Gene Summary

Gene:IKZF1; IKAROS family zinc finger 1
Aliases: IK1, LYF1, LyF-1, CVID13, IKAROS, PPP1R92, PRO0758, ZNFN1A1, Hs.54452
Summary:This gene encodes a transcription factor that belongs to the family of zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins associated with chromatin remodeling. The expression of this protein is restricted to the fetal and adult hemo-lymphopoietic system, and it functions as a regulator of lymphocyte differentiation. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene. Most isoforms share a common C-terminal domain, which contains two zinc finger motifs that are required for hetero- or homo-dimerization, and for interactions with other proteins. The isoforms, however, differ in the number of N-terminal zinc finger motifs that bind DNA and in nuclear localization signal presence, resulting in members with and without DNA-binding properties. Only a few isoforms contain the requisite three or more N-terminal zinc motifs that confer high affinity binding to a specific core DNA sequence element in the promoters of target genes. The non-DNA-binding isoforms are largely found in the cytoplasm, and are thought to function as dominant-negative factors. Overexpression of some dominant-negative isoforms have been associated with B-cell malignancies, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). [provided by RefSeq, May 2014]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:DNA-binding protein Ikaros
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (26)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Chromosome 7
  • Xenograft Models
  • Systems Integration
  • Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid
  • Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Transcription Factors
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Gene Deletion
  • Knockout Mice
  • Zinc Finger Protein Gli3
  • Treatment Failure
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Survival Rate
  • Publication Bias
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Ikaros Transcription Factor
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Subcellular Fractions
  • Transcriptional Regulator ERG
  • Infant
  • bcl-X Protein
  • p53 Protein
  • Treatment, BMT & Stem Cell Transplant
  • Young Adult
  • U937 Cells
  • Mutation
  • Translocation
  • Proteins
  • Promoter Regions
  • Transcription
  • Adolescents
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Risk Factors
  • United Kingdom
  • VIP
  • Up-Regulation
  • NOTCH1 Receptor
  • Siblings
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IKZF1 (cancer-related)

Barwick BG, Neri P, Bahlis NJ, et al.
Multiple myeloma immunoglobulin lambda translocations portend poor prognosis.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1911 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of antibody-secreting plasma cells. Most patients benefit from current therapies, however, 20% of patients relapse or die within two years and are deemed high risk. Here we analyze structural variants from 795 newly-diagnosed patients as part of the CoMMpass study. We report translocations involving the immunoglobulin lambda (IgL) locus are present in 10% of patients, and indicative of poor prognosis. This is particularly true for IgL-MYC translocations, which coincide with focal amplifications of enhancers at both loci. Importantly, 78% of IgL-MYC translocations co-occur with hyperdiploid disease, a marker of standard risk, suggesting that IgL-MYC-translocated myeloma is being misclassified. Patients with IgL-translocations fail to benefit from IMiDs, which target IKZF1, a transcription factor that binds the IgL enhancer at some of the highest levels in the myeloma epigenome. These data implicate IgL translocation as a driver of poor prognosis which may be due to IMiD resistance.

Ayón-Pérez MF, Pimentel-Gutiérrez HJ, Durán-Avelar MJ, et al.
IKZF1 Gene Deletion in Pediatric Patients Diagnosed with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mexico.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2019; 158(1):10-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
The IKZF1 gene is formed by 8 exons and encodes IKAROS, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of genes that control cell cycle progression and cell survival. In general, 15-20% of the patients with preB acute lymphoblastic leukemia (preB ALL) harbor IKZF1 deletions, and the frequency of these deletions increases in BCR-ABL1 or Ph-like subgroups. These deletions have been associated with poor treatment response and the risk of relapse. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the frequency of IKZF1 deletions and the success of an induction therapy response in Mexican pediatric patients diagnosed with preB ALL in 2 hospitals from 2017 to August 2018. Thirty-six bone marrow samples from patients at the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría in Mexico City and the Centro Estatal de Cancerología in Tepic were analyzed. The IKZF1 deletion was identified by MLPA using the SALSA MLPA P335 ALL-IKZF1 probemix. Deletions of at least 1 IKZF1 exon were observed in 7/34 samples (20.6%): 3 with 1 exon deleted; 1 with 2 exons, 1 with 5 exons, 1 with 6 exons, and 1 patient with a complete IKZF1 deletion. This study was descriptive in nature; we calculated the frequency of the IKZF1 gene deletion in a Mexican pediatric population with preB ALL as 20.6%.

Bhat A, Shah R, Bhat GR, et al.
Association of ARID5B and IKZF1 Variants with Leukemia from Northern India.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2019; 23(3):176-179 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Leukemia is a heterogeneous disorder, characterized by elevated proliferation of white blood cells. Various genetic studies have assessed the contributory roles of several single nucleotide polymorphisms with the development of leukemia. The role of genetic variation in the ARID5B and IKZF1 genes has previously been identified in various population groups; however, the role of these variants in the north Indian populations of Jammu and Kashmir is unknown.
AIM: In this study, we explored the association of the newly identified genetic variants, rs10740055 of ARID5B and rs6964823 of IKZF1, with leukemic patients from Jammu and Kashmir of northern India.
METHODS: The variants were genotyped using TaqMan allele discrimination assays for 616 individuals (210 leukemic cases and 406 healthy controls). The association of each SNP with the disease was evaluated using logistic regression.
RESULTS: It was observed that the variants rs6964823 (IKZF1) and rs10740055 (ARID5B) showed significant associations with odds ratio (OR) and p-values of 1.5 (1.0-2.3 at 95% confidence interval [CI]) and 0.04; and 2.5 (1.5-4.1 at 95% CI) and 0.0002, respectively. We also evaluated the cumulative effect for both the variants by combining the risk genotypes and obtained and OR of 4.9.
DISCUSSION: It was found that the variants rs10740055 of ARID5B and rs6964823 of IKZF1 act individually and additively as risk factors in the development of leukemia in the populations of Jammu and Kashmir in Northern India.

Maciel ALT, Poubel CP, Noronha EP, et al.
CRLF2 expression associates with ICN1 stabilization in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2019; 58(6):396-401 [PubMed] Related Publications
T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematopoietic malignancy with few molecular alterations showing a consensual prognostic value. CRLF2 overexpression was recently identified in high-risk T-ALL patients. For these cases, no genomic abnormality was found to be associated with CRLF2 overexpression. IKZF1 has been recently shown to be a direct transcriptional regulator of CRLF2 expression. Moreover, it is known that NOTCH1 antagonizes IKZF1 in T-ALL. In light of these pieces of evidence, we reasoned that IKZF1 binding perturbation and CRLF2 upregulation could be associated in T-ALL. We evaluated two independent series of pediatric T-ALL cases (PHOP, n = 57 and TARGET, n = 264) for the presence of common T-ALL molecular abnormalities, such as NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutations. We also assessed CRLF2 and IKZF1 gene expression. CRLF2 overexpression was observed in 14% (PHOP) and 16% (TARGET) of T-ALL patients. No correlation was found between mRNA expression of CRLF2 and IKZF1 in both cohorts. Interestingly, we show that patients with mutations affecting NOTCH1-PEST domain and/or FBXW7 had higher CRLF2 expression (P = .04). In summary, we demonstrate for the first time that only mutations resulting in ICN1 (intracellular domain of NOTCH1) stabilization are associated with CRLF2 overexpression.

Bashanfer SAA, Saleem M, Heidenreich O, et al.
Disruption of MAPK1 expression in the ERK signalling pathway and the RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 fusion gene attenuate the differentiation and proliferation and induces the growth arrest in t(8;21) leukaemia cells.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(3):2027-2040 [PubMed] Related Publications
The t(8;21) translocation is one of the most frequent chromosome abnormalities associated with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). This abberation deregulates numerous molecular pathways including the ERK signalling pathway among others. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the gene expression patterns following siRNA‑mediated suppression of RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 and MAPK1 in Kasumi‑1 and SKNO‑1 cells and to determine the differentially expressed genes in enriched biological pathways. BeadChip microarray and gene ontology analysis revealed that RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 and MAPK1 suppression reduced the proliferation rate of the t(8;21) cells with deregulated expression of several classical positive regulator genes that are otherwise known to enhance cell proliferation. RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 suppression exerted an anti‑apoptotic effect through the overexpression of BCL2, BIRC3 and CFLAR genes, while MAPK1 suppression induced apopotosis in t(8;21) cells by the apoptotic mitochondrial changes stimulated by the activity of upregulated TP53 and TNFSF10, and downregulated JUN gene. RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 suppression supported myeloid differentiation by the differential expression of CEBPA, CEBPE, ID2, JMJD6, IKZF1, CBFB, KIT and CDK6, while MAPK1 depletion inhibited the differentiation of t(8;21) cells by elevated expression of ADA and downregulation of JUN. RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 and MAPK1 depletion induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Accumulation of cells in the G1 phase was largely the result of downregulated expression of TBRG4, CCNE2, FOXO4, CDK6, ING4, IL8, MAD2L1 and CCNG2 in the case of RUNX1‑RUNX1T1 depletion and increased expression of RASSF1, FBXO6, DADD45A and P53 in the case of MAPK1 depletion. Taken together, the current results demonstrate that MAPK1 promotes myeloid cell proliferation and differentiation simultaneously by cell cycle progression while suppresing apoptosis.

Li JF, Dai YT, Lilljebjörn H, et al.
Transcriptional landscape of B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia based on an international study of 1,223 cases.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(50):E11711-E11720 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) can be classified into known major genetic subtypes, while a substantial proportion of BCP ALL remains poorly characterized in relation to its underlying genomic abnormalities. We therefore initiated a large-scale international study to reanalyze and delineate the transcriptome landscape of 1,223 BCP ALL cases using RNA sequencing. Fourteen BCP ALL gene expression subgroups (G1 to G14) were identified. Apart from extending eight previously described subgroups (G1 to G8 associated with

Roberts KG
Why and how to treat Ph-like ALL?
Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2018; 31(4):351-356 [PubMed] Related Publications
Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL), or BCR-ABL1-like ALL, is a high-risk subtype of B-cell precursor ALL characterized by a gene expression profile similar to Ph-positive ALL, a high frequency of IKZF1 alterations, and poor outcome. The prevalence of Ph-like ALL is common among all ages, ranging from 10% to 15% in children to over 25% in young adults. Patients with Ph-like ALL harbor a diverse range of genetic alterations that activate cytokine receptor and kinase signaling and can be targeted with tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The majority of Ph-like ALL alterations are divided into two main groups based on activation of ABL-class or JAK-STAT alterations. Accordingly, preclinical studies and anecdotal reports suggest patients harboring ABL-class fusions are candidates for ABL1-inhibitors, whilst alterations activating the JAK-STAT pathway may be amenable to treatment with JAK inhibitors. Diagnostic screening approaches and precision medicine trials are now being developed and implemented to test the efficacy of targeted therapy with a backbone of chemotherapy, similar to the treatment of Ph-positive ALL.

Chen Q, Shi Y, Chen Y, et al.
Multiple functions of Ikaros in hematological malignancies, solid tumor and autoimmune diseases.
Gene. 2019; 684:47-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ikaros, encoded by IKZF1 (Ikaros family zinc finger 1), is an important transcription factor in the control of lymphocyte specification and differentiation. Multiple functions of Ikaros have been exerted in almost all hematopoietic cell types, from stem cells to mature lymphoid and myeloid cells. Moreover, nonhematopoietic cells are also functional targets of Ikaros. Ikaros is essential for normal hematopoiesis, autoimmune and tumor suppression. Ikaros mutations were associated with lymphoblastic cells deficiency, autoimmunity and malignancies development, including hematological malignancies (leukemia) and solid tumors. This review focus on discuss the role of Ikaros in hematological malignancies, solid tumors and autoimmune diseases, and highlight the importance of Ikaros in cancer and immune diseases therapy.

Fei DL, Zhen T, Durham B, et al.
Impaired hematopoiesis and leukemia development in mice with a conditional knock-in allele of a mutant splicing factor gene
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(44):E10437-E10446 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations affecting the spliceosomal protein U2AF1 are commonly found in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). We have generated mice that carry Cre-dependent knock-in alleles of

Fedele PL, Willis SN, Liao Y, et al.
IMiDs prime myeloma cells for daratumumab-mediated cytotoxicity through loss of Ikaros and Aiolos.
Blood. 2018; 132(20):2166-2178 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have demonstrated that the immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) lead to the degradation of the transcription factors Ikaros and Aiolos. However, why their loss subsequently leads to multiple myeloma (MM) cell death remains unclear. Using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, we have deleted

Olsson L, Lundin-Ström KB, Castor A, et al.
Improved cytogenetic characterization and risk stratification of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia using single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis: A single center experience of 296 cases.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(11):604-607 [PubMed] Related Publications
Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A) analyses are increasingly being introduced in routine genetic diagnostics of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Despite this, only few studies that have compared the diagnostic value of SNP-A with conventional chromosome banding have been published. We here report such a comparison of 296 ALL cases, the largest series to date. Only genomic imbalances >5 Mb and microdeletions targeting the BTG1, CDKN2A/B, EBF1, ERG, ETV6, IKZF1, PAX5, and RB1 genes and the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) were ascertained, in agreement with recent guidelines. Of 36 T-cell ALL cases, the karyotypes of 24 cases (67%) were revised by SNP-A analyses that either revealed additional imbalances >5 Mb or better characterized the changes found by G-banding. Of 260 B-cell precursor (BCP) ALL cases, SNP-A analyses identified additional copy number alterations, including the above-mentioned microdeletions, or better characterized the imbalances found by G-banding in 236 (91%) cases. Furthermore, the cytogenetic subtype classification of 41/260 (16%) BCP ALL cases was revised based on the SNP-A findings. Of the subtype revisions, 12/41 (29%) had clinical implications as regards risk stratifying cytogenetic groups or genotype-specific minimal residual disease stratification. We conclude that SNP-A analyses dramatically improve the cytogenetic characterization of both T-cell and BCP ALL and also provide important information pertinent to risk stratification of BCP ALL.

Sievers QL, Gasser JA, Cowley GS, et al.
Genome-wide screen identifies cullin-RING ligase machinery required for lenalidomide-dependent CRL4
Blood. 2018; 132(12):1293-1303 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lenalidomide mediates the ubiquitination and degradation of Ikaros family zinc finger protein 1 (IKZF1), IKZF3, and casein kinase 1α (CK1α) by facilitating their interaction with cereblon (CRBN), the substrate receptor for the CRL4

Liu J, Song T, Zhou W, et al.
A genome-scale CRISPR-Cas9 screening in myeloma cells identifies regulators of immunomodulatory drug sensitivity.
Leukemia. 2019; 33(1):171-180 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) including lenalidomide and pomalidomide bind cereblon (CRBN) and activate the CRL4

Branford S, Wang P, Yeung DT, et al.
Integrative genomic analysis reveals cancer-associated mutations at diagnosis of CML in patients with high-risk disease.
Blood. 2018; 132(9):948-961 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic events associated with poor outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are poorly understood. We performed whole-exome sequencing, copy-number variation, and/or RNA sequencing for 65 patients to discover mutations at diagnosis and blast crisis (BC). Forty-six patients with chronic-phase disease with the extremes of outcome were studied at diagnosis. Cancer gene variants were detected in 15 (56%) of 27 patients with subsequent BC or poor outcome and in 3 (16%) of 19 optimal responders (

Choi Y, Kwon CH, Lee SJ, et al.
Integrative analysis of oncogenic fusion genes and their functional impact in colorectal cancer.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 119(2):230-240 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fusion genes are good candidates of molecular targets for cancer therapy. However, there is insufficient research on the clinical implications and functional characteristics of fusion genes in colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: In this study, we analysed RNA sequencing data of CRC patients (147 tumour and 47 matched normal tissues) to identify oncogenic fusion genes and evaluated their role in CRC.
RESULTS: We validated 24 fusion genes, including novel fusions, by three algorithms and Sanger sequencing. Fusions from most patients were mutually exclusive CRC oncogenes and included tumour suppressor gene mutations. Eleven fusion genes from 13 patients (8.8%) were determined as oncogenic fusion genes by analysing their gene expression and function. To investigate their oncogenic impact, we performed proliferation and migration assays of CRC cell lines expressing fusion genes of GTF3A-CDK8, NAGLU- IKZF3, RNF121- FOLR2, and STRN-ALK. Overexpression of these fusion genes increased cell proliferation except GTF3A-CDK8. In addition, overexpression of NAGLU-IKZF3 enhanced migration of CRC cells. We demonstrated that NAGLU-IKZF3, RNF121-FOLR2, and STRN-ALK had tumourigenic effects in CRC.
CONCLUSION: In summary, we identified and characterised oncogenic fusion genes and their function in CRC, and implicated NAGLU-IKZF3 and RNF121-FOLR2 as novel molecular targets for personalised medicine development.

Patil A, Manzano M, Gottwein E
CK1α and IRF4 are essential and independent effectors of immunomodulatory drugs in primary effusion lymphoma.
Blood. 2018; 132(6):577-586 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive cancer with few treatment options. The immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) lenalidomide and pomalidomide have recently been shown to kill PEL cell lines, and lenalidomide is in clinical trials against PEL. IMiDs bind to the CRL4

Symonds EL, Pedersen SK, Murray DH, et al.
Circulating tumour DNA for monitoring colorectal cancer-a prospective cohort study to assess relationship to tissue methylation, cancer characteristics and surgical resection.
Clin Epigenetics. 2018; 10:63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Cell-free circulating tumour-derived DNA (ctDNA) can be detected by testing for methylated
Methods: Enrolled patients with invasive CRC had blood collected at diagnosis, prior to any treatment or surgery (peri-diagnostic sample). A subgroup of patients also had cancer and adjacent non-neoplastic tissue collected at surgical resection, as well as a second blood sample collected within 12 months of surgery (post-surgery sample). DNA was extracted from all samples and assayed for methylated
Results: Of 187 cases providing peri-diagnostic blood samples, tissue was available in 91, and 93 provided at least one post-surgery blood sample for marker analysis. Significant methylation of either
Conclusion: This study has shown that
Trial registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry number 12611000318987. Registered 25 March 2011.

Rahmani M, Talebi M, Hagh MF, et al.
Aberrant DNA methylation of key genes and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 97:1493-1500 [PubMed] Related Publications
DNA methylation is a dynamic process influencing gene expression by altering either coding or non-coding loci. Despite advances in treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL); relapse occurs in approximately 20% of patients. Nowadays, epigenetic factors are considered as one of the most effective mechanisms in pathogenesis of malignancies. These factors are reversible elements which can be potentially regarded as therapy targets and disease prognosis. DNA methylation, which primarily serves as transcriptional suppressor, mostly occurs in CpG islands of the gene promoter regions. This was shown as a key epigenetic factor in inactivating various tumor suppressor genes during cancer initiation and progression. We aimed to review methylation status of key genes involved in hematopoietic malignancies such as IKZF1, CDKN2B, TET2, CYP1B1, SALL4, DLC1, DLX family, TP73, PTPN6, and CDKN1C; and their significance in pathogenesis of ALL. The DNA methylation alterations in promoter regions of the genes have been shown to play crucial roles in tumorigenesis. Methylation -based inactivation of these genes has also been reported as associated with prognosis in acute leukemia. In this review, we also addressed the association of gene expression and methylation pattern in ALL patients.

Ng SY, Yoshida N, Christie AL, et al.
Targetable vulnerabilities in T- and NK-cell lymphomas identified through preclinical models.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):2024 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
T- and NK-cell lymphomas (TCL) are a heterogenous group of lymphoid malignancies with poor prognosis. In contrast to B-cell and myeloid malignancies, there are few preclinical models of TCLs, which has hampered the development of effective therapeutics. Here we establish and characterize preclinical models of TCL. We identify multiple vulnerabilities that are targetable with currently available agents (e.g., inhibitors of JAK2 or IKZF1) and demonstrate proof-of-principle for biomarker-driven therapies using patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). We show that MDM2 and MDMX are targetable vulnerabilities within TP53-wild-type TCLs. ALRN-6924, a stapled peptide that blocks interactions between p53 and both MDM2 and MDMX has potent in vitro activity and superior in vivo activity across 8 different PDX models compared to the standard-of-care agent romidepsin. ALRN-6924 induced a complete remission in a patient with TP53-wild-type angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, demonstrating the potential for rapid translation of discoveries from subtype-specific preclinical models.

Fuchs O
Treatment of Lymphoid and Myeloid Malignancies by Immunomodulatory Drugs.
Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2019; 19(1):51-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Thalidomide and its derivatives (lenalidomide, pomalidomide, avadomide, iberdomide hydrochoride, CC-885 and CC-90009) form the family of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs). Lenalidomide (CC5013, Revlimid®) was approved by the US FDA and the EMA for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) patients, low or intermediate-1 risk transfusion-dependent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with chromosome 5q deletion [del(5q)] and relapsed and/or refractory mantle cell lymphoma following bortezomib. Lenalidomide has also been studied in clinical trials and has shown promising activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Lenalidomide has anti-inflammatory effects and inhibits angiogenesis. Pomalidomide (CC4047, Imnovid® [EU], Pomalyst® [USA]) was approved for advanced MM insensitive to bortezomib and lenalidomide. Other IMiDs are in phases 1 and 2 of clinical trials. Cereblon (CRBN) seems to have an important role in IMiDs action in both lymphoid and myeloid hematological malignancies. Cereblon acts as the substrate receptor of a cullin-4 really interesting new gene (RING) E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4CRBN. This E3 ubiquitin ligase in the absence of lenalidomide ubiquitinates CRBN itself and the other components of CRL4CRBN complex. Presence of lenalidomide changes specificity of CRL4CRBN which ubiquitinates two transcription factors, IKZF1 (Ikaros) and IKZF3 (Aiolos), and casein kinase 1α (CK1α) and marks them for degradation in proteasomes. Both these transcription factors (IKZF1 and IKZF3) stimulate proliferation of MM cells and inhibit T cells. Low CRBN level was connected with insensitivity of MM cells to lenalidomide. Lenalidomide decreases expression of protein argonaute-2, which binds to cereblon. Argonaute-2 seems to be an important drug target against IMiDs resistance in MM cells. Lenalidomide decreases also basigin and monocarboxylate transporter 1 in MM cells. MM cells with low expression of Ikaros, Aiolos and basigin are more sensitive to lenalidomide treatment. The CK1α gene (CSNK1A1) is located on 5q32 in commonly deleted region (CDR) in del(5q) MDS. Inhibition of CK1α sensitizes del(5q) MDS cells to lenalidomide. CK1α mediates also survival of malignant plasma cells in MM. Though, inhibition of CK1α is a potential novel therapy not only in del(5q) MDS but also in MM. High level of full length CRBN mRNA in mononuclear cells of bone marrow and of peripheral blood seems to be necessary for successful therapy of del(5q) MDS with lenalidomide. While transfusion independence (TI) after lenalidomide treatment is more than 60% in MDS patients with del(5q), only 25% TI and substantially shorter duration of response with occurrence of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were achieved in lower risk MDS patients with normal karyotype treated with lenalidomide. Shortage of the biomarkers for lenalidomide response in these MDS patients is the main problem up to now.

Tomoyasu C, Imamura T, Tomii T, et al.
Copy number abnormality of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines based on their genetic subtypes.
Int J Hematol. 2018; 108(3):312-318 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we performed genetic analysis of 83 B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines. First, we performed multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis to identify copy number abnormalities (CNAs) in eight genes associated with B-ALL according to genetic subtype. In Ph

Kamihara J, Shimamura A
It's ALL in the Family: IKZF1 and Hereditary Leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2018; 33(5):798-800 [PubMed] Related Publications
IKZF1 plays an essential role in lymphopoiesis, and somatic IKZF1 variants in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are associated with poor prognosis. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Churchman et al. add to the list of leukemia predisposition genes with the identification and characterization of germline IKZF1 variants in childhood ALL.

Lukes J, Potuckova E, Sramkova L, et al.
Two novel fusion genes, AIF1L-ETV6 and ABL1-AIF1L, result together with ETV6-ABL1 from a single chromosomal rearrangement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with prenatal origin.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2018; 57(9):471-477 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fusion genes resulting from chromosomal rearrangements represent a hallmark of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Unlike more common fusion genes generated via simple reciprocal chromosomal translocations, formation of the ETV6-ABL1 fusion gene requires 3 DNA breaks and usually results from an interchromosomal insertion. We report a child with ALL in which a single interchromosomal insertion led to the formation of ETV6-ABL1 and 2 novel fusion genes: AIF1L-ETV6 and ABL1-AIF1L. We demonstrate the prenatal origin of this complex chromosomal rearrangement, which apparently initiated the leukemogenic process, by successful backtracking of the ETV6-ABL1 fusion into the patient's archived neonatal blood. We cloned coding sequences of AIF1L-ETV6 and ABL1-AIF1L in-frame fusion transcripts from the patient's leukemic blasts and we show that the chimeric protein containing the DNA binding domain of ETV6 is expressed from the AIF1L-ETV6 transcript and localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus of transfected HEK293T cells. Transcriptomic and genomic profiling of the diagnostic bone marrow sample revealed Ph-like gene expression signature and loss of the IKZF1 and CDKN2A/B genes, the typical genetic lesions accompanying ETV6-ABL1-positive ALL. The prenatal origin of the rearrangement confirms that ETV6-ABL1 is not sufficient to cause overt leukemia, even when combined with the 2 novel fusions. We did not find the AIF1L-ETV6 and ABL1-AIF1L fusions in other ETV6-ABL1-positive ALL. Nevertheless, functional studies would be needed to establish the biological role of AIF1L-ETV6 and ABL1-AIF1L and to determine whether they contribute to leukemogenesis and/or to the final leukemia phenotype.

Churchman ML, Qian M, Te Kronnie G, et al.
Germline Genetic IKZF1 Variation and Predisposition to Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2018; 33(5):937-948.e8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Somatic genetic alterations of IKZF1, which encodes the lymphoid transcription factor IKAROS, are common in high-risk B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and are associated with poor prognosis. Such alterations result in the acquisition of stem cell-like features, overexpression of adhesion molecules causing aberrant cell-cell and cell-stroma interaction, and decreased sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Here we report coding germline IKZF1 variation in familial childhood ALL and 0.9% of presumed sporadic B-ALL, identifying 28 unique variants in 45 children. The majority of variants adversely affected IKZF1 function and drug responsiveness of leukemic cells. These results identify IKZF1 as a leukemia predisposition gene, and emphasize the importance of germline genetic variation in the development of both familial and sporadic ALL.

Chiaretti S, Messina M, Grammatico S, et al.
Rapid identification of BCR/ABL1-like acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients using a predictive statistical model based on quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction: clinical, prognostic and therapeutic implications.
Br J Haematol. 2018; 181(5):642-652 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BCR/ABL1-like acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a subgroup of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukaemia that occurs within cases without recurrent molecular rearrangements. Gene expression profiling (GEP) can identify these cases but it is expensive and not widely available. Using GEP, we identified 10 genes specifically overexpressed by BCR/ABL1-like ALL cases and used their expression values - assessed by quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) in 26 BCR/ABL1-like and 26 non-BCR/ABL1-like cases to build a statistical "BCR/ABL1-like predictor", for the identification of BCR/ABL1-like cases. By screening 142 B-lineage ALL patients with the "BCR/ABL1-like predictor", we identified 28/142 BCR/ABL1-like patients (19·7%). Overall, BCR/ABL1-like cases were enriched in JAK/STAT mutations (P < 0·001), IKZF1 deletions (P < 0·001) and rearrangements involving cytokine receptors and tyrosine kinases (P = 0·001), thus corroborating the validity of the prediction. Clinically, the BCR/ABL1-like cases identified by the BCR/ABL1-like predictor achieved a lower rate of complete remission (P = 0·014) and a worse event-free survival (P = 0·0009) compared to non-BCR/ABL1-like ALL. Consistently, primary cells from BCR/ABL1-like cases responded in vitro to ponatinib. We propose a simple tool based on Q-RT-PCR and a statistical model that is capable of easily, quickly and reliably identifying BCR/ABL1-like ALL cases at diagnosis.

Aoe M, Ishida H, Matsubara T, et al.
Simultaneous detection of ABL1 mutation and IKZF1 deletion in Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia using a customized target enrichment system panel.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2018; 40(4):427-436 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Recent clinical outcomes of pediatric Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ALL) vastly improved owing to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). However, the genetic status would be different in each case with ABL1 gene mutation or copy number variants (CNVs) such as IKZF1 deletion. In particular, the TKI resistant clone with ABL1 kinase mutation remains problematic. The comprehensive assessment of genetic status including mutation, insertion and deletion (indel) and CNVs is necessary.
METHODS: We evaluated a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based customized HaloPlex target enrichment system panel to simultaneously detect coding mutations, indel and CNVs. We analysed approximately 160 known genes associated with hematological disorders in 5 pediatric Ph+ALL patients.
RESULTS: Mono-allelic IKZF1 deletions were found in 4 patients at diagnosis. Furthermore, the mono-allelic deletions were found in exons of RB1, EBF1, PAX5 and ETV6 genes. Bi-allelic deletions were detected in CDKN2A and CDKN2B genes in 1 patient. ABL1 mutation was also detected in 1 patient at relapse. These results were almost comparable with the results of the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method or Sanger sequence.
CONCLUSION: Next-generation sequencing-based custom HaloPlex target enrichment system panel allows us to detect the coding mutations, indel, and CNVs in pediatric Ph+ALL simultaneously, and its results seem comparable with those of other methods.

Tran TH, Harris MH, Nguyen JV, et al.
Prognostic impact of kinase-activating fusions and IKZF1 deletions in pediatric high-risk B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood Adv. 2018; 2(5):529-533 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recurrent chromosomal rearrangements carry prognostic significance in pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Recent genome-wide analyses identified a high-risk B-ALL subtype characterized by a diverse spectrum of genetic alterations activating kinases and cytokine receptor genes. This subtype is associated with a poor prognosis when treated with conventional chemotherapy but has demonstrated sensitivity to the relevant tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We sought to determine the frequency of kinase-activating fusions among National Cancer Institute (NCI) high-risk, Ph-negative, B-ALL patients enrolled on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute ALL Consortium Protocol 05-001 and to describe their associated clinical characteristics and outcomes. Among the 105 patients screened, 16 (15%) harbored an ABL-class fusion (

Stanulla M, Dagdan E, Zaliova M, et al.
J Clin Oncol. 2018; 36(12):1240-1249 [PubMed] Related Publications
Purpose Somatic deletions that affect the lymphoid transcription factor-coding gene IKZF1 have previously been reported as independently associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric B-cell precursor (BCP) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We have now refined the prognostic strength of IKZF1 deletions by analyzing the effect of co-occurring deletions. Patients and Methods The analysis involved 991 patients with BCP ALL treated in the Associazione Italiana Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica-Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster (AIEOP-BFM) ALL 2000 trial with complete information for copy number alterations of IKZF1, PAX5, ETV6, RB1, BTG1, EBF1, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, Xp22.33/Yp11.31 (PAR1 region; CRLF2, CSF2RA, and IL3RA), and ERG; replication of findings involved 417 patients from the same trial. Results IKZF1 deletions that co-occurred with deletions in CDKN2A, CDKN2B, PAX5, or PAR1 in the absence of ERG deletion conferred the worst outcome and, consequently, were grouped as IKZF1

Singh M, Bhatia P, Trehan A, et al.
High frequency of intermediate and poor risk copy number abnormalities in pediatric cohort of B-ALL correlate with high MRD post induction.
Leuk Res. 2018; 66:79-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
Copy number abnormalities (CNAs) and recurrent fusion transcripts are important genetic events which define and prognosticate B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL). We evaluated CNAs and fusion transcripts in 67 pediatric B-ALL cases and correlated the data with standard risk factors and early treatment outcome parameters. Common fusion transcripts ETV6-RUNX1, E2A-PBX, BCR-ABL1 and MLL-AF4 were examined by RT-PCR and noted in 15%, 15%, 13% and 1.4% of all cases respectively. CNAs in IKZF1, PAX5, EBF1, BTG1, RB1, CDKN2A/B and genes from PAR1 region viz., CSF2RA, IL3RA,P2RY8, SHOX region and CRLF2 were analyzed by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification assay and were detected in 70% (47/67) of cases, with predominantly deletions in CDKN2A/B (36%), PAX5 (18%) and IKZF1 (16%). A statistically significant association of intermediate/poor risk CNAs was noted with high WBC count (p = 0.001), NCI group (p = 0.02) and minimal residual disease at Day35 (p < 0.0001). IKZF1 and CDKN2A/B deletion revealed poor EFS of 56% at 24 months as compared to EFS of 80% in rest of the cases (p = 0.05) suggesting their potential role in early risk stratification.

Wang LX, Li Y, Chen GZ
Network-based co-expression analysis for exploring the potential diagnostic biomarkers of metastatic melanoma.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(1):e0190447 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer and is one of the global malignancies with high mortality and morbidity. It is essential to identify and verify diagnostic biomarkers of early metastatic melanoma. Previous studies have systematically assessed protein biomarkers and mRNA-based expression characteristics. However, molecular markers for the early diagnosis of metastatic melanoma have not been identified. To explore potential regulatory targets, we have analyzed the gene microarray expression profiles of malignant melanoma samples by co-expression analysis based on the network approach. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened by the EdgeR package of R software. A weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was used for the identification of DEGs in the special gene modules and hub genes. Subsequently, a protein-protein interaction network was constructed to extract hub genes associated with gene modules. Finally, twenty-four important hub genes (RASGRP2, IKZF1, CXCR5, LTB, BLK, LINGO3, CCR6, P2RY10, RHOH, JUP, KRT14, PLA2G3, SPRR1A, KRT78, SFN, CLDN4, IL1RN, PKP3, CBLC, KRT16, TMEM79, KLK8, LYPD3 and LYPD5) were treated as valuable factors involved in the immune response and tumor cell development in tumorigenesis. In addition, a transcriptional regulatory network was constructed for these specific modules or hub genes, and a few core transcriptional regulators were found to be mostly associated with our hub genes, including GATA1, STAT1, SP1, and PSG1. In summary, our findings enhance our understanding of the biological process of malignant melanoma metastasis, enabling us to identify specific genes to use for diagnostic and prognostic markers and possibly for targeted therapy.

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