Gene Summary

Gene:TXNIP; thioredoxin interacting protein
Aliases: THIF, VDUP1, HHCPA78, EST01027
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:thioredoxin-interacting protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (26)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transfection
  • alpha-Fetoproteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Young Adult
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Messenger RNA
  • Mutation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cell Movement
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Tumor Stem Cell Assay
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Hep G2 Cells
  • Thioredoxins
  • Breast Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Liver Cancer
  • Cell Survival
  • Staging
  • Drug Resistance
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Chromosome 1
  • siRNA
  • Transcription
  • Apoptosis
  • Virus Integration
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Promoter Regions
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Glucose
  • Western Blotting
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: TXNIP (cancer-related)

Shen L, O'Shea JM, Kaadige MR, et al.
Metabolic reprogramming in triple-negative breast cancer through Myc suppression of TXNIP.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(17):5425-30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/10/2015 Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are aggressive and lack targeted therapies. Understanding how nutrients are used in TNBCs may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrate that the transcription factor c-Myc drives glucose metabolism in TNBC cells but does so by a previously unappreciated mechanism that involves direct repression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). TXNIP is a potent negative regulator of glucose uptake, aerobic glycolysis, and glycolytic gene expression; thus its repression by c-Myc provides an alternate route to c-Myc-driven glucose metabolism. c-Myc reduces TXNIP gene expression by binding to an E-box-containing region in the TXNIP promoter, possibly competing with the related transcription factor MondoA. TXNIP suppression increases glucose uptake and drives a dependence on glycolysis. Ectopic TXNIP expression decreases glucose uptake, reduces cell proliferation, and increases apoptosis. Supporting the biological significance of the reciprocal relationship between c-Myc and TXNIP, a Mychigh/TXNIPlow gene signature correlates with decreased overall survival and decreased metastasis-free survival in breast cancer. The correlation between the Mychigh/TXNIPlow gene signature and poor clinical outcome is evident only in TNBC, not in other breast cancer subclasses. Mutation of TP53, which is a defining molecular feature of TNBC, enhances the correlation between the Mychigh/TXNIPlow gene signature and death from breast cancer. Because Myc drives nutrient utilization and TXNIP restricts glucose availability, we propose that the Mychigh/TXNIPlow gene signature coordinates nutrient utilization with nutrient availability. Further, our data suggest that loss of the p53 tumor suppressor cooperates with Mychigh/TXNIPlow-driven metabolic dysregulation to drive the aggressive clinical behavior of TNBC.

Pan T, Gao L, Wu G, et al.
Elevated expression of glutaminase confers glucose utilization via glutaminolysis in prostate cancer.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 456(1):452-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism towards aerobic glycolysis and elevated glutaminolysis, which contributes to the aggressive phenotype. Understanding how these metabolic pathways are regulated may provide critical targets for therapeutic intervention. Glutaminase (GLS1) is a key enzyme that converts glutamine to glutamate. In this study, we show the loss of GLS1 function by RNA interference or inhibitor diminished the rates of glucose utilization, growth and invasiveness of prostate cancer cells. We propose that GLS1 positively regulates glucose uptake in addition to glutaminolysis. Further, GLS1 involves the transcriptional repression of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), which is a potent negative regulator of glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis. Most importantly, we provided direct evidence that elevated GLS1 expression was highly correlated with the tumor stage and progression in prostate cancer patients. Together, we defined a key role for GLS1 in coupling glutaminolysis of the TCA cycle with elevated glucose uptake and consequently the growth of prostate cancer cells. These data extends the role of GLS1 in regulating cell metabolism and the clinical utility of GLS1 inhibitors in the restriction of essential nutrients.

Friedemann T, Otto B, Klätschke K, et al.
Coptis chinensis Franch. exhibits neuroprotective properties against oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma cells.
J Ethnopharmacol. 2014; 155(1):607-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The dried rhizome of Coptis chinensis Franch. (family Ranunculaceae) is traditionally used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and diabetes. Recent studies showed a variety of activities of Coptis chinensis Franch. alkaloids, including neuroprotective, neuroregenerative, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, there is no report on the neuroprotective effect of Coptis chinensis Franch. watery extract against tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) induced oxidative damage. The aim of the study is to investigate neuroprotective properties of Coptis chinensis Franch. rhizome watery extract (CRE) and to evaluate its potential mechanism of action.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neuroprotective properties on t-BOOH induced oxidative stress were investigated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Cells were pretreated with CRE for 2 h or 24 h followed by 2 h of treatment with t-BOOH. To evaluate the neuroprotective effect of CRE, cell viability, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and the apoptotic rate were determined and microarray analyses, as well as qRT-PCR analyses were conducted.
RESULTS: Two hours of exposure to 100 µM t-BOOH resulted in a significant reduction of cell viability, increased apoptotic rate, declined mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increased ROS production. Reduction of cell viability, increased apoptotic rate and declined mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) could be significantly reduced in cells pretreated with CRE (100 µg/ml) for 2h or 24h ahead of t-BOOH exposure with the greatest effect after 24h of pretreatment; however ROS production was not changed significantly. Furthermore, microarray analyses revealed that the expressions of 2 genes; thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase 1, were significantly regulated. Down regulation of TXNIP was confirmed by qRT-PCR.
CONCLUSION: Due to its neuroprotective properties CRE might be a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention or amelioration of diseases like diabetic neuropathy and neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer and Parkinsons disease.

Li W, Wu Z, Ma Q, et al.
Hyperglycemia regulates TXNIP/TRX/ROS axis via p38 MAPK and ERK pathways in pancreatic cancer.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2014; 14(4):348-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
Approximately 85% of pancreatic cancer patients suffer from glucose intolerance or even diabetes because high glucose levels can contribute to oxidative stress which promotes tumor development. As one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-regulating factors, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), is involved in the maintenance of thioredoxin (TRX)-mediated redox regulation. In this study, we demonstrated that high glucose levels increased the expression of TXNIP in time- and concentration-dependent manners and modulated the activity of TRX and ROS production in pancreatic cancer cells, BxPC-3 and Panc-1. We also found that glucose activated both p38 MAPK and ERK pathways and inhibitors of these pathways impaired the TXNIP/TRX/ROS axis. Knockdown of TXNIP restored TRX activity and decreased ROS production under high glucose conditions. Moreover, we observed that the integrated optical density (IOD) of TXNIP staining as well as the protein and mRNA expression levels of TXNIP were higher in the tumor tissues of pancreatic cancer patients with diabetes. Taken together, these results indicate that hyperglycemia-induced TXNIP expression is involved in diabetes-mediated oxidative stress in pancreatic cancer via p38 MAPK and ERK pathways.

Morrison JA, Pike LA, Sams SB, et al.
Thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) is a novel tumor suppressor in thyroid cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, and many patients with metastatic differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), poorly differentiated thyroid cancer (PDTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) fail to respond to conventional therapies, resulting in morbidity and mortality. Additional therapeutic targets and treatment options are needed for these patients. We recently reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is highly expressed in ATC and confers an aggressive phenotype when overexpressed in DTC cells.
METHODS: Microarray analysis was used to identify downstream targets of PPARγ in ATC cells. Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to assess thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) expression in thyroid cancer cell lines and primary tumor specimens. Retroviral transduction was used to generate ATC cell lines that overexpress TXNIP, and assays that assess glucose uptake, viable cell proliferation, and invasion were used to characterize the in vitro properties of these cells. An orthotopic thyroid cancer mouse model was used to assess the effect of TXNIP overexpression in ATC cell lines in vivo.
RESULTS: Using microarray analysis, we show that TXNIP is highly upregulated when PPARγ is depleted from ATC cells. Using Western blot analysis and IHC, we show that DTC and ATC cells exhibit differential TXNIP expression patterns. DTC cell lines and patient tumors have high TXNIP expression in contrast to low or absent expression in ATC cell lines and tumors. Overexpression of TXNIP decreases the growth of HTh74 cells compared to vector controls and inhibits glucose uptake in the ATC cell lines HTh74 and T238. Importantly, TXNIP overexpression in T238 cells results in attenuated tumor growth and decreased metastasis in an orthotopic thyroid cancer mouse model.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that TXNIP functions as a tumor suppressor in thyroid cells, and its downregulation is likely important in the transition from differentiated to advanced thyroid cancer. These studies underscore the potential of TXNIP as a novel therapeutic target and prognostic indicator in advanced thyroid cancer.

Yamaguchi F, Hirata Y, Akram H, et al.
FOXO/TXNIP pathway is involved in the suppression of hepatocellular carcinoma growth by glutamate antagonist MK-801.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:468 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/10/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence has suggested the importance of glutamate signaling in cancer growth, yet the signaling pathway has not been fully elucidated. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor activates intracellular signaling pathways such as the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and forkhead box, class O (FOXO). Suppression of lung carcinoma growth by NMDA receptor antagonists via the ERK pathway has been reported. However, series of evidences suggested the importance of FOXO pathways for the regulation of normal and cancer cell growth. In the liver, FOXO1 play important roles for the cell proliferation such as hepatic stellate cells as well as liver metabolism. Our aim was to investigate the involvement of the FOXO pathway and the target genes in the growth inhibitory effects of NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in human hepatocellular carcinoma.
METHODS: Expression of NMDAR1 in cancer cell lines from different tissues was examined by Western blot. NMDA receptor subunits in HepG2, HuH-7, and HLF were examined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and growth inhibition by MK-801 and NBQX was determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of MK-801 on the cell cycle were examined by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. Expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and p27 was determined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. Activation of the FOXO pathway and TXNIP induction were examined by Western blotting, fluorescence microscopy, Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay, and reporter gene assay. The effects of TXNIP on growth inhibition were examined using the gene silencing technique.
RESULTS: NMDA receptor subunits were expressed in all cell lines examined, and MK-801, but not NBQX, inhibited cell growth of hepatocellular carcinomas. Cell cycle analysis showed that MK-801 induced G1 cell cycle arrest by down-regulating cyclin D1 and up-regulating p27. MK-801 dephosphorylated Thr24 in FOXO1 and induced its nuclear translocation, thus increasing transcription of TXNIP, a tumor suppressor gene. Knock-down of TXNIP ameliorated the growth inhibitory effects of MK-801.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that functional NMDA receptors are expressed in hepatocellular carcinomas and that the FOXO pathway is involved in the growth inhibitory effects of MK-801. This mechanism could be common in hepatocellular carcinomas examined, but other mechanisms such as ERK pathway could exist in other cancer cells as reported in lung carcinoma cells. Altered expression levels of FOXO target genes including cyclin D1 and p27 may contribute to the inhibition of G1/S cell cycle transition. Induction of the tumor suppressor gene TXNIP plays an important role in the growth inhibition by MK-801. Our report provides new evidence that FOXO-TXNIP pathway play a role in the inhibition of the hepatocellular carcinoma growth by MK-801.

Wu L, Chen H, Zhu Y, et al.
Flightless I homolog negatively regulates ChREBP activity in cancer cells.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2013; 45(11):2688-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
The glucose-responsive transcription factor carbohydrate responsive element binding protein (ChREBP) plays an important role in regulating glucose metabolism in support of anabolic synthesis in both hepatocytes and cancer cells. In order to further investigate the molecular mechanism by which ChREBP regulates transcription, we used a proteomic approach to identify proteins interacting with ChREBP. We found several potential ChREBP-interacting partners, one of which, flightless I homolog (FLII) was verified to interact and co-localize with ChREBP in HCT116 colorectal cancer and HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. FLII is a member of the gelsolin superfamily of actin-remodeling proteins and can function as a transcriptional co-regulator. The C-terminal 227 amino acid region of ChREBP containing the DNA-binding domain interacted with FLII. Both the N-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain and C-terminal gelsolin homolog domain (GLD) of FLII interacted and co-localized with ChREBP. ChREBP and FLII localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of cancer cells. Glucose increased expression and nuclear localization of ChREBP, and had minimal effect on the level and distribution of FLII. FLII knockdown using siRNAs increased mRNA and protein levels of ChREBP-activated genes and decreased transcription of ChREBP-repressed genes in cancer cells. Conversely, FLII overexpression negatively regulated ChREBP-mediated transcription in cancer cells. Our findings suggest that FLII is a component of the ChREBP transcriptional complex and negatively regulates ChREBP function in cancer cells.

Woolston CM, Madhusudan S, Soomro IN, et al.
Thioredoxin interacting protein and its association with clinical outcome in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Redox Biol. 2013; 1:285-91 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/10/2015 Related Publications
The overall prognosis for operable gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma remains poor and therefore neoadjuvant chemotherapy has become the standard of care, in addition to radical surgery. Certain anticancer agents (e.g. anthracyclines and cisplatin) generate damaging reactive oxygen species as by-products of their mechanism of action. Drug effectiveness can therefore depend upon the presence of cellular redox buffering systems that are often deregulated in cancer. The expression of the redox protein, thioredoxin interacting protein, was assessed in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas. Thioredoxin interacting protein expression was assessed using conventional immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray of 140 adenocarcinoma patients treated by primary surgery alone and 88 operable cases treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In the primary surgery cases, high thioredoxin interacting protein expression associated with a lack of lymph node involvement (p=0.005), no perineural invasion (p=0.030) and well/moderate tumour differentiation (p=0.033). In the neoadjuvant tumours, high thioredoxin interacting protein expression was an independent marker for improved disease specific survival (p=0.002) especially in cases with anthracycline-based regimes (p=0.008). This study highlights the potential of thioredoxin interacting protein as a biomarker for response in neoadjuvant treated gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinoma and may represent a useful therapeutic target due to its association with tumour progression.

O'Shea JM, Ayer DE
Coordination of nutrient availability and utilization by MAX- and MLX-centered transcription networks.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013; 3(9):a014258 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell growth and division require the biosynthesis of macromolecule components and cofactors (e.g., nucleotides, lipids, amino acids, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NADPH]). Normally, macromolecular biosynthesis is under tight regulatory control, yet these anabolic pathways are often dysregulated in cancer. The resulting metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells is thought to support their high rates of growth and division. The mechanisms that underlie the metabolic changes in cancer are at least partially understood, providing a rationale for their targeting with known or novel therapeutics. This review is focused on how cells sense and respond transcriptionally to essential nutrients, including glucose and glutamine, and how MAX- and MLX-centered transcription networks contribute to metabolic homeostasis in normal and neoplastic cells.

Supiot S, Gouraud W, Campion L, et al.
Early dynamic transcriptomic changes during preoperative radiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer: a feasibility study.
World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(21):3249-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/10/2015 Related Publications
AIM: To develop novel biomarkers of rectal radiotherapy, we measured gene expression profiles on biopsies taken before and during preoperative radiotherapy.
METHODS: Six patients presenting with a locally advanced rectal cancer (T>T2, N0/Nx, M0) eligible for preoperative radiotherapy (45 Gy in 25 fractions) were selected in a pilot study. Six tumor and 3 normal tissues biopsies were taken before and during radiotherapy, after a dose of 7.2 Gy at a median time of 1 h following irradiation (0:27-2:12). Tumor or normal tissue purity was assessed by a pathologist prior to RNA extraction. Mean RNA content was 23 μg/biopsy (14-37) before radiotherapy and 22.7 μg/biopsy (12-35) during radiotherapy. After RNA amplification, biopsies were analysed with 54K HG-U133A Plus 2.0 Affymetrix expression micro-arrays. Data were normalized according to MAS5 algorithm. A gene expression ratio was calculated as: (gene expression during radiotherapy - gene expression before radiotherapy)/gene expression before radiotherapy. Were selected genes that showed a ratio higher than ± 0.5 in all 6 patients.
RESULTS: Microarray analysis showed that preoperative radiotherapy significantly up-regulated 31 genes and down-regulated 6 genes. According to the Gene Ontology project classification, these genes are involved in protein metabolism (ADAMDEC1; AKAP7; CAPN5; CLIC5; CPE; CREB3L1; NEDD4L; RAB27A), ion transport (AKAP7; ATP2A3; CCL28; CLIC5; F2RL2; NEDD4L; SLC6A8), transcription (AKAP7; CREB3L1; ISX; PABPC1L; TXNIP), signal transduction (CAPN5; F2RL2; RAB27A; TNFRSF11A), cell adhesion (ADAMDEC1; PXDN; SPON1; S100A2), immune response (CCL28; PXDN; TNFRSF11A) and apoptosis (ITM2C; PDCD4; PVT1). Up-regulation of 3 genes (CCL28; CLIC5; PDCD4) was detected by 2 different probes and up-regulation of 2 genes (RAB27A; TXNIP) by 3 probes.
CONCLUSION: Micro-arrays can efficiently assess early transcriptomic changes during preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer, and may help better understand tumor radioresistance.

Demokan S, Chuang AY, Chang X, et al.
Identification of guanine nucleotide-binding protein γ-7 as an epigenetically silenced gene in head and neck cancer by gene expression profiling.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 42(4):1427-36 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/10/2015 Related Publications
Silencing of tumor suppressor genes plays a vital role in head and neck carcinogenesis. Aberrant hypermethylation in the promoter region of some known or putative tumor suppressor genes occurs frequently during the development of various types of cancer including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). In this study we used an expanded mRNA expression profiling approach followed by microarray expression analysis to identify epigenetically inactivated genes in HNSCC. Two HNSCC cell lines were treated with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine followed by microarray analysis to identify epigenetically silenced genes in HNSCC. We found 1,960, 614 and 427 genes were upregulated in the HNSCC cell lines JHU-012, JHU-011 and the combination of both cell lines, respectively. HNSCC tumor and normal mucosal samples were used for gene profiling by a 47K mRNA gene expression array and we found 7,140 genes were downregulated in HNSCC tumors compared to normal mucosa, as determined by microarray analysis, and were integrated with cell line data. Integrative analysis defined 126 candidate genes, of which only seven genes showed differential methylation in tumors and no methylation in normal mucosa after bisulfite sequencing. Following validation by QMSP, one gene, guanine nucleotide-binding protein γ-7 (GNG7), was confirmed to be highly methylated in tumors and unmethylated in normal mucosal and salivary rinse samples demonstrating cancer-specific methylation in HNSCC tissues. TXNIP and TUSC2 were partially methylated in tumors and normal salivary rinses but unmethylated in normal mucosa. We concluded that GNG7 is a highly specific promoter methylated gene associated with HNSCC. In addition, TXNIP and TUSC2 are also potential biomarkers for HNSCC.

Evang JA, Bollerslev J, Casar-Borota O, et al.
Different levels of various glucocorticoid-regulated genes in corticotroph adenomas.
Endocrine. 2013; 44(1):220-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, correlations between corticotroph tumor dedifferentiation and both E-cadherin immunostaining and reduced mRNA expression of the E-cadherin gene (CDH1) have been demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to explore whether tumor dedifferentiation correlated with glucocorticoid resistance and whether the resistance was associated with both positively and negatively regulated genes. Tumor material from 20 patients with verified Cushing's disease or Nelson's syndrome operated on at Rikshospitalet, Oslo. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of genes such as E-cadherin (CDH1), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) was performed. The correlations between the expression of the GILZ, TXNIP, and POMC genes in different stages of corticotroph adenomas, the E-cadherin mRNA expression and staining pattern, and the preoperative 24-h cortisol excretion were examined. The GILZ and TXNIP expression levels were positively correlated to the CDH1 expression and were highest in microadenomas and in tumors with a high membranous E-cadherin reactivity. In contrast, the POMC expression was not significantly different between the groups. This divergence between the genes that were positively and negatively regulated by glucocorticoids could not be supported by other gene expression analyses. No correlations to urinary cortisol were found. The expression of the glucocorticoid-responsive genes POMC, GILZ, and TXNIP in corticotroph adenomas showed a remarkable variation. The pattern and variability of glucocorticoid resistance in corticotroph adenomas seem to correlate with a loss of the epithelial phenotype associated with corticotroph tumor dedifferentiation.

Lim JY, Yoon SO, Hong SW, et al.
Thioredoxin and thioredoxin-interacting protein as prognostic markers for gastric cancer recurrence.
World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(39):5581-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/10/2015 Related Publications
AIM: To evaluate the potential of thioredoxin (TXN) and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) expression as biomarkers for predicting gastric cancer recurrence.
METHODS: TXN and TXNIP expression levels were acquired from gene expression microarray data for 65 human gastric cancer tissues. We determined whether each gene expression level was associated with cancer recurrence and investigated the relationship between the two genes. For validation, the expression levels of TXN and TXNIP were measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in 68 independent stage III gastric cancer patients. The correlation between gene expression and cancer prognosis was evaluated. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to investigate the protein expression levels of TXN and TXNIP and to characterize the expression patterns of each protein.
RESULTS: TXN was a prognosis-related gene (P = 0.009), whereas TXNIP, a TXN inhibitor, demonstrated a negative correlation with TXN in the gene expression microarray data. In the 68 stage III patients, the expression levels of both TXN and TXNIP had a statistically significant effect on recurrence-free survival (RFS, P = 0.008 and P = 0.036, respectively). The low TXN and high TXNIP expression group exhibited a better prognosis than the other groups, and the high TXN and low TXNIP expression group exhibited a poorer prognosis (P < 0.001 for RFS and P = 0.001 for overall survival). More than half of the patients in the simultaneously high TXN and low TXNIP expression group experienced a recurrence within 1 year after curative surgery, and the 5-year survival rate of the patients in this group was 29%, compared with 89% in the low TXN and high TXNIP expression group. The TXN protein was overexpressed in 65% of the gastric cancer tissues, whereas the TXNIP protein was underexpressed in 85% of the cancer cells. In a correlation analysis, TXN and TXNIP were highly correlated with many oncogenes and tumor suppressors as well as with genes related to energy, protein synthesis and autophagy.
CONCLUSION: TXN and TXNIP are promising prognostic markers for gastric cancer, and performing personalized adjuvant treatment based on TXN and TXNIP expression levels would be an effective practice in the treatment of gastric cancer.

Kaur S, Archer KJ, Devi MG, et al.
Differential gene expression in granulosa cells from polycystic ovary syndrome patients with and without insulin resistance: identification of susceptibility gene sets through network analysis.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012; 97(10):E2016-21 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/10/2015 Related Publications
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous, genetically complex, endocrine disorder of uncertain etiology in women.
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to compare the gene expression profiles in stimulated granulosa cells of PCOS women with and without insulin resistance vs. matched controls.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study included 12 normal ovulatory women (controls), 12 women with PCOS without evidence for insulin resistance (PCOS non-IR), and 16 women with insulin resistance (PCOS-IR) undergoing in vitro fertilization. Granulosa cell gene expression profiling was accomplished using Affymetrix Human Genome-U133 arrays. Differentially expressed genes were classified according to gene ontology using ingenuity pathway analysis tools. Microarray results for selected genes were confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: A total of 211 genes were differentially expressed in PCOS non-IR and PCOS-IR granulosa cells (fold change≥1.5; P≤0.001) vs. matched controls. Diabetes mellitus and inflammation genes were significantly increased in PCOS-IR patients. Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed higher expression of NCF2 (2.13-fold), TCF7L2 (1.92-fold), and SERPINA1 (5.35-fold). Increased expression of inflammation genes ITGAX (3.68-fold) and TAB2 (1.86-fold) was confirmed in PCOS non-IR. Different cardiometabolic disease genes were differentially expressed in the two groups. Decreased expression of CAV1 (-3.58-fold) in PCOS non-IR and SPARC (-1.88-fold) in PCOS-IR was confirmed. Differential expression of genes involved in TGF-β signaling (IGF2R, increased; and HAS2, decreased), and oxidative stress (TXNIP, increased) was confirmed in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes linked to diabetes mellitus, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and infertility in the granulosa cells of PCOS women with and without insulin resistance. Because these dysregulated genes are also involved in oxidative stress, lipid metabolism, and insulin signaling, we hypothesize that these genes may be involved in follicular growth arrest and metabolic disorders associated with the different phenotypes of PCOS.

Zhou J, Chng WJ
Roles of thioredoxin binding protein (TXNIP) in oxidative stress, apoptosis and cancer.
Mitochondrion. 2013; 13(3):163-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thioredoxin binding protein (TXNIP) has multiple functions and plays an important role in redox homeostasis. TXNIP increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and oxidative stress, resulting in cellular apoptosis. It has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in various solid tumors and hematological malignancies. In the present review, we will first provide an overview of TXNIP protein and function, followed by a summary of the major studies that have demonstrated the frequent repression of TXNIP in cancers. Functional characterization of TXNIP knockout mouse model is summarized. We will then discuss the use of small molecular inhibitors to reactivate TXNIP expression as a novel anticancer strategy.

Frullanti E, Colombo F, Falvella FS, et al.
Association of lung adenocarcinoma clinical stage with gene expression pattern in noninvolved lung tissue.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 131(5):E643-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Associations between clinical outcome of cancer patients and the gene expression signature in primary tumors at time of diagnosis have been reported. To test whether gene expression patterns in noninvolved lung tissue might correlate with clinical stage in lung adenocarcinoma (ADCA) patients, we compared the transcriptome of noninvolved lung samples from 60 ADCA smoker patients of clinical stage I versus 60 patients with stage>I. Quantitative PCR of 10 genes with the most significant differential expression confirmed the statistical association with clinical stage in eight genes, six of which were downregulated in high-stage patients. Five of these six genes were also downregulated in lung ADCA tissue as compared to noninvolved tissue. Studies in vitro indicated that four of the genes (SLC14A1, SMAD6, TMEM100 and TXNIP) inhibited colony formation of lung cancer cell lines transfected to overexpress the genes, suggesting their potential tumor-suppressor activity. Our findings suggest that individual variations in the transcriptional profile of noninvolved lung tissue may reflect the lung ADCA patient's predisposition to tumor aggressiveness.

Amid A, Wan Chik WD, Jamal P, Hashim YZ
Microarray and quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression profiles in response to treatment with tomato leaf extract in mcf-7 breast cancer cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012; 13(12):6319-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously found cytotoxic effects of tomato leaf extract (TLE) on the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The aim of this study was to ascertain the molecular mechanisms associated with the usage of TLE as an anticancer agent by microarray analysis using mRNA from MCF-7 breast cancer cells after treatment with TLE for 1 hr and 48 hrs. Approximately 991 genes out of the 30,000 genes in the human genome were significantly (p<0.05) changed after the treatment. Within this gene set, 88 were significantly changed between the TLE treated cells and the untreated MCF-7 cells (control cells) with a cut-off fold change >2.00. In order to focus on genes that were involved in cancer cell growth, only twenty-nine genes were selected, either down-regulated or up-regulated after treatment with TLE. Microarray assay results were confirmed by analyzing 10 of the most up and down regulated genes related to cancer cells progression using real-time PCR. Treatment with TLE induced significant up-regulation in the expression of the CRYAB, PIM1, BTG1, CYR61, HIF1-α and CEBP-β genes after 1 hr and 48 hrs, whereas the TXNIP and THBS1 genes were up-regulated after 1 hr of treatment but down-regulated after 48 hrs. In addition both the HMG1L1 and HIST2H3D genes were down-regulated after 1 hr and 48 hrs of treatment. These results demonstrate the potent activity of TLE as an anticancer agent.

Zhou J, Yu Q, Chng WJ
TXNIP (VDUP-1, TBP-2): a major redox regulator commonly suppressed in cancer by epigenetic mechanisms.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011; 43(12):1668-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
TXNIP (also named as VDUP-1 or TBP-2) was originally isolated in HL60 cells treated with Vitamin D3. Subsequently, it has been identified as a major redox regulator and a Tumor Suppressor Gene (TSG) in various solid tumors and hematological malignancies. In the present review, we will first provide an overview of TXNIP gene and protein structures, followed by a summary of the studies that have demonstrated its frequent repression in human cancers and relevant clinical significance, as well as functional characterization in animal models. We will then highlight our current knowledge of TXNIP signaling and biological functions. Next, we will discuss the evidence that clearly have demonstrated that the epigenetic silencing of TXNIP in cancer through various molecular mechanisms. The therapeutic use of small molecular inhibitors to reactivate TXNIP expression for cancer treatment will also be discussed in this review.

Zhou J, Bi C, Cheong LL, et al.
The histone methyltransferase inhibitor, DZNep, up-regulates TXNIP, increases ROS production, and targets leukemia cells in AML.
Blood. 2011; 118(10):2830-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have shown that 3-Deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), a histone methyltransferase inhibitor, disrupts polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2), and preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. The present study demonstrates that DZNep induces robust apoptosis in AML cell lines, primary cells, and targets CD34(+)CD38(-) leukemia stem cell (LSC)-enriched subpopulations. Using RNA interference (RNAi), gene expression profiling, and ChIP, we identified that TXNIP, a major redox control molecule, plays a crucial role in DZNep-induced apoptosis. We show that disruption of PRC2, either by DZNep treatment or EZH2 knockdown, reactivates TXNIP, inhibits thioredoxin activity, and increases reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to apoptosis. Furthermore, we show that TXNIP is down-regulated in AML and is a direct target of PRC2-mediated gene silencing. Consistent with the ROS accumulation on DZNep treatment, we also see a signature of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-regulated genes, commonly associated with cell survival, down-regulated by DZNep. Taken together, we uncover a novel molecular mechanism of DZNep-mediated apoptosis and propose that EZH2 may be a potential new target for epigenetic treatment in AML.

Vaira S, Friday E, Scott K, et al.
Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) mediate the "glucose sensor" mechanism in metastatic breast cancer-derived cells MDA-MB-231.
J Cell Physiol. 2012; 227(2):578-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study we investigated the effect of glucose on GSK3β and β-catenin expression and the involvement of the N-linked glycosylation and hexosamine pathways in the Wnt canonical pathway in response to in vitro conditions resembling normoglycemia (5  mmol) and hyperglycemia (20  mmol) in the metastatic breast cancer-derived cell line MDA-MB-231. We also investigated the relationship between this circuitry and the thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) regulation that seems to be related. MDA-MB-231 cells were grown either in 5 or 20  mM glucose chronically prior to plating. For glucose shift (5/20), cells were plated in 5  mM glucose and shifted to 20  mM at time 0. Both protein and mRNA levels for GSK3β but only the protein expression for β-catenin, were increased in response to high glucose. Furthermore, we assessed the response of GSK3β, β-catenin, and TXNIP to inhibition of the N-linked glycosylation, hexosamine, and Wnt pathways. Wnt signaling pathway activation was validated by specific reporter assay. We show that high levels of glucose regulate mRNA and protein expression of GSK3β, and consequently higher levels of activated β-catenin protein, which locates to the nucleus and is associated with increased levels of cyclin D1 expression. This event coincides with increased level of N-terminal Ser 9 phosphorylation of GSK3β protein. The inhibition of both the hexosamine pathway and N-linked glycosylation along with Wnt signaling pathway by sFRP1 and DKK1 is associated with significant decrease of the protein levels of GSK3β, β-catenin, and TXNIP RNA. Our work illuminates a novel and never described before function of this signaling pathway that relates glucose metabolism with redox regulation mechanism.

Slovak ML, Bedell V, Hsu YH, et al.
Molecular karyotypes of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells at disease onset reveal distinct copy number alterations in chemosensitive versus refractory Hodgkin lymphoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(10):3443-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/10/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: To determine the recurring DNA copy number alterations (CNA) in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) by microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) using laser capture microdissected CD30(+) Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Archived tissues from 27 CD30(+) HL plus control samples were analyzed by DNA microarrays. The HL molecular karyotypes were compared with the genomic profiles of germinal center B cells and treatment outcome (chemotherapy responsive vs. primary refractory disease).
RESULTS: Gains and losses observed in more than 35% of HL samples were localized to 22 and 12 chromosomal regions, respectively. Frequent gains (>65%) were associated with growth and proliferation, NF-κB activation, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, and immune and lymphoid development. Frequent losses (>40%) observed encompassed tumor suppressor genes (SPRY1, NELL1, and ID4, inhibitor of DNA binding 4), transcriptional repressors (TXNIP, thioredoxin interacting protein), SKP2 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2; ubiquitin ligase component), and an antagonist of NF-κB activation (PPARGC1A). In comparison to the germinal center profiles, the most frequent imbalances in HL were losses in 5p13 (AMACR, GDNF, and SKP2), and gains in 7q36 (SHH, sonic hedgehog homolog) and 9q34 (ABL1, CDK9, LCN2, and PTGES). Gains (>35%) in the HL chemoresponsive patients housed genes known to regulate T-cell trafficking or NF-κB activation (CCL22, CX3CL1, CCL17, DOK4, and IL10), whereas the refractory samples showed frequent loss of 4q27 (interleukin; IL21/IL2) and 17p12, and gain of 19q13.3 (BCL3/RELB).
CONCLUSION: We identified nonrandom CNAs in the molecular karyotypes of classical HL. Several recurring genetic lesions correlated with disease outcome. These findings may be useful prognostic markers in the counseling and management of patients and for the development of novel therapeutic approaches in primary refractory HL.

Yan GR, Xu SH, Tan ZL, et al.
Global identification of miR-373-regulated genes in breast cancer by quantitative proteomics.
Proteomics. 2011; 11(5):912-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play an important role in carcinogenesis, their molecular mechanism remains largely unknown because of our limited understanding of miRNA target genes. miR-373 was found to be capable of promoting breast cancer invasion and metastasis, but only a target gene was experimentally identified on the basis of mRNA expression analysis. In this study, we used SILAC-based quantitative proteomics to globally identify the genes regulated by miR-373. Totally, 3666 proteins were identified, and 335 proteins were found to be regulated by miR-373. Among the 192 proteins that were downregulated by miR-373, 27 (14.1%) were predicted to have at least one potential match site at their 3'-UTR for miR-373 seed sequence. However, miR-373 did not affect the mRNA level of the five selected candidate targets, TXNIP, TRPS1, RABEP1, GRHL2 and HIP1, suggesting that the protein expressions were regulated by miR-373 via translational inhibition instead of mRNA degradation. Luciferase and mutation assays validated that TXNIP and RABEP1 were the direct target genes of miR-373. More than 30 proteins reported to be involved in cancer invasion and metastasis were found to be regulated by miR-373 in breast cancer for the first time.

Chai TF, Leck YC, He H, et al.
Hypoxia-inducible factor independent down-regulation of thioredoxin-interacting protein in hypoxia.
FEBS Lett. 2011; 585(3):492-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thioredoxin-Interacting Protein (Txnip) is an important regulator of glucose metabolism and functions by inhibiting cellular glucose uptake. The expression of the Txnip gene is sensitive to glucose availability and is negatively correlated with the glycolytic rate. Here we show that hypoxia induces a rapid decrease in Txnip mRNA and protein expression in a Hypoxia-Inducible Factor independent manner. Hypoxia caused reduced binding of the glucose responsive MondoA:Mlx transcription factor to the carbohydrate response elements (ChoREs) in the Txnip promoter. Our data suggest that hypoxia decreases MondoA:Mlx activity by increasing glycolytic flux, leading to the depletion of glycolytic intermediates which normally activate MondoA:Mlx. Hypoxia dependent Txnip down-regulation may be an important compensatory mechanism through which cancer cells adapt their metabolism to low oxygen concentrations.

Lee JH, Jeong EG, Choi MC, et al.
Inhibition of histone deacetylase 10 induces thioredoxin-interacting protein and causes accumulation of reactive oxygen species in SNU-620 human gastric cancer cells.
Mol Cells. 2010; 30(2):107-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone deacetylase (HDAC)10, a novel class IIb histone deacetylase, is the most similar to HDAC6, since both contain a unique second catalytic domain. Unlike HDAC6, which is located in the cytoplasm, HDAC10 resides in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. The transcriptional targets of HDAC10 that are associated with HDAC10 gene regulation have not been identified. In the present study, we found that knockdown of HDAC10 significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) in SNU-620 human gastric cancer cells; whereas inhibition of HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC6 did not affect TXNIP expression. TXNIP is the endogenous inhibitor of thioredoxin (TRX), which acts as a cellular antioxidant. Real-time PCR and immunoblot analysis confirmed that inhibition of HDAC10 induced TXNIP expression. Compared to class I only HDAC inhibitors, inhibitors targeting both class I and II upregulated TXNIP, indicating that TXNIP is regulated by class II HDACs such as HDAC10. We further verified that inhibition of HDAC10 induced release of cytochrome c and activated apoptotic signaling molecules through accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Taken together, our results demonstrate that HDAC10 is involved in transcriptional downregulation of TXNIP, leading to altered ROS signaling in human gastric cancer cells. How TXNIP is preferentially regulated by HDAC10 needs further investigation.

Cadenas C, Franckenstein D, Schmidt M, et al.
Role of thioredoxin reductase 1 and thioredoxin interacting protein in prognosis of breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2010; 12(3):R44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/10/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this work was to study the prognostic influence in breast cancer of thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), key players in oxidative stress control that are currently evaluated as possible therapeutic targets.
METHODS: Analysis of the association of TXNRD1 and TXNIP RNA expression with the metastasis-free interval (MFI) was performed in 788 patients with node-negative breast cancer, consisting of three individual cohorts (Mainz, Rotterdam and Transbig). Correlation with metagenes and conventional clinical parameters (age, pT stage, grading, hormone and ERBB2 status) was explored. MCF-7 cells with a doxycycline-inducible expression of an oncogenic ERBB2 were used to investigate the influence of ERBB2 on TXNRD1 and TXNIP transcription.
RESULTS: TXNRD1 was associated with worse MFI in the combined cohort (hazard ratio = 1.955; P < 0.001) as well as in all three individual cohorts. In contrast, TXNIP was associated with better prognosis (hazard ratio = 0.642; P < 0.001) and similar results were obtained in all three subcohorts. Interestingly, patients with ERBB2-status-positive tumors expressed higher levels of TXNRD1. Induction of ERBB2 in MCF-7 cells caused not only an immediate increase in TXNRD1 but also a strong decrease in TXNIP. A subsequent upregulation of TXNIP as cells undergo senescence was accompanied by a strong increase in levels of reactive oxygen species.
CONCLUSIONS: TXNRD1 and TXNIP are associated with prognosis in breast cancer, and ERBB2 seems to be one of the factors shifting balances of both factors of the redox control system in a prognostic unfavorable manner.

Lee DE, Lee KW, Song NR, et al.
7,3',4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced proliferation and transformation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells by suppressing cyclin-dependent kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
J Biol Chem. 2010; 285(28):21458-66 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/10/2015 Related Publications
Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that isoflavones exhibit anti-proliferative activity against epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-positive malignancies of the breast, colon, skin, and prostate. 7,3',4'-Trihydroxyisoflavone (7,3',4'-THIF) is one of the metabolites of daidzein, a well known soy isoflavone, but its chemopreventive activity and the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, 7,3',4'-THIF prevented EGF-induced neoplastic transformation and proliferation of JB6 P+ mouse epidermal cells. It significantly blocked cell cycle progression of EGF-stimulated cells at the G(1) phase. As shown by Western blot, 7,3',4'-THIF suppressed the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein at Ser-795 and Ser-807/Ser-811, which are the specific sites of phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4. It also inhibited the expression of G(1) phase-regulatory proteins, including cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin E, and CDK2. In addition to regulating the expression of cell cycle-regulatory proteins, 7,3',4'-THIF bound to CDK4 and CDK2 and strongly inhibited their kinase activities. It also bound to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), strongly inhibiting its kinase activity and thereby suppressing the Akt/GSK-3beta/AP-1 pathway and subsequently attenuating the expression of cyclin D1. Collectively, these results suggest that CDKs and PI3K are the primary molecular targets of 7,3',4'-THIF in the suppression of EGF-induced cell proliferation. These insights into the biological actions of 7,3',4'-THIF provide a molecular basis for the possible development of new chemoprotective agents.

Chen Z, Yoshihara E, Son A, et al.
Differential roles of Annexin A1 (ANXA1/lipocortin-1/lipomodulin) and thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2/VDUP1/TXNIP) in glucocorticoid signaling of HTLV-I-transformed T cells.
Immunol Lett. 2010; 131(1):11-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glucocorticoid (GC) is widely used for therapeutic purposes in immunological and hematological disorders. Annexin A1 (ANXA1/lipocortin-1/lipomodulin), a GC-inducible molecule, was regarded as a vital anti-inflammatory mediator of GC. Thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2/VDUP1/TXNIP), a regulator of redox reactions, cell growth and lipid metabolism, was also reportedly induced by GC. HTLV-I infected T cells undergo the transition from the IL-2 dependent to IL-2 independent growth during the long-term culture in vitro. We found that these T cells responded to GC with growth arrest and apoptosis in the IL-2 dependent growth stage, whereas they failed to respond to GC after their growth had shifted into the IL-2 independent stage. Here we employed these T cell lines and studied the roles of ANXA1 and TBP-2 in mediating GC-induced apoptosis. In GC-sensitive T cells, ANXA1 expression was negligible and unaffected by GC treatment, whereas TBP-2 was expressed and induced by GC treatment. In GC-resistant T cells, however, ANXA1 was highly expressed regardless of GC treatment and promoted cellular proliferation. In contrast, TBP-2 expression was lost and could not mediate the GC-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, these results suggest that TBP-2, but not ANXA1, is directly involved in the switching of GC sensitivity and GC resistance in HTLV-I infected T cell lines, whereas ANXA1 may be a biomarker indicative of the advanced stage of the transformation.

Hashiguchi K, Tsuchiya H, Tomita A, et al.
Involvement of ETS1 in thioredoxin-binding protein 2 transcription induced by a synthetic retinoid CD437 in human osteosarcoma cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010; 391(1):621-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD437, a synthetic retinoid, has a potent antitumor activity, in which an RAR-independent mechanism may be involved. Our previous study showed that CD437 transcriptionally upregulates the expression of thioredoxin-binding protein 2 (TBP2), leading to c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1)-mediated apoptosis. In the present study, we addressed the mechanism, by which CD437 induces TBP2 mRNA expression. CD437 efficiently caused the cell death of human osteosarcoma cells via apoptosis. CD437 also induced JNK1 activation through the upregulation of TBP2 mRNA, in consistent with our previous observation. A luciferase reporter assay for TBP2 promoter activation suggested that CD437-regulated TBP2 mRNA transcription requires the region between -400 and -300, which contains multiple possible ETS-binding sites. Finally, we demonstrated CD437-dependent recruitment of ETS1 transcription factor to this region by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. These data suggest that ETS1 is involved in CD437-induced TBP2 mRNA expression in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells.

Hsu CM, Hsu YA, Tsai Y, et al.
Emodin inhibits the growth of hepatoma cells: finding the common anti-cancer pathway using Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010; 392(4):473-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emodin--a major component of Rheum palmatum L.-exerts antiproliferative effects in cancer cells that are regulated by different signaling pathways. Hepatocellular carcinoma has high-incidence rates and is associated with poor prognosis and high mortality rates. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of emodin on human hepatocarcinoma cell viability and investigate its mechanisms of action in Huh7, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells. To define the molecular changes associated with this process, expression profiles were compared in emodin-treated hepatoma cells by cDNA microarray hybridization, quantitative RT-PCRs, and Western blot analysis. G2/M phase arrest was observed in all 3 cell lines. Cell cycle regulatory gene analysis showed increased protein levels of cyclin A, cyclin B, Chk2, Cdk2, and P27 in hepatoma cells after time courses of emodin treatment, and Western blot analysis showed decreased protein levels of Cdc25c and P21. Microarray expression profile data and quantitative PCR revealed that 15 representative genes were associated with emodin treatment response in hepatoma cell lines. The RNA expression levels of CYP1A1, CYP1B1, GDF15, SERPINE1, SOS1, RASD1, and MRAS were upregulated and those of NR1H4, PALMD, and TXNIP were downregulated in all three hepatoma cells. Moreover, at 6h after emodin treatment, the levels of GDF15, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and CYR61 were upregulated. Here, we show that emodin treatment caused G2/M arrest in liver cancer cells and increased the expression levels of various genes both in mRNA and protein level. It is likely that these genes act as biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma therapy.

Levendusky MC, Basle J, Chang S, et al.
Expression and regulation of vitamin D3 upregulated protein 1 (VDUP1) is conserved in mammalian and insect brain.
J Comp Neurol. 2009; 517(5):581-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
Originally characterized as a cell-cycle inhibitor induced by vitamin D(3), the tumor suppressor vitamin-D(3) upregulated protein 1 (VDUP1) has increasingly been shown to play major physiological roles in cell differentiation and glucose metabolism. Here we show evolutionarily conserved expression patterns of VDUP1 in Drosophila and rat nervous systems, including subcellular localization--cytoplasmic enrichment in neurons and nuclear expression in glia. These anatomical correlates suggested conservation of VDUP1 regulation, which was investigated both functionally and through promoter studies. Characterization of orthologous vdup1 cis-regulatory regions identified evolutionarily conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) with similarities to neural enhancers, including basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor Neurogenin/Math/atonal and Mash/achaete-scute family members. E-boxes (CANNTG), the binding sites for bHLH proteins, were associated with these CSBs as well, including E-boxes known to mediate glucose-dependent upregulation of VDUP1 in nonneuronal cells. Hyperglycemia-induced upregulation of VDUP1 was observed in brain tumor cells and in the Drosophila nervous system, which resulted in developmental arrest. Taken together, these data demonstrate evolutionary conservation of VDUP1 regulation and function, and suggest an expanding role for VDUP1 in nervous system development.

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