Gene Summary

Gene:HNRNPA2B1; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1
Summary:This gene belongs to the A/B subfamily of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). The hnRNPs are RNA binding proteins and they complex with heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). These proteins are associated with pre-mRNAs in the nucleus and appear to influence pre-mRNA processing and other aspects of mRNA metabolism and transport. While all of the hnRNPs are present in the nucleus, some seem to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The hnRNP proteins have distinct nucleic acid binding properties. The protein encoded by this gene has two repeats of quasi-RRM domains that bind to RNAs. This gene has been described to generate two alternatively spliced transcript variants which encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Lung Cancer
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Promoter Regions
  • Protein Binding
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Glycolysis
  • 3' Untranslated Regions
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Up-Regulation
  • Glioblastoma
  • Exons
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Cytoplasm
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • RNA Interference
  • Apoptosis
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Transcription Factors
  • Ribonucleoproteins
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Chromosome 7
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • Base Sequence
  • Breast Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • von Hippel-Lindau Disease
  • Alternative Splicing
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Cell Line
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins
  • Western Blotting
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HNRNPA2B1 (cancer-related)

Liu Y, Yang H, Li L, et al.
A novel VHLα isoform inhibits Warburg effect via modulation of PKM splicing.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13649-13657 [PubMed] Related Publications
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is the most frequently mutated gene in clear cell renal carcinoma. Here, we identified a novel translational variant of VHL, termed VHLα, initiated from an alternative translational start site upstream and in frame with the ATG start codon. We showed that VHLα interacts with and regulates heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1), which consequently modulates pyruvate kinase transcript splicing and reprograms cellular glucose metabolism. Our study demonstrated that a novel VHL isoform may function as a tumor suppressor through inhibiting the Warburg effect.

Zhou B, Wang Y, Jiang J, et al.
The long noncoding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript-1/miR-490 axis regulates gastric cancer cell migration by targeting hnRNPA1.
IUBMB Life. 2016; 68(3):201-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colon cancer-associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) is a highly conserved long noncoding RNA that is deregulated in several cancers. However, its role in gastric carcinoma and its post-transcriptional regulation remain poorly understood. In this study, we provide the first evidence that CCAT1 regulates miR-490 in gastric cancer (GC) cells. Interestingly, miR-490 can also repress CCAT1 expression. CCAT1 expression was significantly upregulated, and miR-490 expression was downregulated in GC. The negative correlation between miR-490 and CCAT1 expression was observed in GC tissues. Importantly, CCAT1 contains a putative miR-490-binding site, and deletion of this binding site abolishes their miR-490 responsiveness. Post-transcriptional CCAT1 silencing by miR-490 significantly suppressed GC cell migration. Furthermore, miR-490 directly bound to the hnRNPA1 mRNA 3'-UTR to repress its translation. Inhibition of miR-490 rescued CCAT1 siRNA-mediated suppression of cell migration. hnRNPA1 expression was significantly upregulated in GC specimens, and there was a negative correlation between miR-490 and hnRNPA1 expression and also a positive correlation between hnRNAP1 expression level and CCAT1 level. Taken together, we show for the first time that the CCAT1/miR-490/hnRNPA1 axis promotes GC migration, and it may have a possible diagnostic and therapeutic potential in GC.

Dai P, Wang Q, Wang W, et al.
Unraveling Molecular Differences of Gastric Cancer by Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Analysis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) has significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and especially in China. Its molecular pathogenesis has not been thoroughly elaborated. The acknowledged biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, recurrence monitoring and treatment are lacking. Proteins from matched pairs of human GC and adjacent tissues were analyzed by a coupled label-free Mass Spectrometry (MS) approach, followed by functional annotation with software analysis. Nano-LC-MS/MS, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to validate dysregulated proteins. One hundred forty-six dysregulated proteins with more than twofold expressions were quantified, 22 of which were first reported to be relevant with GC. Most of them were involved in cancers and gastrointestinal disease. The expression of a panel of four upregulated nucleic acid binding proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein hnRNPA2B1, hnRNPD, hnRNPL and Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX-1) were validated by Nano-LC-MS/MS, qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry assays in ten GC patients' tissues. They were located in the keynotes of a predicted interaction network and might play important roles in abnormal cell growth. The label-free quantitative proteomic approach provides a deeper understanding and novel insight into GC-related molecular changes and possible mechanisms. It also provides some potential biomarkers for clinical diagnosis.

Vad-Nielsen J, Jakobsen KR, Daugaard TF, et al.
Regulatory dissection of the CBX5 and hnRNPA1 bi-directional promoter in human breast cancer cells reveals novel transcript variants differentially associated with HP1α down-regulation in metastatic cells.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The three members of the human heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family of proteins, HP1α, HP1β, and HPγ, are involved in chromatin packing and epigenetic gene regulation. HP1α is encoded from the CBX5 gene and is a suppressor of metastasis. CBX5 is down-regulated at the transcriptional and protein level in metastatic compared to non-metastatic breast cancer. CBX5 shares a bi-directional promoter structure with the hnRNPA1 gene. But whereas CBX5 expression is down-regulated in metastatic cells, hnRNAP1 expression is constant. Here, we address the regulation of CBX5 in human breast cancer.
METHODS: Transient transfection and transposon mediated integration of dual-reporter mini-genes containing the bi-directional hnRNPA1 and CBX5 promoter was performed to investigate transcriptional regulation in breast cancer cell lines. Bioinformatics and functional analysis were performed to characterize transcriptional events specifically regulating CBX5 expression. TSA treatment and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were performed to investigate the chromatin structure along CBX5 in breast cancer cells. Finally, expression of hnRNPA1 and CBX5 mRNA isoforms were measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) in breast cancer tissue samples.
RESULTS: We demonstrate that an hnRNPA1 and CBX5 bi-directional core promoter fragment does not comprise intrinsic capacity for specific CBX5 down-regulation in metastatic cells. Characterization of transcriptional events in the 20 kb CBX5 intron 1 revealed existence of several novel CBX5 transcripts. Two of these encode consensus HP1α protein but used autonomous promoters in intron 1 by which HP1α expression could be de-coupled from the bi-directional promoter. In addition, another CBX5 transcriptional isoform, STET, was discovered. This transcript includes CBX5 exon 1 and part of intron 1 sequences but lacks inclusion of HP1α encoding exons. Inverse correlation between STET and HP1α coding CBX5 mRNA expression was observed in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples from breast cancer patients.
CONCLUSION: We find that HP1α is down-regulated in a mechanism involving CBX5 promoter downstream sequences and that regulation through alternative polyadenylation and splicing generates a transcript, STET, with potential importance in carcinogenesis.

Xuan Y, Wang J, Ban L, et al.
hnRNPA2/B1 activates cyclooxygenase-2 and promotes tumor growth in human lung cancers.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(4):610-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is highly expressed in tumor cells and has been regarded as a hallmarker for cancers, but the excise regulatory mechanism of COX-2 in tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we pulled down and identified a novel COX-2 regulator, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNPA2/B1), which could specifically bind to COX-2 core promoter and regulate tumor growth in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Knockdown of hnRNPA2/B1 by shRNA or siRNA downregulated COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, and suppressed tumor cell growth in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, overexpression of hnRNPA2/B1 up-regulated the levels of COX-2 and PGE2 and promoted tumor cell growth. We also showed that hnRNPA2/B1 expression was positively correlated with COX-2 expression in NSCLC cell lines and tumor tissues, and the up-regulated expression of hnRNPA2/B1 and COX-2 predicted worse prognosis in NSCLC patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the activation of COX-2 expression by hnRNPA2/B1 was mediated through the cooperation with p300, a transcriptional co-activator, in NSCLC cells. The hnRNPA2/B1 could interact with p300 directly and be acetylated by p300. Exogenous overexpression of p300, but not its histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain deletion mutation, augmented the acetylation of hnRNPA2/B1 and enhanced its binding on COX-2 promoter, thereby promoted COX-2 expression and lung cancer cell growth. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hnRNPA2/B1 promotes tumor cell growth by activating COX-2 signaling in NSCLC cells and imply that the hnRNPA2/B1/COX-2 pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for human lung cancers.

Zhang S, Wei JS, Li SQ, et al.
MYCN controls an alternative RNA splicing program in high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 371(2):214-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The molecular mechanisms underlying the aggressive behavior of MYCN driven neuroblastoma (NBL) is under intense investigation; however, little is known about the impact of this family of transcription factors on the splicing program. Here we used high-throughput RNA sequencing to systematically study the expression of RNA isoforms in stage 4 MYCN-amplified NBL, an aggressive subtype of metastatic NBL. We show that MYCN-amplified NBL tumors display a distinct gene splicing pattern affecting multiple cancer hallmark functions. Six splicing factors displayed unique differential expression patterns in MYCN-amplified tumors and cell lines, and the binding motifs for some of these splicing factors are significantly enriched in differentially-spliced genes. Direct binding of MYCN to promoter regions of the splicing factors PTBP1 and HNRNPA1 detected by ChIP-seq demonstrates that MYCN controls the splicing pattern by direct regulation of the expression of these key splicing factors. Furthermore, high expression of PTBP1 and HNRNPA1 was significantly associated with poor overall survival of stage4 NBL patients (p ≤ 0.05). Knocking down PTBP1, HNRNPA1 and their downstream target PKM2, an isoform of pro-tumor-growth, result in repressed growth of NBL cells. Therefore, our study reveals a novel role of MYCN in controlling global splicing program through regulation of splicing factors in addition to its well-known role in the transcription program. These findings suggest a therapeutically potential to target the key splicing factors or gene isoforms in high-risk NBL with MYCN-amplification.

Liu X, Zhou Y, Lou Y, Zhong H
Knockdown of HNRNPA1 inhibits lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase.
Gene. 2016; 576(2 Pt 2):791-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (HNRNPA1), a member of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein family in actively growing mammalian cells, is involved in a variety of RNA-related processes. HNRNPA1 can enhance the degradation of inhibitory subunit of nuclear factor κ B alpha (IκBα) and lengthen the telomeres. Recently, it is reported that HNRNPA1 is aberrantly expressed in varied tumors. In this study we found HNRNPA1 protein overexpressed in lung cancer tissues. To explore the exact role of HNRNPA1 in lung cancers, we carried out a loss of function analysis of HNRNPA1 in A549 lung cancer cells by RNA interference (RNAi). The results demonstrated that knockdown of HNRNPA1 inhibited cell viability and colony formation of lung cancer cells and arrested cell cycle in G0/G1 phase. Our study suggested that HNRNPA1 might play an important role in lung adenocarcinoma cells and provided a foundation for further study into the potential of HNRNPA1 for lung cancer therapy.

Park SJ, Lee H, Jo DS, et al.
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 post-transcriptionally regulates Drp1 expression in neuroblastoma cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2015; 1849(12):1423-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Excessive mitochondrial fission is associated with the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) possesses specific fission activity in the mitochondria and peroxisomes. Various post-translational modifications of Drp1 are known to modulate complex mitochondrial dynamics. However, the post-transcriptional regulation of Drp1 remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) regulates Drp1 expression at the post-transcriptional level. hnRNP A1 directly interacts with Drp1 mRNA at its 3'UTR region, and enhances translation potential without affecting mRNA stability. Down-regulation of hnRNP A1 induces mitochondrial elongation by reducing Drp1 expression. Moreover, depletion of hnRNP A1 suppresses 3-NP-mediated mitochondrial fission and dysfunction. In contrast, over-expression of hnRNP A1 promotes mitochondrial fragmentation by increasing Drp1 expression. Additionally, hnRNP A1 significantly exacerbates 3-NP-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in neuroblastoma cells. Interestingly, treatment with 3-NP induces subcellular translocation of hnRNP A1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, which accelerates the increase in Drp1 expression in hnRNP A1 over-expressing cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that hnRNP A1 controls mitochondrial dynamics by post-transcriptional regulation of Drp1.

Konishi H, Fujiya M, Ueno N, et al.
microRNA-26a and -584 inhibit the colorectal cancer progression through inhibition of the binding of hnRNP A1-CDK6 mRNA.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 467(4):847-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
While the progress of chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy has improved the outcome of colorectal cancer patients, the mortality of colon cancer remains high, indicating the need to develop novel therapeutic targets for improving the outcome of colon cancer. Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is highly expressed in colorectal cancer and its expression correlates with malignant transformation. In this study, we performed a microarray analysis with the RNA immunoprecipitation (RNA-IP) method and identified hnRNP A1-interacting miRs, including miR-26a and -584, in a colorectal cancer cell line, SW620. A SRB assay revealed the tumor suppressive effect of miR-26a and -584, and the tumor suppressive effect of these miRs was diminished by the downregulation of hnRNP A1. The combined method of a transcriptome analysis and RNA-IP revealed hnRNP A1-interacting mRNAs, including cyclin dependent kinase 6 (CDK6). A Western blot analysis revealed the downregulation of CDK6 in miR-26a and -584 overexpression cells, as well as hnRNP A1 knockdown cells. The binding assay indicated that the binding of hnRNP A1-CDK6 mRNA was reduced by transfection of miR-26a and -584. The expression of cleaved caspase-3 was induced in miR-26a and -584 overexpression cells. These data indicate that miR-26a and -584 inhibit the binding of hnRNP A1-CDK6 mRNA and induce colorectal cancer cell apoptosis.

Kataoka K, Nagata Y, Kitanaka A, et al.
Integrated molecular analysis of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(11):1304-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T cell neoplasm of largely unknown genetic basis, associated with human T cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection. Here we describe an integrated molecular study in which we performed whole-genome, exome, transcriptome and targeted resequencing, as well as array-based copy number and methylation analyses, in a total of 426 ATL cases. The identified alterations overlap significantly with the HTLV-1 Tax interactome and are highly enriched for T cell receptor-NF-κB signaling, T cell trafficking and other T cell-related pathways as well as immunosurveillance. Other notable features include a predominance of activating mutations (in PLCG1, PRKCB, CARD11, VAV1, IRF4, FYN, CCR4 and CCR7) and gene fusions (CTLA4-CD28 and ICOS-CD28). We also discovered frequent intragenic deletions involving IKZF2, CARD11 and TP73 and mutations in GATA3, HNRNPA2B1, GPR183, CSNK2A1, CSNK2B and CSNK1A1. Our findings not only provide unique insights into key molecules in T cell signaling but will also guide the development of new diagnostics and therapeutics in this intractable tumor.

Loh TJ, Moon H, Cho S, et al.
CD44 alternative splicing and hnRNP A1 expression are associated with the metastasis of breast cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(3):1231-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
CD44 is a transmembrane receptor for hyaluronic acid. CD44 pre-mRNA contains 19 exons, 9 of which are alternatively spliced. Among the CD44 spliced variants, the v4-7 variant, one of the v6 exon-containing isoforms that contains variable exon 4, 5, 6 and 7, confers metastatic potential to non-metastatic cells. Splicing of CD44 and the function of CD44 isoforms are different in breast cancer cells. hnRNP A1 is a ubiquitously expressed protein with an inhibitory function in pre-mRNA splicing. We showed that CD44v6 isoform, which includes all of the v6-containing mRNA isoforms, had the highest expression level in non-metatatic breast cancer cells (MCF7) when compared to the level in metastatic breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cells (MCF10A). Furthermore we showed that hnRNP A1 knockdown regulated splicing of CD44 differently in breast cancer cells. We showed here that CD44 isoform expression is completely different in MDA-MB-231 cells than that in MCF7 and MCF10A cells, whereas MCF7 and MCF10A cells had a similar expression pattern of CD44 isoforms. RT-PCR analysis of CD44v6 showed that MCF7 and MCF10A cells predominantly expressed the c5v6v7v8v9v10c6 isoform. However, in addition to this isoform, MDA-MB-231 cells also expressed the c5v6v8v9v10c6 and c5v6c6 isoforms. We also found that knockdown of hnRNP A1 significantly reduced the expression of c5v6v7v8v9v10c6 and c5v6v8v9v10c6, and promoted the expression of c5v6c6. hnRNP A1 knockdown significantly induced cell death. In addition, hnRNP A1 knockdown induced a decrease in cell invasion in the MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results indicate that the knockdown of hnRNP A1 has a specific function on the splicing of CD44 in breast cancer cells.

Yang J, Bennett BD, Luo S, et al.
LIN28A Modulates Splicing and Gene Expression Programs in Breast Cancer Cells.
Mol Cell Biol. 2015; 35(18):3225-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
LIN28 is an evolutionarily conserved RNA-binding protein with critical functions in developmental timing and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying LIN28's oncogenic properties are yet to be described. RNA-protein immunoprecipitation coupled with genome-wide sequencing (RIP-Seq) analysis revealed significant LIN28 binding within 843 mRNAs in breast cancer cells. Many of the LIN28-bound mRNAs are implicated in the regulation of RNA and cell metabolism. We identify heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1), a protein with multiple roles in mRNA metabolism, as a LIN28-interacting partner. Subsequently, we used a custom computational method to identify differentially spliced gene isoforms in LIN28 and hnRNP A1 small interfering RNA (siRNA)-treated cells. The results reveal that these proteins regulate alternative splicing and steady-state mRNA expression of genes implicated in aspects of breast cancer biology. Notably, cells lacking LIN28 undergo significant isoform switching of the ENAH gene, resulting in a decrease in the expression of the ENAH exon 11a isoform. The expression of ENAH isoform 11a has been shown to be elevated in breast cancers that express HER2. Intriguingly, analysis of publicly available array data from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) reveals that LIN28 expression in the HER2 subtype is significantly different from that in other breast cancer subtypes. Collectively, our data suggest that LIN28 may regulate splicing and gene expression programs that drive breast cancer subtype phenotypes.

Peterlongo P, Catucci I, Colombo M, et al.
FANCM c.5791C>T nonsense mutation (rs144567652) induces exon skipping, affects DNA repair activity and is a familial breast cancer risk factor.
Hum Mol Genet. 2015; 24(18):5345-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Numerous genetic factors that influence breast cancer risk are known. However, approximately two-thirds of the overall familial risk remain unexplained. To determine whether some of the missing heritability is due to rare variants conferring high to moderate risk, we tested for an association between the c.5791C>T nonsense mutation (p.Arg1931*; rs144567652) in exon 22 of FANCM gene and breast cancer. An analysis of genotyping data from 8635 familial breast cancer cases and 6625 controls from different countries yielded an association between the c.5791C>T mutation and breast cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) = 3.93 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.28-12.11; P = 0.017)]. Moreover, we performed two meta-analyses of studies from countries with carriers in both cases and controls and of all available data. These analyses showed breast cancer associations with OR = 3.67 (95% CI = 1.04-12.87; P = 0.043) and OR = 3.33 (95% CI = 1.09-13.62; P = 0.032), respectively. Based on information theory-based prediction, we established that the mutation caused an out-of-frame deletion of exon 22, due to the creation of a binding site for the pre-mRNA processing protein hnRNP A1. Furthermore, genetic complementation analyses showed that the mutation influenced the DNA repair activity of the FANCM protein. In summary, we provide evidence for the first time showing that the common p.Arg1931* loss-of-function variant in FANCM is a risk factor for familial breast cancer.

Nadiminty N, Tummala R, Liu C, et al.
NF-κB2/p52:c-Myc:hnRNPA1 Pathway Regulates Expression of Androgen Receptor Splice Variants and Enzalutamide Sensitivity in Prostate Cancer.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2015; 14(8):1884-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Alternative splicing of the AR to generate constitutively active, ligand-independent variants is one of the principal mechanisms that promote the development of resistance to next-generation antiandrogens such as enzalutamide. Here, we demonstrate that the splicing factor heterogeneous nuclear RNA-binding protein A1 (hnRNPA1) plays a pivotal role in the generation of AR splice variants such as AR-V7. hnRNPA1 is overexpressed in prostate tumors compared with benign prostates, and its expression is regulated by NF-κB2/p52 and c-Myc. CRPC cells resistant to enzalutamide exhibit higher levels of NF-κB2/p52, c-Myc, hnRNPA1, and AR-V7. Levels of hnRNPA1 and AR-V7 are positively correlated with each other in prostate cancer. The regulatory circuit involving NF-κB2/p52, c-Myc, and hnRNPA1 plays a central role in the generation of AR splice variants. Downregulation of hnRNPA1 and consequently of AR-V7 resensitizes enzalutamide-resistant cells to enzalutamide, indicating that enhanced expression of hnRNPA1 may confer resistance to AR-targeted therapies by promoting the generation of splice variants. These findings may provide a rationale for cotargeting these pathways to achieve better efficacy through AR blockade.

Yu C, Guo J, Liu Y, et al.
Oral squamous cancer cell exploits hnRNP A1 to regulate cell cycle and proliferation.
J Cell Physiol. 2015; 230(9):2252-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a common human malignant tumor with high mortality. So far, the molecular pathogenesis of OSCC remains largely unclear. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 is an important multi-function splicing factor and closely related to tumorigenesis. hnRNP A1 is overexpressed in various tumors, and promotes aerobic glycolysis and elongation of telomere, but the function of hnRNP A1 in cell cycle and proliferation remains unclear. We found that hnRNP A1 was overexpressed in OSCC tissues, and was required for the growth of OSCC cells. Moreover, hnRNP A1 was highly expressed in the G2/M cell cycle phase. Knockdown of hnRNP A1 induced G2/M arrest. DNA microarray assay result showed that hnRNP A1 regulated the expression of a number of target genes associated with G2/M phase. Moreover, hnRNP A1 controlled the alternative splicing of CDK2 exon 5. These findings suggested that hnRNP A1 plays key roles in the regulation of cell cycle progression and pathogenesis of OSCC.

Liu XY, Li HL, Su JB, et al.
Regulation of RAGE splicing by hnRNP A1 and Tra2β-1 and its potential role in AD pathogenesis.
J Neurochem. 2015; 133(2):187-98 [PubMed] Related Publications
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene expresses two major alternative splicing isoforms, full-length membrane-bound RAGE (mRAGE) and secretory RAGE (esRAGE). Both isoforms play important roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, either via interaction of mRAGE with β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) or inhibition of the mRAGE-activated signaling pathway. In the present study, we showed that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) and Transformer2β-1 (Tra2β-1) were involved in the alternative splicing of mRAGE and esRAGE. Functionally, two factors had an antagonistic effect on the regulation. Glucose deprivation induced an increased ratio of mRAGE/esRAGE via up-regulation of hnRNP A1 and down-regulation of Tra2β-1. Moreover, the ratios of mRAGE/esRAGE and hnRNP A1/Tra2β-1 were increased in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AD patients. The results provide a molecular basis for altered splicing of mRAGE and esRAGE in AD pathogenesis. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene expresses two major alternative splicing isoforms, membrane-bound RAGE (mRAGE) and secretory RAGE (esRAGE). Both isoforms play important roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Mechanism for imbalanced expression of these two isoforms in AD brain remains elusive. We proposed here a hypothetic model to illustrate that impaired glucose metabolism in AD brain may increase the expression of splicing protein hnRNP A1 and reduce Tra2β-1, which cause the imbalanced expression of mRAGE and esRAGE.

Deng J, Chen S, Wang F, et al.
Effects of hnRNP A2/B1 Knockdown on Inhibition of Glioblastoma Cell Invasion, Growth and Survival.
Mol Neurobiol. 2016; 53(2):1132-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1) plays an important role in influence of pre-messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) processing and mRNA metabolism and transportation in cells. Increasing evidence indicates that hnRNP A2/B1 played an important role in development and progression of various human cancers. Forty cases of normal and human glioma tissue samples were analyzed using immunohistochemistry to reveal the expression of hnRNP A2/B1 protein in the samples. Then, knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 expression induced by RNA interference (RNAi) method was used to analyze the role of hnRNP A2/B1 in glioblastoma cell viability, adhesion, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance for temozolomide (TMZ). The data showed that hnRNP A2/B1 protein was overexpressed in glioma tissue specimens and associated with advanced glioma grades. Knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 could reduce glioblastoma cell viability, adhesion, migration, invasion, and chemoresistance for TMZ capacity, but induced tumor cells to apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in glioma U251 and SHG44 cells. Molecularly, hnRNP A2/B1 knockdown reduced expression of phospho-STAT3 and MMP-2. Detection of hnRNP A2/B1 expression may be useful as a biomarker for prediction of glioma progression and knockdown of hnRNP A2/B1 expression as a novel strategy in future control of glioblastoma in clinic.

Dowling P, Pollard D, Larkin A, et al.
Abnormal levels of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1) in tumour tissue and blood samples from patients diagnosed with lung cancer.
Mol Biosyst. 2015; 11(3):743-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the second most common type of cancer in the world and is the most common cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Research into causes, prevention and treatment of lung cancer is ongoing and much progress has been made recently in these areas, however survival rates have not significantly improved. Therefore, it is essential to develop biomarkers for early diagnosis of lung cancer, prediction of metastasis and evaluation of treatment efficiency, as well as using these molecules to provide some understanding about tumour biology and translate highly promising findings in basic science research to clinical application. In this investigation, two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were initially used to analyse conditioned media from a panel of lung cancer and normal bronchial epithelial cell lines. Significant proteins were identified with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1), pyruvate kinase M2 isoform (PKM2), Hsc-70 interacting protein and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) selected for analysis in serum from healthy individuals and lung cancer patients. hnRNPA2B1, PKM2 and LDHA were found to be statistically significant in all comparisons. Tissue analysis and knockdown of hnRNPA2B1 using siRNA subsequently demonstrated both the overexpression and potential role for this molecule in lung tumorigenesis. The data presented highlights a number of in vitro derived candidate biomarkers subsequently verified in patient samples and also provides some insight into their roles in the complex intracellular mechanisms associated with tumour progression.

Kasim M, Benko E, Winkelmann A, et al.
Shutdown of achaete-scute homolog-1 expression by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-A2/B1 in hypoxia.
J Biol Chem. 2014; 289(39):26973-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor hASH1, encoded by the ASCL1 gene, plays an important role in neurogenesis and tumor development. Recent findings indicate that local oxygen tension is a critical determinant for the progression of neuroblastomas. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the oxygen-dependent expression of hASH1 in neuroblastoma cells. Exposure of human neuroblastoma-derived Kelly cells to 1% O2 significantly decreased ASCL1 mRNA and hASH1 protein levels. Using reporter gene assays, we show that the response of hASH1 to hypoxia is mediated mainly by post-transcriptional inhibition via the ASCL1 mRNA 5'- and 3'-UTRs, whereas additional inhibition of the ASCL1 promoter was observed under prolonged hypoxia. By RNA pulldown experiments followed by MALDI/TOF-MS analysis, we identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP)-A2/B1 and hnRNP-R as interactors binding directly to the ASCL1 mRNA 5'- and 3'-UTRs and influencing its expression. We further demonstrate that hnRNP-A2/B1 is a key positive regulator of ASCL1, findings that were also confirmed by analysis of a large compilation of gene expression data. Our data suggest that a prominent down-regulation of hnRNP-A2/B1 during hypoxia is associated with the post-transcriptional suppression of hASH1 synthesis. This novel post-transcriptional mechanism for regulating hASH1 levels will have important implications in neural cell fate development and disease.

Barceló C, Etchin J, Mansour MR, et al.
Ribonucleoprotein HNRNPA2B1 interacts with and regulates oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells.
Gastroenterology. 2014; 147(4):882-892.e8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) involves activation of c-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma oncogene homolog (KRAS) signaling, but little is known about the roles of proteins that regulate the activity of oncogenic KRAS. We investigated the activities of proteins that interact with KRAS in PDAC cells.
METHODS: We used mass spectrometry to demonstrate that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (HNRNP) A2 and B1 (encoded by the gene HNRNPA2B1) interact with KRAS G12V. We used co-immunoprecipitation analyses to study interactions between HNRNPA2B1 and KRAS in KRAS-dependent and KRAS-independent PDAC cell lines. We knocked down HNRNPA2B1 using small hairpin RNAs and measured viability, anchorage-independent proliferation, and growth of xenograft tumors in mice. We studied KRAS phosphorylation using the Phos-tag system.
RESULTS: We found that interactions between HRNPA2B1 and KRAS correlated with KRAS-dependency of some human PDAC cell lines. Knock down of HNRNPA2B1 significantly reduced viability, anchorage-independent proliferation, and formation of xenograft tumors by KRAS-dependent PDAC cells. HNRNPA2B1 knock down also increased apoptosis of KRAS-dependent PDAC cells, inactivated c-akt murine thymoma oncogene homolog 1 signaling via mammalian target of rapamycin, and reduced interaction between KRAS and phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase. Interaction between HNRNPA2B1 and KRAS required KRAS phosphorylation at serine 181.
CONCLUSIONS: In KRAS-dependent PDAC cell lines, HNRNPA2B1 interacts with and regulates the activity of KRAS G12V and G12D. HNRNPA2B1 is required for KRAS activation of c-akt murine thymoma oncogene homolog 1-mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, interaction with phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase, and PDAC cell survival and tumor formation in mice. HNRNPA2B1 might be a target for treatment of pancreatic cancer.

Stockley J, Villasevil ME, Nixon C, et al.
The RNA-binding protein hnRNPA2 regulates β-catenin protein expression and is overexpressed in prostate cancer.
RNA Biol. 2014; 11(6):755-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: The RNA-binding protein hnRNPA2 (HNRNPA2B1) is upregulated in cancer, where it controls alternative pre-mRNA splicing of cancer-relevant genes. Cytoplasmic hnRNPA2 is reported in aggressive cancers, but is functionally uncharacterized. We explored the role of hnRNPA2 in prostate cancer (PCa).
METHODS: hnRNPA2 function/localization/expression in PCa was determined using biochemical approaches (colony forming/proliferation/luciferase reporter assays/flow cytometry/immunohistocytochemistry). Binding of hnRNPA2 within cancer-relevant 3'-UTR mRNAs was identified by bioinformatics.
RESULTS: RNAi-mediated knockdown of hnRNPA2 reduced colony forming and proliferation, while hnRNPA2 overexpression increased proliferation of PCa cells. Nuclear hnRNPA2 is overexpressed in high-grade clinical PCa, and is also observed in the cytoplasm in some cases. Ectopic expression of a predominantly cytoplasmic variant hnRNPA2-ΔRGG also increased PCa cell proliferation, suggesting that cytoplasmic hnRNPA2 may also be functionally relevant in PCa. Consistent with its known cytoplasmic roles, hnRNPA2 was associated with 3'-UTR mRNAs of several cancer-relevant mRNAs including β-catenin (CTNNB1). Both wild-type hnRNPA2 and hnRNPA2-ΔRGG act on CTNNB1 3'-UTR mRNA, increasing endogenous CTNNB1 mRNA expression and β-catenin protein expression and nuclear localization.
CONCLUSION: Nuclear and cytoplasmic hnRNPA2 are present in PCa and appear to be functionally important. Cytoplasmic hnRNPA2 may affect the cancer cell phenotype through 3'-UTR mRNA-mediated regulation of β-catenin expression and other cancer-relevant genes.

Zuccotti P, Colombrita C, Moncini S, et al.
hnRNPA2/B1 and nELAV proteins bind to a specific U-rich element in CDK5R1 3'-UTR and oppositely regulate its expression.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(6):506-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 regulatory subunit 1 (CDK5R1) encodes p35, a specific activator of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5). CDK5 and p35 have a fundamental role in neuronal migration and differentiation during CNS development. Both the CDK5R1 3'-UTR's remarkable size and its conservation during evolution strongly indicate an important role in post-transcriptional regulation. We previously validated different regulatory elements in the 3'-UTR of CDK5R1, which affect transcript stability, p35 levels and cellular migration through the binding with nELAV proteins and miR-103/7 miRNAs. Interestingly, a 138 bp-long region, named C2.1, was identified as the most mRNA destabilizing portion within CDK5R1 3'-UTR. This feature was maintained by a shorter region of 73 bp, characterized by two poly-U stretches. UV-CL experiments showed that this region interacts with protein factors. UV-CLIP assays and pull-down experiments followed by mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that nELAV and hnRNPA2/B1 proteins bind to the same U-rich element. These RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) were shown to oppositely control CDK5R1 mRNA stability and p35 protein content at post-trascriptional level. While nELAV proteins have a positive regulatory effect, hnRNPA2/B1 has a negative action that is responsible for the mRNA destabilizing activity both of the C2.1 region and of the full-length 3'-UTR. In co-expression experiments of hnRNPA2/B1 and nELAV RBPs we observed an overall decrease of p35 content. We also demonstrated that hnRNPA2/B1 can downregulate nELAV protein content but not vice versa. This study, by providing new insights on the combined action of different regulatory factors, contributes to clarify the complex post-transcriptional control of CDK5R1 gene expression.

Han J, Tang FM, Pu D, et al.
Mechanisms underlying regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis by hnRNP B1 in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.
Tumori. 2014 Jan-Feb; 100(1):102-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 (hnRNP B1), a nuclear RNA binding protein, has been reported to occur in early-stage lung cancer and in premalignant lesions. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is known to be involved in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks. Reduced capacity to repair DNA has been associated with the risk of lung cancer.
METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We investigated a link between hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK and their effects on proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549.
RESULTS: We found that hnRNP B1 and DNA-PK interact with each other in a complex fashion. Reducing hnRNP B1 expression in A549 cells with the use of RNAi led to upregulation of p53 activity through upregulation of DNA-PK activity but without inducing p53 expression. Further, suppression of hnRNP B1 in A549 cells slowed cell proliferation, promoted apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 stage. The presence of NU7026 reduced the arrest of cells at the G1 stage and reduced the apoptosis rate while promoting cell growth.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results demonstrate that by regulating DNA-PK activity, hnRNP B1 can affect p53-mediated cell cycle progression and apoptosis, resulting in greater cell survival and subsequent proliferation.

Zhou ZJ, Dai Z, Zhou SL, et al.
HNRNPAB induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and promotes metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by transcriptionally activating SNAIL.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(10):2750-62 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein AB (HNRNPAB) has been reported to be dysregulated in tumors, but its specific contributions to tumor formation and progression are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that HNRNPAB is overexpressed in highly metastatic cells and tumor tissues from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with recurrence. We found that HNRNPAB overexpression promoted epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in a manner associated with HCC metastasis in vitro and in vivo. RNA interference-mediated silencing of the EMT factor SNAIL attenuated HNRNPAB-enhanced cell invasion in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, HNRNPAB acted to transactivate SNAIL1 transcription, which in turn inhibited transcription of the pivotal SNAIL target gene E-cadherin. Overexpression of HNRNPAB in HCC samples correlated with higher SNAIL levels, shorter overall survival, and higher tumor recurrence. HNRNPAB overexpression, alone or in combination with SNAIL, was found to be a significant independent risk factor for recurrence and survival after curative resection. In conclusion, our findings define HNRNPAB as an activator of EMT and metastasis in HCC that predicts poor clinical outcomes.

Liu J, Wu N, Ma L, et al.
Oleanolic acid suppresses aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells by switching pyruvate kinase type M isoforms.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91606 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Warburg effect, one of the hallmarks for cancer cells, is characterized by metabolic switch from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis. In recent years, increased expression level of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) has been found to be the culprit of enhanced aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells. However, there is no agent inhibiting aerobic glycolysis by targeting PKM2. In this study, we found that Oleanolic acid (OA) induced a switch from PKM2 to PKM1, and consistently, abrogated Warburg effect in cancer cells. Suppression of aerobic glycolysis by OA is mediated by PKM2/PKM1 switch. Furthermore, mTOR signaling was found to be inactivated in OA-treated cancer cells, and mTOR inhibition is required for the effect of OA on PKM2/PKM1 switch. Decreased expression of c-Myc-dependent hnRNPA1 and hnRNPA1 was responsible for OA-induced switch between PKM isoforms. Collectively, we identified that OA is an antitumor compound that suppresses aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells and there is potential that PKM2 may be developed as an important target in aerobic glycolysis pathway for developing novel anticancer agents.

Fujiya M, Konishi H, Mohamed Kamel MK, et al.
microRNA-18a induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via the autophagolysosomal degradation of oncogenic heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(40):4847-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is well known that microRNAs (miRs) are abnormally expressed in various cancers and target the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of cancer-associated genes. While (miRs) are abnormally expressed in various cancers, whether miRs directly target oncogenic proteins is unknown. The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of miR-18a on colon cancer progression, which was considered to be mediated through its direct binding and degradation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1). An MTT assay and xenograft model demonstrated that the transfection of miR-18a induced apoptosis in SW620 cells. A binding assay revealed direct binding between miR-18a and hnRNP A1 in the cytoplasm of SW620 cells, which inhibited the oncogenic functions of hnRNP A1. A competitor RNA, which included the complementary sequence of the region of the miR-18a-hnRNP A1 binding site, repressed the effects of miR-18a on the induction of cancer cell apoptosis. In vitro single and in vivo double isotope assays demonstrated that miR-18a induced the degradation of hnRNP A1. An immunocytochemical study of hnRNP A1 and LC3-II and the inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine and ATG7, p62 and BAG3 siRNA showed that miR-18a and hnRNP A1 formed a complex that was degraded through the autophagolysosomal pathway. This is the first report showing a novel function of a miR in the autophagolysosomal degradation of an oncogenic protein resulting from the creation of a complex consisting of the miR and a RNA-binding protein, which suppressed cancer progression.

Guha M, Avadhani NG
Mitochondrial retrograde signaling at the crossroads of tumor bioenergetics, genetics and epigenetics.
Mitochondrion. 2013; 13(6):577-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mitochondria play a central role not only in energy production but also in the integration of metabolic pathways as well as signals for apoptosis and autophagy. It is becoming increasingly apparent that mitochondria in mammalian cells play critical roles in the initiation and propagation of various signaling cascades. In particular, mitochondrial metabolic and respiratory states and status on mitochondrial genetic instability are communicated to the nucleus as an adaptive response through retrograde signaling. Each mammalian cell contains multiple copies of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). A reduction in mtDNA copy number has been reported in various human pathological conditions such as diabetes, obesity, neurodegenerative disorders, aging and cancer. Reduction in mtDNA copy number disrupts mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) resulting in dysfunctional mitochondria. Dysfunctional mitochondria trigger retrograde signaling and communicate their changing metabolic and functional state to the nucleus as an adaptive response resulting in an altered nuclear gene expression profile and altered cell physiology and morphology. In this review, we provide an overview of the various modes of mitochondrial retrograde signaling focusing particularly on the Ca(2+)/Calcineurin mediated retrograde signaling. We discuss the contribution of the key factors of the pathway such as Calcineurin, IGF1 receptor, Akt kinase and HnRNPA2 in the propagation of signaling and their role in modulating genetic and epigenetic changes favoring cellular reprogramming towards tumorigenesis.

Pacurari M, Addison JB, Bondalapati N, et al.
The microRNA-200 family targets multiple non-small cell lung cancer prognostic markers in H1299 cells and BEAS-2B cells.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(2):548-60 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality for both men and women. Tumor recurrence and metastasis is the major cause of lung cancer treatment failure and death. The microRNA‑200 (miR-200) family is a powerful regulator of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process, which is essential in tumor metastasis. Nevertheless, miR-200 family target genes that promote metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain largely unknown. Here, we sought to investigate whether the microRNA-200 family regulates our previously identified NSCLC prognostic marker genes associated with metastasis, as potential molecular targets. Novel miRNA targets were predicted using bioinformatics tools based on correlation analyses of miRNA and mRNA expression in 57 squamous cell lung cancer tumor samples. The predicted target genes were validated with quantitative RT-PCR assays and western blot analysis following re-expression of miR-200a, -200b and -200c in the metastatic NSCLC H1299 cell line. The results show that restoring miR-200a or miR-200c in H1299 cells induces downregulation of DLC1, ATRX and HFE. Reinforced miR-200b expression results in downregulation of DLC1, HNRNPA3 and HFE. Additionally, miR-200 family downregulates HNRNPR3, HFE and ATRX in BEAS-2B immortalized lung epithelial cells in quantitative RT-PCR and western blot assays. The miR-200 family and these potential targets are functionally involved in canonical pathways of immune response, molecular mechanisms of cancer, metastasis signaling, cell-cell communication, proliferation and DNA repair in Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA). These results indicate that re-expression of miR-200 downregulates our previously identified NSCLC prognostic biomarkers in metastatic NSCLC cells. These results provide new insights into miR-200 regulation in lung cancer metastasis and consequent clinical outcome, and may provide a potential basis for innovative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this deadly disease.

Babic I, Anderson ES, Tanaka K, et al.
EGFR mutation-induced alternative splicing of Max contributes to growth of glycolytic tumors in brain cancer.
Cell Metab. 2013; 17(6):1000-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Alternative splicing contributes to diverse aspects of cancer pathogenesis including altered cellular metabolism, but the specificity of the process or its consequences are not well understood. We characterized genome-wide alternative splicing induced by the activating EGFRvIII mutation in glioblastoma (GBM). EGFRvIII upregulates the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1 splicing factor, promoting glycolytic gene expression and conferring significantly shorter survival in patients. HnRNPA1 promotes splicing of a transcript encoding the Myc-interacting partner Max, generating Delta Max, an enhancer of Myc-dependent transformation. Delta Max, but not full-length Max, rescues Myc-dependent glycolytic gene expression upon induced EGFRvIII loss, and correlates with hnRNPA1 expression and downstream Myc-dependent gene transcription in patients. Finally, Delta Max is shown to promote glioma cell proliferation in vitro and augment EGFRvIII expressing GBM growth in vivo. These results demonstrate an important role for alternative splicing in GBM and identify Delta Max as a mediator of Myc-dependent tumor cell metabolism.

Guo R, Li Y, Ning J, et al.
HnRNP A1/A2 and SF2/ASF regulate alternative splicing of interferon regulatory factor-3 and affect immunomodulatory functions in human non-small cell lung cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e62729 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticule A1/A2 (hnRNP A1/A2) and splicing factor 2/alternative splicing factor (SF2/ASF) are pivotal for precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) splicing. Interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) plays critical roles in host defense against viral and microbial infection. Truncated IRF-3 proteins resulting from alternative splicing have been identified and characterized as functional antagonists to full-length IRF-3. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism for splicing regulation of IRF-3 pre-mRNA and first reported the regulatory effect of hnRNP A1/A2 and SF2/ASF on IRF-3 splicing and activation. RNA interference-mediated depletion of hnRNP A1/A2 or SF2/ASF in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells increased exclusion of exons 2 and 3 of IRF-3 gene and reduced expression levels of IRF-3 protein and IRF-3 downstream effector molecules interferon-beta and CXCL10/IP-10. In addition, direct binding of hnRNP A1 and SF2/ASF to specific binding motifs in IRF-3 intron 1 was confirmed by RNA electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Subsequent minigene splicing assay showed that IRF-3 minigenes with mutated hnRNPA 1/A2 or SF2/ASF binding motifs increased exclusion of exons 2 and 3. Moreover, knockdown of hnRNP A1/A2 or SF2/ASF in NSCLC cells reinforced phytohemagglutinin-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha release by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) but suppressed that of interleukin-10 in NSCLC/PBMC co-cultures. Taken together, our results suggest that specific knockdown for hnRNP A1/A2 or SF2/ASF increase exclusion of exons 2 and 3 of IRF-3 pre-mRNA and influence immunomodulatory functions of human NSCLC cells.

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