Gene Summary

Gene:AURKB; aurora kinase B
Aliases: AIK2, AIM1, ARK2, AurB, IPL1, STK5, AIM-1, ARK-2, STK-1, STK12, PPP1R48, aurkb-sv1, aurkb-sv2
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the aurora kinase subfamily of serine/threonine kinases. The genes encoding the other two members of this subfamily are located on chromosomes 19 and 20. These kinases participate in the regulation of alignment and segregation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis through association with microtubules. A pseudogene of this gene is located on chromosome 8. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:aurora kinase B
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (32)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Survival Rate
  • Chromosome 17
  • RB1
  • Transcription
  • Cervical Cancer
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Survivin
  • Aurora Kinases
  • Vorinostat
  • Quinazolines
  • cdc25 Phosphatases
  • Zinc Fingers
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Protein Binding
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Mitosis
  • Aurora Kinase A
  • siRNA
  • Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Prothrombin Time
  • Xenograft Models
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Cancer RNA
  • Ultraviolet Rays
  • Aurora Kinase B
  • Triazoles
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • beta Catenin
  • Apoptosis
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Signal Transduction
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Up-Regulation
  • Virus Replication
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Thyroid Cancer
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: AURKB (cancer-related)

Poulard C, Kim HN, Fang M, et al.
Relapse-associated AURKB blunts the glucocorticoid sensitivity of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019; 116(8):3052-3061 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glucocorticoids (GCs) are used in combination chemotherapies as front-line treatment for B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Although effective, many patients relapse and become resistant to chemotherapy and GCs in particular. Why these patients relapse is not clear. We took a comprehensive, functional genomics approach to identify sources of GC resistance. A genome-wide shRNA screen identified the transcriptional coactivators EHMT2, EHMT1, and CBX3 as important contributors to GC-induced cell death. This complex selectively supports GC-induced expression of genes contributing to cell death. A metaanalysis of gene expression data from B-ALL patient specimens revealed that Aurora kinase B (AURKB), which restrains GC signaling by phosphorylating EHMT1-2, is overexpressed in relapsed B-ALL, suggesting it as a potential contributor to relapse. Inhibition of AURKB enhanced GC-induced expression of cell death genes, resulting in potentiation of GC cytotoxicity in cell lines and relapsed B-ALL patient samples. This function for AURKB is distinct from its canonical role in the cell cycle. These results show the utility of functional genomics in understanding mechanisms of resistance and rapidly identifying combination chemotherapeutics.

Bonazzoli E, Cocco E, Lopez S, et al.
PI3K oncogenic mutations mediate resistance to afatinib in HER2/neu overexpressing gynecological cancers.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 153(1):158-164 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant expression of HER2/neu and PIK3CA gene products secondary to amplification/mutations are common in high-grade-serous-endometrial (USC) and ovarian-cancers (HGSOC). Because scant information is currently available in the literature on the potential negative effect of PIK3CA mutations on the activity of afatinib, in this study we evaluate for the first time the role of oncogenic PIK3CA mutations as a potential mechanism of resistance to afatinib in HGSOC and USC overexpressing HER2/neu.
METHODS: We used six whole-exome-sequenced primary HGSOC/USC cell-lines and three xenografts overexpressing HER2/neu and harboring mutated or wild-type PIK3CA/PIK3R1 genes to evaluate the role of PI3K-mutations as potential mechanism of resistance to afatinib, an FDA-approved pan-c-erb-inhibitor in clinical trials in USC. Primary-USC harboring wild-type-PIK3CA gene was transfected with plasmids encoding oncogenic PIK3CA-mutations (H1047R/E545K). The effect of afatinib on HER2/PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was evaluated by immunoblotting.
RESULTS: We found PI3K wild-type cell-lines to be significantly more sensitive (lower IC
CONCLUSIONS: Oncogenic PI3K mutations may represent a major mechanism of resistance to afatinib. Combinations of c-erb with PIK3CA, AKT or mTOR inhibitors may be necessary to more efficiently block the PIK3CA/AKT/mTOR pathway.

Han X, Zhang JJ, Han ZQ, et al.
Let-7b attenuates cisplatin resistance and tumor growth in gastric cancer by targeting AURKB.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2018; 25(11-12):300-308 [PubMed] Related Publications
Platinum-based chemotherapy is currently a standard treatment strategy for patients with gastric cancer. Eventhough it has been widely shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in tumor development, whether miRNAs have a role in chemosensitivity of gastric cancer cells to platinum-based treatment remain largely undefined. In this study, a cisplatin-resistant gastric cancer cell line (SGC7901/DDP) with stable enhanced expression or knockdown of let-7b was generated. MTT and TUNEL assays were carried out to assess whether miR-let-7 is crucial for cell viability and apoptosis, respectively. In vitro luciferase reporter assay was performed to explore target genes of let-7b. Further, a subcutaneously transplanted tumor model in BALB/c nude mice was used to determine the impacts of let-7b on tumor growth in vivo. We observed that the let-7b-expression level of SGC7901/DDP cells was significantly lower than for its parental SGC7901 cells. Transfection of let-7b mimics was found to increase the cytotoxicity of DDP to SGC7901/DDP cells by inducing apoptosis. However, reversed cytotoxicity of DDP was observed in SGC7901/DDP cells with knockdown of let-7b. Luciferase reporter assay indicated that let-7b targeted AURKB in SGC7901/DDP cells. Knockdown of AURKB imitated the effect of let-7b overexpression on the sensitivity of SGC7901/DDP cells to DDP. Further investigation demonstrated that the SGC7901/DDP primary tumor growth was significantly reduced by let-7b mimic transfection. These findings indicate that overexpression of let-7b might provide a potential strategic approach for attenuating DDP resistance in SGC7901/DDP human gastric cancer cells.

Hu S, Liao Y, Chen L
Identification of Key Pathways and Genes in Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma via Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:6438-6448 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND To provide a better understanding of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) at the molecular level, this study aimed to identify the genes and key pathways associated with ATC by using integrated bioinformatics analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Based on the microarray data GSE9115, GSE65144, and GSE53072 derived from the Gene Expression Omnibus, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ATC samples and normal controls were identified. With DEGs, we performed a series of functional enrichment analyses. Then, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and visualized, with which the hub gene nodes were screened out. Finally, modules analysis for the PPI network was performed to further investigate the potential relationships between DEGs and ATC. RESULTS A total of 537 common DEGs were screened out from all 3 datasets, among which 247 genes were upregulated and 275 genes were downregulated. GO analysis indicated that upregulated DEGs were mainly involved in cell division and mitotic nuclear division and the downregulated DEGs were significantly enriched in ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the upregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in cell cycle and ECM-receptor interaction and the downregulated DEGs were mainly enriched in thyroid hormone synthesis, insulin resistance, and pathways in cancer. The top 10 hub genes in the constructed PPI network were CDK1, CCNB1, TOP2A, AURKB, CCNA2, BUB1, AURKA, CDC20, MAD2L1, and BUB1B. The modules analysis showed that genes in the top 2 significant modules of PPI network were mainly associated with mitotic cell cycle and positive regulation of mitosis, respectively. CONCLUSIONS We identified a series of key genes along with the pathways that were most closely related with ATC initiation and progression. Our results provide a more detailed molecular mechanism for the development of ATC, shedding light on the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Qu W, Zhao Y, Wang X, et al.
Culture characters, genetic background, estrogen/progesterone receptor expression, and tumorigenic activities of frequently used sixteen endometrial cancer cell lines.
Clin Chim Acta. 2019; 489:225-232 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine the in vitro and in vivo properties of sixteen frequently used endometrial cancer (EC) cell lines, including the cell proliferation rate, morphology, hormone receptor expression patterns, PTEN, hMLH1 expression, p53 mutation, karyotype, and tumorigenicity in mouse xenograt model.
METHODS: Twelve type I (AN3, ECC-1, EN, EN-1, EN-11, HEC-1A, HEC1B, Ishikawa, KLE, MFE-280, MFE-296, MFE-319) and four type II (ARK1, ARK2, HEC-155/180, SPEC-2) endometrial cancer cell lines were studied. Cell proliferation and morphology were determined using cell growth curves and light microscopy, respectively. Real-time PCR was performed to measure the mRNA levels of target genes. Denaturing High Performance Chromatography (DHPLC) screening and PCR/sequencing were performed to identify p53 mutations. G-banding was applied for karyotyping. Tumorigenicity was evaluated using mouse xenograft.
RESULTS: The population doubling time of the cell lines ranged between 19 and 41 h. Ishikawa, ECC-1, and MFE-280 have high while AN3 and EN1 have low expression of ER-α and ER-β. Expression of total PR and PR-B uniformly decreased in all type II cell lines and several type I cell lines (AN3, HEC-1A, HEC1B, KLE, EN-1). Regression analyses revealed significant correlations between PR-B and total PR (p < .001), between isoforms ER-α and ER-β (p < .001), and between total PR and ER (p < .001), mRNA levels in type I cell lines. p53 mutations were detected in exons 5-8 of seven out of twelve type I and one out of four type II cell lines. PTEN expression was more uniformly suppressed in type II than type I cells, while hMLH1 did not show this pattern. All the five cell lines tested contained severe karyotype abnormalities. Mouse xenograft results indicated that HEC-1A, HEC-1B and EN-1 type I as well as ARK1 and ARK2 type II cell lines had potent tumorigenic activities. Low PR-B and ER-α expression in type I cell lines were associated with high tumorigenic activity.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides resource information on EC cell lines commonly used in laboratories, which could be used for choosing cell lines suitable for specific research purposes. The results of karyotype analysis and p53 mutation together with hormone receptor expression pattern and morphology comparison strongly suggested an independent nature of these cell lines, excluding the possibility of cross-contamination between cell lines. Additionally, this information suggests potential directions for future studies on the pathogenic mechanisms of endometrial cancer.

Urick ME, Bell DW
In vitro effects of FBXW7 mutation in serous endometrial cancer: Increased levels of potentially druggable proteins and sensitivity to SI-2 and dinaciclib.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(11):1445-1457 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Serous endometrial cancers (ECs) are clinically aggressive tumors that frequently harbor somatic mutations in FBXW7 (F-box and WD repeat domain-containing 7). The FBXW7 tumor suppressor is part of a SCF (complex of SKP1, Cullin 1, F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex which controls the degradation of numerous substrates that, if not properly regulated, can contribute to the initiation or progression of tumorigenesis. Despite reports that up to 30% of serous ECs include somatic mutations in FBXW7, the molecular effects of mutated FBXW7 in ECs have not been determined. Here, we used transient transfection and Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) editing in serous EC cell lines to interrogate the molecular effects of six recurrent FBXW7 mutations. We show that FBXW7 mutations lead to increased Cyclin E1, steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3), c-MYC, Rictor, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), P70S6 kinase, and protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylated protein levels in serous EC cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that CRISPR-edited FBXW7-mutant ARK1 serous EC cells exhibit increased sensitivity to SI-2 (a SRC inhibitor) and dinaciclib (a cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor) compared to parental ARK1 cells. Collectively, our findings reveal biochemical effects of FBXW7 mutations in the context of EC and provide in vitro evidence of sensitivity to targeted inhibitors.

Sang L, Wang XM, Xu DY, Zhao WJ
Bioinformatics analysis of aberrantly methylated-differentially expressed genes and pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2018; 24(24):2605-2616 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
AIM: To discover methylated-differentially expressed genes (MDEGs) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to explore relevant hub genes and potential pathways.
METHODS: The data of expression profiling GSE25097 and methylation profiling GSE57956 were gained from GEO Datasets. We analyzed the differentially methylated genes and differentially expressed genes online using GEO2R. Functional and enrichment analyses of MDEGs were conducted using the DAVID database. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was performed by STRING and then visualized in Cytoscape. Hub genes were ranked by cytoHubba, and a module analysis of the PPI network was conducted by MCODE in Cytoscape software.
RESULTS: In total, we categorized 266 genes as hypermethylated, lowly expressed genes (Hyper-LGs) referring to endogenous and hormone stimulus, cell surface receptor linked signal transduction and behavior. In addition, 161 genes were labelled as hypomethylated, highly expressed genes (Hypo-HGs) referring to DNA replication and metabolic process, cell cycle and division. Pathway analysis illustrated that Hyper-LGs were enriched in cancer, Wnt, and chemokine signalling pathways, while Hypo-HGs were related to cell cycle and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways. Based on PPI networks,
CONCLUSION: In the study, we disclose numerous novel genetic and epigenetic regulations and offer a vital molecular groundwork to understand the pathogenesis of HCC. Hub genes, including

Yu J, Zhou J, Xu F, et al.
High expression of Aurora-B is correlated with poor prognosis and drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.
Int J Biol Markers. 2018; 33(2):215-221 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Aurora kinase B (Aurora-B) is a crucial regulator of accurate mitosis. Abnormal Aurora-B expression is associated with aneuploidy and has been implicated in the pathogenesis and drug resistance in a variety of human cancers. However, little evidence is available regarding the role of Aurora-B in regulating drug response in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is the most common type of lung cancer, and is characterized with poor prognosis and high mortality.
METHOD: In the current study, we investigated the association of Aurora-B with the prognosis of NSCLC patients, and we also used the latest CRISPR/Cas9 system to explore the regulatory role of Aurora-B in NSCLC cells developing resistance to cisplatin (CDDP) and paclitaxel.
RESULTS: We found that Aurora-B was correlated with significantly reduced overall survival and disease-free survival in NSCLC patients. Aurora-B overexpression was also observed in NSCLC cells developing impaired response to both CDDP and paclitaxel. Moreover, we found, for the first time, that Aurora-B may impair NSCLC drug response by disturbing cell proliferation and inhibiting p53-related DNA damage response and apoptotic pathway, while the knockout of Aurora-B resensitized NSCLC cells to chemo drugs by ensuring correct chromosome segregation and restoring p53 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated the association of Aurora-B with chemoresistance in NSCLC, which may finally contribute to the poor prognosis of NSCLC patients. We also suggested Aurora-B as a promising therapeutic target in NSCLC treatment.

de Freitas Silva M, Coelho LF, Guirelli IM, et al.
Synthetic resveratrol-curcumin hybrid derivative inhibits mitosis progression in estrogen positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Toxicol In Vitro. 2018; 50:75-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Curcumin (1) and resveratrol (2) are bioactive natural compounds that display wide pharmacological properties, including antitumor activity. However, their clinical application has been limited due to their low solubility and bioavailability. Nevertheless, independent studies have considered these compounds as interesting prototypes for developing new chemical structures useful for anticancer therapy. Here in, we report the synthesis of novel curcumin-like hydrazide analogues (3a and 3b), and a series of curcumin-resveratrol hybrid compounds (4a-f), and the evaluation of their cytotoxic potential on three tumor cell lines MCF-7 (breast), A549 (lung), and HepG2 (liver). Cell viability was significantly reduced in all tested cell lines when compounds 4c-4e were used. The IC

Xiao PF, Tao YF, Hu SY, et al.
mRNA expression profiling of histone modifying enzymes in pediatric acute monoblastic leukemia.
Pharmazie. 2017; 72(3):177-186 [PubMed] Related Publications
Histone modification is dysregulated in various types of cancers, including hematological malignancies. However, the expression profile of histone-modifying enzymes in pediatric acute monoblastic leukemia (AML FAB M5) has not been investigated. In this study, we evaluated the mRNA expression profile of 85 genes that encode enzymes involved in histone-modification in 27 pediatric AML FAB M5 samples by using a novel real-time PCR array. We obtained a gene cluster consisting of a total of 28 genes (15 up-regulated genes and 13 down-regulated genes). This gene signature revealed up-regulated expression of putative oncogenes GCN5L2, SETD8, KDM5C, AURKA and AURKB, and downregulated putative tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) EP300, PRMT3, PRMT8 and NOTCH2. We investigated possible biological interactions between differentially expressed genes using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) and found 12 significant networks. Among these, gene expression, cancer, and embryonic development showed the highest number of networks with 39 focus molecules and had an associated significance score of 68. Further, Rb, CDKN2C, and E2F1 were found to be upstream regulators of histone-modifying enzymes. This study provides additional insights into the molecular pathogenesis of pediatric AML FAB M5. These genes represent interesting targets with potential for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic application in pediatric AML patients.

Marsola APZC, Simões BP, Palma LC, et al.
Expression of Hippo signaling pathway and Aurora kinase genes in chronic myeloid leukemia.
Med Oncol. 2018; 35(3):26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm resulting from clonal expansion of hematopoietic stem cells positive for the Philadelphia chromosome. The CML pathogenesis is associated with expression of the BCR-ABL1 oncogene, which encodes the Bcr-Abl protein with tyrosine kinase activity, promoting the leukemic cell exacerbated myeloproliferation and resistance to apoptosis. CML patients are usually treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), but some of them acquire resistance or are refractory to TKI. Thus, it is still relevant to elucidate the CML pathogenesis and seek new therapeutic targets, such as the Hippo signaling pathway and cell cycle regulatory genes from the Aurora kinase family. The present study quantified the expression level of genes encoding components of the Hippo signaling pathway (LATS1, LATS2, YAP, and TAZ), AURKA and AURKB in CML patients at different stages of the disease, who were resistant or sensitive to imatinib mesylate therapy, and in healthy individuals. The expression levels of the target genes were correlated with the CML Sokal's prognostic score. The most striking results were the LATS2 and AURKA overexpression in CML patients, the overexpression of TAZ and AURKB in CML patients at advanced phases and TAZ in CML IM-resistant. The development of drugs and/or identification of tumor markers for the Hippo signaling pathway and the Aurora kinase family, either alone or in combination, can optimize CML treatment by enhancing the susceptibility of leukemic cells to apoptosis and leading to a better disease prognosis.

Noronha S, Alt LAC, Scimeca TE, et al.
Preclinical evaluation of the Aurora kinase inhibitors AMG 900, AZD1152-HQPA, and MK-5108 on SW-872 and 93T449 human liposarcoma cells.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2018; 54(1):71-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Liposarcoma is a malignant soft tissue tumor that originates from adipose tissue and is one of the most frequently diagnosed soft tissue sarcomas in humans. There is great interest in identifying novel chemotherapeutic options for treating liposarcoma based upon molecular alterations in the cancer cells. The Aurora kinases have been identified as promising chemotherapeutic targets based on their altered expression in many human cancers and cellular roles in mitosis and cytokinesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of an Aurora kinase A inhibitor (MK-5108), an Aurora kinase B inhibitor (AZD1152-HQPA), and a pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor (AMG 900) on undifferentiated SW-872 and well-differentiated 93T449 human liposarcoma cells. Treatment of the SW-872 and 93T449 cells with MK-5108 (0-1000 nM), AZD1152-HQPA (0-1000 nM), and AMG 900 (0-1000 nM) for 72 h resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the total viable cell number. Based upon the EC

Yu X, Liang Q, Liu W, et al.
Deguelin, an Aurora B Kinase Inhibitor, Exhibits Potent Anti-Tumor Effect in Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
EBioMedicine. 2017; 26:100-111 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Aurora B kinase has emerged as a key regulator of mitosis and deregulation of Aurora B activity is closely related to the development and progression of human cancers. In the present study, we found that Aurora B is overexpressed in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), high levels of Aurora B protein were associated with a worse overall survival rate in ESCC patients. Depleting of Aurora B blunted the malignant phenotypes in ESCC cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that a natural compound, deguelin, has a profound anti-tumor effect on ESCC via inhibiting Aurora B activity. Deguelin potently inhibited in vitro Aurora B kinase activity. The in silico docking study further indicated that deguelin was docked into the ATP-binding pocket of Aurora B. Inhibition of Aurora B activity attenuated growth of ESCC cells, resulted in G2/M cell cycle arrest, polyploidy cells formation, and apoptosis induction. Knocking down of Aurora B decreased the sensitivity of ESCC cells to deguelin. The in vivo results showed that deguelin blocked the phosphorylation of histone H3 and inhibited the growth of ESCC tumor xenografts. Overall, we identified deguelin as an effective Aurora B inhibitor, which deserves further studies in other animal models and ESCC treatment.

Agarwal R, Narayan J, Bhattacharyya A, et al.
Gene expression profiling, pathway analysis and subtype classification reveal molecular heterogeneity in hepatocellular carcinoma and suggest subtype specific therapeutic targets.
Cancer Genet. 2017; 216-217:37-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
A very low 5-year survival rate among hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients is mainly due to lack of early stage diagnosis, distant metastasis and high risk of postoperative recurrence. Hence ascertaining novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and patient specific therapeutics is crucial and urgent. Here, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression data of 423 HCC patients (373 tumors and 50 controls) downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) followed by pathway enrichment by gene ontology annotations, subtype classification and overall survival analysis. The differential gene expression analysis using non-parametric Wilcoxon test revealed a total of 479 up-regulated and 91 down-regulated genes in HCC compared to controls. The list of top differentially expressed genes mainly consists of tumor/cancer associated genes, such as AFP, THBS4, LCN2, GPC3, NUF2, etc. The genes over-expressed in HCC were mainly associated with cell cycle pathways. In total, 59 kinases associated genes were found over-expressed in HCC, including TTK, MELK, BUB1, NEK2, BUB1B, AURKB, PLK1, CDK1, PKMYT1, PBK, etc. Overall four distinct HCC subtypes were predicted using consensus clustering method. Each subtype was unique in terms of gene expression, pathway enrichment and median survival. Conclusively, this study has exposed a number of interesting genes which can be exploited in future as potential markers of HCC, diagnostic as well as prognostic and subtype classification may guide for improved and specific therapy.

Mesic A, Markocic E, Rogar M, et al.
Single nucleotide polymorphisms rs911160 in AURKA and rs2289590 in AURKB mitotic checkpoint genes contribute to gastric cancer susceptibility.
Environ Mol Mutagen. 2017; 58(9):701-711 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mitotic checkpoint genes could confer increased susceptibility to gastric cancer (GC). We investigated the association of Aurora kinase A (AURKA), Aurora kinase B (AURKB), Aurora kinase C (AURKC), Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and Budding uninhibited by benzimidazol 3, yeast (BUB3) gene polymorphisms with GC risk.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genotyping of 6 SNPs in AURKA (rs911160 and rs8173), AURKB (rs2289590), AURKC (rs11084490), PLK1 (rs42873), and BUB3 (rs7897156) was performed using TaqMan genotyping assays.
RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that rs911160 (AURKA) heterozygous genotype was associated with an increased GC risk (OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.01-2.22, P = 0.043). Analysis of rs911160 (AURKA) showed significant association with an increased risk for intestinal type GC (OR = 1.80, 95%CI = 1.01-3.21, P = 0.040) and the risk was significantly higher in women than men (OR = 2.65, 95%CI = 1.02-6.87, P = 0.033). SNP rs2289590 in AURKB might contribute to susceptibility for the development of gastric cancer, particularly in women (OR = 2.08, 95% CI = 1.05-4.09, P = 0.032).
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that AURKA (rs911160) and AURKB (rs2289590) polymorphisms could affect GC risk. Further validation studies in larger and multi-ethnical populations are needed to elucidate their functional impact on the development of GC. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:701-711, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Clémenson C, Chargari C, Liu W, et al.
The MET/AXL/FGFR Inhibitor S49076 Impairs Aurora B Activity and Improves the Antitumor Efficacy of Radiotherapy.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(10):2107-2119 [PubMed] Related Publications
Several therapeutic agents targeting HGF/MET signaling are under clinical development as single agents or in combination, notably with anti-EGFR therapies in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, despite increasing data supporting a link between MET, irradiation, and cancer progression, no data regarding the combination of MET-targeting agents and radiotherapy are available from the clinic. S49076 is an oral ATP-competitive inhibitor of MET, AXL, and FGFR1-3 receptors that is currently in phase I/II clinical trials in combination with gefitinib in NSCLC patients whose tumors show resistance to EGFR inhibitors. Here, we studied the impact of S49076 on MET signaling, cell proliferation, and clonogenic survival in MET-dependent (GTL16 and U87-MG) and MET-independent (H441, H460, and A549) cells. Our data show that S49076 exerts its cytotoxic activity at low doses on MET-dependent cells through MET inhibition, whereas it inhibits growth of MET-independent cells at higher but clinically relevant doses by targeting Aurora B. Furthermore, we found that S49076 improves the antitumor efficacy of radiotherapy in both MET-dependent and MET-independent cell lines

Yu Z, Sun Y, She X, et al.
SIX3, a tumor suppressor, inhibits astrocytoma tumorigenesis by transcriptional repression of AURKA/B.
J Hematol Oncol. 2017; 10(1):115 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: SIX homeobox 3 (SIX3) is a member of the sine oculis homeobox transcription factor family. It plays a vital role in the nervous system development. Our previous study showed that the SIX3 gene is hypermethylated, and its expression is decreased in astrocytoma, but the role of SIX3 remains unknown.
METHODS: Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assay were used to confirm the binding of SIX3 to the promoter regions of aurora kinase A (AURKA) and aurora kinase B (AURKB). Confocal imaging and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) were used to detect the interaction between AURKA and AURKB. Flow cytometry was performed to assess the effect of SIX3 on cell cycle distribution. Colony formation, EdU incorporation, transwell, and intracranial xenograft assays were performed to demonstrate the effect of SIX3 on the malignant phenotype of astrocytoma cells.
RESULTS: SIX3 is identified as a novel negative transcriptional regulator of AURKA and AURKB, and it decreases the expression of AURKA and AURKB in a dose-dependent manner in astrocytoma cells. Importantly, interactions between AURKA and AURKB stabilize and protect AURKA/B from degradation, and overexpression of SIX3 does not affect these interactions; SIX3 also acts as a tumor suppressor, and it increases p53 activity and expression at the post-translational level by the negative regulation of AURKA or AURKB, reduces the events of numerical centrosomal aberrations and misaligned chromosomes, and significantly inhibits the proliferation, invasion, and tumorigenesis of astrocytoma in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, experiments using primary cultured astrocytoma cells indicate that astrocytoma patients with a low expression of SIX3 and mutant p53 are more sensitive to treatment with aurora kinase inhibitors.
CONCLUSION: SIX3 is a novel negative transcriptional regulator and acts as a tumor suppressor that directly represses the transcription of AURKA and AURKB in astrocytoma. For the first time, the functional interaction of AURKA and AURKB has been found, which aids in the protection of their stability, and partially explains their constant high expression and activity in cancers. SIX3 is a potential biomarker that could be used to predict the response of astrocytoma patients to aurora kinase inhibitors.

Sun Q, Zhao H, Zhang C, et al.
Gene co-expression network reveals shared modules predictive of stage and grade in serous ovarian cancers.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(26):42983-42996 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Serous ovarian cancer (SOC) is the most lethal gynecological cancer. Clinical studies have revealed an association between tumor stage and grade and clinical prognosis. Identification of meaningful clusters of co-expressed genes or representative biomarkers related to stage or grade may help to reveal mechanisms of tumorigenesis and cancer development, and aid in predicting SOC patient prognosis. We therefore performed a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and calculated module-trait correlations based on three public microarray datasets (GSE26193, GSE9891, and TCGA), which included 788 samples and 10402 genes. We detected four modules related to one or more clinical features significantly shared across all modeling datasets, and identified one stage-associated module and one grade-associated module. Our analysis showed that MMP2, COL3A1, COL1A2, FBN1, COL5A1, COL5A2, and AEBP1 are top hub genes related to stage, while CDK1, BUB1, BUB1B, BIRC5, AURKB, CENPA, and CDC20 are top hub genes related to grade. Gene and pathway enrichment analyses of the regulatory networks involving hub genes suggest that extracellular matrix interactions and mitotic signaling pathways are crucial determinants of tumor stage and grade. The relationships between gene expression modules and tumor stage or grade were validated in five independent datasets. These results could potentially be developed into a more objective scoring system to improve prediction of SOC outcomes.

Subramaniyan B, Kumar V, Mathan G
Effect of sodium salt of Butrin, a novel compound isolated from Butea monosperma flowers on suppressing the expression of SIRT1 and Aurora B kinase-mediated apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 90:402-413 [PubMed] Related Publications
The infrequent manifestation of SIRT1 and Aurora B kinase has shown to play a pivotal role in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression by regulating Wnt signaling pathway. The present study investigates the signaling events that regulate the modulation of SIRT1 and Aurora B kinase expression and it's mediated cell proliferation in SW480 human primary adenocarcinoma CRC cells using Butea monosperma floral compounds (BMFC). In this, cell viability, mitochondrial mediated apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and inhibition of Wnt pathway were examined. Interestingly, the active novel compound, sodium salt of butrin, from BMFC significantly enhances the apoptosis activity, where SIRT1 and Aurora B kinase were ectopically overexpressed in CRC cells. Moreover, mRNA and protein expressions analysis indicates that the expression of GSK-3β, β-catenin, cyclin D1, pAKT, TGF-3β, SIRT1 and Aurora B kinase were down regulated in BMFC treated cells. These findings provide valuable information that the active BMFC having great impact on SIRT1 and Aurora B kinase mediated Wnt signaling down regulation in SW480 CRC cells.

Carloni V, Lulli M, Madiai S, et al.
CHK2 overexpression and mislocalisation within mitotic structures enhances chromosomal instability and hepatocellular carcinoma progression.
Gut. 2018; 67(2):348-361 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Chromosomal instability (CIN) is the most common form of genomic instability, which promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression by enhancing tumour heterogeneity, drug resistance and immunity escape. CIN per se is an important factor of DNA damage, sustaining structural chromosome abnormalities but the underlying mechanisms are unknown.
DESIGN: DNA damage response protein checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2) expression was evaluated in an animal model of diethylnitrosamine-induced HCC characterised by DNA damage and elevated mitotic errors. Chk2 was also determined in two discrete cohorts of human HCC specimens. To assess the functional role of Chk2, gain on and loss-of-function, mutagenesis, karyotyping and immunofluorescence/live imaging were performed by using HCT116, Huh7 and human hepatocytes immortalised with hTERT gene (HuS).
RESULTS: We demonstrate that mitotic errors during HCC tumorigenesis cause lagging chromosomes/DNA damage and activation of Chk2. Overexpression/phosphorylation and mislocalisation within the mitotic spindle of Chk2 contributes to induce lagging chromosomes. Lagging chromosomes and mitotic activity are reversed by knockdown of Chk2. Furthermore, upregulated Chk2 maintains mitotic activity interacting with Aurora B kinase for chromosome condensation and cytokinesis. The forkhead-associated domain of Chk2 is required for Chk2 mislocalisation to mitotic structures. In addition, retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation contributes to defective mitoses. A cohort and independent validation cohort show a strong cytoplasm to nuclear Chk2 translocation in a subset of patients with HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals a new mechanistic insight in the coinvolvement of Chk2 in HCC progression. These findings propose Chk2 as a putative biomarker to detect CIN in HCC providing a valuable support for clinical/therapeutical management of patients.

Murai S, Matuszkiewicz J, Okuzono Y, et al.
Aurora B Inhibitor TAK-901 Synergizes with BCL-xL Inhibition by Inducing Active BAX in Cancer Cells.
Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(2):437-444 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Aurora B kinase plays an essential role in chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, and is dysregulated in many cancer types, making it an attractive therapeutic target. TAK-901 is a potent aurora B inhibitor that showed efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo oncology models.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a synthetic lethal siRNA screening to identify the genes that, when silenced, can potentiate the cell growth-inhibitory effect of TAK-901.
RESULTS: B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-xL) depletion by siRNA or chemical inhibition synergized with TAK-901 in cancer cell lines. As a mechanism of synthetic lethality, active BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator (BAX) was induced by TAK-901. BCL-xL protected cells from BAX-dependent apoptosis induction. Therefore, TAK-901 sensitizes cancer cells to BCL-xL inhibition.
CONCLUSION: Polyploid cells induced by TAK-901 are vulnerable to BCL-xL inhibition. Our findings may have an impact on combination strategies with aurora B inhibitors in clinical studies.

Tang A, Gao K, Chu L, et al.
Aurora kinases: novel therapy targets in cancers.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(14):23937-23954 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Aurora kinases, a family of serine/threonine kinases, consisting of Aurora A (AURKA), Aurora B (AURKB) and Aurora C (AURKC), are essential kinases for cell division via regulating mitosis especially the process of chromosomal segregation. Besides regulating mitosis, Aurora kinases have been implicated in regulating meiosis. The deletion of Aurora kinases could lead to failure of cell division and impair the embryonic development. Overexpression or gene amplification of Aurora kinases has been clarified in a number of cancers. And a growing number of studies have demonstrated that inhibition of Aurora kinases could potentiate the effect of chemotherapies. For the past decades, a series of Aurora kinases inhibitors (AKIs) developed effectively repress the progression and growth of many cancers both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that Aurora kinases could be a novel therapeutic target. In this review, we'll first briefly present the structure, localization and physiological functions of Aurora kinases in mitosis, then describe the oncogenic role of Aurora kinases in tumorigenesis, we shall finally discuss the outcomes of AKIs combination with conventional therapy.

Al-Khafaji AS, Davies MP, Risk JM, et al.
Aurora B expression modulates paclitaxel response in non-small cell lung cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2017; 116(5):592-599 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Taxanes are mitotic poisons widely used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, little is known about potential molecular modulators of response to these compounds. Aurora B (AURKB) is a critical regulator of the mitotic spindle assembly, previously shown overexpressed in NSCLC. Here we investigated the hypothesis that AURKB expression modulates the efficacy of taxanes in NSCLC cells.
METHODS: AURKB mRNA expression was determined by qPCR in 132 frozen NSCLC tissues and nine NSCLC cell lines. Aurora B expression was knocked down in cell lines using multiple shRNA constructs. Barasertib was used to specifically inhibit AURKB activity, determined by the level of H3S10 phosphorylation.
RESULTS: Frequent AURKB mRNA upregulation was observed in NSCLC tissues (P<0.0001), being more prominent in squamous carcinomas (P<0.0001). Aurora B expression in cell lines strongly correlated with sensitivity to both docetaxel (P=0.004) and paclitaxel (P=0.007). Aurora B knockdown derivatives consistently showed a dose-dependent association between low-AURKB expression and resistance to paclitaxel. Specific chemical inhibition of Aurora B activity also demonstrated a strong dose-dependent efficiency in triggering paclitaxel resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: Aurora B activity is an important modulator of taxane response in NSCLC cells. This may lead to further insights into taxane sensitivity of NSCLC tumours.

Sha J, Xue W, Dong B, et al.
PRKAR2B plays an oncogenic role in the castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(4):6114-6129 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is an advanced form of prostate cancer. Despite some progresses have been made, the mechanism of CRPC development is still largely unknown, including the genes involved in its development have not been well defined. Here, we identifiedPRKAR2B to be a gene over-expressingin castration-resistant prostate cancer by analyzing the different online databases. Followed functional validation experiments showed that PRKAR2B promoted CRPC cell proliferation and invasion, and inhibited CRPC cell apoptosis. Whole genome transcriptome and GO enrichment analyses of the knock-down of PRKAR2B in CRPC cells showed that PRKAR2B mainly accelerated cell cycle biological process and modulated multiple cell cycle genes, such as CCNB1, MCM2, PLK1 and AURKB. Our study firstly identified PRKAR2B as a novel oncogenic gene involved in CRPC development and suggested it is a promising target for the future investigation and the treatment of CRPC.

Garg M, Kanojia D, Mayakonda A, et al.
Molecular mechanism and therapeutic implications of selinexor (KPT-330) in liposarcoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(5):7521-7532 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Exportin-1 mediates nuclear export of multiple tumor suppressor and growth regulatory proteins. Aberrant expression of exportin-1 is noted in human malignancies, resulting in cytoplasmic mislocalization of its target proteins. We investigated the efficacy of selinexor against liposarcoma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Exportin-1 was highly expressed in liposarcoma samples and cell lines as determined by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and immunofluorescence assay. Knockdown of endogenous exportin-1 inhibited proliferation of liposarcoma cells. Selinexor also significantly decreased cell proliferation as well as induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of liposarcoma cells. The drug also significantly decreased tumor volumes and weights of liposarcoma xenografts. Importantly, selinexor inhibited insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) activation of IGF-1R/AKT pathway through upregulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5). Further, overexpression and knockdown experiments showed that IGFBP5 acts as a tumor suppressor and its expression was restored upon selinexor treatment of liposarcoma cells. Selinexor decreased aurora kinase A and B levels in these cells and inhibitors of these kinases suppressed the growth of the liposarcoma cells. Overall, our study showed that selinexor treatment restored tumor suppressive function of IGFBP5 and inhibited aurora kinase A and B in liposarcoma cells supporting the usefulness of selinexor as a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this cancer.

Yang Y, Zhang Y, Qu X, et al.
Identification of differentially expressed genes in the development of osteosarcoma using RNA-seq.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(52):87194-87205 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Osteosarcoma (OS) is a malignant bone tumor with high morbidity in young adults and adolescents. This study aimed to discover potential early diagnosis biomarkers in OS.
RESULTS: In total, 111 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in primary OS compared with normal controls and 235 DEGs were identified in metastatic OS compared with primary OS. AURKB and PPP2R2B were the significantly up-regulated and down-regulated hub proteins, respectively, in the PPI protein-protein network (PPI) network of primary OS. ISG15 and BTRC were the significantly up-regulated and down-regulated hub proteins, respectively, in the network of metastatic OS. The DEGs in metastatic OS compared with primary OS were significantly enriched in the arachidonic acid metabolism, malaria, and chemokine signaling pathways. Finally, we employed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) to validate the expression levels of candidate DEGs and the results indicated that our bioinformatics approach was acceptable.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mRNA expression profiling of 20 subjects was obtained through high-throughput RNA-sequencing. DEGs were identified between primary OS and normal Control, and between primary OS and metastatic OS, respectively. Functional annotation and PPI networks were used to obtain insights into the functions of DEGs. qRT-PCR was performed to detect the expression levels of dysregulated genes in OS.
CONCLUSIONS: Our work might provide groundwork for the further exploration of tumorigenesis and metastasis mechanisms of OS.

Juodzbalys G, Kasradze D, Cicciù M, et al.
Modern molecular biomarkers of head and neck cancer. Part I. Epigenetic diagnostics and prognostics: Systematic review.
Cancer Biomark. 2016; 17(4):487-502 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Nearly half of the head and neck cancer cases are diagnosed in late stages. Traditional screening modalities have many disadvantages. The aim of the present article was to review the scientific literature about novel head and neck cancer diagnostics - epigenetic biomarkers.
EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive review of the current literature was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines by accessing the NCBI PubMed database. Authors conducted the search of articles in English language published from 2004 to 2015.
EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: A total of thirty three relevant studies were included in the review. Fifteen of them concerned DNA methylation alterations, nine evaluation of abundancies in histone expressions and nine miRNA expression changes in HNC.
CONCLUSIONS: Considerable number of epigenetic biomarkers have been identified in both tumor tissue and salivary samples. Genes with best diagnostic effectiveness rates and further studying prospects were: TIMP3, DCC, DAPK, CDH1, CCNA1, AIM1, MGMT, HIC1, PAX1, PAX5, ZIC4, p16, EDNRB, KIF1A, MINT31, CD44, RARβ , ECAD. Individual histone and miRNA alterations tend to be hnc specific. Prognostic values of separate biomarkers are ambiguous. No established standards for molecular assay of head and neck cancer was found in order to elude the paradoxical results and discrepancies in separate trials.

Sundar IK, Rahman I
Gene expression profiling of epigenetic chromatin modification enzymes and histone marks by cigarette smoke: implications for COPD and lung cancer.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2016; 311(6):L1245-L1258 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Chromatin-modifying enzymes mediate DNA methylation and histone modifications on recruitment to specific target gene loci in response to various stimuli. The key enzymes that regulate chromatin accessibility for maintenance of modifications in DNA and histones, and for modulation of gene expression patterns in response to cigarette smoke (CS), are not known. We hypothesize that CS exposure alters the gene expression patterns of chromatin-modifying enzymes, which then affects multiple downstream pathways involved in the response to CS. We have, therefore, analyzed chromatin-modifying enzyme profiles and validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). We also performed immunoblot analysis of targeted histone marks in C57BL/6J mice exposed to acute and subchronic CS, and of lungs from nonsmokers, smokers, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We found a significant increase in expression of several chromatin modification enzymes, including DNA methyltransferases, histone acetyltransferases, histone methyltransferases, and SET domain proteins, histone kinases, and ubiquitinases. Our qPCR validation data revealed a significant downregulation of Dnmt1, Dnmt3a, Dnmt3b, Hdac2, Hdac4, Hat1, Prmt1, and Aurkb We identified targeted chromatin histone marks (H3K56ac and H4K12ac), which are induced by CS. Thus CS-induced genotoxic stress differentially affects the expression of epigenetic modulators that regulate transcription of target genes via DNA methylation and site-specific histone modifications. This may have implications in devising epigenetic-based therapies for COPD and lung cancer.

Han KH, Kim MA, Park NH
Expression of aurora kinases: Predictor of tumor dissemination in uterine carcinosarcoma.
Histol Histopathol. 2017; 32(7):717-724 [PubMed] Related Publications
Uterine carcinosarcoma is a rare, aggressive, and biphasic tumor. It comprises carcinomatous and sarcomatous components, and mitosis-associated factors are thought to discriminate these two lesions. Aurora kinases are mitotic enzymes that are highly expressed in uterine malignancies. To identify the clinical significance of aurora kinase expression, we performed immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays using cores selected from areas with typical carcinomatous and sarcomatous characteristics. A total of 24 samples were included, from patients at Seoul National University Hospital diagnosed with uterine carcinosarcoma, and who undergone a staging operation between 1997 and 2012. Patients' clinical and pathological data were analyzed, and expression patterns of aurora kinases were investigated. Aurora kinases A and B were dominantly expressed in the cytoplasm, and phospho-aurora kinases A and B were expressed in the nuclei. Phospho-aurora kinase A and aurora kinase B showed significantly higher expression in the carcinomatous component (P=0.012 and 0.008). High expression of phospho-aurora kinase A was associated with lymphatic metastasis such as positive pelvic lymph node and omental involvement (P=0.012 and 0.037). Overexpression of aurora kinase B was related to vascular invasion (P=0.011). High expression of both phospho-aurora kinase A and aurora kinase B was a prognostic factor for progression-free survival in uterine carcinosarcoma (P=0.049). In conclusion, expression of aurora kinases is associated with bidirectional tumor dissemination into the lymphatic and hematogenous pathways. In addition, high expression of phospho-aurora kinase A and aurora kinase B is a predictor of progression-free survival. Therefore, inhibitors of aurora kinases might be a prospective therapeutic options for uterine carcinosarcoma.

Wu KX, Phuektes P, Kumar P, et al.
Human genome-wide RNAi screen reveals host factors required for enterovirus 71 replication.
Nat Commun. 2016; 7:13150 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a neurotropic enterovirus without antivirals or vaccine, and its host-pathogen interactions remain poorly understood. Here we use a human genome-wide RNAi screen to identify 256 host factors involved in EV71 replication in human rhabdomyosarcoma cells. Enrichment analyses reveal overrepresentation in processes like mitotic cell cycle and transcriptional regulation. We have carried out orthogonal experiments to characterize the roles of selected factors involved in cell cycle regulation and endoplasmatic reticulum-associated degradation. We demonstrate nuclear egress of CDK6 in EV71 infected cells, and identify CDK6 and AURKB as resistance factors. NGLY1, which co-localizes with EV71 replication complexes at the endoplasmatic reticulum, supports EV71 replication. We confirm importance of these factors for EV71 replication in a human neuronal cell line and for coxsackievirus A16 infection. A small molecule inhibitor of NGLY1 reduces EV71 replication. This study provides a comprehensive map of EV71 host factors and reveals potential antiviral targets.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. AURKB, Cancer Genetics Web: Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 30 August, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999