negative patients (P = 0.04). In addition, HPV infection was more common in cases of well-differentiated and shallower invasive depth.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on this new detection method, our findings reiterate the possibility that HPV infection (especially HPV16) may be involved in the etiology of esophageal carcinoma in the Kazakh populations and that HPV E6 gene positivity may be associated with prognosis of patients.

Sun X, Li S, Shen B
Identification of Disease States and Response to Therapy in Humans by Utilizing the Biomarker EGFR for Targeted Molecular Imaging.
Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016; 17(6):534-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays important roles in cell proliferation, suppression of apoptosis, increased motility, and recruitment of neovasculature. Overexpressed or mutated EGFR has been an important biomarker for cancer diagnosis and molecular target for many anticancer drugs because it frequently occurs in many common human cancers. Localizing and estimating the expression of EGFR can potentially identify patients who have tumors that overexpress EGFR and would, therefore, most likely benefit from a targeted treatment to avoid overtreatment and undertreatment. Traditional biopsy methods are invasive, and analysis of the specimens is not sufficient for real-time detection of the lesions or for monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Molecular imaging, a technology of in vivo characterization and measurement of biological processes at the cellular and molecular level, can fulfill these goals. In this review, we summarize current molecular imaging techniques including optical imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography for in vivo EGFR visualization and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Special emphasis is placed on noninvasive imaging mutant EGFR with emerging new agents and new imaging technologies to distinguish the maximum benefit to cancer patients for molecular targeted therapy.

Yang J, Xiong X, Liu S, et al.
Identification of novel serum peptides biomarkers for female breast cancer patients in Western China.
Proteomics. 2016; 16(6):925-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aimed to identify novel serum peptides biomarkers for female breast cancer (BC) patients. We analyzed the serum proteomic profiling of 247 serum samples from 96 BC patients, 48 additional paired pre- and postoperative BC patients, 39 fibroadenoma patients as benign disease controls, and 64 healthy controls, using magnetic-bead-based separation followed by MALDI-TOF MS. ClinProTools software identified 78 m/z peaks that differed among all analyzed groups, ten peaks were significantly different (P < 0.0001), with Peaks 1-6 upregulated and Peaks 7-10 downregulated in BC. Moreover, three peaks of ten (Peak 1, m/z: 2660.11; Peak 2, m/z: 1061.09; Peak 10, m/z: 1041.25) showed a tendency to return to healthy control values after surgery. And these three peptide biomarkers were identified as FGA605-629, ITIH4 347-356, and APOA2 43-52. Methods used in this study could generate serum peptidome profiles of BC, and provide a new approach to identify potential biomarkers for diagnosis as well as prognosis of this malignancy.

Fang WL, Huang KH, Lan YT, et al.
Mutations in PI3K/AKT pathway genes and amplifications of PIK3CA are associated with patterns of recurrence in gastric cancers.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(5):6201-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations in genes involved in the PI3K/AKT pathway and amplifications of the PIK3CA gene in gastric cancer and their associations with clinicopathological characteristics and EBV infection were analyzed in this study. A total of 431 patients with gastric adenocarcinomas were enrolled, and 39 mutation hotspots were evaluated in these patients using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were analyzed. PIK3CA amplifications were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR. Regarding patients with intestinal-type gastric cancer, those with mutations in PI3K/AKT pathway genes were also more likely to have tumors located in the lower-third of the stomach than were those without mutations. Regarding patients with diffuse-type gastric cancer, those with PI3K/AKT pathway mutations were more likely to have tumors located in the upper-third of the stomach and to have more hematogenous metastases, particularly in the liver and lungs, than were patients without such mutations (22.2% vs. 4.5%). No significant survival difference was observed between patients with vs. without PI3K/AKT pathway mutations. Mutations in PI3K/AKT pathway genes were associated with hematogenous metastasis in patients with diffuse-type gastric cancer. Only when the tumors were located in the middle-third of stomach, tumor with mutations of the PIK3CA gene or mutations of the PI3K/AKT pathway genes were associated with more EBV infection than those without mutations. Patients with PIK3CA amplifications were more likely to have diffuse-type and poorly differentiated gastric cancers and were more likely to experience peritoneal recurrence compared with those without PIK3CA amplifications. Even upon subgroup analysis, PI3KCA amplifications were found to not affect the patients' outcomes.

Iwao C, Shidoji Y
Upregulation of energy metabolism-related, p53-target TIGAR and SCO2 in HuH-7 cells with p53 mutation by geranylgeranoic acid treatment.
Biomed Res. 2015; 36(6):371-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metabolic alternation in cancer cells is one of the most common characteristics that distinguish malignant cells from normal cells. Many studies have explained the Warburg hypothesis that cancer cells obtain more energy from aerobic glycolysis than mitochondrial respiration. Here, we show that a branched-chain C-20 polyunsaturated fatty acid, geranylgeranoic acid (GGA), induces upregulation of the cellular protein levels of TP53-induced glycolysis and apoptosis regulator (TIGAR) and synthesis of cytochrome c oxidase 2 (SCO2) in human hepatoma-derived HuH-7cells harboring the mutant TP53 gene, suggesting that GGA may shift an energetic state of the tumor cells from aerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration. In addition, UPLC/TOF/MS-based metabolomics analysis supported the GGA-induced energetic shift, as it revealed that GGA induced a time-dependent increase in the cellular contents of fructose 6-phosphate and decrease of fructose 1,6-diphosphate. Furthermore, metabolomics analysis revealed that GGA rapidly induced spermine accumulation with slight decrease of spermidine. Taken together, the present study strongly suggests that GGA may shift HuH-7 cells from aerobic glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration through the immediate upregulation of TIGAR and SCO2 protein levels.

Di Stadio CS, Altieri F, Miselli G, et al.
AMP18 interacts with the anion exchanger SLC26A3 and enhances its expression in gastric cancer cells.
Biochimie. 2016; 121:151-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
AMP18 is a stomach-specific secreted protein expressed in normal gastric mucosa but absent in gastric cancer. AMP18 plays a major role in maintaining gastric mucosa integrity and is characterized by the presence of a BRICHOS domain consisting of about 100 amino acids, present also in several unrelated proteins, and probably endowed with a chaperon-like activity. In this work, we exploited a functional proteomic strategy to identify potential AMP18 interactors with the aim to add knowledge on its functional role within gastric cell lines and tissues. To this purpose, recombinant biotinylated AMP18 was purified and incubated with protein extract from human normal gastric mucosa by applying an affinity chromatography strategy. The interacting proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The pool of interacting proteins contained SLC26A3, a protein expressed in the apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells, supposed to play a critical role in Cl(-) absorption and fluid homeostasis. The interaction was also confirmed by Western blot with anti-SLC26A3 on transfected AGS cell extract following AMP18 pull-down. Furthermore, the interaction between AMP18 and SLC26A3 was also validated by confocal microscopy that showed a co-localization of both proteins at plasma membrane level. More importantly, for the first time, we showed that SLC26A3 is down-regulated in gastric cancer and that the overexpression of AMP18 in AMP-transfected gastric cancer cells up-regulated the expression of SLC26A3 both at transcriptional and translational level, the latter probably through the activation of the MAP kinases pathway. These findings strongly suggest that AMP18 might play an anti-inflammatory role in maintaining mucosal integrity also by regulating SLC26A3 level.

Gandhi D, Tarale P, Naoghare PK, et al.
An integrated genomic and proteomic approach to identify signatures of endosulfan exposure in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.
Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2015; 125:8-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Present study reports the identification of genomic and proteomic signatures of endosulfan exposure in hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2). HepG2 cells were exposed to sublethal concentration (15μM) of endosulfan for 24h. DNA microarray and MALDI-TOF-MS analyses revealed that endosulfan induced significant alterations in the expression level of genes and proteins involved in multiple cellular pathways (apoptosis, transcription, immune/inflammatory response, carbohydrate metabolism, etc.). Furthermore, downregulation of PHLDA gene, upregulation of ACIN1 protein and caspase-3 activation in exposed cells indicated that endosulfan can trigger apoptotic cascade in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. In total 135 transcripts and 19 proteins were differentially expressed. This study presents an integrated approach to identify the alteration of biological/cellular pathways in HepG2 cells upon endosulfan exposure.

Mosko MJ, Nakorchevsky AA, Flores E, et al.
Ultrasensitive Detection of Multiplexed Somatic Mutations Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.
J Mol Diagn. 2016; 18(1):23-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiplex detection of low-frequency mutations is becoming a necessary diagnostic tool for clinical laboratories interested in noninvasive prognosis and prediction. Challenges include the detection of minor alleles among abundant wild-type alleles, the heterogeneous nature of tumors, and the limited amount of available tissue. A method that can reliably detect minor variants <1% in a multiplexed reaction using a platform amenable to a variety of throughputs would meet these requirements. We developed a novel approach, UltraSEEK, for high-throughput, multiplexed, ultrasensitive mutation detection and used it for detection of mutant sequence mixtures as low as 0.1% minor allele frequency. The process consisted of multiplex PCR, followed by mutation-specific, single-base extension using chain terminators labeled with a moiety for solid phase capture. The captured and enriched products were then identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For verification, we successfully analyzed ultralow fractions of mutations in a set of characterized cell lines, and included a direct comparison to droplet digital PCR. Finally, we verified the specificity in a set of 122 paired tumor and circulating cell-free DNA samples from melanoma patients. Our results show that the UltraSEEK chemistry is a particularly powerful approach for the detection of somatic variants, with the potential to be an invaluable resource to investigators in saving time and material without compromising analytical sensitivity and accuracy.

Chacon-Cortes D, Smith RA, Haupt LM, et al.
Genetic association analysis of miRNA SNPs implicates MIR145 in breast cancer susceptibility.
BMC Med Genet. 2015; 16:107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression in cellular processes related to the pathogenesis of cancer. Genetic variation in miRNA genes could impact their synthesis and cellular effects and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are one example of genetic variants studied in relation to breast cancer. Studies aimed at identifying miRNA SNPs (miR-SNPs) associated with breast malignancies could lead towards further understanding of the disease and to develop clinical applications for early diagnosis and treatment.
METHODS: We genotyped a panel of 24 miR-SNPs using multiplex PCR and chip-based matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis in two Caucasian breast cancer case control populations (Primary population: 173 cases and 187 controls and secondary population: 679 cases and 301 controls). Association to breast cancer susceptibility was determined using chi-square (X (2) ) and odds ratio (OR) analysis.
RESULTS: Statistical analysis showed six miR-SNPs to be non-polymorphic and twelve of our selected miR-SNPs to have no association with breast cancer risk. However, we were able to show association between rs353291 (located in MIR145) and the risk of developing breast cancer in two independent case control cohorts (p = 0.041 and p = 0.023).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to report an association between a miR-SNP in MIR145 and breast cancer risk in individuals of Caucasian background. This finding requires further validation through genotyping of larger cohorts or in individuals of different ethnicities to determine the potential significance of this finding as well as studies aimed to determine functional significance.

Matsunaga H, Sasaki S, Suzuki S, et al.
Essential Role of GATA2 in the Negative Regulation of Type 2 Deiodinase Gene by Liganded Thyroid Hormone Receptor β2 in Thyrotroph.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0142400 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The inhibition of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone; TSH) by thyroid hormone (T3) and its receptor (TR) is the central mechanism of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis. Two transcription factors, GATA2 and Pit-1, determine thyrotroph differentiation and maintain the expression of the β subunit of TSH (TSHβ). We previously reported that T3-dependent repression of the TSHβ gene is mediated by GATA2 but not by the reported negative T3-responsive element (nTRE). In thyrotrophs, T3 also represses mRNA of the type-2 deiodinase (D2) gene, where no nTRE has been identified. Here, the human D2 promoter fused to the CAT or modified Renilla luciferase gene was co-transfected with Pit-1 and/or GATA2 expression plasmids into cell lines including CV1 and thyrotroph-derived TαT1. GATA2 but not Pit-1 activated the D2 promoter. Two GATA responsive elements (GATA-REs) were identified close to cAMP responsive element. The protein kinase A activator, forskolin, synergistically enhanced GATA2-dependent activity. Gel-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays with TαT1 cells indicated that GATA2 binds to these GATA-REs. T3 repressed the GATA2-induced activity of the D2 promoter in the presence of the pituitary-specific TR, TRβ2. The inhibition by T3-bound TRβ2 was dominant over the synergism between GATA2 and forskolin. The D2 promoter is also stimulated by GATA4, the major GATA in cardiomyocytes, and this activity was repressed by T3 in the presence of TRα1. These data indicate that the GATA-induced activity of the D2 promoter is suppressed by T3-bound TRs via a tethering mechanism, as in the case of the TSHβ gene.

Ayyub A, Saleem M, Fatima I, et al.
Glycosylated Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 as a potential lung cancer serum biomarker.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016; 70:68-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Presently existing screening approaches for lung cancer are not being proving sufficient and sensitive, so a study was conducted to identify disease related biomarker proteins for diagnostic applications. A total of 100 lung cancer patients (88 non-small cell lung cancer and 12 small cell lung cancer) and 50 healthy controls were included in this study. Serum samples of patients and healthy controls were subjected to a series of proteomic approaches and as a result of two dimensional gel electrophoresis, a ∼ 43 kDa protein was found to be differentially expressed compared to healthy controls. Quantitative profiling of two dimensional gels by Dymension software analysis displayed 3.58 fold increased expression of ∼ 43 kDa protein in squamous cell carcinoma and 2.92 fold in case of adenocarcinoma. Mass spectrometric analysis resulted in identification of 8 differentially expressed proteins, out of which human Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 was targeted for further validations. This candidate protein exhibited N-linked glycosylation at five amino acid residues; 33, 56, 72, 93, and 103 with significant score of 0.66, 0.78, 0.78, 0.53 and 0.66, respectively. Sandwich ELISA quantified high serum levels of Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1 in squamous cell carcinoma (2.93 g/l ± 1.22) and adenocarcinoma (2.39 g/l ± 1.13) when compared with healthy controls (0.83 g/l ± 0.21). One-way ANOVA analysis predicted highly significant variation of Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, among all the study types (F-value 65.37, p-value 0.000). This study may prove as a non-invasive, cost effective and sensitive scheme for diagnosis of lung cancer, by passing the expensive and painful screening procedures.

Ni H, Su B, Pan L, et al.
Functional variants inPXRare associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility in Chinese populations.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2015; 39(6):972-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: As an important member of the steroid nuclear receptor family, recent research has suggested that PXR may play important roles in the development of multiple cancers. However, no well-designed studies has been conducted to investigate the associations between genetic polymorphisms of PXR and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in Chinese populations.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a hospital-based case-control analysis to assess two genetic polymorphisms in the 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTR) via allele-specific MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry assay and evaluated the associations between two polymorphisms and risk of CRC.
RESULTS: The PXR rs3814058C>T polymorphism was significantly associated with a higher risk of CRC (P<10-3), and the CT/TT variant genotypes had an increased CRC risk (adjusted odds ratio=1.54, 95% confidence interval=1.27-1.83) comparing CC genotype. In stratified analyses, rs3814058CT+TT genotypes was associated with increased risk among alcohol consumers (P=0.002). In vitro experiments indicated that the rs3814058C to rs3814058T transition gained a new binding of the microRNA hsa-miR-129-5p and decreased the PXR expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that the functional polymorphism rs3814058C>T in 3'-UTR of PXR may be a functional biomarker to predict risk of CRC.

Holst S, Deuss AJ, van Pelt GW, et al.
N-glycosylation Profiling of Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Reveals Association of Fucosylation with Differentiation and Caudal Type Homebox 1 (CDX1)/Villin mRNA Expression.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2016; 15(1):124-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Various cancers such as colorectal cancer (CRC) are associated with alterations in protein glycosylation. CRC cell lines are frequently used to study these (glyco)biological changes and their mechanisms. However, differences between CRC cell lines with regard to their glycosylation have hitherto been largely neglected. Here, we comprehensively characterized the N-glycan profiles of 25 different CRC cell lines, derived from primary tumors and metastatic sites, in order to investigate their potential as glycobiological tumor model systems and to reveal glycans associated with cell line phenotypes. We applied an optimized, high-throughput membrane-based enzymatic glycan release for small sample amounts. Released glycans were derivatized to stabilize and differentiate between α2,3- and α2,6-linked N-acetylneuraminic acids, followed by N-glycosylation analysis by MALDI-TOF(/TOF)-MS. Our results showed pronounced differences between the N-glycosylation patterns of CRC cell lines. CRC cell line profiles differed from tissue-derived N-glycan profiles with regard to their high-mannose N-glycan content but showed a large overlap for complex type N-glycans, supporting their use as a glycobiological cancer model system. Importantly, we could show that the high-mannose N-glycans did not only occur as intracellular precursors but were also present at the cell surface. The obtained CRC cell line N-glycan features were not clearly correlated with mRNA expression levels of glycosyltransferases, demonstrating the usefulness of performing the structural analysis of glycans. Finally, correlation of CRC cell line glycosylation features with cancer cell markers and phenotypes revealed an association between highly fucosylated glycans and CDX1 and/or villin mRNA expression that both correlate with cell differentiation. Together, our findings provide new insights into CRC-associated glycan changes and setting the basis for more in-depth experiments on glycan function and regulation.

Tao YF, Fang F, Hu SY, et al.
Hypermethylation of the GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4) promoter in Chinese pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:756 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the second-most common form of leukemia in children. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are a characteristic feature of AML. GATA4 has been suggested to be a tumor suppressor gene regulated by promoter hypermethylation in various types of human cancers although the expression and promoter methylation of GATA4 in pediatric AML is still unclear.
METHODS: Transcriptional expression levels of GATA4 were evaluated by semi-quantitative and real-time PCR. Methylation status was investigated by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and bisulfate genomic sequencing (BGS). The prognostic significance of GATA4 expression and promoter methylation was assessed in 105 cases of Chinese pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients with clinical follow-up records.
RESULTS: MSP and BGS analysis showed that the GATA4 gene promoter is hypermethylated in AML cells, such as the HL-60 and MV4-11 human myeloid leukemia cell lines. 5-Aza treatment significantly upregulated GATA4 expression in HL-60 and MV4-11 cells. Aberrant methylation of GATA4 was observed in 15.0 % (3/20) of the normal bone marrow control samples compared to 56.2 % (59/105) of the pediatric AML samples. GATA4 transcript levels were significantly decreased in AML patients (33.06 ± 70.94; P = 0.011) compared to normal bone marrow/idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura controls (116.76 ± 105.39). GATA4 promoter methylation was correlated with patient leukocyte counts (WBC, white blood cells) (P = 0.035) and minimal residual disease MRD (P = 0.031). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed significantly shorter overall survival time in patients with GATA4 promoter methylation (P = 0.014).
CONCLUSIONS: Epigenetic inactivation of GATA4 by promoter hypermethylation was observed in both AML cell lines and pediatric AML samples; our study implicates GATA4 as a putative tumor suppressor gene in pediatric AML. In addition, our findings imply that GATA4 promoter methylation is correlated with WBC and MRD. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed significantly shorter overall survival in pediatric AML with GATA4 promoter methylation but multivariate analysis shows that it is not an independent factor. However, further research focusing on the mechanism of GATA4 in pediatric leukemia is required.

Chinello C, Cazzaniga M, De Sio G, et al.
Tumor size, stage and grade alterations of urinary peptidome in RCC.
J Transl Med. 2015; 13:332 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Several promising biomarkers have been found for RCC, but none of them has been used in clinical practice for predicting tumour progression. The most widely used features for predicting tumour aggressiveness still remain the cancer stage, size and grade. Therefore, the aim of our study is to investigate the urinary peptidome to search and identify peptides whose concentrations in urine are linked to tumour growth measure and clinical data.
METHODS: A proteomic approach applied to ccRCC urinary peptidome (n = 117) based on prefractionation with activated magnetic beads followed by MALDI-TOF profiling was used. A systematic correlation study was performed on urinary peptide profiles obtained from MS analysis. Peptide identity was obtained by LC-ESI-MS/MS.
RESULTS: Fifteen, twenty-six and five peptides showed a statistically significant alteration of their urinary concentration according to tumour size, pT and grade, respectively. Furthermore, 15 and 9 signals were observed to have urinary levels statistically modified in patients at different pT or grade values, even at very early stages. Among them, C1RL, A1AGx, ZAG2G, PGBM, MMP23, GP162, ADA19, G3P, RSPH3, DREB, NOTC2 SAFB2 and CC168 were identified.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified several peptides whose urinary abundance varied according to tumour size, stage and grade. Among them, several play a possible role in tumorigenesis, progression and aggressiveness. These results could be a useful starting point for future studies aimed at verifying their possible use in the managements of RCC patients.

Tian WD, Li JZ, Hu SW, et al.
Proteomic identification of alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein as a plasma biomarker of hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(8):9021-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) has very poor prognosis compared with other head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Late-stage diagnosis of HSCC increases mortality. Therefore, more effective biomarkers for early diagnosis of HSCC are necessary. Unfortunately, appropriate biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and prognosis have not been identified yet. However, recent progresses in quantitative proteomics have offered opportunities to identify plasma proteins as biomarkers for HSCC. In the present study, plasma samples were analyzed by two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE), and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). A total of 26 proteins representing 12 unique gene products were identified. The up-regulation proteins were alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein (AHSG), complement C4-B, haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, and ceruloplasmin, whereas the down-regulation proteins were serum albumin, angiotensinogen, alpha-1-antichymotrypsin, Ig gamma-3 chain C region, fibrinogen gamma chain, apolipoprotein A-I, and Ig kappa chain C region. Among all the differentially expressed proteins, AHSG was validated by western blot and ELISA. The results were consistent with the data from 2D-DIGE, further suggesting that AHSG may be employed as a potential biomarker for the early diagnosis of HSCC. In summary, this study was the first to use 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF platform to identify the potential plasma biomarkers for HSCC. The plasma AHSG showed great potential for HSCC screening.

Chou HC, Chen JY, Lin DY, et al.
Identification of Up- and Down-Regulated Proteins in Pemetrexed-Resistant Human Lung Adenocarcinoma: Flavin Reductase and Calreticulin Play Key Roles in the Development of Pemetrexed-Associated Resistance.
J Proteome Res. 2015; 14(11):4907-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Drug resistance is one of the major causes of cancer chemotherapy failure. In the current study, we used a pair of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549 and the pemetrexed-resistant A549/PEM cells, as a model to monitor resistance-dependent cellular responses and identify potential therapeutic targets. By means of 2D differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), we investigated the global protein expression alterations induced by pemetrexed treatment and resistance. The proteomic result revealed that pemetrexed exposure obviously altered the expression of 81 proteins in the A549 cells, whereas no significant response was observed in the similarly treated A549/PEM cells, hence implying an association between these proteins and the drug-specific response. Moreover, 72 proteins including flavin reductase and calreticulin demonstrated differential expression between the A549 and A549/PEM cells, indicating baseline resistance. Additional tests employed siRNA silencing, protein overexpression, cell viability analysis, and analysis of apoptosis to examine and confirm the potency of flavin reductase and calreticulin proteins in the development of pemetrexed resistance. In summary, by using a proteomic approach, we identified numerous proteins, including flavin reductase and calreticulin, involved in pemetrexed drug resistance-developing mechanisms. Our results provide useful diagnostic markers and therapeutic candidates for pemetrexed-resistant lung cancer treatment.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. GATA4, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 15 March, 2017     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999