Gene Summary

Gene:HIP1; huntingtin interacting protein 1
Aliases: SHON, HIP-I, ILWEQ, SHONbeta, SHONgamma
Summary:The product of this gene is a membrane-associated protein that functions in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and protein trafficking within the cell. The encoded protein binds to the huntingtin protein in the brain; this interaction is lost in Huntington's disease. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:huntingtin-interacting protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (24)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Gene Expression
  • Signal Transduction
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • ALK
  • RNA Splice Sites
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Translocation
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Pyridines
  • Exons
  • Vesicular Transport Proteins
  • Chromosome 7
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Lung Cancer
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • p53 Protein
  • Messenger RNA
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 4
  • FISH
  • Adenocarcinoma of Lung
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-cbl
  • Ligands
  • Apoptosis
  • Base Sequence
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Zinc Finger Protein Gli2
  • Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor beta
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HIP1 (cancer-related)

Lee HW, Choi B, Kang HN, et al.
Profiling of protein-protein interactions via single-molecule techniques predicts the dependence of cancers on growth-factor receptors.
Nat Biomed Eng. 2018; 2(4):239-253 [PubMed] Related Publications
The accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer cells rewires cellular signalling pathways through changes in the patterns of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). Understanding these patterns may facilitate the design of tailored cancer therapies. Here, we show that single-molecule pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation techniques can be used to characterize signalling complexes of the human epidermal growth-factor receptor (HER) family in specific cancers. By analysing cancer-specific signalling phenotypes, including post-translational modifications and PPIs with downstream interactions, we found that activating mutations of the epidermal growth-factor receptor (EGFR) gene led to the formation of large protein complexes surrounding mutant EGFR proteins and to a reduction in the dependency of mutant EGFR signalling on phosphotyrosine residues, and that the strength of HER-family PPIs is correlated with the strength of the dependence of breast and lung adenocarcinoma cells on HER-family signalling pathways. Furthermore, using co-immunoprecipitation profiling to screen for EGFR-dependent cancers, we identified non-small-cell lung cancers that respond to an EGFR-targeted inhibitor. Our approach might help predict responses to targeted cancer therapies, particularly for cancers that lack actionable genomic mutations.

Quigley DA, Dang HX, Zhao SG, et al.
Genomic Hallmarks and Structural Variation in Metastatic Prostate Cancer.
Cell. 2018; 174(3):758-769.e9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
While mutations affecting protein-coding regions have been examined across many cancers, structural variants at the genome-wide level are still poorly defined. Through integrative deep whole-genome and -transcriptome analysis of 101 castration-resistant prostate cancer metastases (109X tumor/38X normal coverage), we identified structural variants altering critical regulators of tumorigenesis and progression not detectable by exome approaches. Notably, we observed amplification of an intergenic enhancer region 624 kb upstream of the androgen receptor (AR) in 81% of patients, correlating with increased AR expression. Tandem duplication hotspots also occur near MYC, in lncRNAs associated with post-translational MYC regulation. Classes of structural variations were linked to distinct DNA repair deficiencies, suggesting their etiology, including associations of CDK12 mutation with tandem duplications, TP53 inactivation with inverted rearrangements and chromothripsis, and BRCA2 inactivation with deletions. Together, these observations provide a comprehensive view of how structural variations affect critical regulators in metastatic prostate cancer.

Park J, Na HK, Shon HK, et al.
TOF-SIMS analysis of an isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 mutation-associated oncometabolite in cancer cells.
Biointerphases. 2018; 13(3):03B404 [PubMed] Related Publications
The development of analytical tools for accurate and sensitive detection of intracellular metabolites associated with mutated metabolic enzymes is important in cancer diagnosis and staging. The gene encoding the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is mutated in various cancers, and mutant IDH1 could represent a good biomarker and potent target for cancer therapy. Owing to a mutation in an important arginine residue in the catalytic pocket, mutant IDH1 catalyzes the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) instead of its wild type product α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), which is involved in multiple cellular pathways involving the hydroxylation of proteins, ribonucleic acid, and deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). Since 2-HG is an α-KG antagonist, inhibiting normal α-KG-dependent metabolism, high intracellular levels of 2-HG result in abnormal histone and DNA methylation. Therefore, accurate and sensitive analytical tools for the direct detection of 2-HG in cancer cells expressing mutant IDH1 would benefit this field, as it would minimize the need both for complicated experimental procedures and for large amounts of biological samples. Here, the authors describe a useful analytical method for the direct detection of 2-HG in lysates from a mutant IDH1-expressing cell line by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis, a powerful surface analysis tool. In addition, the authors verified the efficacy of the specific mutant IDH1 inhibitor AGI-5198 by tracking the intracellular 2-HG concentration, which decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate the large potential of TOF-SIMS as an analytical tool for the simple, direct detection of oncometabolites during cancer diagnosis, and for verifying the efficiency of the targeted cancer drugs.

Chen C, Chi H, Min L, Junhua Z
Downregulation of guanine nucleotide-binding protein beta 1 (GNB1) is associated with worsened prognosis of clearcell renal cell carcinoma and is related to VEGF signaling pathway.
J BUON. 2017 Nov-Dec; 22(6):1441-1446 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is characterized by genetic abnormalities, while the role of Guanine Nucleotide-Binding Protein Beta 1 (GNB1) in ccRCC has not been studied. We thus aimed to evaluate the expression and prognostic value of GNB1 in ccRCC.
METHODS: A two-stage study (exploration and validation) was conducted using in silico and immunohistochemical (IHC) scoring of ccRCC samples from our institute, to evaluate the association between GNB1 expression and clinicopathological parameters of ccRCC patients. Pathway analyses were performed for genes coexpressed with GNB1 using the KOBAS platform to profile the function of GNB1 and IHC validation.
RESULTS: In the exploration stage, data from TCGA ccRCC dataset were reproduced, which contained 537 patients with ccRCC and found that downregulation of GNB1 was significantly associated with worse prognosis. IHC staining from the Human Protein Atlas showed significantly downregulation of GNB1 in ccRCC tissue compared with normal kidney. Pathway analysis showed significantly altered vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathways among which expressions of 3 genes (WASF2, NRP1, and HIP1) were significantly associated with GNB1 expression, respectively. In the validation stage, included were 80 ccRCC samples and GNB1 expression was scored using IHC positivity. GNB1 expression was negatively associated with tumor stage, lymph node invasion, metastasis, older age, and increased tumor grade. Female gender and receiving neoadjuvant therapy were also associated with decreased GNB1 expression. The expressions of WASF2, NRP1 and HIP1 were also studied and found that they were significantly associated with GNB1.
CONCLUSION: GNB1 was downregulated in ccRCC. Decreased GNB1 expression was associated with worsened disease characteristics and prognosis. GNB1 was related with VEGF signaling in ccRCC, implying a therapeutic potential of this factor.

Li D, Chen F, Ding J, et al.
Knockdown of HIP1 expression promotes ligand‑induced endocytosis of EGFR in HeLa cells.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(6):3387-3391 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Huntington-interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is associated with various tumor types; however, its precise functions in tumor cells are unclear. In this study, the effects of HIP1 on the degradation of EGFR, which have important roles in carcinogenesis after EGF stimulation, were examined. After screening 17 cell lines, the coexpression of HIP1 and EGFR was detected in HeLa cells. Accordingly, the expression of HIP1 was knocked down in HeLa cells using various HIP1 siRNA sequences. The endocytosis of EGFR and localization of clathrin in HeLa cells were examined after stimulation by EGF at various concentrations (i.e., 1.5 and 100 ng/ml). After HIP1 expression was blocked by siRNAs, EGFR endocytosis was accelerated and this effect was dependent on the EGF concentration. This endocytosis was colocalized with clathrin expression. These findings indicate that the inhibition of HIP1 can accelerate the endocytosis and degradation of EGFR. Furthermore, they suggest that HIP1 is a potential therapeutic target for various cancer types, particularly those with high EGFR expression, but further research is needed to examine this hypothesis.

Ha BG, Jung SS, Shon YH
Effects of proton beam irradiation on mitochondrial biogenesis in a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(3):859-866 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proton beam therapy has recently been used to improve local control of tumor growth and reduce side-effects by decreasing the global dose to normal tissue. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the physiological role of proton beam radiation are not well understood, and many studies are still being conducted regarding these mechanisms. To determine the effects of proton beams on mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mass; the gene expression of mitochondrial transcription factors, functional regulators, and dynamic-related regulators; and the phosphorylation of the signaling molecules that participate in mitochondrial biogenesis. Both the mtDNA/nuclear DNA (nDNA) ratio and the mitochondria staining assays showed that proton beam irradiation increases mitochondrial biogenesis in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced aggressive HT-29 cells. Simultaneously, proton beam irradiation increases the gene expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors PGC-1α, NRF1, ERRα, and mtTFA, the dynamic regulators DRP1, OPA1, TIMM44, and TOM40, and the functional regulators CytC, ATP5B and CPT1-α. Furthermore, proton beam irradiation increases the phosphorylation of AMPK, an important molecule involved in mitochondrial biogenesis that is an energy sensor and is regulated by the AMP/ATP ratio. Based on these findings, we suggest that proton beam irradiation inhibits metastatic potential by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and function in TPA-induced aggressive HT-29 cells.

Wang J, Yu M, Guo Q, et al.
Prognostic significance of huntingtin interacting protein 1 expression on patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:45960 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is an endocytic protein which is overexpressed in a variety of human cancers and involved in cancer-causing translocation in leukemia. However, the prognostic impact of HIP1 expression on AML remains unclear. In this study, quantification of HIP1 transcript by real-time quantitative PCR in bone marrow blasts was performed in 270 AML patients. As a result, high HIP1 expression was seen more frequently in older patients, M4/M5 morphology and genes of NPM1 and DNMT3A mutations, and underrepresented in favorable karyotype subgroups and CEBPA double allele mutations in our AML patients. We also found high HIP1 expressers showed lower levels of hemoglobin. In addition, overexpression of HIP1 was associated with an inferior overall survival. The prognostic value of HIP1 expression was validated in patients from an independent TCGA cohort. Notably, up-regulation of miR-16, miR-15a, miR-28 and miR-660 were seen in high HIP1 expressers from the two independent cohorts. In vitro, interfereing of HIP1 expression by siRNA suppressed the proliferation of leukemic cells, and downregulation of these miRNAs were seen in THP-1 and Kasumi cell lines after silencing HIP1 expression. In conclusion, the HIP1 gene expression might serve as a reliable predictor for overall survival in AML patients.

Jang JS, Wang X, Vedell PT, et al.
Custom Gene Capture and Next-Generation Sequencing to Resolve Discordant ALK Status by FISH and IHC in Lung Adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol. 2016; 11(11):1891-1900 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: We performed a genomic study in lung adenocarcinoma cases with discordant anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase gene (ALK) status by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis.
METHODS: DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 16 discordant (four FISH-positive/IHC-negative and 12 FISH-negative/IHC-positive) cases by Vysis ALK Break Apart FISH and ALK IHC testing (ALK1 clone) were subjected to whole gene capture and next-generation sequencing (NGS) of nine genes, including ALK, echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4 gene (EML4), kinesin family member 5B gene (KIF5B), staphylococcal nuclease and tudor domain containing 1 gene (SND1), BRAF, ret proto-oncogene (RET), ezrin gene (EZR), ROS1, and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). All discordant cases (except one FISH-negative/IHC-positive case without sufficient tissue) were analyzed by IHC with D5F3 antibody. In one case with fresh frozen tissue, whole transcriptome sequencing was also performed. Twenty-six concordant (16 FISH-positive/IHC-positive and 10 FISH-negative/IHC-negative) cases were included as controls.
RESULTS: In four ALK FISH-positive/IHC-negative cases, no EML4-ALK fusion gene was observed by NGS, but in one case using fresh frozen tissue, we identified EML4-baculoviral AIP repeat containing 6 gene (BIRC6) and AP2 associated kinase 1 gene (AAK1)-ALK fusion genes. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed a highly expressed EML4-BIRC6 fusion transcript and a minimally expressed AAK1 transcript. Among the 12 FISH-negative/IHC-positive cases, no evidence of ALK gene rearrangement was detected by NGS. Eleven of 12 FISH-negative/IHC-positive cases detected by ALK1 clone were concordant by repeat ALK IHC with D5F3 antibody (i.e., FISH-negative/IHC-negative by D5F3 clone). Among the 16 ALK FISH-positive/IHC-positive positive controls, whole gene capture identified ALK gene fusion in 15 cases, including in one case with Huntington interacting protein 1 gene (HIP1)-ALK. No ALK fusion gene was observed in any of the 10 FISH-negative/IHC-negative cases. Other fusion genes involving ROS1, EZR, BRAF, and SND1 were also found.
CONCLUSIONS: ALK FISH results appeared to be false-positive in three of four FISH-positive/IHC-negative cases, whereas no false-negative ALK FISH case was identified among 12 ALK FISH-negative/IHC-positive cases by ALK1 clone, which was in keeping with the concordant FISH-negative/IHC-negative status by D5F3 clone. Our targeted whole gene capture approach using formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples was effective for detecting rearrangements involving ALK and other actionable oncogenes.

Chang MD, Arthur AK, García JJ, et al.
ETV6 rearrangement in a case of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the skin.
J Cutan Pathol. 2016; 43(11):1045-1049 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mammary analog secretory carcinoma of salivary glands is a relatively recently recognized entity that harbors the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript. To date, only rare cases of mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the skin have been reported. A 57-year-old man presented with a 6.0 cm cystic mass in the axilla, involving the dermis and superficial subcutis. Microscopically, the tumor exhibited nodular aggregation of tubular and microcystic structures embedded in the dense fibrotic and hyalinized stroma. Characteristic 'colloid-like' eosinophilic secretory material was present within intraluminal spaces. Tumor cells were largely characterized by vesicular nuclei with inconspicuous nucleoli and pink vacuolated cytoplasm. With respect to immunohistochemistry, tumor cells were intensely positive for AE1/AE3, Cam 5.2, and CK7, whereas Ber-EP4 and CEA were completely negative. A dual color break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization probe identified rearrangement of the ETV6 gene locus on chromosome 12. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrent disease or metastasis 3 years after the initial surgery. In conclusion, we report a rare example of mammary analog secretory carcinoma of the skin with ETV6 rearrangement. Awareness of this unique cutaneous tumor and subsequent reporting of additional cases is necessary for better characterization of its completely clinicopathologic spectrum.

Romano RC, Shon W, Sukov WR
Malignant Melanoma of the Nail Apparatus: A Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Analysis of 7 Cases.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2016; 24(6):512-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Background Malignant melanoma of the nail apparatus is exceedingly rare. Increasingly, genetic studies have been employed to aid in distinguishing between malignant melanoma and benign melanocytic nevi. Methods Archived nail apparatus melanomas were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using probes targeting the genes at 6p25 (RREB1), 11q13 (CCND1), 8q24.1 (MYC), 6q23 (MYB), 9p21 (CDKN2A) and the centromeres of chromosomes 8 (D8Z2) and 6 (D6Z1). The results were correlated with clinical and demographic information. Results Mean patient age was 57.8 years (range 23-92 years). In all, 5 of 7 (71%) cases involved the upper extremity digits. RREB1 gain was seen in all cases. CCND1 gain was seen in 6 of 7 (86%) cases, 3 of which were amplified. MYB loss and MYC gain were both seen in 5 of 7 (71%) cases. Homozygous loss of CDKN2A was not observed in any case. Two of 7 (28.6%) patients had lymph node metastasis and died of widely metastatic disease. These 2 patients harbored the most genetic aberrations: gains of RREB1, CCND1, and MYC, and MYB loss. Both benign melanocytic nevi controls showed normal FISH results. Conclusions RREB1 and CCND1 gains are common in nail apparatus melanoma as in most melanomas, and an increased number of genetic aberrations may be associated with a poorer prognosis, though the limited number of cases precludes definitive correlation. FISH appears to be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of nail apparatus melanomas and improves diagnostic confidence even in the setting of unambiguous histomorphology.

Chintakuntlawar AV, Shon W, Erickson-Johnson M, et al.
High-grade transformation of acinic cell carcinoma: an inadequately treated entity?
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2016; 121(5):542-549.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Acinic cell carcinoma (AcCC) is an uncommon salivary gland malignancy. We aim to characterize the clinical and pathologic characteristics of AcCC with and without high-grade transformation (HGT). Importantly, cases of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma, a recently described histologic mimic of AcCC, have been excluded by using cytogenetics and molecular studies.
STUDY DESIGN: Archival surgical pathology material was obtained for patients diagnosed with AcCC at Mayo Clinic Rochester between 1990 and 2010. Tumors harboring the ETV6-NTRK3 fusion transcript were excluded from analysis by using cytogenetics and molecular studies. Tumors with HGT were characterized by areas with an infiltrative growth pattern, nuclear anaplasia, prominent nucleoli, brisk mitotic activity, geographic necrosis, and stromal desmoplasia. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from the medical records.
RESULTS: AcCC with HGT was seen in 8 of 48 cases (17%). Patients with AcCC with HGT were significantly older than patients without HGT (median 69 vs 54 years; P = .04). Angiolymphatic invasion was more common in AcCC with HGT (P = .02). Relapse-free survival and overall survival were significantly worse for cases of AcCC with HGT (hazard ratio 10.4 and 9.3, respectively; P < .0001 for both comparisons). Locoregional recurrence-free survival was not significantly different (P = .12), but distant metastases-free survival was significantly worse in patients with HGT compared with non-HGT patients (P < .0001).
CONCLUSIONS: Prognosis for overall survival and distant relapse for AcCC patients with HGT is significantly worse than that for patients without HGT.

Shon W, Kim J, Sukov W, Reith J
Malignant TFE3-rearranged perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasm (PEComa) presenting as a subcutaneous mass.
Br J Dermatol. 2016; 174(3):617-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (PEComas) are a group of mesenchymal tumours with concurrent melanocytic and myogenic differentiation. Although many cases are sporadic, PEComas can be associated with tuberous sclerosis. A distinct subset of deep-seated PEComas has been shown to carry TFE3 fusions. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of primary subcutaneous malignant PEComa with molecular confirmation of TFE3 gene rearrangement.

Ha BG, Park JE, Cho HJ, et al.
Inhibitory effects of proton beam irradiation on integrin expression and signaling pathway in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 46(6):2621-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proton radiotherapy has been established as a highly effective modality used in the local control of tumor growth. Although proton radiotherapy is used worldwide to treat several types of cancer clinically with great success due to superior targeting and energy deposition, the detailed regulatory mechanisms underlying the functions of proton radiation are not yet well understood. Accordingly, in the present study, to assess the effects of proton beam on integrin-mediated signaling pathways, we investigated the expression of integrins related to tumor progression and integrin trafficking, and key molecules related to cell adhesion, as well as examining phosphorylation of signaling molecules involved in integrin-mediated signaling pathways. Proton beam irradiation inhibited the increase in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced integrin β1 protein expression and the gene expression of members of the integrin family, such as α5β1, α6β4, αvβ3, and αvβ6 in human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells. Simultaneously, the gene expression of cell adhesion molecules, such as FAK and CDH1, and integrin trafficking regulators, such as RAB4, RAB11, and HAX1, was decreased by proton beam irradiation. Moreover, proton beam irradiation decreased the phosphorylation of key molecules involved in integrin signaling, such as FAK, Src, and p130Cas, as well as PKC and MAPK, which are known as promoters of cell migration, while increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and the gene expression of Rab IP4 involved in the inhibition of cell adhesion and cell spreading. Taken together, our findings suggest that proton beam irradiation can inhibit metastatic potential, including cell adhesion and migration, by modulating the gene expression of molecules involved in integrin trafficking and integrin-mediated signaling, which are necessary for tumor progression.

Drilon A, Wang L, Arcila ME, et al.
Broad, Hybrid Capture-Based Next-Generation Sequencing Identifies Actionable Genomic Alterations in Lung Adenocarcinomas Otherwise Negative for Such Alterations by Other Genomic Testing Approaches.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(16):3631-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Broad, hybrid capture-based next-generation sequencing (NGS), as a clinical test, uses less tissue to identify more clinically relevant genomic alterations compared with profiling with multiple non-NGS tests. We set out to determine the frequency of such genomic alterations via this approach in tumors in which previous extensive non-NGS testing had not yielded a targetable driver alteration.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We enrolled patients with lung adenocarcinoma with a ≤ 15 pack-year smoking history whose tumors previously tested "negative" for alterations in 11 genes (mutations in EGFR, ERBB2, KRAS, NRAS, BRAF, MAP2K1, PIK3CA, and AKT1 and fusions involving ALK, ROS1, and RET) via multiple non-NGS methods. We performed hybridization capture of the coding exons of 287 cancer-related genes and 47 introns of 19 frequently rearranged genes and sequenced these to deep, uniform coverage.
RESULTS: Actionable genomic alterations with a targeted agent based on NCCN guidelines were identified in 26% [8 of 31: EGFR G719A, BRAF V600E, SOCS5-ALK, HIP1-ALK, CD74-ROS1, KIF5B-RET (n = 2), CCDC6-RET]. Seven of these patients either received or are candidates for targeted therapy. Comprehensive genomic profiling using this method also identified a genomic alteration with a targeted agent available on a clinical trial in an additional 39% (12 of 31).
CONCLUSIONS: Broad, hybrid capture-based NGS identified actionable genomic alterations in 65% [95% confidence interval (CI), 48%-82%] of tumors from never or light smokers with lung cancers deemed without targetable genomic alterations by earlier extensive non-NGS testing. These findings support first-line profiling of lung adenocarcinomas using this approach as a more comprehensive and efficient strategy compared with non-NGS testing. See related commentary by McCutcheon and Giaccone, p. 3584.

Shon W, Salomão DR
WT1 expression in endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma: a study of 13 cases.
Int J Dermatol. 2014; 53(10):1228-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Endocrine mucin-producing sweat gland carcinoma (EMPSGC), a low-grade sweat gland carcinoma with a predilection for the eyelids, often shows areas of benign eccrine cysts, atypical intracystic proliferation and associated mucinous carcinoma, suggesting tumor progression. Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) protein, a transcription factor, is overexpressed in many tumors and plays a role in oncogenesis.
METHODS: A computer-based search for tumors diagnosed between 1989 and 2009 was conducted. Clinical data were obtained from pathology reports and patient records. Biopsies were reviewed for histologic features. Immunostaining was performed for WT1, chromogranin, synaptophysin, estrogen receptor (ER), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), polyclonal carcinoembryonic antigen (P-CEA), cytokeratin 7 (CK7), cytokeratin 20 (CK20) and MIB-1.
RESULTS: Eight women and five men (mean age: 61.2 years; range: 40-77 years) presented with slow-growing eyelid nodules. Cases of EMPSGC were characterized by the presence of dermal nodules with various growth patterns. Adjacent eccrine cysts were present in five patients, atypical epithelial proliferation within the cyst wall in four patients, and an associated mucinous carcinoma in one patient. All tumors were positive for WT1, CK7, ER, P-CEA and EMA and negative for CK20. Tumors were positive for synaptophysin in 12 cases and chromogranin in nine cases. The MIB-1 proliferation index was low in most cases. No WT1 staining was observed in the overlying epidermis, adnexal structures or areas of benign eccrine cyst. WT1 expression was observed in areas of atypical epithelial proliferation, and the neoplastic cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study shows WT1 expression in the neoplastic epithelial cells of EMPSGC, areas of atypical intraductal proliferations, and mucinous carcinoma. The absence of WT1 expression in areas of benign eccrine cyst and cutaneous sweat glands suggests WT1 upregulation plays a role in tumor cell proliferation and progression of EMPSGC.

Choi YL, Lira ME, Hong M, et al.
A novel fusion of TPR and ALK in lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(4):563-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion is the most common mechanism for overexpression and activation in non-small-cell lung carcinoma. Several fusion partners of ALK have been reported, including echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4, TRK-fused gene, kinesin family member 5B, kinesin light chain 1 (KLC1), protein tyrosine phosphatase and nonreceptor type 3, and huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1).
METHODS AND RESULTS: A 60-year-old Korean man had a lung mass which was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with ALK overexpression. By using an Anchored Multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay and sequencing, we found that tumor had a novel translocated promoter region (TPR)-ALK fusion. The fusion transcript was generated from an intact, in-frame fusion of TPR exon 15 and ALK exon 20 (t(1;2)(q31.1;p23)). The TPR-ALK fusion encodes a predicted protein of 1192 amino acids with a coiled-coil domain encoded by the 5'-2 of the TPR and juxtamembrane and kinase domains encoded by the 3'-end of the ALK.
CONCLUSIONS: The novel fusion gene and its protein TRP-ALK, harboring coiled-coil and kinase domains, could possess transforming potential and responses to treatment with ALK inhibitors. This case is the first report of TPR-ALK fusion transcript in clinical tumor samples and could provide a novel diagnostic and therapeutic candidate target for patients with cancer, including non-small-cell lung carcinoma.

Hong M, Kim RN, Song JY, et al.
HIP1-ALK, a novel fusion protein identified in lung adenocarcinoma.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(3):419-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The most common mechanism underlying overexpression and activation of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in non-small-cell lung carcinoma could be attributed to the formation of a fusion protein. To date, five fusion partners of ALK have been reported, namely, echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4, tropomyosin-related kinase-fused gene, kinesin family member 5B, kinesin light chain 1, and protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 3.
METHODS: In this article, we report a novel fusion gene huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1)-ALK, which is conjoined between the huntingtin-interacting protein 1 gene HIP1 and ALK. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis were used to detect this fusion gene's transcript and protein expression, respectively. We had amplified the full-length cDNA sequence of this novel fusion gene by using 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The causative genomic translocation t(2;7)(p23;q11.23) for generating this novel fusion gene was verified by using genomic sequencing.
RESULTS: The examined adenocarcinoma showed predominant acinar pattern, and ALK immunostaining was localized to the cytoplasm, with intense staining in the submembrane region. In break-apart, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for ALK, split of the 5' and 3' probe signals, and isolated 3' signals were observed. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed that the tumor harbored a novel fusion transcript in which exon 21 of HIP1 was fused to exon 20 of ALK in-frame.
CONCLUSION: The novel fusion gene and its protein HIP1-ALK harboring epsin N-terminal homology, coiled-coil, juxtamembrane, and kinase domains, which could play a role in carcinogenesis, could become diagnostic and therapeutic target of the lung adenocarcinoma and deserve a further study in the future.

Fang DD, Zhang B, Gu Q, et al.
HIP1-ALK, a novel ALK fusion variant that responds to crizotinib.
J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9(3):285-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements in lung cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models and to explore their responses to crizotinib.
METHODS: Screening of 99 lung cancer PDX models by the NanoString ALK fusion assay identified two ALK-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumors, including one harboring a previously known echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusion and another containing an unknown ALK fusion variant. Expression array, RNA-Seq, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and direct sequencing were then conducted to confirm the rearrangements and to identify the novel fusion partner in the xenograft and/or the primary patient tumor. Finally, pharmacological studies were performed in PDX models to evaluate their responses to ALK inhibitor crizotinib.
RESULTS: Two ALK-rearranged NSCLC PDX models were identified: one carried a well-known EML4-ALK variant 3a/b and the other harbored a novel huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1)-ALK fusion gene. Exon 28 of the HIP1 gene located on chromosome 7 was fused to exon 20 of the ALK gene located on chromosome 2. Both cases were clinically diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. Compared with the other lung cancer PDX models, both ALK-rearranged models displayed elevated ALK mRNA expression. Furthermore, in vivo efficacy studies demonstrated that, similar to the EML4-ALK-positive model, the HIP1-ALK-containing PDX model was sensitive to treatment with crizotinib.
CONCLUSIONS: Discovery of HIP1 as a fusion partner of ALK in NSCLC is a novel finding. In addition, the HIP1-ALK-rearranged tumor is sensitive to treatment with crizotinib in vivo, implicating HIP1-ALKas an oncogenic driver of lung tumorigenesis. Collectively, our results indicate that HIP1-ALK-positive NSCLC may benefit from clinical applications of crizotinib.

Jung Y, Abdel-Fatah TM, Chan SY, et al.
SHON is a novel estrogen-regulated oncogene in mammary carcinoma that predicts patient response to endocrine therapy.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(23):6951-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Endocrine therapies are the primary systemic intervention for patients with estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer. However, a significant proportion of initially responsive ER(+) tumors develop resistance, with relapses occurring in up to 50% of patients. Lack of reliable predictive biomarkers remains an unfilled need for enhanced clinical management of this disease. In this study, we address this need in identifying a novel estrogen-regulated gene called SHON (secreted hominoid-specific oncogene). Enforced expression of SHON in breast cancer cells increased their proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion in vitro. Furthermore, SHON enhanced the oncogenicity of these cells in xenograft models of human breast cancer and was also sufficient to oncogenically transform MCF10A human mammary epithelial cells. Conversely, SHON attenuation mediated by RNA interference- or antibody-based methods reduced the oncogenicity of breast cancer cells. Mechanistic investigations indicated that the oncogenic transforming properties of SHON were mediated by BCL-2 and NF-κB. In primary clinical specimens, SHON was immunohistochemically detected in 62% of breast cancers, in which its expression was positively correlated with ER expression. In this setting, SHON expression predicted a favorable response to endocrine therapy in high-risk patients with ER(+) breast cancer. Taken together, our findings identify SHON as a novel human oncogene with predictive utility in ER(+) breast cancer, perhaps offering a simple biomarker to predict the therapeutic efficacy of antiestrogen therapy in patients with breast cancer.

Philips ST, Hildenbrand ZL, Oravecz-Wilson KI, et al.
Toward a therapeutic reduction of imatinib refractory myeloproliferative neoplasm-initiating cells.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(46):5379-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) such as chronic myelogenous (CML) and chronic myelomonocytic leukemias (CMML) are frequently induced by tyrosine kinase oncogenes. Although these MPNs are sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib, patients often relapse upon withdrawal of therapy. We used a model of MPN, which is induced by co-expression of the oncoproteins HIP1/PDGFβR (H/P) and AML1/ETO from their endogenous loci, to examine the mechanisms of disease development and recurrence following imatinib withdrawal. Although the MPN displayed a full hematologic response to imatinib, 100% of the diseased mice relapsed upon drug withdrawal. MPN persistence was not due to imatinib resistance mutations in the H/P oncogene or massive gene expression changes. Within 1 week of imatinib treatment, more than 98% of gene expression changes induced by the oncogenes in isolated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (lineage(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+) immunophenotype) normalized. Supplementation of imatinib with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or arsenic trioxide reduced MPN-initiating cell frequencies and the combination of imatinib with arsenic trioxide cured a large fraction of mice with MPNs. In contrast, no mice in the imatinib-treated control cohorts were cured. These data suggest that treatment with a combination of arsenic trioxide and imatinib can eliminate refractory MPN-initiating cells and reduce disease relapse.

Shon W, Sukov WR, Jenkins SM, Folpe AL
MYC amplification and overexpression in primary cutaneous angiosarcoma: a fluorescence in-situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(4):509-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYC, a proto-oncogene located on chromosome 8q24, is involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous studies have documented high-level MYC gene amplification and MYC overexpression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in post-irradiation angiosarcomas, but not in primary cutaneous angiosarcoma (AS-C) or in other radiation-associated vascular proliferations, such as atypical vascular lesions. Prompted by our recent finding of MYC amplification in a primary hepatic AS, we analyzed a large number of well-characterized AS-C for MYC amplification and protein overexpression. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks from 38 AS-C were retrieved from our archives and were examined by IHC analysis and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), using a commercially available antibody and probe. For FISH analysis, the number of copies of MYC was compared with the control gene, CEN8 (MYC/CEN8 ratio). All cases occurred on sun-exposed skin; no patient was known to have a history of therapeutic irradiation. Possible associations between survival and a wide variety of clinicopathological variables were evaluated using the log-rank test. By IHC analysis, MYC overexpression was present in 9/38 (24%) AS-C (2-3+: 6 cases, 16%; 1+: 3 cases, 8%). By FISH analysis, 2/5 (40%) informative cases with 2-3+ immunostaining showed high-level gene amplification. One additional case with 3+ immunostaining showed higher level aneusomy of chromosome 8 (5-8 MYC and CEN8). Two out of fourteen (14%) IHC-negative cases also carried MYC amplification (one high level and one lower level). Low copy number gain of chromosome 8 (3-5 MYC and CEN8) was observed in AS-C with or without MYC expression. MYC amplification and MYC protein overexpression were not correlated with clinical outcome. We have shown, for the first time, MYC gene amplification and protein overexpression in primary (non-radiation-associated) AS of the skin. MYC protein overexpression in cases lacking gene amplification likely reflects other mechanisms of MYC activation. The study of a larger number of AS-C showing MYC amplification may be necessary to determine whether the behavior of such cases differs from their more common non-amplified counterparts.

Shon W, Peters MS, Reed KB, et al.
Atypical generalized eruptive histiocytosis clonally related to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia with loss of Y chromosome.
J Cutan Pathol. 2013; 40(8):725-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Generalized eruptive histiocytosis, described in 1963 by Winklemann and Muller, is a reactive, self-healing form of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. Rare cases of atypical generalized eruptive histiocytosis have been reported in patients with hematopoietic malignancy, but the biological relationship between the two disorders is not known. We report an 84-year-old man with chronic myelomonocytic leukemia who presented with coalescing erythematous papules and plaques on the posterior neck, ear and lower lip, followed by development of blast crisis. Skin biopsy revealed a thick band-like dermal infiltrate of cells that exhibited morphologic features of macrophages or histiocytes and prominent elastolytic phagocytosis. These cells demonstrated a mature immunophenotype, expressing CD14 and CD68, with partial expression of CD13 but not CD1a, CD43, CD56, CD123, Langerin, or S-100 protein. Karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses showed loss of the Y chromosome in bone marrow and skin specimens, providing evidence of a clonal relationship between the cutaneous eruption and the underlying chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. The presence of the same clone in skin and bone marrow specimens from our patient supports the possibility that atypical generalized eruptive histiocytosis is a marker for underlying hematopoietic malignancy. Discovery of additional cases may shed further light on the pathogenesis of this rare entity.

Yoon HY, Kim SK, Kim YW, et al.
Combined hypermethylation of APC and GSTP1 as a molecular marker for prostate cancer: quantitative pyrosequencing analysis.
J Biomol Screen. 2012; 17(7):987-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
A total of 149 human prostate tissues obtained from our institute were assessed: 52 specimens of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and 97 specimens of prostate cancer (PCa). The methylation status of the genes of Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and glutathione-S-transferase-P1 (GSTP1) was analyzed by quantitative pyrosequencing. A methylation score (M score) was calculated to capture the combined methylation level of both genes. The methylation level of each single gene and that of both genes combined was significantly higher in PCa specimens than in BPH (each p < 0.001). The value of APC methylation, GSTP1 methylation, and M score for predicting PCa was measured by the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and reached 0.954, 0.942, and 0.983, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the M score in discriminating between PCa and BPH reached 92.8% and 100.0%, respectively. The M score was positively associated with the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (p trend < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that the quantitative measurement of two methylation markers might drastically improve the ability to discriminate PCa from BPH.

Mazumdar T, Devecchio J, Agyeman A, et al.
Blocking Hedgehog survival signaling at the level of the GLI genes induces DNA damage and extensive cell death in human colon carcinoma cells.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(17):5904-14 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Canonical Hedgehog (HH) signaling is characterized by Smoothened (Smo)-dependent activation of the transcription factors Gli1 and Gli2, which regulate HH target genes. In human colon carcinoma cells, treatment with the Gli small-molecule inhibitor GANT61 induces extensive cell death in contrast to the Smo inhibitor cyclopamine. Here we elucidate cellular events upstream of cell death elicited by GANT61, which reveal the basis for its unique cytotoxic activity in colon carcinoma cells. Unlike cyclopamine, GANT61 induced transient cellular accumulation at G(1)-S (24 hours) and in early S-phase (32 hours), with elevated p21(Cip1), cyclin E, and cyclin A in HT29 cells. GANT61 induced DNA damage within 24 hours, with the appearance of p-ATM and p-Chk2. Pharmacologic inhibition of Gli1 and Gli2 by GANT61 or genetic inhibition by transient transfection of the Gli3 repressor (Gli3R) downregulated Gli1 and Gli2 expression and induced γH2AX, PARP cleavage, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. GANT61 induced γH2AX nuclear foci, while transient transfection of Gli3R showed expression of Gli3R and γH2AX foci within the same nuclei in HT29, SW480, and HCT116. GANT61 specifically targeted Gli1 and Gli2 substantiated by specific inhibition of (i) direct binding of Gli1 and Gli2 to the promoters of target genes HIP1 and BCL-2, (ii) Gli-luciferase activity, and (iii) transcriptional activation of BCL-2. Taken together, these findings establish that inhibition of HH signaling at the level of the GLI genes downstream of Smo is critical in the induction of DNA damage in early S-phase, leading to cell death in human colon carcinoma cells.

Jeansonne DP, Koh GY, Zhang F, et al.
Paclitaxel-induced apoptosis is blocked by camptothecin in human breast and pancreatic cancer cells.
Oncol Rep. 2011; 25(5):1473-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
The combination of paclitaxel (PTX) and topoisomerase I inhibitors such as camptothecin (CPT) constitutes a therapeutic strategy based on anticipated synergism. However, previous in vitro studies have generated contradictory findings for this strategy. The interaction between these drugs can be synergistic or antagonistic, depending on the cell type examined. To gain additional insight into this promising yet controversial strategy, we investigated the interaction between PTX and CPT in three different cell lines (PANC-1, MDA-MB-231 and HL-60) and explored possible underlying mechanisms of synergy or antagonism. Using a novel solubilizing natural compound, rubusoside, water-insoluble PTX and CPT were solubilized to enable the comparison of the effects of single drugs and their combination on cell viability. Intracellular drug concentrations were quantified to examine the effect of CPT on cellular uptake and accumulation of PTX. Flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR gene array analyses were used to explore the mechanisms behind the interaction between PTX and CPT. Our studies confirmed that rubusoside-solubilized PTX or CPT maintained cytotoxicity, causing significant reductions in cell viability. However, the efficacy of the combination of PTX and CPT produced varied results based on the cell line tested. CPT antagonistically reduced the cytotoxic activity of PTX in PANC-1 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The effect of CPT on the cytotoxicity of PTX was less pronounced in HL-60 cells, showing neither synergy nor antagonism. Analysis of apoptosis by flow cytometry revealed that upon co-treatment with CPT, apoptosis induced by PTX was attenuated in PANC-1 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In agreement with our cytotoxicity findings, no synergistic or antagonistic effects on apoptosis were observed in HL-60 cells. The antagonism in PANC-1 and MDA-MB-231 cells was not a result of reduced PTX uptake and accumulation because the amount of intracellular PTX was not altered upon co-treatment with CPT. Moreover, higher expression of anti-apoptosis-related transcripts (BCL2L10, CFLAR, HIP1 and TRADD) in PANC-1 cells was observed upon combination treatment over PTX treatment alone. Although exact underlying mechanisms are unknown, the suspected CPT-dependent reduction of intracellular PTX accumulation was ruled out. The findings of antagonism and increased anti-apoptotic gene transcription serve as a precaution to the design of combination drug strategies where a synergistic interaction may not exist.

Yan GR, Xu SH, Tan ZL, et al.
Global identification of miR-373-regulated genes in breast cancer by quantitative proteomics.
Proteomics. 2011; 11(5):912-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play an important role in carcinogenesis, their molecular mechanism remains largely unknown because of our limited understanding of miRNA target genes. miR-373 was found to be capable of promoting breast cancer invasion and metastasis, but only a target gene was experimentally identified on the basis of mRNA expression analysis. In this study, we used SILAC-based quantitative proteomics to globally identify the genes regulated by miR-373. Totally, 3666 proteins were identified, and 335 proteins were found to be regulated by miR-373. Among the 192 proteins that were downregulated by miR-373, 27 (14.1%) were predicted to have at least one potential match site at their 3'-UTR for miR-373 seed sequence. However, miR-373 did not affect the mRNA level of the five selected candidate targets, TXNIP, TRPS1, RABEP1, GRHL2 and HIP1, suggesting that the protein expressions were regulated by miR-373 via translational inhibition instead of mRNA degradation. Luciferase and mutation assays validated that TXNIP and RABEP1 were the direct target genes of miR-373. More than 30 proteins reported to be involved in cancer invasion and metastasis were found to be regulated by miR-373 in breast cancer for the first time.

Oravecz-Wilson KI, Philips ST, Yilmaz OH, et al.
Persistence of leukemia-initiating cells in a conditional knockin model of an imatinib-responsive myeloproliferative disorder.
Cancer Cell. 2009; 16(2):137-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite remarkable responses to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, CML patients are rarely cured by this therapy perhaps due to imatinib refractoriness of leukemia-initiating cells (LICs). Evidence for this is limited because of poor engraftment of human CML-LICs in NOD-SCID mice and nonphysiologic expression of oncogenes in retroviral transduction mouse models. To address these challenges, we generated mice bearing conditional knockin alleles of two human oncogenes: HIP1/PDGFbetaR (H/P) and AML1-ETO (A/E). Unlike retroviral transduction, physiologic expression of H/P or A/E individually failed to induce disease, but coexpression of both H/P and A/E led to rapid onset of a fully penetrant, myeloproliferative disorder, indicating cooperativity between these two alleles. Although imatinib dramatically decreased disease burden, LICs persisted, demonstrating imatinib refractoriness of LICs.

Shon SK, Kim A, Kim JY, et al.
Bone morphogenetic protein-4 induced by NDRG2 expression inhibits MMP-9 activity in breast cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009; 385(2):198-203 [PubMed] Related Publications
In the current study, we examined the function of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) expression in breast cancer cells, especially focusing on the role of bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) induced by NDRG2. NDRG2 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited the mRNA expression of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9. Interestingly, a specific induction of active BMP-4 was exclusively observed in MDA-MB-231-NDRG2 cells but not in MDA-MB-231-mock cells. Neutralization of BMP-4 in MDA-MB-231-NDRG2 cells resulted in the rescue of MMP-9 mRNA expression and migration capacity. In addition, treatment with recombinant BMP-4 dramatically suppressed MMP-9 mRNA expression, gelatinolytic MMP-9 activity, migration, and invasion capacity both in MDA-MB-231 and PMA-treated MCF-7 cells. Collectively, our data show that BMP-4 induced by NDRG2 expression inhibits the metastatic potential of breast cancer cells, especially via suppression of MMP-9 activity.

Wang J, Yu W, Cai Y, et al.
Altered fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 stability promotes prostate cancer progression.
Neoplasia. 2008; 10(8):847-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR-4) is expressed at significant levels in almost all human prostate cancers, and expression of its ligands is ubiquitous. A common polymorphism of FGFR-4 in which arginine (Arg(388)) replaces glycine (Gly(388)) at amino acid 388 is associated with progression in human prostate cancer. We show that the FGFR-4 Arg(388) polymorphism, which is present in most prostate cancer patients, results in increased receptor stability and sustained receptor activation. In patients bearing the FGFR-4 Gly(388) variant, expression of Huntingtin-interacting protein 1 (HIP1), which occurs in more than half of human prostate cancers, also results in FGFR-4 stabilization. This is associated with enhanced proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in vitro. Our findings indicate that increased receptor stability and sustained FGFR-4 signaling occur in most human prostate cancers due to either the presence of a common genetic polymorphism or the expression of a protein that stabilizes FGFR-4. Both of these alterations are associated with clinical progression in patients with prostate cancer. Thus, FGFR-4 signaling and receptor turnover are important potential therapeutic targets in prostate cancer.

Graves CW, Philips ST, Bradley SV, et al.
Use of a cryptic splice site for the expression of huntingtin interacting protein 1 in select normal and neoplastic tissues.
Cancer Res. 2008; 68(4):1064-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Huntingtin interacting protein 1 (HIP1) is a 116-kDa endocytic protein, which is necessary for the maintenance of several tissues in vivo as its deficiency leads to degenerative adult phenotypes. HIP1 deficiency also inhibits prostate tumor progression in mice. To better understand how deficiency of HIP1 leads to such phenotypes, we analyzed tumorigenic potential in mice homozygous for a Hip1 mutant allele, designated Hip1(Delta 3-5), which is predicted to result in a frame-shifted, nonsense mutation in the NH(2) terminus of HIP1. In contrast to our previous studies using the Hip1 null allele, an inhibition of tumorigenesis was not observed as a result of the homozygosity of the nonsense Delta 3-5 allele. To further examine the contrasting results from the prior Hip1 mutant mice, we cultured tumor cells from homozygous Delta 3-5 allele-bearing mice and discovered the presence of a 110-kDa form of HIP1 in tumor cells. Upon sequencing of Hip1 DNA and message from these tumors, we determined that this 110-kDa form of HIP1 is the product of splicing of a cryptic U12-type AT-AC intron. This event results in the insertion of an AG dinucleotide between exons 2 and 6 and restoration of the reading frame. Remarkably, this mutant protein retains its capacity to bind lipids, clathrin, AP2, and epidermal growth factor receptor providing a possible explanation for why tumorigenesis was not altered after this knockout mutation. Our data show how knowledge of the transcript that is produced by a knockout allele can lead to discovery of novel types of molecular compensation at the level of splicing.

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