Gene Summary

Gene:HNRNPA2B1; heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1
Summary:This gene belongs to the A/B subfamily of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs). The hnRNPs are RNA binding proteins and they complex with heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA). These proteins are associated with pre-mRNAs in the nucleus and appear to influence pre-mRNA processing and other aspects of mRNA metabolism and transport. While all of the hnRNPs are present in the nucleus, some seem to shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The hnRNP proteins have distinct nucleic acid binding properties. The protein encoded by this gene has two repeats of quasi-RRM domains that bind to RNAs. This gene has been described to generate two alternatively spliced transcript variants which encode different isoforms. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transfection
  • Gene Knockdown Techniques
  • RNA Interference
  • Serine-Arginine Splicing Factors
  • Breast Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Base Sequence
  • Exons
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • 3' Untranslated Regions
  • Apoptosis
  • Promoter Regions
  • Pyruvate Kinase
  • Repressor Proteins
  • von Hippel-Lindau Disease
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Binding Sites
  • Lung Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Protein Binding
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome 7
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Mutation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Proliferation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B
  • Alternative Splicing
  • Tripartite Motif-Containing Protein 28
  • Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein A1
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HNRNPA2B1 (cancer-related)

Wu Y, Yang X, Chen Z, et al.
Mol Cancer. 2019; 18(1):87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as critical players in cancer progression, but their functions in colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis have not been systematically clarified.
METHODS: lncRNA expression profiles in matched normal and CRC tissue were checked using microarray analysis. The biological roles of a novel lncRNA, namely RP11-138 J23.1 (RP11), in development of CRC were checked both in vitro and in vivo. Its association with clinical progression of CRC was further analyzed.
RESULTS: RP11 was highly expressed in CRC tissues, and its expression increased with CRC stage in patients. RP11 positively regulated the migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CRC cells in vitro and enhanced liver metastasis in vivo. Post-translational upregulation of Zeb1, an EMT-related transcription factor, was essential for RP11-induced cell dissemination. Mechanistically, the RP11/hnRNPA2B1/mRNA complex accelerated the mRNA degradation of two E3 ligases, Siah1 and Fbxo45, and subsequently prevented the proteasomal degradation of Zeb1. m

Carabet LA, Leblanc E, Lallous N, et al.
Computer-Aided Discovery of Small Molecules Targeting the RNA Splicing Activity of hnRNP A1 in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Molecules. 2019; 24(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1) is a versatile RNA-binding protein playing a critical role in alternative pre-mRNA splicing regulation in cancer. Emerging data have implicated hnRNP A1 as a central player in a splicing regulatory circuit involving its direct transcriptional control by c-Myc oncoprotein and the production of the constitutively active ligand-independent alternative splice variant of androgen receptor, AR-V7, which promotes castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). As there is an urgent need for effective CRPC drugs, targeting hnRNP A1 could, therefore, serve a dual purpose of preventing AR-V7 generation as well as reducing c-Myc transcriptional output. Herein, we report compound VPC-80051 as the first small molecule inhibitor of hnRNP A1 splicing activity discovered to date by using a computer-aided drug discovery approach. The inhibitor was developed to target the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of hnRNP A1. Further experimental evaluation demonstrated that VPC-80051 interacts directly with hnRNP A1 RBD and reduces AR-V7 messenger levels in 22Rv1 CRPC cell line. This study lays the groundwork for future structure-based development of more potent and selective small molecule inhibitors of hnRNP A1⁻RNA interactions aimed at altering the production of cancer-specific alternative splice isoforms.

Ke RS, Zhang K, Lv LZ, et al.
Prognostic value and oncogene function of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 overexpression in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2019; 129:140-151 [PubMed] Related Publications
Previous study has shown heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1(HNRNPA1) is highly expressed in various human cancers. In order to study the clinical value and potential function of HNRNPA1 in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), three datasets from the GEPIA, GEO and TCGA were analyzed. HNRNPA1 expression was found to be significantly higher in HBV-positive HCC samples, which was supported with IHC validation. Both GO and KEGG analyses demonstrated that HNRNPA1 co-expressed genes were involved in translation, ribonucleoprotein complex biogenesis and assembly, ribosome biogenesis, RNA processing, RNA splicing, etc. Survival analysis showed a significant reduction in overall survival of patients with high HNRNPA1 expression from both the GSE14520 cohort and 151 patients with HBV-related HCC cohort. Furthermore, Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that HNRNPA1 may regulate HCC progression by influencing the cell cycle and WNT signaling pathway, etc. HNRNPA1 overexpression has diagnostic value in distinguishing between HCC and non-HCC liver tissue (AUC = 0.730). Finally, HNRNPA1 was a directly target gene of miR-22 manifested by the reduced luciferase activity and decreased HNRNPA1 expression in the cells with overexpression of miR-22. HNRNPA1 might function as an oncogene through the EGFR signaling pathway in HBV-related HCC, which has not been reported in previous studies.

Zhao X, Reebye V, Hitchen P, et al.
Mechanisms involved in the activation of C/EBPα by small activating RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(18):3446-3457 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is generally accompanied by high mortality and low cure rate. CCAAT enhancer-binding proteins (CEBPs) are transcriptional regulators that play a key role in maintaining liver function. Altered expression of C/EBPα and C/EBPβ occurs in many tumours including HCC. saRNAs are small double-stranded RNAs that enhance target gene expression at the transcriptional level. In this report, we activate CEPBA with saRNAs and suppress CEBPB with siRNAs in cells that represent three different degrees of HCC. We performed functional assays to investigate the effects of enhancing C/EBPα and its downstream targets, p21 and albumin across these lines. We also used Mass-spectrometry (MS) subsequent to a ChIP pull-down assay to characterise the components of the protein complex involved in regulating saRNA function. Putative saRNA interacting protein candidates that were identified by MS were knocked-down with siRNAs to investigate its impact on saRNA activity. We confirmed CEBPA-saRNA decreased proliferation and migration in the differentiated lines (HepG3/Hep3B). The undifferentiated line (PLCPRF5) showed saRNA-induced increase in CEBPA but with no loss in proliferation. This effect was reversed when CEBPB was suppressed with CEBPB-siRNA. When interrogating saRNA mode of action; three saRNA interacting proteins, CTR9, HnRNPA2/B1 and DDX5 were identified by MS. Targeted knock-down of these two proteins (by siRNA) abrogated saRNA activity. This study provides insight into how different HCC lines are affected by CEBPA-saRNAs and that endogenous abundance of CEBPB and saRNA accessory proteins may dictate efficacy of CEBPA-saRNA when used in a therapeutic context.

Lei Y, Guo W, Chen B, et al.
Tumor‑released lncRNA H19 promotes gefitinib resistance via packaging into exosomes in non‑small cell lung cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(6):3438-3446 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Currently, resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib, has become one major obstacle for improving the clinical outcome of patients with metastatic and advanced‑stage non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While cell behavior can be modulated by long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs), the contributions of lncRNAs within extracellular vesicles (exosomes) are largely unknown. To this end, the involvement and regulatory functions of lncRNA H19 wrapped by exosomes during formation of gefitinib resistance in human NSCLC were investigated. Gefitinib‑resistant cell lines were built by continuously grafting HCC827 and HCC4006 cells into gefitinib‑contained culture medium. RT‑qPCR assays indicated that H19 was increased in gefitinib‑resistant cells when compared to sensitive parent cells. Functional experiments revealed that silencing of H19 potently promoted gefitinib‑induced cell cytotoxicity. H19 was secreted by packaging into exosomes and this packaging process was specifically mediated by hnRNPA2B1. H19 wrapped in exosomes could be transferred to non‑resistant cells, thus inducing gefitinib resistance. Moreover, treatment‑sensitive cells with exosomes highly‑expressing H19 induced gefitinib resistance, while knockdown of H19 abrogated this effect. In conclusion, H19 promoted gefitinib resistance of NSCLC cells by packaging into exosomes. Therefore, exosomal H19 may be a promising therapeutic target for EGFR+ NSCLC patients.

Black KL, Naqvi AS, Asnani M, et al.
Aberrant splicing in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(21):11357-11369 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aberrant splicing is a hallmark of leukemias with mutations in splicing factor (SF)-encoding genes. Here we investigated its prevalence in pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (B-ALL), where SFs are not mutated. By comparing these samples to normal pro-B cells, we found thousands of aberrant local splice variations (LSVs) per sample, with 279 LSVs in 241 genes present in every comparison. These genes were enriched in RNA processing pathways and encoded ∼100 SFs, e.g. hnRNPA1. HNRNPA1 3'UTR was most pervasively mis-spliced, yielding the transcript subject to nonsense-mediated decay. To mimic this event, we knocked it down in B-lymphoblastoid cells and identified 213 hnRNPA1-regulated exon usage events comprising the hnRNPA1 splicing signature in pediatric leukemia. Some of its elements were LSVs in DICER1 and NT5C2, known cancer drivers. We searched for LSVs in other leukemia and lymphoma drivers and discovered 81 LSVs in 41 additional genes. Seventy-seven LSVs out of 81 were confirmed using two large independent B-ALL RNA-seq datasets, and the twenty most common B-ALL drivers, including NT5C2, showed higher prevalence of aberrant splicing than of somatic mutations. Thus, post-transcriptional deregulation of SF can drive widespread changes in B-ALL splicing and likely contributes to disease pathogenesis.

Yang J, Chen Y, Lu J, et al.
Identification and characterization of novel fusion genes in prostate cancer by targeted RNA capture and next-generation sequencing.
Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2018; 50(11):1166-1172 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene fusions play critical roles in the development and progression of prostate cancer, and have been used as molecular biomarkers for diagnosis of the malignant disease. To further explore the novel fusions in prostate cancer, we performed targeted RNA capture and next-generation sequencing in a cohort of 52 prostate cancer patients, identified and validated 14 fusion events (7 types of fusion genes) in 12 cases, including three novel fusion genes. We characterized a chromosome rearrangement-induced trigenic KLK2-DGKB-ETV1 fusion, which may function as a non-coding RNA to upregulate the expression of the wild-type ETV1 protein in the tumor tissue. Additionally, we detected two novel fusion forms of HNRNPA2B1-ETV1 and SLC45A2-AMACR fusions, respectively. Interestingly, fusion events participated by kinase genes, which frequently occurred in other human cancers, were not present in these prostate cancer cases, suggesting discrepant gene fusion patterns in different cancers. These findings expand the genetic spectrum of prostate cancer and provide insight into diagnosis of this prevalent disease.

Kuranaga Y, Sugito N, Shinohara H, et al.
SRSF3, a Splicer of the PKM Gene, Regulates Cell Growth and Maintenance of Cancer-Specific Energy Metabolism in Colon Cancer Cells.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Serine and arginine rich splicing factor 3 (SRSF3), an SR-rich family protein, has an oncogenic function in various kinds of cancer. However, the detailed mechanism of the function had not been previously clarified. Here, we showed that the SRSF3 splicer regulated the expression profile of the pyruvate kinase, which is one of the rate-limiting enzymes in glycolysis. Most cancer cells express pyruvate kinase muscle 2 (PKM2) dominantly to maintain a glycolysis-dominant energy metabolism. Overexpression of SRSF3, as well as that of another splicer, polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTBP1) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1), in clinical cancer samples supported the notion that these proteins decreased the Pyruvate kinase muscle 1 (PKM1)/PKM2 ratio, which positively contributed to a glycolysis-dominant metabolism. The silencing of

Liang Y, Tebaldi T, Rejeski K, et al.
SRSF2 mutations drive oncogenesis by activating a global program of aberrant alternative splicing in hematopoietic cells.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(12):2659-2671 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recurrent mutations in the splicing factor SRSF2 are associated with poor clinical outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Their high frequency suggests these mutations drive oncogenesis, yet the molecular explanation for this process is unclear. SRSF2 mutations could directly affect pre-mRNA splicing of a vital gene product; alternatively, a whole network of gene products could be affected. Here we determine how SRSF2 mutations globally affect RNA binding and splicing in vivo using HITS-CLIP. Remarkably, the majority of differential binding events do not translate into alternative splicing of exons with SRSF2

Wang H, Liang L, Dong Q, et al.
Long noncoding RNA miR503HG, a prognostic indicator, inhibits tumor metastasis by regulating the HNRNPA2B1/NF-κB pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Theranostics. 2018; 8(10):2814-2829 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying molecular mechanisms of their specific association with hepatocarcinogenesis have not been fully explored.

Chen Y, Liu J, Wang W, et al.
High expression of hnRNPA1 promotes cell invasion by inducing EMT in gastric cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(4):1693-1701 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Advanced gastric cancer (GC) has a poor prognosis and its treatment strategies are not very efficient. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNPA1) has emerged as a plausible GC marker, however the role and molecular mechanism of hnRNPA1 in cell invasion and migration remains unknown. In the present study, the gene expression across normal and tumor tissue (GENT) database was used to evaluate the mRNA expression of hnRNPA1 in various types of cancer. Western blot analysis (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed to detect the protein expression of hnRNPA1 in GC tissues and adjacent non‑tumor tissues. The expression of multiple oncogenes was detected by western blot analysis and quantitative RT‑PCR in hnRNPA1 overexpressing GC cells. Soft agar colony formation, EdU incorporation, wound healing and invasion assays were applied to verify the role of hnRNPA1 in anchorage‑independent cell growth, migration and invasion in GC cells. Epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were detected by immunofluorescence, western blot analysis and IHC in vitro. A nude mice model of metastasis carcinoma was established to confirm the role of hnRNPA1 during EMT in vivo. Our results revealed that hnRNPA1 was significantly upregulated in GC tissue. HnRNPA1 overexpression significantly induced cell growth, migration and invasion ability in GC cells. In addition, hnRNPA1 promoted EMT of GC cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings indicated that hnRNPA1 is highly expressed in GC and promoted invasion by inducing EMT transition in GC cells. Thus, hnRNPA1 may be a potential therapeutic target for GC.

Huang JZ, Chen M, Chen, et al.
A Peptide Encoded by a Putative lncRNA HOXB-AS3 Suppresses Colon Cancer Growth.
Mol Cell. 2017; 68(1):171-184.e6 [PubMed] Related Publications
A substantial fraction of eukaryotic transcripts are considered long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), which regulate various hallmarks of cancer. Here, we discovered that the lncRNA HOXB-AS3 encodes a conserved 53-aa peptide. The HOXB-AS3 peptide, not lncRNA, suppresses colon cancer (CRC) growth. Mechanistically, the HOXB-AS3 peptide competitively binds to the ariginine residues in RGG motif of hnRNP A1 and antagonizes the hnRNP A1-mediated regulation of pyruvate kinase M (PKM) splicing by blocking the binding of the ariginine residues in RGG motif of hnRNP A1 to the sequences flanking PKM exon 9, ensuring the formation of lower PKM2 and suppressing glucose metabolism reprogramming. CRC patients with low levels of HOXB-AS3 peptide have poorer prognoses. Our study indicates that the loss of HOXB-AS3 peptide is a critical oncogenic event in CRC metabolic reprogramming. Our findings uncover a complex regulatory mechanism of cancer metabolism reprogramming orchestrated by a peptide encoded by an lncRNA.

Janke AM, Seo DH, Rahmanian V, et al.
Lysines in the RNA Polymerase II C-Terminal Domain Contribute to TAF15 Fibril Recruitment.
Biochemistry. 2018; 57(17):2549-2563 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Many cancer-causing chromosomal translocations result in transactivating protein products encoding FET family (FUS, EWSR1, TAF15) low-complexity (LC) domains fused to a DNA binding domain from one of several transcription factors. Recent work demonstrates that higher-order assemblies of FET LC domains bind the carboxy-terminal domain of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II CTD), suggesting FET oncoproteins may mediate aberrant transcriptional activation by recruiting RNA polymerase II to promoters of target genes. Here we use nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and hydrogel fluorescence microscopy localization and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching to visualize atomic details of a model of this process, interactions of RNA pol II CTD with high-molecular weight TAF15 LC assemblies. We report NMR resonance assignments of the intact degenerate repeat half of human RNA pol II CTD alone and verify its predominant intrinsic disorder by molecular simulation. By measuring NMR spin relaxation and dark-state exchange saturation transfer, we characterize the interaction of RNA pol II CTD with amyloid-like hydrogel fibrils of TAF15 and hnRNP A2 LC domains and observe that heptads far from the acidic C-terminal tail of RNA pol II CTD bind TAF15 fibrils most avidly. Mutation of CTD lysines in heptad position 7 to consensus serines reduced the overall level of TAF15 fibril binding, suggesting that electrostatic interactions contribute to complex formation. Conversely, mutations of position 7 asparagine residues and truncation of the acidic tail had little effect. Thus, weak, multivalent interactions between TAF15 fibrils and heptads throughout RNA pol II CTD collectively mediate complex formation.

Flodrova D, Toporova L, Lastovickova M, et al.
Consequences of the natural retinoid/retinoid X receptor ligands action in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell line: Focus on functional proteomics.
Toxicol Lett. 2017; 281:26-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The main intention of this study was the investigation of impact of natural biologically active ligands of nuclear retinoid/retinoid X receptors (all-trans and 9-cis retinoic acid) on proteomic pattern in human estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. For this purpose, proteomic strategies based on bottom-up method were applied. The total cell proteins were extracted utilizing a commercially Radio-Immunoprecipitation Assay (RIPA) buffer and separated on 2D sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D SDS-PAGE). The proteins were subsequently digested in-gel by trypsin and their characterization was achieved by MALDI-TOF/TOF. By employing PDQuest™ software, we identified more than 50 proteins affected by retinoic acid isomers. For more information, 9 proteins which are associated with tumor process were selected. We determined that derivatives of retinoic acid led to significantly reduced level of proteins belonging to metabolic pathway (e.g. glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase or pyruvate kinase 2) or to other cellular processes as apoptosis, regulation of transcription process or epithelial-mesenchymal transition (e.g. annexins, nucleoside diphosphate kinase B, vimentin). On the other hand all-trans retinoic acid treatment indicates up-regulated effect for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1.

Hung CY, Wang YC, Chuang JY, et al.
Nm23-H1-stabilized hnRNPA2/B1 promotes internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated translation of Sp1 in the lung cancer progression.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):9166 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our recent studies have indicated that specificity protein-1 (Sp1) accumulates substantially in the early stage of lung cancer but is partially decreased in the late stages, which is an important factor in the progression of the cancer. In this study, we found that Nm23-H1 and hnRNPA2/B1 could be recruited to the 5'UTR of Sp1 mRNA. In investigating the clinical relevance of Nm23-H1/Sp1 levels, we found a positive correlation between lung cancer patients with poor prognosis and low levels of Sp1 and Nm23-H1, suggesting an association between Nm23-H1/Sp1 levels and survival rate. Knockdown of Nm23-H1 inhibits lung cancer growth but increases lung cancer cell malignancy, which could be rescued by overexpression of Sp1, indicating that Nm23-H1-induced Sp1 expression is critical for lung cancer progression. We also found that Nm23-H1 increases the protein stability of hnRNPA2/B1and is thereby co-recruited to the 5'UTR of Sp1 mRNA to regulate cap-independent translational activity. Since the Sp1 level is tightly regulated during lung cancer progression, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation by Nm23-H1/hnRNPA2B1 of Sp1 expression in the various stages of lung cancer will be beneficial for lung cancer therapy in the future.

Roy R, Huang Y, Seckl MJ, Pardo OE
Emerging roles of hnRNPA1 in modulating malignant transformation.
Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2017; 8(6) [PubMed] Related Publications
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are RNA-binding proteins associated with complex and diverse biological processes such as processing of heterogeneous nuclear RNAs (hnRNAs) into mature mRNAs, RNA splicing, transactivation of gene expression, and modulation of protein translation. hnRNPA1 is the most abundant and ubiquitously expressed member of this protein family and has been shown to be involved in multiple molecular events driving malignant transformation. In addition to selective mRNA splicing events promoting expression of specific protein variants, hnRNPA1 regulates the gene expression and translation of several key players associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Here, we will summarize our current knowledge of the involvement of hnRNPA1 in cancer, including its roles in regulating cell proliferation, invasiveness, metabolism, adaptation to stress and immortalization. WIREs RNA 2017, 8:e1431. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1431 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

Inamura K, Kobayashi M, Nagano H, et al.
A novel fusion of HNRNPA1-ALK in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of urinary bladder.
Hum Pathol. 2017; 69:96-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here, we report an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the urinary bladder with a novel HNRNPA1-ALK fusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a tumor with HNRNPA1-ALK fusion. A 42-year-old Japanese man underwent total cystectomy because of an invasive urinary bladder tumor. Grossly, the tumor had invaded the peribladder fat tissue. Histologically, it comprised spindle neoplastic cells with intermingled inflammatory cells. Immunohistochemically, it was positive for ALK, SMA, desmin, cytokeratin, and vimentin, consistent with the immunohistochemical characteristics of IMTs. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated an ALK split, and the presence of HNRNPA1-ALK was revealed by RNA sequencing. We identified a novel transcript fusion of exon 2 of HNRNPA1 and exon 18 of ALK, resulting in ALK protein overexpression. These findings provide useful information on the biology and tumorigenesis of IMTs, thus facilitating the development of molecular-targeted therapeutics.

Hu Y, Sun Z, Deng J, et al.
Splicing factor hnRNPA2B1 contributes to tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cells through STAT3 and ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(3):1010428317694318 [PubMed] Related Publications
Increasing evidence has indicated that the splicing factor hnRNPA2B1 plays a direct role in cancer development, progression, gene expression, and signal transduction. Previous studies have shown that knocking down hnRNPA2B1 in breast cancer cells induces apoptosis, but the mechanism and other functions of hnRNPA2B1 in breast cancer are unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the biological function, clinical significance, and mechanism of hnRNPA2B1 in breast cancer. The expression of hnRNPA2B1 in 92 breast cancer and adjacent normal tissue pairs was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining. Stable clones exhibiting knockdown of hnRNPA2B1 via small hairpin RNA expression were generated using RNA interference technology in breast cancer cell lines. The effects of hnRNPA2B1 on cell proliferation were examined by MTT and EdU assay, and cellular apoptosis and the cell cycle were examined by flow cytometry. A nude mouse xenograft model was established to elucidate the function of hnRNPA2B1 in tumorigenesis in vivo. The role of hnRNPA2B1 in signaling pathways was investigated in vitro. Our data revealed that hnRNPA2B1 was overexpressed in breast cancer tissue specimens and cell lines. Knockdown of hnRNPA2B1 reduced breast cancer cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and prolonged the S phase of the cell cycle in vitro. In addition, hnRNPA2B1 knockdown suppressed subcutaneous tumorigenicity in vivo. On a molecular level, hnRNPA2B1 knockdown decreased signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. We concluded that hnRNPA2B1 promotes the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, through the extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 or signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 pathway, which may serve as a target for future therapies.

Li L, Feng J, Chen Y, et al.
Estradiol shows anti-skin cancer activities through decreasing MDM2 expression.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(5):8459-8474 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Estradiol plays important roles in many biological responses inducing tumor genesis and cancer treatment. However, the effects of estradiol on tumors were inconsistent among a lot of researches and the mechanism is not fully understood. Our previous study indicated that splicing factor hnRNPA1 could bind to the human homologue of mouse double minute (MDM2), an oncogene which has been observed to be over-expressed in numerous types of cancers. In this research, we investigated whether and how estradiol correlate to cancer cell behaviors through heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNPA1) and MDM2. Results showed that 10×10-13Mestradiol elevated the expression of hnRNPA1 regardless ER expression in cells, and then down-regulated the expression of MDM2. At the same time, estradiol inhibited cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition progression of A375 and GLL19 cells. While, knocking down hnRNPA1 through the transfection of hnRNPA1 siRNA led to the increase of MDM2 at both protein level and gene level In vivo experiment, subcutaneous injection with estradiol every two days near the tumor at doses of 2.5mg/kg/d suppressed tumor growth and reduced MDM2 expression. In a word, via increasing hnRNPA1 level and then reducing the expression of MDM2, estradiol prevented carcinogenesis in melanomas. We confirmed therapeutic effect of estradiol, as well as a new way for estradiol to resist skin cancer.

Cogoi S, Rapozzi V, Cauci S, Xodo LE
Critical role of hnRNP A1 in activating KRAS transcription in pancreatic cancer cells: A molecular mechanism involving G4 DNA.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017; 1861(5 Pt B):1389-1398 [PubMed] Related Publications
KRAS is one of the most mutated genes in human cancer. Its crucial role in the tumourigenesis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been widely demonstrated. As this deadly cancer does not sufficiently respond to conventional chemotherapies, it is important to increase our knowledge of pancreatic cancer biology, in particular how oncogenic KRAS is regulated. The promoter of KRAS contains a GA-element composed of runs of guanines that fold into a G4 structure. This unusual DNA conformation is recognized by several nuclear proteins, including MAZ and hnRNP A1. Recent data have revealed that KRAS is interconnected to ILK and hnRNP A1 in a circuitry that enables pancreatic cancer cells to maintain an aggressive phenotype. The present review illustrates recent advances on how KRAS is regulated in pancreatic cancer cells, focusing on the formation of G4 structures in the KRAS promoter and their interaction with hnRNP A1. The newly discovered KRAS-ILK-hnRNP A1 regulatory loop is discussed, emphasizing its potential as a therapeutic target for PDAC-specific molecules. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "G-quadruplex" Guest Editor: Dr. Concetta Giancola and Dr. Daniela Montesarchio.

Liu Y, Yang H, Li L, et al.
A novel VHLα isoform inhibits Warburg effect via modulation of PKM splicing.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13649-13657 [PubMed] Related Publications
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is the most frequently mutated gene in clear cell renal carcinoma. Here, we identified a novel translational variant of VHL, termed VHLα, initiated from an alternative translational start site upstream and in frame with the ATG start codon. We showed that VHLα interacts with and regulates heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2B1 (hnRNPA2B1), which consequently modulates pyruvate kinase transcript splicing and reprograms cellular glucose metabolism. Our study demonstrated that a novel VHL isoform may function as a tumor suppressor through inhibiting the Warburg effect.

Park WC, Kim HR, Kang DB, et al.
Comparative expression patterns and diagnostic efficacies of SR splicing factors and HNRNPA1 in gastric and colorectal cancer.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:358 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Serine/arginine-rich splicing factors (SRSFs) and HNRNPA1 have oncogenic properties. However, their proteomic expressions and practical priority in gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are mostly unknown. To apply SFs in clinics, effective marker selection and characterization of properties in the target organ are essential.
METHODS: We concurrently analyzed SRSF1, 3, and 5-7, and HNRNPA1, together with the conventional tumor marker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), in stomach and colorectal tissue samples (n = 420) using semiquantitative immunoblot, subcellular fractionation, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction methods.
RESULTS: In the semiquantitative immunoblot analysis, HNRNPA1 and SRSF7 levels were significantly higher in GC than in gastric normal mucosa, and SRSF7 levels were higher in intestinal-type compared with diffuse-type of gastric adenocarcinoma. Of the SFs, only HNRNPA1 presented greater than 50 % upregulation (cancer/normal mucosa > 2-fold) incidences and CEA-comparable, acceptable (>70 %) detection accuracy (74 %) for GC. All SF protein levels were significantly higher in CRC than in colorectal normal mucosa, and HNRNPA1 levels were higher in low-stage CRC compared with high-stage CRC. Among the SFs, HNRNPA1 and SRSF3 presented the two highest upregulation incidences (88 % and 74 %, respectively) and detection accuracy (90 % and 84 %, respectively) for CRC. The detection accuracy of HNRNPA1 was comparable to that of CEA in low (≤ II)-stage CRC but was inferior to that of CEA in high (>II)-stage CRC. Extranuclear distributions of HNRNPA1 and SRSF6 (cytosol/microsome) differed from those of other SRSFs (membrane/organelle) in both cancers. In an analysis of the six SF mRNAs, all mRNAs presented unacceptable detection accuracies (≤70 %) in both cancers, and all mRNAs except SRSF6 were disproportionate to the corresponding protein levels in GC.
CONCLUSION: Our results provide a comprehensive insight into the six SF expression profiles in GC and indicate that, among the SFs, HNRNPA1, but not HNRNPA1 mRNA, is the most effective, novel GC marker. Regardless of the good to excellent detection accuracy of SRSF3 and HNRNPA1 in CRC, the SFs have lower practical priority than CEA, especially for high-stage CRC detection.

Singh R, Gupta SC, Peng WX, et al.
Regulation of alternative splicing of Bcl-x by BC200 contributes to breast cancer pathogenesis.
Cell Death Dis. 2016; 7(6):e2262 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BC200 is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that has been implicated in the regulation of protein synthesis, yet whether dysregulation of BC200 contributes to the pathogenesis of human diseases remains elusive. In this study, we show that BC200 is upregulated in breast cancer; among breast tumor specimens there is a higher level of BC200 in estrogen receptor (ER) positive than in ER-negative tumors. Further experiments show that activation of estrogen signaling induces expression of BC200. To determine the significance of ER-regulated BC200 expression, we knockout (KO) BC200 by CRISPR/Cas9. BC200 KO suppresses tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo by expression of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-xS isoform. Mechanistically, BC200 contains a 17-nucleotide sequence complementary to Bcl-x pre-mRNA, which may facilitate its binding to Bcl-x pre-mRNA and recruitment of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1, a known splicing factor. Consequently, hnRNP A2/B1 interferes with association of Bcl-x pre-mRNA with the Bcl-xS-promoting factor Sam68, leading to a blockade of Bcl-xS expression. Together, these results suggest that BC200 plays an oncogenic role in breast cancer. Thus, BC200 may serve as a prognostic marker and possible target for attenuating deregulated cell proliferation in estrogen-dependent breast cancer.

Mori F, Ferraiuolo M, Santoro R, et al.
Multitargeting activity of miR-24 inhibits long-term melatonin anticancer effects.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(15):20532-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have previously shown that melatonin exerts tumor suppressor activities by inducing the p38-p53 axis. This occurred within a few hours while no data are available on how melatonin pathway can be sustained on the long term. Here we show that miR-24, which has been demonstrated to target genes involved in the DNA repair process, targets p38, p53, PML and H2AX simultaneously. We show that long-term treatment with melatonin can decrease miR-24 levels post-transcriptionally, which pairs with a long-wave regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation, DNA damage, RNA metabolism and cell shape and transformation. Moreover, we show that melatonin can inhibit cell proliferation and migration, at least in part, by downregulating miR-24. Furthermore, we propose the involvement of hnRNP A1, which is downregulated by melatonin and involved in miRNA processing, in the regulation of miR-24 levels by melatonin. We conclude showing that miR-24 is upregulated in colon, breast and head and neck datasets and its levels negatively correlate with overall survival.

Cammas A, Lacroix-Triki M, Pierredon S, et al.
hnRNP A1-mediated translational regulation of the G quadruplex-containing RON receptor tyrosine kinase mRNA linked to tumor progression.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(13):16793-805 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The expression and role of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) controlling mRNA translation during tumor progression remains largely uncharacterized. Analysis by immunohistochemistry of the expression of hnRNP A1, hnRNPH, RBM9/FOX2, SRSF1/ASF/SF2, SRSF2/SC35, SRSF3/SRp20, SRSF7/9G8 in breast tumors shows that the expression of hnRNP A1, but not the other tested RBPs, is associated with metastatic relapse. Strikingly, hnRNP A1, a nuclear splicing regulator, is also present in the cytoplasm of tumor cells of a subset of patients displaying exceedingly worse prognosis. Expression of a cytoplasmic mutant of hnRNP A1 leads to increased translation of the mRNA encoding the tyrosine kinase receptor RON/MTS1R, known for its function in tumor dissemination, and increases cell migration in vitro. hnRNP A1 directly binds to the 5' untranslated region of the RON mRNA and activates its translation through G-quadruplex RNA secondary structures. The correlation between hnRNP A1 and RON tumoral expression suggests that these findings hold clinical relevance.

Chen CY, Jan CI, Pi WC, et al.
Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A1 and A2 modulate expression of Tid1 isoforms and EGFR signaling in non-small cell lung cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(13):16760-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Tid1 protein is a DnaJ co-chaperone that has two alternative splicing isoforms: Tid1 long form (Tid1-L) and Tid1 short form (Tid1-S). Recent studies have shown that Tid1-L functions as a tumor suppressor by decreasing EGFR signaling in various cancers, including head and neck cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for regulating the alternative splicing of Tid1 is not yet known. Two splicing factors, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) A1 and A2, participate in alternative splicing and are known to be overexpressed in lung cancers. In this work, we examined if hnRNP A1 and A2 could regulate the alternative splicing of Tid1 to modulate tumorigenesis in NSCLC. We report that RNAi-mediated depletion of both hnRNP A1/A2 (but not single depletion of either) increased Tid1-L expression, inhibited cell proliferation and attenuated EGFR signaling. Analyses of the expression levels of hnRNP A1, hnRNP A2, EGFR and Tid1-L in NSCLC tissues revealed that hnRNP A1 and A2 are positively correlated with EGFR, but negatively correlated with Tid1-L. NSCLC patients with high-level expression of hnRNP A1, hnRNP A2 and EGFR combined with low-level expression of Tid1-L were associated with poor overall survival. Taken together, our results suggest that hnRNP A1 or A2 are both capable of facilitating the alternative splicing of exon 11 in the Tid1 pre-mRNA, thereby suppressing the expression of Tid1-L and allowing EGFR-related signaling to facilitate NSCLC tumorigenesis.

Zhou B, Wang Y, Jiang J, et al.
The long noncoding RNA colon cancer-associated transcript-1/miR-490 axis regulates gastric cancer cell migration by targeting hnRNPA1.
IUBMB Life. 2016; 68(3):201-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colon cancer-associated transcript-1 (CCAT1) is a highly conserved long noncoding RNA that is deregulated in several cancers. However, its role in gastric carcinoma and its post-transcriptional regulation remain poorly understood. In this study, we provide the first evidence that CCAT1 regulates miR-490 in gastric cancer (GC) cells. Interestingly, miR-490 can also repress CCAT1 expression. CCAT1 expression was significantly upregulated, and miR-490 expression was downregulated in GC. The negative correlation between miR-490 and CCAT1 expression was observed in GC tissues. Importantly, CCAT1 contains a putative miR-490-binding site, and deletion of this binding site abolishes their miR-490 responsiveness. Post-transcriptional CCAT1 silencing by miR-490 significantly suppressed GC cell migration. Furthermore, miR-490 directly bound to the hnRNPA1 mRNA 3'-UTR to repress its translation. Inhibition of miR-490 rescued CCAT1 siRNA-mediated suppression of cell migration. hnRNPA1 expression was significantly upregulated in GC specimens, and there was a negative correlation between miR-490 and hnRNPA1 expression and also a positive correlation between hnRNAP1 expression level and CCAT1 level. Taken together, we show for the first time that the CCAT1/miR-490/hnRNPA1 axis promotes GC migration, and it may have a possible diagnostic and therapeutic potential in GC.

Dai P, Wang Q, Wang W, et al.
Unraveling Molecular Differences of Gastric Cancer by Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Analysis.
Int J Mol Sci. 2016; 17(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) has significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and especially in China. Its molecular pathogenesis has not been thoroughly elaborated. The acknowledged biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, recurrence monitoring and treatment are lacking. Proteins from matched pairs of human GC and adjacent tissues were analyzed by a coupled label-free Mass Spectrometry (MS) approach, followed by functional annotation with software analysis. Nano-LC-MS/MS, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry were used to validate dysregulated proteins. One hundred forty-six dysregulated proteins with more than twofold expressions were quantified, 22 of which were first reported to be relevant with GC. Most of them were involved in cancers and gastrointestinal disease. The expression of a panel of four upregulated nucleic acid binding proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein hnRNPA2B1, hnRNPD, hnRNPL and Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX-1) were validated by Nano-LC-MS/MS, qRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry assays in ten GC patients' tissues. They were located in the keynotes of a predicted interaction network and might play important roles in abnormal cell growth. The label-free quantitative proteomic approach provides a deeper understanding and novel insight into GC-related molecular changes and possible mechanisms. It also provides some potential biomarkers for clinical diagnosis.

Vad-Nielsen J, Jakobsen KR, Daugaard TF, et al.
Regulatory dissection of the CBX5 and hnRNPA1 bi-directional promoter in human breast cancer cells reveals novel transcript variants differentially associated with HP1α down-regulation in metastatic cells.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The three members of the human heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family of proteins, HP1α, HP1β, and HPγ, are involved in chromatin packing and epigenetic gene regulation. HP1α is encoded from the CBX5 gene and is a suppressor of metastasis. CBX5 is down-regulated at the transcriptional and protein level in metastatic compared to non-metastatic breast cancer. CBX5 shares a bi-directional promoter structure with the hnRNPA1 gene. But whereas CBX5 expression is down-regulated in metastatic cells, hnRNAP1 expression is constant. Here, we address the regulation of CBX5 in human breast cancer.
METHODS: Transient transfection and transposon mediated integration of dual-reporter mini-genes containing the bi-directional hnRNPA1 and CBX5 promoter was performed to investigate transcriptional regulation in breast cancer cell lines. Bioinformatics and functional analysis were performed to characterize transcriptional events specifically regulating CBX5 expression. TSA treatment and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were performed to investigate the chromatin structure along CBX5 in breast cancer cells. Finally, expression of hnRNPA1 and CBX5 mRNA isoforms were measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) in breast cancer tissue samples.
RESULTS: We demonstrate that an hnRNPA1 and CBX5 bi-directional core promoter fragment does not comprise intrinsic capacity for specific CBX5 down-regulation in metastatic cells. Characterization of transcriptional events in the 20 kb CBX5 intron 1 revealed existence of several novel CBX5 transcripts. Two of these encode consensus HP1α protein but used autonomous promoters in intron 1 by which HP1α expression could be de-coupled from the bi-directional promoter. In addition, another CBX5 transcriptional isoform, STET, was discovered. This transcript includes CBX5 exon 1 and part of intron 1 sequences but lacks inclusion of HP1α encoding exons. Inverse correlation between STET and HP1α coding CBX5 mRNA expression was observed in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples from breast cancer patients.
CONCLUSION: We find that HP1α is down-regulated in a mechanism involving CBX5 promoter downstream sequences and that regulation through alternative polyadenylation and splicing generates a transcript, STET, with potential importance in carcinogenesis.

Xuan Y, Wang J, Ban L, et al.
hnRNPA2/B1 activates cyclooxygenase-2 and promotes tumor growth in human lung cancers.
Mol Oncol. 2016; 10(4):610-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is highly expressed in tumor cells and has been regarded as a hallmarker for cancers, but the excise regulatory mechanism of COX-2 in tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. Here, we pulled down and identified a novel COX-2 regulator, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNPA2/B1), which could specifically bind to COX-2 core promoter and regulate tumor growth in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). Knockdown of hnRNPA2/B1 by shRNA or siRNA downregulated COX-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production, and suppressed tumor cell growth in NSCLC cells in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, overexpression of hnRNPA2/B1 up-regulated the levels of COX-2 and PGE2 and promoted tumor cell growth. We also showed that hnRNPA2/B1 expression was positively correlated with COX-2 expression in NSCLC cell lines and tumor tissues, and the up-regulated expression of hnRNPA2/B1 and COX-2 predicted worse prognosis in NSCLC patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the activation of COX-2 expression by hnRNPA2/B1 was mediated through the cooperation with p300, a transcriptional co-activator, in NSCLC cells. The hnRNPA2/B1 could interact with p300 directly and be acetylated by p300. Exogenous overexpression of p300, but not its histone acetyltransferase (HAT) domain deletion mutation, augmented the acetylation of hnRNPA2/B1 and enhanced its binding on COX-2 promoter, thereby promoted COX-2 expression and lung cancer cell growth. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hnRNPA2/B1 promotes tumor cell growth by activating COX-2 signaling in NSCLC cells and imply that the hnRNPA2/B1/COX-2 pathway may be a potential therapeutic target for human lung cancers.

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