IGFBP5

Gene Summary

Gene:IGFBP5; insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5
Aliases: IBP5
Location:2q35
Summary:-
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5
HPRD
Source:NCBIAccessed: 25 June, 2015

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (29)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 25 June 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cell Line
  • Disease Progression
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3
  • Apoptosis
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 5
  • Chromosome 2
  • Receptors, Progesterone
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • RTPCR
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Promoter Regions
  • Breast Cancer
  • Messenger RNA
  • Base Sequence
  • Somatomedins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Tumor Markers
  • Salivary Gland Cancer
  • Risk Factors
  • Down-Regulation
  • DNA Primers
  • Western Blotting
  • Gene Expression
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Cell Movement
  • Up-Regulation
Tag cloud generated 25 June, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IGFBP5 (cancer-related)

Liu L, Wang J, Li X, et al.
MiR-204-5p suppresses cell proliferation by inhibiting IGFBP5 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 457(4):621-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNAs (miRNAs) are frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. It was recently shown that miR-204-5p is downregulated in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC); however, the functional significance of this observation is not known. This study investigated the role of miR-204-5p in PTC. Overexpressing miR-204-5p suppressed PTC cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. The results of a luciferase reporter assay showed that miR-204-5p can directly bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mRNA, and IGFBP5 overexpression partially reversed the growth-inhibitory effects of miR-204-5p. These results indicate that miR-204-5p acts as a tumor suppressor in PTC by regulating IGFBP5 expression and that miR-204-5p can potentially serve as an antitumorigenic agent in the treatment of PTC.

Wang HJ, Gao Y, Chen L, et al.
RAB34 was a progression- and prognosis-associated biomarker in gliomas.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):1573-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The objective of this study is to explore the expression pattern, prognostic value, and functional role of RAB34 in gliomas. RAB34 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression was evaluated from low grade to high grade in 220 glioma patients of the Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA). We therefore analyzed RAB34 mRNA expression in two validated datasets. For detecting the protein expression level of RAB34, another 104 glioma tissues were stained by immunohistochemistry. Gene ontology (GO) analysis and gene set variation analysis (GSVA) were used for functional annotation of RAB34. The mRNA and protein expression levels of RAB34 were both related to glioma grade progression and were inversely correlated with overall survival (OS) in high-grade glioma patients. GO analysis and GSVA showed that RAB34 sets related to migration were significantly enriched in the cases with RAB34 high expression. Pearson correlation analysis identified that genes including MMP-11, HSPB1, IGFBP2, HSPA6, IGFBP5, and MMP19 were positively correlated with RAB34. The expression of RAB34 is related to glioma grade progression and confers a poor prognosis in high-grade glioma patients.

Ting DT, Wittner BS, Ligorio M, et al.
Single-cell RNA sequencing identifies extracellular matrix gene expression by pancreatic circulating tumor cells.
Cell Rep. 2014; 8(6):1905-18 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are shed from primary tumors into the bloodstream, mediating the hematogenous spread of cancer to distant organs. To define their composition, we compared genome-wide expression profiles of CTCs with matched primary tumors in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer, isolating individual CTCs using epitope-independent microfluidic capture, followed by single-cell RNA sequencing. CTCs clustered separately from primary tumors and tumor-derived cell lines, showing low-proliferative signatures, enrichment for the stem-cell-associated gene Aldh1a2, biphenotypic expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers, and expression of Igfbp5, a gene transcript enriched at the epithelial-stromal interface. Mouse as well as human pancreatic CTCs exhibit a very high expression of stromal-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, including SPARC, whose knockdown in cancer cells suppresses cell migration and invasiveness. The aberrant expression by CTCs of stromal ECM genes points to their contribution of microenvironmental signals for the spread of cancer to distant organs.

Reeves ME, Firek M, Chen ST, Amaar YG
Evidence that RASSF1C stimulation of lung cancer cell proliferation depends on IGFBP-5 and PIWIL1 expression levels.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(7):e101679 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
RASSF1C is a major isoform of the RASSF1 gene, and is emerging as an oncogene. This is in contradistinction to the RASSF1A isoform, which is an established tumor suppressor. We have previously shown that RASSF1C promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and have identified RASSF1C target genes with growth promoting functions. Here, we further report that RASSF1C promotes lung cancer cell migration and enhances lung cancer cell tumor sphere formation. We also show that RASSF1C over-expression reduces the inhibitory effects of the anti-cancer agent, betulinic acid (BA), on lung cancer cell proliferation. In previous work, we demonstrated that RASSF1C up-regulates piwil1 gene expression, which is a stem cell self-renewal gene that is over-expressed in several human cancers, including lung cancer. Here, we report on the effects of BA on piwil1 gene expression. Cells treated with BA show decreased piwil1 expression. Also, interaction of IGFBP-5 with RASSF1C appears to prevent RASSF1C from up-regulating PIWIL1 protein levels. These findings suggest that IGFBP-5 may be a negative modulator of RASSF1C/ PIWIL1 growth-promoting activities. In addition, we found that inhibition of the ATM-AMPK pathway up-regulates RASSF1C gene expression.

Zawadzka AM, Schilling B, Cusack MP, et al.
Phosphoprotein secretome of tumor cells as a source of candidates for breast cancer biomarkers in plasma.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014; 13(4):1034-49 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease whose molecular diversity is not well reflected in clinical and pathological markers used for prognosis and treatment selection. As tumor cells secrete proteins into the extracellular environment, some of these proteins reach circulation and could become suitable biomarkers for improving diagnosis or monitoring response to treatment. As many signaling pathways and interaction networks are altered in cancerous tissues by protein phosphorylation, changes in the secretory phosphoproteome of cancer tissues could reflect both disease progression and subtype. To test this hypothesis, we compared the phosphopeptide-enriched fractions obtained from proteins secreted into conditioned media (CM) derived from five luminal and five basal type breast cancer cell lines using label-free quantitative mass spectrometry. Altogether over 5000 phosphosites derived from 1756 phosphoproteins were identified, several of which have the potential to qualify as phosphopeptide plasma biomarker candidates for the more aggressive basal and also the luminal-type breast cancers. The analysis of phosphopeptides from breast cancer patient plasma and controls allowed us to construct a discovery list of phosphosites under rigorous collection conditions, and second to qualify discovery candidates generated from the CM studies. Indeed, a set of basal-specific phosphorylation CM site candidates derived from IBP3, CD44, OPN, FSTL3, LAMB1, and STC2, and luminal-specific candidates derived from CYTC and IBP5 were selected and, based on their presence in plasma, quantified across all cell line CM samples using Skyline MS1 intensity data. Together, this approach allowed us to assemble a set of novel cancer subtype specific phosphopeptide candidates for subsequent biomarker verification and clinical validation.

Sivanathan L, Chow A, Wong A, et al.
In vivo passage of human prostate cancer cells in mice results in stable gene expression changes affecting numerous cancer-associated biological processes.
Prostate. 2014; 74(5):537-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: While therapeutic resistance is difficult to model in vitro in its entirety, in vivo passage and re-derivation of treatment resistant prostate cancer cell variants is a strategy to study therapeutic resistance more comprehensively. However, the process of in vivo passage itself may result in gene expression changes that could confound the analysis of such resistant cell variants compared to their parental cell lines.
METHODS: We compared the expression profiles of parental PC-3 human prostate cancer cells and PC-3 cells re-derived after in vivo passage in athymic nude mice. Whole transcriptome information was obtained using the SOLiD 4 system (Applied Biosystems). Differentially expressed genes were mapped to genes in the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery for gene enrichment and functional annotation analysis. The expression of a panel of these genes was validated using quantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS: Altogether, 21,032 distinct transcripts were found in PC-3 and/or NS1.1. Of these, 906 were differentially regulated (≥2-fold) in NS1.1 versus PC-3. 337 transcripts were upregulated, and 569 were downregulated, including genes previously associated with various aspects of prostate carcinogenesis such as TLR4 and IGFBP5, respectively. Gene ontology analysis of the differentially expressed transcripts revealed enrichment for biological processes such as cell adhesion, migration, and angiogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: When using in vivo as opposed to in vitro derived prostate cancer cell variants for comparative genetic studies of complex traits such as therapeutic resistance, one may be better served to use similarly in vivo passaged control cell variants instead of parental cell lines.

Shi Z, Mirza M, Wang B, et al.
Osteopontin-a alters glucose homeostasis in anchorage-independent breast cancer cells.
Cancer Lett. 2014; 344(1):47-53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
Invasive breast tumor cells generate three splice variants of the metastasis gene osteopontin, while non-invasive breast cells express only the unspliced form or no osteopontin at all. One role for osteopontin in tumor progression is the support of anchorage-independence. Here we show that the full-length gene product, osteopontin-a, induces a gene expression profile that is associated with tissue remodeling and directed movement/sprouting. This occurs via signals through STAT1 and STAT3 to sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Osteopontin-a upregulates the levels of glucose in breast cancer cells, likely through STAT3 and its transcriptional targets apolipoprotein D and IGFBP5. The splice variants osteopontin-a and osteopontin-c may synergize, with each form activating signal transduction pathways that are distinct from the other. The elevated glucose is used by osteopontin-c dependent signals to generate chemical energy (Shi et al. submitted for publication). The splice variant-specific metabolic effects of osteopontin add a novel aspect to the pro-metastatic functions of this molecule.

Margue C, Philippidou D, Reinsbach SE, et al.
New target genes of MITF-induced microRNA-211 contribute to melanoma cell invasion.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e73473 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
The non-coding microRNAs (miRNA) have tissue- and disease-specific expression patterns. They down-regulate target mRNAs, which likely impacts on most fundamental cellular processes. Differential expression patterns of miRNAs are currently being exploited for identification of biomarkers for early disease diagnosis, prediction of progression for melanoma and other cancers and as promising drug targets, since they can easily be inhibited or replaced in a given cellular context. Before successfully manipulating miRNAs in clinical settings, their precise expression levels, endogenous functions and thus their target genes have to be determined. MiR-211, a melanocyte lineage-specific small non-coding miRNA, is located in an intron of TRPM1, a target gene of the microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). By transcriptionally up-regulating TRPM1, MITF, which is critical for both melanocyte differentiation and survival and for melanoma progression, indirectly drives the expression of miR-211. Expression of this miRNA is often reduced in melanoma samples. Here, we investigated functional roles of miR-211 by identifying and studying new target genes. We show that MITF-correlated miR-211 expression levels are mostly but not always reduced in a panel of 11 melanoma cell lines and in primary and metastatic melanoma compared to normal melanocytes and nevi, respectively. MiR-211 itself only marginally impacted on cell invasion and migration, while perturbation of some new miR-211 target genes, such as AP1S2, SOX11, IGFBP5, and SERINC3 significantly increased invasion. These results and the variable expression levels of miR-211 raise serious doubts on the value of miR-211 as a melanoma tumor-suppressing miRNA and/or as a biomarker for melanoma.

Luther GA, Lamplot J, Chen X, et al.
IGFBP5 domains exert distinct inhibitory effects on the tumorigenicity and metastasis of human osteosarcoma.
Cancer Lett. 2013; 336(1):222-30 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone. We investigated the roles of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) domains in modulating OS tumorigenicity and metastasis. The N-terminal (to a lesser extent the C-terminal) domain inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis while the C-terminal domain inhibited cell migration and invasion. The Linker domain had no independent effects. In vivo, the N-terminal domain decreased tumor growth without affecting pulmonary metastases while the C-terminal domain inhibited tumor growth and metastases. In summary, the N- and C-terminal domains modulated OS tumorigenic phenotypes while the C-terminal domain inhibited OS metastatic phenotypes.

Hu YL, Zhong D, Pang F, et al.
HNF1b is involved in prostate cancer risk via modulating androgenic hormone effects and coordination with other genes.
Genet Mol Res. 2013; 12(2):1327-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prostate cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed male malignancies. Genome wide association studies have revealed HNF1b to be a major risk gene for prostate cancer susceptibility. We examined the mechanisms of involvement of HNF1b in prostate cancer development. We integrated data from Gene Expression Omnibus prostate cancer genes from the Dragon Database of Genes Implicated in Prostate Cancer, and used meta-analysis data to generate a panel of HNF1b-associated prostate cancer risk genes. An RT-PCR was used to assess expression levels in DU145, PC3, LNCaP, and RWEP-1 cells. Twelve genes (BAG1, DDR1, ERBB4, ESR1, HSPD1, IGFBP2, IGFBP5, NR4A1, PAWR, PIK3CG, RAP2A, and TPD52) were found to be associated with both HNF1b and prostate cancer risk. Six of them (BAG1, ERBB4, ESR1, HSPD1, NR4A1, and PIK3CG) were mapped to the KEGG pathway, and submitted to further gene expression assessment. HNF1b, NR4A1, and HSPD1 were found to be highly expressed in the LNCaP androgenic hormone-dependent cell line. Compared to expression levels in wild-type prostate cancer cells, NR4A1, HSPD1, ERBB4, and ESR1 expression levels were also found to be significantly increased in the HNF1b-transfected cells. We conclude that the mechanism of action of HNF1b in prostate cancer involves modulation of the association between androgenic hormone and prostate cancer cells. Gene-gene interaction and coordination should be taken into account to determine relationships between specific loci and diseases.

Simon S, Grabellus F, Ferrera L, et al.
DOG1 regulates growth and IGFBP5 in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(12):3661-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are characterized by activating mutations of KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α(PDGFRA), which can be therapeutically targeted by tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) such as imatinib. Despite long-lasting responses, most patients eventually progress after TKI therapy. The calcium-dependent chloride channel DOG1 (ANO1/TMEM16A), which is strongly and specifically expressed in GIST, is used as a diagnostic marker to differentiate GIST from other sarcomas. Here, we report that loss of DOG1 expression occurs together with loss of KIT expression in a subset of GIST resistant to KIT inhibitors, and we illustrate the functional role of DOG1 in tumor growth, KIT expression, and imatinib response. Although DOG1 is a crucial regulator of chloride balance in GIST cells, we found that RNAi-mediated silencing or pharmacologic inhibition of DOG1 did not alter cell growth or KIT signaling in vitro. In contrast, DOG1 silencing delayed the growth of GIST xenografts in vivo. Expression profiling of explanted tumors after DOG1 blockade revealed a strong upregulation in the expression of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP5), a potent antiangiogenic factor implicated in tumor suppression. Similar results were obtained after selection of imatinib-resistant DOG1- and KIT-negative cells derived from parental DOG1 and KIT-positive GIST cells, where a 5,000-fold increase in IGFBP5 mRNA transcripts were documented. In summary, our findings establish the oncogenic activity of DOG1 in GIST involving modulation of IGF/IGF receptor signaling in the tumor microenvironment through the antiangiogenic factor IGFBP5.

Liang PI, Wang YH, Wu TF, et al.
IGFBP-5 overexpression as a poor prognostic factor in patients with urothelial carcinomas of upper urinary tracts and urinary bladder.
J Clin Pathol. 2013; 66(7):573-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is prevalent worldwide. Dysregulation of cell growth is a critical event of tumorigenesis and has not been assessed systemically in UC. We thus assessed the published transcriptome of urinary bladder urothelial carcinoma (UBUC) and identified insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) as the most significantly upregulated gene associated with the regulation of cell growth. Moreover, validated by using public domain data set, IGFBP-5 expression also significantly predicted worse outcome. IGFBP-5 is one of the binding proteins that regulate insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and its significance has not been comprehensively evaluated in UCs.
METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, we evaluated the IGFBP-5 expression status and its associations with clinicopathological features and survival in 340 cases of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) and 295 cases of UBUC. Western blot analysis was used to evaluate IGFBP-5 protein expression in human urothelial cell (HUC) lines.
RESULTS: IGFBP-5 overexpression was significantly associated with advanced pT stage (p<0.001), high histological grade (UTUC, p<0.001; UBUC, p=0.035), lymph node metastasis (UTUC, p=0.006; UBUC, p=0.004), vascular invasion (UTUC, p<0.001; UBUC, p=0.003), perineural invasion (UTUC, p=0.034; UBUC, p=0.021) and frequent mitosis (UTUC, p<0.001; UBUC, p=0.023). IGFBP-5 overexpression also independently predicted poor disease-specific survival and metastasis-free survival in both groups of patients. Western blot analysis showed IGFBP-5 protein as overexpressed in human urothelial cancer cell lines and not in normal urothelial cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: IGFBP-5 plays an important role in tumour progression in UC. Its overexpression is associated with advanced tumour stage and conferred poorer clinical outcome.

Cirilo PD, Marchi FA, Barros Filho Mde C, et al.
An integrative genomic and transcriptomic analysis reveals potential targets associated with cell proliferation in uterine leiomyomas.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e57901 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Uterine Leiomyomas (ULs) are the most common benign tumours affecting women of reproductive age. ULs represent a major problem in public health, as they are the main indication for hysterectomy. Approximately 40-50% of ULs have non-random cytogenetic abnormalities, and half of ULs may have copy number alterations (CNAs). Gene expression microarrays studies have demonstrated that cell proliferation genes act in response to growth factors and steroids. However, only a few genes mapping to CNAs regions were found to be associated with ULs.
METHODOLOGY: We applied an integrative analysis using genomic and transcriptomic data to identify the pathways and molecular markers associated with ULs. Fifty-one fresh frozen specimens were evaluated by array CGH (JISTIC) and gene expression microarrays (SAM). The CONEXIC algorithm was applied to integrate the data.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The integrated analysis identified the top 30 significant genes (P<0.01), which comprised genes associated with cancer, whereas the protein-protein interaction analysis indicated a strong association between FANCA and BRCA1. Functional in silico analysis revealed target molecules for drugs involved in cell proliferation, including FGFR1 and IGFBP5. Transcriptional and protein analyses showed that FGFR1 (P = 0.006 and P<0.01, respectively) and IGFBP5 (P = 0.0002 and P = 0.006, respectively) were up-regulated in the tumours when compared with the adjacent normal myometrium.
CONCLUSIONS: The integrative genomic and transcriptomic approach indicated that FGFR1 and IGFBP5 amplification, as well as the consequent up-regulation of the protein products, plays an important role in the aetiology of ULs and thus provides data for potential drug therapies development to target genes associated with cellular proliferation in ULs.

Ha S, Iqbal NJ, Mita P, et al.
Phosphorylation of the androgen receptor by PIM1 in hormone refractory prostate cancer.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(34):3992-4000 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
Integration of cellular signaling pathways with androgen receptor (AR) signaling can be achieved through phosphorylation of AR by cellular kinases. However, the kinases responsible for phosphorylating the AR at numerous sites and the functional consequences of AR phosphorylation are only partially understood. Bioinformatic analysis revealed AR serine 213 (S213) as a putative substrate for PIM1, a kinase overexpressed in prostate cancer. Therefore, phosphorylation of AR serine 213 by PIM1 was examined using a phosphorylation site-specific antibody. Wild-type PIM1, but not catalytically inactive PIM1, specifically phosphorylated AR but not an AR serine-to-alanine mutant (S213A). In vitro kinase assays confirmed that PIM1 can phosphorylate AR S213 in a ligand-independent manner and cell type-specific phosphorylation was observed in prostate cancer cell lines. Upon PIM1 overexpression, AR phosphorylation was observed in the absence of hormone and was further increased in the presence of hormone in LNCaP, LNCaP-abl and VCaP cells. Moreover, phosphorylation of AR was reduced in the presence of PIM kinase inhibitors. An examination of AR-mediated transcription showed that reporter gene activity was reduced in the presence of PIM1 and wild-type AR, but not S213A mutant AR. Androgen-mediated transcription of endogenous PSA, Nkx3.1 and IGFBP5 was also decreased in the presence of PIM1, whereas IL6, cyclin A1 and caveolin 2 were increased. Immunohistochemical analysis of prostate cancer tissue microarrays showed significant P-AR S213 expression that was associated with hormone refractory prostate cancers, likely identifying cells with catalytically active PIM1. In addition, prostate cancers expressing a high level of P-AR S213 were twice as likely to be from biochemically recurrent cancers. Thus, AR phosphorylation by PIM1 at S213 impacts gene transcription and is highly prevalent in aggressive prostate cancer.

Galvan A, Colombo F, Noci S, et al.
The Lsktm1 locus modulates lung and skin tumorigenesis in the mouse.
G3 (Bethesda). 2012; 2(9):1041-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
Alleles derived from skin tumor-resistant Car-R mice provide resistance to both skin and lung tumorigenesis over the susceptibility of the SWR/J strain. In an effort to map tumor modifier loci affecting both tumor types, we carried out a genetic linkage analysis in backcross SWR/J x (SWR/J x Car-R) mice and identified a locus (Lsktm1) on chromosome 1 linked to both skin (LOD score = 3.93) and lung (LOD score = 8.74) tumorigenesis. Two genes, Igfbp5 and Igfbp2, residing in this locus and belonging to the insulin-like growth factor binding protein family were expressed at significantly greater levels in normal lung tissue from cancer-resistant Car-R mice than in cancer-susceptible SWR/J mice. Overexpression of the recombinant Igfbp5 and Igfbp2 genes in two lung cancer cell lines significantly inhibited clonogenicity (P < 0.0001). Collectively, we have identified a single polymorphic locus that affects skin and lung tumorigenesis and identify Igfbp5 and Igfbp2 as candidate modifier genes of lung tumorigenesis.

Satchi-Fainaro R, Ferber S, Segal E, et al.
Prospective identification of glioblastoma cells generating dormant tumors.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e44395 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
Although dormant tumors are highly prevalent within the human population, the underlying mechanisms are still mostly unknown. We have previously identified the consensus gene expression pattern of dormant tumors. Here, we show that this gene expression signature could be used for the isolation and identification of clones which generate dormant tumors. We established single cell-derived clones from the aggressive tumor-generating U-87 MG human glioblastoma cell line. Based only on the expression pattern of genes which were previously shown to be associated with tumor dormancy, we identified clones which generate dormant tumors. We show that very high expression levels of thrombospondin and high expression levels of angiomotin and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5), together with low levels of endothelial specific marker (ESM) 1 and epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) characterize the clone which generates dormant U-87 MG derived glioblastomas. These tumors remained indolent both in subcutaneous and orthotopic intracranial sites, in spite of a high prevalence of proliferating cells. We further show that tumor cells which form U-87 MG derived dormant tumors have an impaired angiogenesis potential both in vitro and in vivo and have a slower invasion capacity. This work demonstrates that fast-growing tumors contain tumor cells that when isolated will form dormant tumors and serves as a proof-of-concept for the use of transcriptome profiles in the identification of such cells. Isolating the tumor cells that form dormant tumors will facilitate understanding of the underlying mechanisms of dormant micro-metastases, late recurrence, and changes in rate of tumor progression.

Becker MA, Hou X, Harrington SC, et al.
IGFBP ratio confers resistance to IGF targeting and correlates with increased invasion and poor outcome in breast tumors.
Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18(6):1808-17 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
PURPOSE: To improve the significance of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5 (IGFBP-5) as a prognostic and potentially predictive marker in patients with breast cancer.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Increased IGFBP-5 expression was identified in MCF-7 cells resistant (MCF-7R4) to the IGF-1R/insulin receptor (InsR) inhibitor BMS-536924 and its role examined by targeted knockdown and overexpression in multiple experimental models. Protein expression of IGFBP-5 was measured by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 76 patients with breast cancer to examine correlative associations with invasive tumor fraction and outcome. The use of a combined IGFBP-5/IGFBP-4 (BPR) expression ratio was applied to predict anti-IGF-1R/InsR response in a panel of breast cancer lines and outcome in multiple breast tumor cohorts.
RESULTS: IGFBP-5 knockdown decreased BMS-536924 resistance in MCF-7R4 cells, whereas IGFBP-5 overexpression in MCF-7 cells conferred resistance. When compared with pathologically normal reduction mammoplasty tissue, IGFBP-5 expression levels were upregulated in both invasive and histologically normal adjacent breast cancer tissue. In both univariate and multivariate modeling, metastasis-free survival, recurrence free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) were significantly associated with high IGFBP-5 expression. Prognostic power of IGFBP-5 was further increased with the addition of IGFBP-4 where tumors were ranked based upon IGFBP-5/IGFBP-4 expression ratio (BPR). Multiple breast cancer cohorts confirm that BPR (high vs. low) was a strong predictor of RFS and OS.
CONCLUSION: IGFBP-5 expression is a marker of poor outcome in patients with breast cancer. An IGFBP-5/IGFBP-4 expression ratio may serve as a surrogate biomarker of IGF pathway activation and predict sensitivity to anti-IGF-1R targeting.

Dong X, Li Y, Tang H, et al.
Insulin-like growth factor axis gene polymorphisms modify risk of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. 2012; 36(2):206-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis genes plays a critical role in cancer development and progression via their impact on the RAS/MAPK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways. We hypothesized that IGF-axis genetic variants modify individual susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: We retrospectively genotyped 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 10 IGF-axis genes (IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R, IGFBP1, IGFBP3, IGFBP5, IRS1, IRS2, and IRS4) in 706 pancreatic cancer patients and 706 cancer-free controls using Sequenom and TaqMan technology. The association between genotype and pancreatic cancer risk was evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. A P value ≤.007 at a false discovery rate of 10% was set as the significance level.
RESULTS: We observed that the IGF1 *10212C>A and Ex4+2776G>A and IGF1R IVS2-70184A>G and IVS2+46329T>C variant genotypes were significantly associated with decreased pancreatic cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.60-0.75) and that IGFBP1 Ex4+111A>G (I253M) was significantly associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk (OR=1.46) after adjusted for other risk factors and multiple comparisons (P≤.007). IGF2R and IGFBP3 variant haplotypes were associated with increased and decreased pancreatic cancer risk, respectively (P<.001). We also observed a weak interaction of the IGF1R IVS2+46329T>C and IGF2R Ex45+11C>T (L2222L) genotypes with diabetes (P(interaction)=.05) and interaction of IGF2R and IRS1 genotypes with alcohol consumption (P(interaction)=.03 and .019, respectively) on increased pancreatic cancer risk.
CONCLUSION: These findings support our hypothesis that polymorphic variants of IGF-axis genes act alone or jointly with other risk factors to affect susceptibility to pancreatic cancer.

Wang YC, Yu SQ, Wang XH, et al.
Differences in phenotype and gene expression of prostate stromal cells from patients of varying ages and their influence on tumour formation by prostate epithelial cells.
Asian J Androl. 2011; 13(5):732-41 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
Prostate cancer (PCa) is an age-related disease, and the stromal microenvironment plays an important role in prostatic malignant progression. However, the differences in prostate stromal cells present in young and old tissue are still obscure. We established primary cultured stromal cells from normal prostatic peripheral zone (PZ) of donors of varying ages and found that cultured stromal cells from old donors (PZ-old) were more enlarged and polygonal than those from young donors (PZ-young). Furthermore, based on immunocytochemical and ultrastructural analysis, the components of stromal cells changed from a majority of fibroblasts to a mixture of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts with increasing donor age. Using a three-dimensional in vitro culture system, we found that PZ-old stromal cells could enhance the proliferation, migration and invasion of cocultured benign BPH-1 and PC-3 cells. Using an in vivo tissue recombination system, we also found that PZ-old stromal cells are more effective than PZ-young cells in promoting tumour formation by BPH-1 cells of high passage (>100) and PC-3 cells. To probe the possible mechanism of these effects, we performed cDNA microarray analysis and profiled 509 upregulated genes and 188 downregulated genes in PZ-old cells. Among the changed genes, we found genes coding for a subset of paracrine factors that are capable of influencing adjacent epithelial cells; these include hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 (IGFBP4), IGFBP5 and matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1). Changes in the expression of these genes were further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Overall, our findings indicate that stromal cells from prostate PZ of old donors are more active than similar cells from young donors in promoting the malignant process of adjacent epithelial cells. This finding hints at a new potential strategy for the prevention of PCa.

Jeter CR, Liu B, Liu X, et al.
NANOG promotes cancer stem cell characteristics and prostate cancer resistance to androgen deprivation.
Oncogene. 2011; 30(36):3833-45 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
Cancer cell molecular mimicry of stem cells (SC) imbues neoplastic cells with enhanced proliferative and renewal capacities. In support, numerous mediators of SC self-renewal have been evinced to show oncogenic potential. We have recently reported that short-hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of the embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal gene NANOG significantly reduced the clonogenic and tumorigenic capabilities of various cancer cells. In this study, we sought to test the potential pro-tumorigenic functions of NANOG, particularly, in prostate cancer (PCa). Using qRT-PCR, we first confirmed that PCa cells expressed NANOG mRNA primarily from the NANOGP8 locus on chromosome 15q14. We then constructed a lentiviral promoter reporter in which the -3.8-kb NANOGP8 genomic fragment was used to drive the expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP). We observed that NANOGP8-GFP(+) PCa cells showed cancer stem cell (CSC) characteristics such as enhanced clonal growth and tumor regenerative capacity. To further investigate the functions and mechanisms of NANOG in tumorigenesis, we established tetracycline-inducible NANOG-overexpressing cancer cell lines, including both PCa (Du145 and LNCaP) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. NANOG induction promoted drug resistance in MCF-7 cells, tumor regeneration in Du145 cells and, most importantly, castration-resistant tumor development in LNCaP cells. These pro-tumorigenic effects of NANOG were associated with key molecular changes, including an upregulation of molecules such as CXCR4, IGFBP5, CD133 and ALDH1. The present gain-of-function studies, coupled with our recent loss-of-function work, establish the integral role for NANOG in neoplastic processes and shed light on its mechanisms of action.

Su Y, Wagner ER, Luo Q, et al.
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of human osteosarcoma.
Oncogene. 2011; 30(37):3907-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone. There is a critical need to identify the events that lead to the poorly understood mechanism of OS development and metastasis. The goal of this investigation is to identify and characterize a novel marker of OS progression. We have established and characterized a highly metastatic OS subline that is derived from the less metastatic human MG63 line through serial passages in nude mice via intratibial injections. Microarray analysis of the parental MG63, the highly metastatic MG63.2 subline, as well as the corresponding primary tumors and pulmonary metastases revealed insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) to be one of the significantly downregulated genes in the metastatic subline. Confirmatory quantitative RT-PCR on 20 genes of interest demonstrated IGFBP5 to be the most differentially expressed and was therefore chosen to be one of the genes for further investigation. Adenoviral mediated overexpression and knockdown of IGFBP5 in the MG63 and MG63.2 cell lines, as well as other OS lines (143B and MNNG/HOS) that are independent of our MG63 lines, were employed to examine the role of IGFBP5. We found that overexpression of IGFBP5 inhibited in vitro cell proliferation, migration and invasion of OS cells. Additionally, IGFBP5 overexpression promoted apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In an orthotopic xenograft animal model, overexpression of IGFBP5 inhibited OS tumor growth and pulmonary metastases. Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of IGFBP5 promoted OS tumor growth and pulmonary metastases in vivo. Immunohistochemical staining of patient-matched primary and metastatic OS samples demonstrated decreased IGFBP5 expression in the metastases. These results suggest 1) a role for IGFBP5 as a novel marker that has an important role in the pathogenesis of OS, and 2) that the loss of IGFBP5 function may contribute to more metastatic phenotypes in OS.

Niu J, Huang YJ, Wei S, et al.
Association between a functional polymorphism (-1195T>C) in the IGFBP5 promoter and head and neck cancer risk.
Head Neck. 2011; 33(5):650-60 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: To the best of our knowledge, no studies to date have evaluated roles of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) polymorphisms in risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN).
METHODS: A hospital-based study of 1082 patients with SCCHN and 1120 cancer-free controls was performed to investigate associations between 2 functional polymorphisms, -1195T>C and -709G>C, in the IGFBP5 promoter region and SCCHN risk.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that the transcription factor, activator protein 1 (AP-1), differentially bound to T or C variants at -1195 in the promoter to regulate the IGFBP5 promoter activity and that the C variant genotypes were associated with deferential risk of late-stage SCCHN, compared to the TT genotype, particularly for human papillomavirus (HPV)-unrelated sites (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-4.11 for CC vs TT).
CONCLUSION: The IGFBP5 -1195T>C polymorphism is functional and may potentially be a biomarker for susceptibility to late-stage SCCHN.

Taylor KJ, Sims AH, Liang L, et al.
Dynamic changes in gene expression in vivo predict prognosis of tamoxifen-treated patients with breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2010; 12(3):R39 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Tamoxifen is the most widely prescribed anti-estrogen treatment for patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. However, there is still a need for biomarkers that reliably predict endocrine sensitivity in breast cancers and these may well be expressed in a dynamic manner.
METHODS: In this study we assessed gene expression changes at multiple time points (days 1, 2, 4, 7, 14) after tamoxifen treatment in the ER-positive ZR-75-1 xenograft model that displays significant changes in apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis within 2 days of therapy.
RESULTS: Hierarchical clustering identified six time-related gene expression patterns, which separated into three groups: two with early/transient responses, two with continuous/late responses and two with variable response patterns. The early/transient response represented reductions in many genes that are involved in cell cycle and proliferation (e.g. BUB1B, CCNA2, CDKN3, MKI67, UBE2C), whereas the continuous/late changed genes represented the more classical estrogen response genes (e.g. TFF1, TFF3, IGFBP5). Genes and the proteins they encode were confirmed to have similar temporal patterns of expression in vitro and in vivo and correlated with reduction in tumour volume in primary breast cancer. The profiles of genes that were most differentially expressed on days 2, 4 and 7 following treatment were able to predict prognosis, whereas those most changed on days 1 and 14 were not, in four tamoxifen treated datasets representing a total of 404 patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Both early/transient/proliferation response genes and continuous/late/estrogen-response genes are able to predict prognosis of primary breast tumours in a dynamic manner. Temporal expression of therapy-response genes is clearly an important factor in characterising the response to endocrine therapy in breast tumours which has significant implications for the timing of biopsies in neoadjuvant biomarker studies.

Song Q, Jing H, Wu H, et al.
Gene expression analysis on a photodiode array-based bioluminescence analyzer by using sensitivity-improved SRPP.
Analyst. 2010; 135(6):1315-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most methods used for gene expression analysis are based on dye-labeling, which requires costly instruments. Recently a dye-free gene expression analysis method-SRPP (Sequence-tagged reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction coupled with pyrosequencing) was developed to compare relative gene expression levels in different tissues, but the throughput of the SRPP assay is very limited due to the use of a photomultiplier tube (PMT)-based pyrosequencer for the detection. To increase the throughput of the SRPP assay, an inexpensive photodiode (PD) array-based bioluminescence analyzer (termed as "PD-based pyrosequencer") was coupled to SRPP; however the low sensitivity of PD limited the wide application of SRPP. To enable SRPP analyzing low abundance genes in clinical samples, sequence-tagged gene-specific primers instead of sequence-tagged poly (T)(n) primers were used for reverse-transcription, and the SRPP sensitivity was thus improved more than 10 times. This improvement compensates the sensitivity loss due to the use of PD in a pyrosequencer. The accurate determination of the expression levels of ten prognostic marker genes (AL080059, MMP9, EXT1, ORC6L, AF052162, C9orf30, FBXO31, IGFBP5, ESM1, and RUNDC1) differing between normal tissues and tumor tissues of breast cancer patients demonstrated that SRPP using gene-specific RT primers coupled with the PD array-based bioluminescence analyzer is reliable, inexpensive, and sensitive in gene expression analysis.

Ahn BY, Elwi AN, Lee B, et al.
Genetic screen identifies insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 as a modulator of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(8):3013-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tamoxifen resistance is one of the overarching challenges in the treatment of patients with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Through a genome-wide RNA interference screen to discover genes responsible for tamoxifen resistance in vitro, we identified insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) as a determinant of drug sensitivity. Specific knockdown of IGFBP5 by retroviral infection with short hairpin RNA-expressing cassette in MCF7 human breast cancer cells (pRS-shIGFBP5) conferred tamoxifen resistance in vitro due to concomitant loss of ERalpha expression and signaling. IGFBP5 expression was also reduced in MCF7 cells selected for tamoxifen resistance in culture (TAMR). Both tamoxifen-resistant MCF7-TAMR and MCF7-pRS-shIGFBP5 cells could be resensitized to drug by treatment with exogenous recombinant IGFBP5 (rIGFBP5) protein. Treatment with rIGFBP5 protein in mouse tumor xenografts reversed the in vivo tamoxifen resistance of MCF7-pRS-shIGFBP5 cell-derived tumors by reducing tumor cell proliferation. IGFBP5 immunohistochemical staining in a cohort of 153 breast cancer patients showed that low IGFBP5 expression was associated with shorter overall survival after tamoxifen therapy. Thus, IGFBP5 warrants investigation as an agent to reverse tamoxifen resistance.

Galland F, Lacroix L, Saulnier P, et al.
Differential gene expression profiles of invasive and non-invasive non-functioning pituitary adenomas based on microarray analysis.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2010; 17(2):361-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) may be locally invasive. Markers of invasiveness are needed to guide patient management and particularly the use of adjuvant radiotherapy. To examine whether invasive NFPAs display a specific gene expression profile relative to non-invasive tumors, we selected 40 NFPAs (38 of the gonadotroph type) and classified them as invasive (n=22) or non-invasive (n=18) on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging and surgical findings. We then performed pangenomic analysis with the 44k Agilent human whole genome expression oligonucleotide microarray in order to identify genes with differential expression between invasive and non-invasive NFPAs. Candidate genes were then tested in qRT-PCR. Prediction class analysis showed that the expression of 346 genes differed between invasive and non-invasive NFPAs (P<0.001), of which 233 genes were up-regulated and 113 genes were down-regulated in invasive tumors. On the basis of Ingenuity networks and the degree of up- or down-regulation in invasive versus non-invasive tumors, 35 genes were selected for expression quantification by qRT-PCR. Overexpression of only four genes was confirmed, namely IGFBP5 (P=0.02), MYO5A (P=0.04), FLT3 (P=0.01), and NFE2L1 (P=0.02). At the protein level, only myosin 5A (MYO5A) immunostaining was stronger in invasive than in non-invasive NFPAs. Molecular signature allows to differentiate 'grossly' invasive from non-invasive NFPAs. The product of one of these genes, MYO5A, may be a useful marker of tumor invasiveness.

Wan J, Ma J, Mei J, Shan G
The effects of HIF-1alpha on gene expression profiles of NCI-H446 human small cell lung cancer cells.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2009; 28:150 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene targeted therapy refers to any therapy focused on one of the many biological features of the tumor. Such features are mediated by specific genes that are involved in tumor metastasis, recurrence, poor response to chemotherapy and others. Hypoxia is an important pathognomonic feature of many malignant tumors including SCLC (small cell lung cancer). HIF-1alpha, which is induced by hypoxia, is the most important regulatory factor of many specific genes that can influence the biological features of tumors.
METHODS: In this study, we tried to elucidate the changes in gene expression profiles of SCLC NCI-H446 cells mediated by HIF-1alpha. According to different treatments of cells, three experimental pairwise comparisons were designed: hypoxia group vs. control group, Ad5-HIF-1alpha group vs. Ad5 group, and Ad5-siHIF-1 alpha group Vs Ad5 group.
RESULTS: Results from the analysis of gene expression profiles indicated that there were 65 genes upregulated and 28 genes downregulated more than two-fold in all three experimental pairwise comparisons. These genes were involved in transport, signal-transduction, cell adhesion/motility, growth factor/cytokines, transcription, inflammatory response, metabolic process, in addition to others. SOCS1, IGFBP5, IL-6 and STAT3 were also upregulated at protein level. SOCS1 could significantly induce apoptosis and suppress growth of NCI-H446 cells but HIF-1alpha could induce growth and suppress apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Through this research, we are trying to find novel functional genes that are mediated by HIF-1alpha and provide the theoretical basis for new therapeutic targets. HIF-1 alpha maybe upregulate the expression of SOCS1 through mediation of STAT3 and IL-6. In addition, SOCS1 could significantly induce apoptosis and suppress growth of NCI-H446 cells. This was contrary to HIF-1alpha and it indicated that there might be an antagonism effect between HIF-1alpha and SOCS1 on regulating growth and apoptosis of NCI-H446 cells.

Neuhausen SL, Brummel S, Ding YC, et al.
Genetic variation in insulin-like growth factor signaling genes and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers.
Breast Cancer Res. 2009; 11(5):R76 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 25/09/2015 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Women who carry mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have a substantially increased risk of developing breast cancer as compared with the general population. However, risk estimates range from 20 to 80%, suggesting the presence of genetic and/or environmental risk modifiers. Based on extensive in vivo and in vitro studies, one important pathway for breast cancer pathogenesis may be the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway, which regulates both cellular proliferation and apoptosis. BRCA1 has been shown to directly interact with IGF signaling such that variants in this pathway may modify risk of cancer in women carrying BRCA mutations. In this study, we investigate the association of variants in genes involved in IGF signaling and risk of breast cancer in women who carry deleterious BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations.
METHODS: A cohort of 1,665 adult, female mutation carriers, including 1,122 BRCA1 carriers (433 cases) and 543 BRCA2 carriers (238 cases) were genotyped for SNPs in IGF1, IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), IGF1 binding protein (IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGFBP5), and IGF receptor substrate 1 (IRS1). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to model time from birth to diagnosis of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers separately. For linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks with multiple SNPs, an additive genetic model was assumed; and for single SNP analyses, no additivity assumptions were made.
RESULTS: Among BRCA1 carriers, significant associations were found between risk of breast cancer and LD blocks in IGF1R (global P = 0.011 for LD block 2 and global P = 0.012 for LD block 11). Among BRCA2 carriers, an LD block in IGFBP2 (global P = 0.0145) was found to be associated with the time to breast cancer diagnosis. No significant LD block associations were found for the other investigated genes among BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to investigate the role of genetic variation in IGF signaling and breast cancer risk in women carrying deleterious mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. We identified significant associations in variants in IGF1R and IRS1 in BRCA1 carriers and in IGFBP2 in BRCA2 carriers. Although there is known to be interaction of BRCA1 and IGF signaling, further replication and identification of causal mechanisms are needed to better understand these associations.

Wang L, Sun Y, Jiang M, et al.
FOS proliferating network construction in early colorectal cancer (CRC) based on integrative significant function cluster and inferring analysis.
Cancer Invest. 2009; 27(8):816-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim is to setup single distinguished molecular network. We constructed FOS proliferating network from 22 colorectal samples of the same GEO dataset by GRNInfer tool and DAVID based on linear programming and a decomposition procedure with integrated Kappa statistics and fuzzy heuristic clustering. In the control, we found no proliferating subnetwork. In CRC, we identified one FOS proliferating module (SFRP2, ADAMTS1, SYNPO2, VIP, ADAM33 inhibition to FOS and MGP, FOSB activation to FOS. FOS activation to IGFBP5, LGI1, GAS1 and FOS inhibition to VIP). These results may be useful for developing novel prognostic markers and therapeutic targets in CRC.

Stein T, Salomonis N, Nuyten DS, et al.
A mouse mammary gland involution mRNA signature identifies biological pathways potentially associated with breast cancer metastasis.
J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia. 2009; 14(2):99-116 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mouse mammary gland involution resembles a wound healing response with suppressed inflammation. Wound healing and inflammation are also associated with tumour development, and a 'wound-healing' gene expression signature can predict metastasis formation and survival. Recent studies have shown that an involuting mammary gland stroma can promote metastasis. It could therefore be hypothesised that gene expression signatures from an involuting mouse mammary gland may provide new insights into the physiological pathways that promote breast cancer progression. Indeed, using the HOPACH clustering method, the human orthologues of genes that were differentially regulated at day 3 of mammary gland involution and showed prolonged expression throughout the first 4 days of involution distinguished breast cancers in the NKI 295 breast cancer dataset with low and high metastatic activity. Most strikingly, genes associated with copper ion homeostasis and with HIF-1 promoter binding sites were the most over-represented, linking this signature to hypoxia. Further, six out of the ten mRNAs with strongest up-regulation in cancers with poor survival code for secreted factors, identifying potential candidates that may be involved in stromal/matrix-enhanced metastasis formation/breast cancer development. This method therefore identified biological processes that occur during mammary gland involution, which may be critical in promoting breast cancer metastasis that could form a basis for future investigation, and supports a role for copper in breast cancer development.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. IGFBP5, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/IGFBP5.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 25 June, 2015     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999