Research IndicatorsGraph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (6)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: ITGB2 (cancer-related)
Li J, Li S, Chen Z, et al.miR-326 reverses chemoresistance in human lung adenocarcinoma cells by targeting specificity protein 1.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(10):13287-13294 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Cisplatin resistance is a major obstacle in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD), and its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that miR-326 is downregulated in cisplatin-resistant A549/CDDP cells compared with parental A549 cells. Overexpression of miR-326 reversed cisplatin chemoresistance of LAD cells in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we identified the specificity protein 1 (SP1) gene as a novel direct target of miR-326. Knockdown of SP1 revealed similar effects as that of ectopic miR-326 expression. Decreased miR-326 expression was also detected in tumor tissues sampled from LAD patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy and was proved to be correlated with high expression of SP1 and decreased sensitivity to cisplatin. Furthermore, we show that the long noncoding RNA HOTAIR repression reverses chemoresistance of LAD cells partially through modulation of miR-326/SP1 pathway. In summary, we unveil a branch of the HOTAIR/miR-326/SP1 pathway that regulates chemoresistance of LAD cells.
There are unmet medical needs for patients with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). Therefore, in this study, we explored the antitumor potential of third-generation glypican 3 (GPC3)-redirected chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T lymphocytes (CARgpc3 T cells) in tumor models of LSCC. First, we demonstrated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) that GPC3 was expressed in 66.3% of LSCC samples and in 3.3% of lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) samples but not in normal lung tissues. In the presence of GPC3-positive LSCC cells, CARgpc3 T cells were highly activated and increased in number. CARgpc3 T cells could specifically lyse GPC3-positive LSCC cells in vitro. In two established LSCC xenograft models, CARgpc3 T cells could almost completely eliminate the growth of GPC3-positive cells. Additionally, the CARgpc3 T cells were able to persist in vivo and efficiently infiltrate the cancerous tissues. Taken together, these findings indicate that CARgpc3 T cells might be a novel potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of patients with LSCC.
Bednarska K, Klink M, Wilczyński JR, et al.Heterogeneity of the Mac-1 expression on peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with different types of epithelial ovarian cancer.
Immunobiology. 2016; 221(2):323-32 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The expression level of Mac-1 on the surface of neutrophils is an important indicator of neutrophil activation. Under pathological conditions, Mac-1 is believed a key adhesion molecule that facilitates cancer progression and mediates the adhesion of tumour cells to the endothelium of blood vessels. Our previous findings indicated that circulating peripheral blood neutrophils in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) expressed enhanced levels of Mac-1, which was functionally associated with an increased adhesive function of neutrophils. The objective of the current study was to analyse whether the value of individual components of the differential white cell count, including the neutrophil and lymphocyte ratios, which are markers of blood neutrophil activation, might be associated with certain types of ovarian cancer. We showed the increase in Mac-1 expression along with a parallel decrease of L-selectin and PSGL-1 on peripheral blood neutrophils of patients with EOC of early and advanced FIGO stages, which indicates an activated state of neutrophils in comparison to neutrophils of individuals without cancer. Despite a significant difference between Mac-1 expression in patients with and without cancer, a dramatic increase in Mac-1 expression was observed in the blood of patients with undifferentiated carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC. Moreover, the expression level of Mac-1 correlated with the number of neutrophils in patients with serous, endometrioid and undifferentiated EOC. The results of an ROC analysis demonstrated that the patients with the undifferentiated type of EOC form a distinct group with regard to Mac-1 expression on blood neutrophils. The results suggested a diverse biological cadre of immune cells in patients with undifferentiated ovarian carcinomas compared with patients with other histological types of EOC.
Aberrant Wnt signaling frequently occurs in pancreatic cancer (PC) and contributes to disease progression/metastases. Likewise, the transmembrane-mucin MUC4 is expressed de novo in early pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs) and incrementally increases with PC progression, contributing to metastasis. To determine the mechanism of MUC4 upregulation in PC, we examined factors deregulated in early PC progression, such as Wnt/β-catenin signaling. MUC4 promoter analysis revealed the presence of three putative TCF/LEF-binding sites, leading us to hypothesize that MUC4 can be regulated by β-catenin. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of rapid autopsy PC tissues showed a correlation between MUC4 and cytosolic/nuclear β-catenin expression. Knock down (KD) of β-catenin in CD18/HPAF and T3M4 cell lines resulted in decreased MUC4 transcript and protein. Three MUC4 promoter luciferase constructs, p3778, p3000, and p2700, were generated. The construct p3778, encompassing the entire MUC4 promoter, elicited increased luciferase activity in the presence of stabilized β-catenin. Mutation of the TCF/LEF site closest to the transcription start site (i.e., -2629/-2612) and furthest from the start site (i.e., -3425/-3408) reduced MUC4 promoter luciferase activity. Transfection with dominant negative TCF4 decreased MUC4 transcript and protein levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed enrichment of β-catenin on -2629/-2612 and -3425/-3408 of the MUC4 promoter in CD18/HPAF. Functionally, CD18/HPAF and T3M4 β-catenin KD cells showed decreased migration and decreased Vimentin, N-cadherin, and pERK1/2 expression. Tumorigenicity studies in athymic nude mice showed CD18/HPAF β-catenin KD cells significantly reduced primary tumor sizes and metastases compared to scrambled control cells. We show for the first time that β-catenin directly governs MUC4 in PC.
Mac-1 (CD11b) is expressed on bone marrow-derived immune cells. CD11b binds to ligands to regulate leukocyte adhesion and migration across the endothelium or epithelium. Here, we employed CD11b knockout mice and an Apc(Min/+) spontaneous intestinal adenoma mouse model to clarify the function of CD11b in intestinal tumorigenesis. We showed that CD11b deficiency may contribute to the inhibition of myeloid cell trafficking to the tumor microenvironment and inactivated Wnt/β-catenin pathway to suppress tumor growth. This effect was partly mediated by inhibiting the myeloid cell-mediated decrease in TNF-α secretion, which inhibits the recruitment of myeloid-derived suppressor cells to the tumor microenvironment and subsequently induces IFN-γ and CXCL9 production. This work provides evidence for the mechanism by which CD11b may function as an important oncogene and highlights the potential of CD11b as a therapeutic target in CRC.
Rachagani S, Macha MA, Menning MS, et al.Changes in microRNA (miRNA) expression during pancreatic cancer development and progression in a genetically engineered KrasG12D;Pdx1-Cre mouse (KC) model.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(37):40295-309 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been demonstrated in various cancers, including pancreatic cancer (PC). Due to the lack of tissue samples from early-stages of PC, the stage-specific alteration of miRNAs during PC initiation and progression is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the global miRNA expression profile and their processing machinery during PC progression using the KrasG12D;Pdx1-Cre (KC) mouse model. At 25 weeks, the miRNA microarray analysis revealed significant downregulation of miR-150, miR-494, miR-138, miR-148a, miR-216a, and miR-217 and upregulation of miR-146b, miR-205, miR-31, miR-192, and miR-21 in KC mice compared to controls. Further, expression of miRNA biosynthetic machinery including Dicer, Exportin-5, TRKRA, and TARBP2 were downregulated, while DGCR8 and Ago2 were upregulated in KC mice. In addition, from 10 to 50 weeks of age, stage-specific expression profiling of miRNA in KC mice revealed downregulation of miR-216, miR-217, miR-100, miR-345, miR-141, miR-483-3p, miR-26b, miR-150, miR-195, Let-7b and Let-96 and upregulation of miR-21, miR-205, miR-146b, miR-34c, miR-1273, miR-223 and miR-195 compared to control mice. Interestingly, the differential expression of miRNA in mice also corroborated with the miRNA expression in human PC cell lines and tissue samples; ectopic expression of Let-7b in CD18/HPAF and Capan1 cells resulted in the downregulation of KRAS and MSST1 expression. Overall, the present study aids an understanding of miRNA expression patterns during PC pathogenesis and helps to facilitate the identification of promising and novel early diagnostic/prognostic markers and therapeutic targets.
Chemoresistance remains a major clinical problem in combating human lung adenocarcinoma (LAD), and abnormal autophagy is closely associated with this phenomenon. In the present study, an inverse correlation between miR-200b and autophagy-associated gene 12 (ATG12) expressions was observed in docetaxel-resistant (SPC-A1/DTX and H1299/DTX) and sensitive (SPC-A1 and H1299) LAD cells as well as in tissue samples. Further study showed that miR-200b directly targeted ATG12 in LAD. Moreover, miR-200b-dependent ATG12 downregulation inhibited autophagy and enhanced the chemosensitivity of SPC-A1/DTX and H1299/DTX cells both in vivo and in vitro. LAD chemoresistance is therefore closely related to downregulation of miR-200b and the corresponding upregulation of ATG12. These results provide new evidence for the mechanisms governing the microRNA (miRNA)-ATG12 network and their possible contribution to autophagy modulation and LAD chemoresistance.
Gatault S, Delbeke M, Driss V, et al.IL-18 Is Involved in Eosinophil-Mediated Tumoricidal Activity against a Colon Carcinoma Cell Line by Upregulating LFA-1 and ICAM-1.
J Immunol. 2015; 195(5):2483-92 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that are involved in innate and adaptive immune responses through the expression of various receptors and mediators. Previously, we showed that human eosinophils and T cells shared cytotoxic activities against tumor cells that involved the γ-δ TCR and cell-cell contact. In this study, we investigated the molecules involved in eosinophil-tumor cell interactions. Given the role of IL-18 in cell adhesion and in protecting against colon cancer, we evaluated its role in eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity against Colo-205, a human colon carcinoma cell line. We found that human eosinophils exerted dose- and time-dependent tumoricidal activity against Colo-205 cells. Neutralization of IL-18 significantly reduced eosinophil-mediated Colo-205 apoptosis and inhibited cell-cell adhesion. Moreover, addition of rIL-18 led to upregulation of CD11a and ICAM-1 adhesion molecules, which were involved in the contact between eosinophils and Colo-205 cells. Our results indicated that IL-18 was involved in the eosinophil-mediated death of Colo-205 by facilitating contact between effector and target cells. These data underscored the involvement of an additional mediator in eosinophil-mediated antitumor cytotoxicity. Our findings support existing evidence that eosinophils could play a beneficial role in the context of colon cancer.
Sethi MK, Thaysen-Andersen M, Kim H, et al.Quantitative proteomic analysis of paired colorectal cancer and non-tumorigenic tissues reveals signature proteins and perturbed pathways involved in CRC progression and metastasis.
J Proteomics. 2015; 126:54-67 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Modern proteomics has proven instrumental in our understanding of the molecular deregulations associated with the development and progression of cancer. Herein, we profile membrane-enriched proteome of tumor and adjacent normal tissues from eight CRC patients using label-free nanoLC-MS/MS-based quantitative proteomics and advanced pathway analysis. Of the 948 identified proteins, 184 proteins were differentially expressed (P<0.05, fold change>1.5) between the tumor and non-tumor tissue (69 up-regulated and 115 down-regulated in tumor tissues). The CRC tumor and non-tumor tissues clustered tightly in separate groups using hierarchical cluster analysis of the differentially expressed proteins, indicating a strong CRC-association of this proteome subset. Specifically, cancer associated proteins such as FN1, TNC, DEFA1, ITGB2, MLEC, CDH17, EZR and pathways including actin cytoskeleton and RhoGDI signaling were deregulated. Stage-specific proteome signatures were identified including up-regulated ribosomal proteins and down-regulated annexin proteins in early stage CRC. Finally, EGFR(+) CRC tissues showed an EGFR-dependent down-regulation of cell adhesion molecules, relative to EGFR(-) tissues. Taken together, this study provides a detailed map of the altered proteome and associated protein pathways in CRC, which enhances our mechanistic understanding of CRC biology and opens avenues for a knowledge-driven search for candidate CRC protein markers.
Makinoshima H, Takita M, Saruwatari K, et al.Signaling through the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3K)/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Axis Is Responsible for Aerobic Glycolysis mediated by Glucose Transporter in Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-mutated Lung Adenocarcinoma.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(28):17495-504 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays an important role in regulating global metabolic pathways, including aerobic glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), and pyrimidine biosynthesis. However, the molecular mechanism by which EGFR signaling regulates cancer cell metabolism is still unclear. To elucidate how EGFR signaling is linked to metabolic activity, we investigated the involvement of the RAS/MEK/ERK and PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways on metabolic alteration in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) cell lines with activating EGFR mutations. Although MEK inhibition did not alter lactate production and the extracellular acidification rate, PI3K/mTOR inhibitors significantly suppressed glycolysis in EGFR-mutant LAD cells. Moreover, a comprehensive metabolomics analysis revealed that the levels of glucose 6-phosphate and 6-phosphogluconate as early metabolites in glycolysis and PPP were decreased after inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, suggesting a link between PI3K signaling and the proper function of glucose transporters or hexokinases in glycolysis. Indeed, PI3K/mTOR inhibition effectively suppressed membrane localization of facilitative glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which, instead, accumulated in the cytoplasm. Finally, aerobic glycolysis and cell proliferation were down-regulated when GLUT1 gene expression was suppressed by RNAi. Taken together, these results suggest that PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling is indispensable for the regulation of aerobic glycolysis in EGFR-mutated LAD cells.
Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified as oncogenes or tumor suppressors that are involved in tumorigenesis and chemotherapy drug resistance. Maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is an imprinted gene located at 14q32 that encodes an lncRNA, and decreased MEG3 expression plays an important role in multiple cancers. However, its biological role in the development of the chemoresistance phenotype of human lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) is unknown. This study aimed to observe the expression of MEG3 in LAD and to evaluate its biological role and clinical significance in the resistance of LAD cells to cisplatin. MEG3 expression was markedly decreased in cisplatin-resistant A549/DDP cells compared with parental A549 cells as shown by an lncRNA microarray. MEG3 overexpression in A549/DDP cells increased their chemosensitivity to cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. By contrast, MEG3 knockdown in A549 cells decreased the chemosensitivity. Moreover, MEG3 was decreased in cisplatin-insensitive LAD tissues while p53 protein levels were decreased and Bcl-xl protein levels increased. Furthermore, patients with lower levels of MEG3 expression showed worse responses to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. These findings demonstrate that MEG3 is significantly downregulated in LAD and partially regulates the cisplatin resistance of LAD cells through the control of p53 and Bcl-xl expression. Thus, MEG3 may represent a new marker of poor response to cisplatin and could be a potential therapeutic target for LAD chemotherapy.
Zhang J, Zhu N, Chen XA novel long noncoding RNA LINC01133 is upregulated in lung squamous cell cancer and predicts survival.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):7465-71 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) and lung squamous cell cancer (LSCC) are two major histological types of non-small cell lung cancer. LSCC differs greatly from LAD in many aspects. Accumulating evidence has shown that long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays an important role in the process of carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Expression of lncRNA is highly tissue-specific and could be biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Here, we identified differentially expressed lncRNA between LSCC and LAD by data mining of Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 microarray. A set of 1646 differentially expressed lncRNA transcripts were identified. Among these lncRNAs, a novel lncRNA, LINC01133, showed the largest fold change among large intergenic noncoding RNAs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay confirmed that LINC01133 was upregulated in LSCC (increasing fold 6.4, P < 0.01) but not in the LAD samples. LSCC patients with higher expression level of LINC01133 had shorter survival time (hazard ratio = 2.383; 95 % confidence interval 1.023-5.547, P = 0.044). Wound-healing and transwell assays demonstrated that silence of LINC01133 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited invasion ability of LSCC cell line. Thus, a set of lncRNA was differentially expressed between LAD and LSCC and could serve as potential biomarkers.
Tsaur I, Hennenlotter J, Oppermann E, et al.PCA3 and PSA gene activity correlates with the true tumor cell burden in prostate cancer lymph node metastases.
Cancer Biomark. 2015; 15(3):311-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Extent of pelvic lymph node (LN) dissemination is a critical prognostic feature for patients with prostate cancer (PCa) maintaining extended pelvic lymphadenectomy (LAD) as the gold standard for LN-staging. Unfortunately, conventional histopathological assessment may miss micrometastasis and recently presented immunocytochemical approach of the single cell analysis is still intricate.
OBJECTIVE: To comparatively assess the potential of Prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) and prostate specific antigene (PSA) to perform as markers for tumor cell load.
METHODS: Patients with high risk PCa for LN metastasis undergoing either a sentinel LN-guided staging LAD or retropubic radical prostatectomy with sentinel-guided pelvic LN dissection were included. LNs were investigated by routine histopathology. Tumor cell load was quantified by %immunocytochemistry. immunocytochemical single cell analysis. Gene activity was determined by qRT-PCR.
RESULTS: Twenty four out of 226 LNs were positive in routine histopathology and 51 in single cell analysis. PSA mRNA level correlated with tumor cell density in patients with a positive immunocytochemistry. Gene activity of PCA3 was upregulated in metastatic LNs and correlated with tumor cell density in patients with tumor-invaded LNs as detected by immunocytochemistry.
CONCLUSIONS: PCA3 gene expression discriminates LN metastasis and might outperform PSA gene activity in reflecting tumor cell burden in pelvic LNs of PCa patients.
PU.1 is a key transcription factor regulating the myeloid differentiation. PU.1-induced monocytic differentiation into macrophage is also important for blood cancer development. Therefore, we chose THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells to investigate the function of a recently discovered IL-32θ. Genetic analyses identified differences in the sequences of IL-32θ and IL-32β. Using previously established cell lines that stably express IL-32θ and IL-32β and cell lines transiently expressing IL-32θ, we observed that expression of IL-32θ inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced monocytic differentiation in both THP-1 and HL-60 cells. IL-32θ also suppressed expression of the macrophage cell surface markers, CD11b, CD18, and CD36. Interestingly, expression of IL-32β or IL-32θ had no effect on the expression levels of cell cycle related factors. As a result, we concluded that these isoforms did not contribute to PMA-induced cell cycle arrest. IL-32θ was found to modulate expression of PU.1, a transcription factor necessary for myeloid lineage commitment. Transient expression of PU.1 in THP-1/IL-32θ cells rescued the observed differentiation defect. Additionally, transient expression of both CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and PU.1 in THP-1/IL-32θ cells exhibited synergistic effects in rescuing the differentiation defect. These observations indicate that intracellular IL-32θ inhibits the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages by attenuating PU.1 expression.
Ahmad F, Lad P, Bhatia S, Das BRMolecular spectrum of c-KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations in gastro intestinal stromal tumor: determination of frequency, distribution pattern and identification of novel mutations in Indian patients.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(1):424 [PubMed
] Related Publications
KIT and PDGFRA gene mutations are the major genetic alterations seen in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and are being used clinically for predicting response to imatinib therapy. In the current study, we set out to explore the frequency and distribution pattern of c-KIT (exons 9, 11 and 13) and PDGFRA (exons 12 and 18) by direct sequencing in a series of 70 Indian GIST cases. Overall, 27 (38.5 %) and 4 (5.7 %) of the cases had c-KIT and PDGFRA mutations, respectively. Majority of KIT mutations involved exon 11 (85.7 %), followed by exon 9 (14.3 %), while none showed exon 13 mutation. Most exon 9 mutations showed Ala503-Tyr504 duplication, while one had novel point mutation at codon 476 (S476G). In contrast to exon 9 mutations, most exon 11 mutations were in-frame deletions (79 %, 19/24), predominantly at codons 550-560, while remaining exon 11 mutant cases were point mutations at codons 559, 560, 568, 573 and 575. Interestingly, P573T, Q556_V560delinsH, Q575H and Q575_P577 were novel variations observed in exon 11. The PDGFRA mutations were seen mostly in exon 18, which showed point mutation at codon 842 (D842V), while exon 12 showed a novel indel variation (V561_H570delinsT). No significant correlation between c-KIT/PDGFRA mutations and clinicopathological data was observed. In conclusion, this study highlights the frequency and distribution pattern of c-KIT/PDGFRA mutation in Indian cohort. The current study identified novel variations that added new insights into the genetic heterogeneity of GIST patients. Furthermore, this is the first study to report the presence of PDGFRA mutation from Indian subcontinent.
Lad DP, Varma S, Varma N, et al.Regulatory T-cell and T-helper 17 balance in chronic lymphocytic leukemia progression and autoimmune cytopenias.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(8):2424-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The reasons for progression and autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are not entirely clear, with previous studies suggesting a role for regulatory T-cells (Treg). In this study we prospectively studied Treg (CD3+CD4+CD25highCD127low), interleukin-10 (IL-10) producing Treg and T-helper 17 (Th17) (CD3+CD4+IL-17+) cells in 40 treatment-naive patients with CLL. The percentage of Th17 and not Treg cells was significantly higher in the AIC cohort than in those without AIC (p<0.0001). The Treg:Th17 ratio was skewed in favor of Th17 in the AIC cohort (p=0.02). Th17 cells are responsible for AIC of CLL. Analysis of lymph-node aspirates showed that the percentage of Treg and IL-10 expression in Treg and not Th17 was significantly higher than in peripheral blood (p<0.01). Treg cells play a major role in the microenvironment where disease progression occurs. This shows the importance of maintaining the Treg:Th17 equilibrium, for imbalance leads to CLL progression or AIC.
PURPOSE: Genetic alterations affecting the MAPK/ERK pathway are common in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD). Early steps of the signaling pathway are most often affected with EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF mutations encompassing more than 70% of all alterations. Somatic mutations in MEK1, located downstream of BRAF, are rare and remain poorly defined as a distinct molecular subset.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumors harboring MEK1 mutations were identified through targeted screening of a large LAD cohort concurrently interrogated for recurrent mutations in MEK1, EGFR, KRAS, BRAF, ERBB2/HER2, NRAS, PIK3CA, and AKT. Additional cases were identified through a search of publically available cancer genomic datasets. Mutations were correlated with patient characteristics and treatment outcomes. Overall survival was compared with stage-matched patients with KRAS- and EGFR-mutant LADs.
RESULTS: We identified 36 MEK1-mutated cases among 6,024 LAD (0.6%; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.85). The majority of patients were smokers (97%, n = 35/36). There was no association with age, sex, race, or stage. The most common mutations were K57N (64%, 23/36) followed by Q56P (19%, 7/36), all mutually exclusive with other driver mutations in the targeted panel. Transversions G:C>T:A were predominant (89%, 31/35), in keeping with smoking-associated DNA damage. Additional less common somatic mutations were identified in the kinase domain, all of which are predicted to converge into a single interaction area based on in silico 3D modeling.
CONCLUSIONS: MEK1 mutations define a distinct subset of lung cancers (∼1%) with potential sensitivity to MEK inhibitors. Mutations are predominantly transversions, in keeping with a strong association with smoking.
Mutant RAS oncoproteins activate signaling molecules that drive oncogenesis in multiple human tumors including acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, the specific functions of these pathways in AML are unclear, thwarting the rational application of targeted therapeutics. To elucidate the downstream functions of activated NRAS in AML, we used a murine model that harbors Mll-AF9 and a tetracycline-repressible, activated NRAS (NRAS(G12V)). Using computational approaches to explore our gene-expression data sets, we found that NRAS(G12V) enforced the leukemia self-renewal gene-expression signature and was required to maintain an MLL-AF9- and Myb-dependent leukemia self-renewal gene-expression program. NRAS(G12V) was required for leukemia self-renewal independent of its effects on growth and survival. Analysis of the gene-expression patterns of leukemic subpopulations revealed that the NRAS(G12V)-mediated leukemia self-renewal signature is preferentially expressed in the leukemia stem cell-enriched subpopulation. In a multiplexed analysis of RAS-dependent signaling, Mac-1(Low) cells, which harbor leukemia stem cells, were preferentially sensitive to NRAS(G12V) withdrawal. NRAS(G12V) maintained leukemia self-renewal through mTOR and MEK pathway activation, implicating these pathways as potential targets for cancer stem cell-specific therapies. Together, these experimental results define a RAS oncogene-driven function that is critical for leukemia maintenance and represents a novel mechanism of oncogene addiction.
Chen D, Huang J, Zhang K, et al.MicroRNA-451 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in docetaxel-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells by targeting proto-oncogene c-Myc.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(17):3050-67 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been reported to play a significant role in tumour metastasis as well as chemoresistance. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in chemotherapy-induced EMT are still unclear. MicroRNA (miRNA) expression and functions have been reported to contribute to phenotypic features of tumour cells. To investigate the roles of miRNAs in chemotherapy-induced EMT, we established two docetaxel-resistant lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) cell models (SPC-A1/DTX and H1299/DTX), which display EMT-like properties and gain increased invasion or migration activity. MiR-451 was found to be significantly downregulated in docetaxel-resistant LAD cells, and re-expression of miR-451 could reverse EMT to mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) and inhibit invasion and metastasis of docetaxel-resistant LAD cells both in vitro and in vivo. The proto-oncogene c-Myc was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-451, and further researches confirmed that overexpression of c-Myc which induced extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) inactivation and subsequent snail activation is essential for acquisition of EMT phenotype induced by loss of miR-451. Furthermore, c-Myc was significantly upregulated in docetaxel-non-responding LAD tissues in comparison with docetaxel-responding tissues, and its expression was inversely correlated with miR-451 expression. This study first reported the involvement of miR-451/c-Myc/ERK/GSK-3β signalling axis in the acquisition of EMT phenotype in docetaxel-resistant LAD cells, suggesting that re-expression of miR-451 or targeting c-Myc will be a potential strategy for the treatment of chemoresistant LAD patients.
Aldo-keto reductase 1B10 (AKR1B10) has relatively specific lipid substrates including carbonyls, retinal and farnesal/geranylgeranial. Metabolizing these lipid substrates appears crucial to carcinogenesis, particularly for farnesal/geranylgeranial that involves protein prenylation. Mutant Kras is a most common active oncogene in pancreatic cancer, and its activation requires protein prenylation. To directly determine the role of AKR1B10 in pancreatic carcinogenesis, we knocked down AKR1B10 in CD18 human pancreatic carcinoma cells using shRNA approach. Silencing AKR1B10 resulted in a significant inhibition of anchor-dependent growth (knockdown cells vs. vector-control cells: 67 ± 9.5 colonies/HPF vs. 170 ± 3.7 colonies/HPF, p < 0.01), invasion index (0.27 vs. 1.00, p < 0.05), and cell migration (at 16 hours 9.2 ± 1.2% vs. 14.0 ± 1.8%, at 24 hours 21.0 ± 1.1% vs. 30.5 ± 3.5%, and at 48 hours 51.9 ± 5.7% vs. 88.9 ± 3.0%, p < 0.01). Inhibition of AKR1B10 by oleanolic acid (OA) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth with IC50 at 30 µM. Kras pull-down and Western blot analysis revealed a significant down-regulation of active form Kras and phosphorylated C-Raf, and Erk, as well as an up-regulation of E-cadherin. A significant reduction of in vivo tumor growth was observed in nude mice implanted with the CD18 pancreatic carcinoma cells with AKR1B10 knockdown (tumor weight: 0.25 ± 0.06 g vs. 0.52 ± 0.07 g, p = 0.01), and with OA treatment (tumor weight: 0.35 ± 0.05 g vs. 0.52 ± 0.07 g, p = 0.05). Our findings indicate AKR1B10 is a unique enzyme involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis via modulation of the Kras-E-cadherin pathway.
The presence of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) is one of the mechanisms responsible for chemoresistance that has been a major hindrance towards lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) treatment. Recently, we have identified microRNA (miR)-200b as a key regulator of chemoresistance in human docetaxel-resistant LAD cells. However, whether miR-200b has effects on regulating CSCs remains largely unclear and needs to be further elucidated. Here, we showed that miR-200b was significantly downregulated in CD133+/CD326+ cells that exhibited properties of CSCs derived from docetaxel-resistant LAD cells. Also, restoration of miR-200b could inhibit maintenance and reverse chemoresistance of CSCs. Furthermore, suppressor of zeste-12 (Suz-12) was identified as a direct and functional target of miR-200b, and silencing of Suz-12 phenocopied the effects of miR-200b on CSCs. Additionally, overexpression of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 1 was identified as a pivotal mechanism responsible for miR-200b repression in CSCs through a specificity protein (Sp) 1-dependent mechanism, and restoration of miR-200b by HDAC1 repression significantly suppressed CSCs formation and reversed chemoresistance of CSCs by regulating Suz-12-E-cadherin signaling. Also, downregulation of HDAC1 or upregulation of miR-200b reduced the in vivo tumorigenicity of CSCs. Finally, Suz-12 was inversely correlated with miR-200b, positively correlated with HDAC1 and up-regulated in docetaxel-resistant LAD tissues compared with docetaxel-sensitive tissues. Taken together, the HDAC1/miR-200b/Suz-12-E-cadherin signaling might account for maintenance of CSCs and formation of chemoresistant phenotype in docetaxel-resistant LAD cells.
Wan L, Zhu L, Xu J, et al.MicroRNA-409-3p functions as a tumor suppressor in human lung adenocarcinoma by targeting c-Met.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2014; 34(4):1273-90 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Dysregulation of microRNAs is correlated with tumor development. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of microRNA (miR)-409-3p and its tumor suppressor roles in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD).
METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect miR-409-3p expression in LAD tissues and corresponding noncancerous tissues. Additionally, the correlations of miR-409-3p expression with clinicopathologic factors and prognosis of patients were statistically analyzed. Next, we investigated whether miR-409-3p could function as a tumor suppressor in LAD cells via regulation of Akt signaling by targeting receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Met).
RESULTS: MiR-409-3p was significantly downregulated in LAD tissues compared with corresponding noncancerous tissues. Low miR-409-3p expression was observed to be significantly correlated with poorer tumor differentiation, advanced pTNM stage and higher incidence of lymph node metastasis. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that miR-409-3p expression was an independent prognostic factor for LAD patients. Functional analyses indicated that miR-409-3p could inhibit growth, induce apoptosis, reduce migration and invasion in LAD cells via inactivation of Akt signaling by targeting c-Met.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-409-3p was an independent prognostic factor and functioned as a tumor suppressor in LAD via regulation of Akt signaling by targeting c-Met.
Vasconcelos Dde M, Beitler B, Martinez GA, et al.CD18 deficiency evolving to megakaryocytic (M7) acute myeloid leukemia: case report.
Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2014; 53(4):180-4 [PubMed
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Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD 1 - CD18 deficiency) is a rare disease characterized by disturbance of phagocyte function associated with less severe cellular and humoral dysfunction. The main features are bacterial and fungal infections predominantly in the skin and mucosal surfaces, impaired wound healing and delayed umbilical cord separation. The infections are indolent, necrotic and recurrent. In contrast to the striking difficulties in defense against bacterial and fungal microorganisms, LAD 1 patients do not exhibit susceptibility to viral infections and neoplasias. The severity of clinical manifestations is directly related to the degree of CD18 deficiency. Here, a 20 year-old female presenting a partial CD18 deficiency that developed a megakaryocytic (M7) acute myeloid leukemia is described for the first time. The clinical features of the patient included relapsing oral thrush due to Candida, cutaneous infections and upper and lower respiratory tract infections, followed by a locally severe necrotic genital herpetic lesion. The patient's clinical features improved for a period of approximately two years, followed by severe bacterial infections. At that time, the investigation showed a megakaryocytic acute myeloid leukemia, treated with MEC without clinical improvement. The highly aggressive evolution of the leukemia in this patient suggests that adhesion molecules could be involved in the protection against the spread of neoplastic cells.
Morales O, Mrizak D, François V, et al.Epstein-Barr virus infection induces an increase of T regulatory type 1 cells in Hodgkin lymphoma patients.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 166(6):875-90 [PubMed
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Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is present in the neoplastic cells of around 20-30% of patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL). Although, an immunosuppressive environment is currently described in HL patients, little is known concerning the regulatory mechanism induced by EBV proteins expression in tumour cells. This study aimed to investigate an association between regulatory Type 1 cells (Tr1) and EBV tissue positivity in HL patients. Transcriptomic analysis of both EBV-positive and EBV-negative tumours showed that EBV infection increased gene expression of Tr1-related markers (ITGA2, ITGB2, LAG3) and associated-immunosuppressive cytokines (IL10). This up-regulation was associated with an over-expression of several chemokine markers known to attract T-helper type 2 (Th2) and regulatory T cells thus contributing to immune suppression. This Tr1 cells recruitment in EBV-positive HL was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis of frozen nodes biopsies and by flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of EBV-positive patients. Additionally, we showed that IL10 production was significantly enhanced in tumours and blood of EBV-positive HL patients. Our results propose a new model in which EBV can recruit Tr1 cells to the nodes' microenvironment, suggesting that the expression of EBV proteins in tumour cells could enable the escape of EBV-infected tumour cells from the virus-specific CTL response.
BACKGROUND: Docetaxel resistance remains a major obstacle in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been shown to promote autophagy protection in response to antitumor therapy, but the exact molecular mechanism underlying HMGB1-mediated autophagy has not been clearly defined.
METHODS: Lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) cells were transfected with pcDNA3.1-HMGB1 or HMGB1 shRNA, followed by docetaxel treatment. Cell viability and proliferation were tested by MTT assay and colony formation assay, respectively. Annexin V flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis of activated caspase3 and cleaved PARP were used to evaluate apoptosis, while immunofluorescence microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were applied to assess autophagy activity. The formation of the Beclin-1-PI3K-III complex was examined by immunoprecipitation analysis. NOD/SCID mice were inoculated with docetaxel-resistant SPC-A1/DTX cells transfected with control or HMGB1 shRNA.
RESULTS: HMGB1 translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in LAD cells exposed to docetaxel and acted as a positive regulator of autophagy, which inhibited apoptosis and increased drug resistance. Suppression of HMGB1 restored the sensitivity of LAD cells to docetaxel both in vivo and in vitro. Mechanistic investigation revealed that HMGB1 promoted the formation of the Beclin-1-PI3K-III complex through activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, thereby regulating autophagosome formation.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that HMGB1-regulated autophagy is a significant contributor to docetaxel resistance in LAD cells. Suppression of HMGB1 or limiting HMGB1 cytosolic translocation diminished autophagic protection in response to docetaxel in LAD cells.
Kondoh T, Kuribayashi K, Tanaka M, et al.CD7 promotes extramedullary involvement of the B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia line Tanoue by enhancing integrin β2-dependent cell adhesiveness.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(3):1073-81 [PubMed
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Extramedullary involvement (EMI) is a factor that defines prognosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia; however, the molecular mechanism(s) remain elusive. Here, we show that CD7 promotes EMI of the human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Tanoue. The Tanoue cell line expressing firefly luciferase, Luc-Tanoue, was transplanted into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice, and cells infiltrated into the brain were cultured ex vivo. This process was repeated 4 times to obtain the highly invasive line Luc-Tanoue-F4. Comparison of the global gene expression signatures of Luc-Tanoue-F4 and Luc-Tanoue indicated that the CD7 gene showed the largest increase in expression among EMI-related genes in Luc-Tanoue-F4 cells. Overexpression of CD7 in Tanoue enhanced cell invasiveness. Among cell migration, proliferation, adhesion and protease activity, only cell adhesiveness showed enhancement in Luc-Tanoue-F4. Expression of the intracellular domain, but not the extracellular domain, of CD7 enhanced cell adhesiveness. Luc-Tanoue-F4 showed a higher level of integrin β2 expression; overexpression of CD7 induced the expression of integrin β2 in Luc-Tanoue. These results show that CD7 induces integrin β2 and enhances cell adhesiveness and invasiveness in Tanoue cells. This study highlights the role of the CD7/integrin β2 axis as a critical pathway in the process of EMI of human B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Quandt D, Jasinski-Bergner S, Müller U, et al.Synergistic effects of IL-4 and TNFα on the induction of B7-H1 in renal cell carcinoma cells inhibiting allogeneic T cell proliferation.
J Transl Med. 2014; 12:151 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: The importance of B7-H molecules for the T cell/tumor communication and its impact on renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression and prognosis has been recently described. Cytokine treatment of RCC has earlier been shown to be beneficial in preclinical settings, but its clinical implementation has not proven to be as effective. This might be partially explained by the yet incomplete picture of cellular alterations in tumor cells upon cytokine treatment investigated in detail in this study.
METHODS: RCC tumor cell lines were treated with different cytokines alone or in combination. The constitutive and/or cytokine-induced expression of cytokine receptors signaling components and B7-H molecules in RCC cells were analysed by qPCR and flow cytometry. A mcherry reporter gene construct containing B7-H1 promoter was cloned and its activity was determined upon transfection in cytokine-stimulated cells. Cytokine pretreated tumor cells were co-cultured with allogeneic CD8+ T cells from healthy donors and T cell proliferation as well as cytokine secretion was determined.
RESULTS: A heterogeneous, but constitutive B7-H1,-H2,-H3 and H4 expression was found on human RCC cell lines. IL-4 and TNFα treatment led to strong synergistic induction of B7-H1 in RCC cells, whereas B7-H2 was only increased by TNFα. In contrast, B7-H3 and B7-H4 expression were not altered by these cytokines. Treatment of RCC cells with TNFα and IL-4 was accompanied by an activation of signaling molecules like NF-κB, IκB and STAT6. The cytokine-mediated up-regulation of B7-H1 was due to transcriptional control as determined by an increased B7-H1 promoter activity in the presence of IL-4 and TNFα. Despite HLA class I and LFA-1 were also increased, the cytokine-mediated up-regulation of B7-H1 was more pronounced and caused an inhibition of allospecifc CD8+ T cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: Thus, IL-4 and TNFα, which could be released by immune cells of the tumor microenvironment, are able to control the B7-H1 expression in RCC thereby altering T cell responses. These data are of importance for understanding the complex interplay of tumor cells with immune cells orchestrated by a number of different soluble and membrane bound mediators and for the implementation of check point antibodies directed against B7-H1.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive and deadly malignancies. Recently, the deubiquitinating protease USP9X has been shown to behave as an oncogene in a number of neoplasms, including those of breast, brain, colon, esophagus and lung, as well as KRAS wild-type PDAC. However, other studies suggest that USP9X may function as a tumor-suppressor in a murine PDAC model when USP9X expression is depleted during early pancreatic development. To address the conflicting findings surrounding the role of USP9X in PDAC, we examined the effects of knocking down USP9X in five human PDAC cell lines (BxPC3, Capan1, CD18, Hs766T, and S2-013). We demonstrate that knocking down USP9X in each of the PDAC cell lines reduces their anchorage-dependent growth. Using an inducible shRNA system to knock down USP9X in both BxPC3 and Capan1 cells, we also determined that USP9X is necessary for the anchorage-independent growth. In addition, knockdown of USP9X alters the cell cycle profile of BxPC3 cells and increases their invasive capacity. Finally, we show that an inhibitor of deubiquitinating proteases, WP1130, induces significant cytotoxicity in each of the five PDAC cell lines tested. Overall, our work and the work of others indicate that the function and role of USP9X is highly context-dependent. Although USP9X may function as a tumor-suppressor during the establishment of PDAC, data presented here argue that USP9X promotes cell growth in advanced PDAC cells when PDAC is typically diagnosed. Hence, USP9X may be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of advanced PDAC.
Chemoresistance is one of the most significant obstacles in lung adenocarcinoma (LAD) treatment, and this process involves genetic and epigenetic dysregulation of chemoresistance-related genes. Previously, we have shown that restoration of microRNA (miR)-200b significantly reverses chemoresistance of human LAD cells by targeting E2F3. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the silencing of miR-200b are still unclear. Here we showed that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors could restore the expression of miR-200b and reverse chemoresistant phenotypes of docetaxel-resistant LAD cells. HDAC1/4 repression significantly increased miR-200b expression by upregulating histone-H3 acetylation level at the two miR-200b promoters partially via a Sp1-dependent pathway. Furthermore, silencing of HDAC1/4 suppressed cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and ultimately reversed in vitro and in vivo chemoresistance of docetaxel-resistant LAD cells, at least partially in a miR-200b-dependent manner. HDAC1/4 suppression-induced rescue of miR-200b contributed to downregulation of E2F3, survivin and Aurora-A, and upregulation of cleaved-caspase-3. HDAC1/4 levels in docetaxel-insensitive human LAD tissues, inversely correlated with miR-200b, were upregulated compared with docetaxel-sensitive tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that the HDAC1/4/Sp1/miR-200b/E2F3 pathway is responsible for chemoresistance of docetaxel-resistant LAD cells.
The leukocyte adhesion cascade is important in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), as it controls migration of malignant cells into the pro-survival lymph node microenvironment. Circulating trisomy 12 CLL cells have increased expression of the integrins CD11a and CD49d, as well as CD38, but the tissue expression of these and other molecules, and the functional and clinical sequelae of these changes have not been described. Here, we demonstrate that circulating trisomy 12 CLL cells also have increased expression of the integrins CD11b, CD18, CD29, and ITGB7, and the adhesion molecule CD323. Notably, there was reduced expression of CD11a, CD11b, and CD18 in trisomy 12 cases with NOTCH1 mutations compared with wild type. Trisomy 12 cells also exhibit upregulation of intracellular integrin signaling molecules CALDAG-GEFI, RAP1B, and Ras-related protein ligand, resulting in enhanced very late antigen-4 [VLA-4] directed adhesion and motility. CD38 expression in CLL has prognostic significance, but the increased CD38 expression in trisomy 12 CLL cells must be taken into account in this subgroup, and the threshold of CD38 positivity should be raised to 40% for this marker to retain its prognostic value. In conclusion, trisomy 12 CLL cells exhibit functional upregulation of integrin signaling, with β2-integrin expression being modulated by NOTCH1 mutation status.