Gene Summary

Gene:LMO4; LIM domain only 4
Summary:This gene encodes a cysteine-rich protein that contains two LIM domains but lacks a DNA-binding homeodomain. The encoded protein may play a role as a transcriptional regulator or as an oncogene. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:LIM domain transcription factor LMO4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (20)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cell Proliferation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Staging
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Transcription Factors
  • Lung Cancer
  • Mutation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • DNA Primers
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Promoter Regions
  • Transfection
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Neuroblastoma
  • LIM Domain Proteins
  • RNA Interference
  • Breast Cancer
  • Two-Hybrid System Techniques
  • Carrier Proteins
  • Chromosome 1
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Disease Progression
  • Cell Movement
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Young Adult
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Retinoic Acid
  • Messenger RNA
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Cell Cycle
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LMO4 (cancer-related)

Yang Q, Wang Y, Zhang S, et al.
Biomarker Discovery for Immunotherapy of Pituitary Adenomas: Enhanced Robustness and Prediction Ability by Modern Computational Tools.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(1) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pituitary adenoma (PA) is prevalent in the general population. Due to its severe complications and aggressive infiltration into the surrounding brain structure, the effective management of PA is required. Till now, no drug has been approved for treating non-functional PA, and the removal of cancerous cells from the pituitary is still under experimental investigation. Due to its superior specificity and safety profile, immunotherapy stands as one of the most promising strategies for dealing with PA refractory to the standard treatment, and various studies have been carried out to discover immune-related gene markers as target candidates. However, the lists of gene markers identified among different studies are reported to be highly inconsistent because of the greatly limited number of samples analyzed in each study. It is thus essential to substantially enlarge the sample size and comprehensively assess the robustness of the identified immune-related gene markers. Herein, a novel strategy of direct data integration (DDI) was proposed to combine available PA microarray datasets, which significantly enlarged the sample size. First, the robustness of the gene markers identified by DDI strategy was found to be substantially enhanced compared with that of previous studies. Then, the DDI of all reported PA-related microarray datasets were conducted to achieve a comprehensive identification of PA gene markers, and 66 immune-related genes were discovered as target candidates for PA immunotherapy. Finally, based on the analysis of human protein⁻protein interaction network, some promising target candidates (

Duffy DJ, Krstic A, Halasz M, et al.
Retinoic acid and TGF-β signalling cooperate to overcome MYCN-induced retinoid resistance.
Genome Med. 2017; 9(1):15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Retinoid therapy is widely employed in clinical oncology to differentiate malignant cells into their more benign counterparts. However, certain high-risk cohorts, such as patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma, are innately resistant to retinoid therapy. Therefore, we employed a precision medicine approach to globally profile the retinoid signalling response and to determine how an excess of cellular MYCN antagonises these signalling events to prevent differentiation and confer resistance.
METHODS: We applied RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and interaction proteomics coupled with network-based systems level analysis to identify targetable vulnerabilities of MYCN-mediated retinoid resistance. We altered MYCN expression levels in a MYCN-inducible neuroblastoma cell line to facilitate or block retinoic acid (RA)-mediated neuronal differentiation. The relevance of differentially expressed genes and transcriptional regulators for neuroblastoma outcome were then confirmed using existing patient microarray datasets.
RESULTS: We determined the signalling networks through which RA mediates neuroblastoma differentiation and the inhibitory perturbations to these networks upon MYCN overexpression. We revealed opposing regulation of RA and MYCN on a number of differentiation-relevant genes, including LMO4, CYP26A1, ASCL1, RET, FZD7 and DKK1. Furthermore, we revealed a broad network of transcriptional regulators involved in regulating retinoid responsiveness, such as Neurotrophin, PI3K, Wnt and MAPK, and epigenetic signalling. Of these regulators, we functionally confirmed that MYCN-driven inhibition of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling is a vulnerable node of the MYCN network and that multiple levels of cross-talk exist between MYCN and TGF-β. Co-targeting of the retinoic acid and TGF-β pathways, through RA and kartogenin (KGN; a TGF-β signalling activating small molecule) combination treatment, induced the loss of viability of MYCN-amplified retinoid-resistant neuroblastoma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our approach provides a powerful precision oncology tool for identifying the driving signalling networks for malignancies not primarily driven by somatic mutations, such as paediatric cancers. By applying global omics approaches to the signalling networks regulating neuroblastoma differentiation and stemness, we have determined the pathways involved in the MYCN-mediated retinoid resistance, with TGF-β signalling being a key regulator. These findings revealed a number of combination treatments likely to improve clinical response to retinoid therapy, including co-treatment with retinoids and KGN, which may prove valuable in the treatment of high-risk MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma.

Simonik EA, Cai Y, Kimmelshue KN, et al.
LIM-Only Protein 4 (LMO4) and LIM Domain Binding Protein 1 (LDB1) Promote Growth and Metastasis of Human Head and Neck Cancer (LMO4 and LDB1 in Head and Neck Cancer).
PLoS One. 2016; 11(10):e0164804 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) accounts for more than 300,000 deaths worldwide per year as a consequence of tumor cell invasion of adjacent structures or metastasis. LIM-only protein 4 (LMO4) and LIM-domain binding protein 1 (LDB1), two directly interacting transcriptional adaptors that have important roles in normal epithelial cell differentiation, have been associated with increased metastasis, decreased differentiation, and shortened survival in carcinoma of the breast. Here, we implicate two LDB1-binding proteins, single-stranded binding protein 2 (SSBP2) and 3 (SSBP3), in controlling LMO4 and LDB1 protein abundance in HNSCC and in regulating specific tumor cell functions in this disease. First, we found that the relative abundance of LMO4, LDB1, and the two SSBPs correlated very significantly in a panel of human HNSCC cell lines. Second, expression of these proteins in tumor primaries and lymph nodes involved by metastasis were concordant in 3 of 3 sets of tissue. Third, using a Matrigel invasion and organotypic reconstruct assay, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion of LDB1 in the VU-SCC-1729 cell line, which is highly invasive of basement membrane and cellular monolayers, reduced tumor cell invasiveness and migration, as well as proliferation on tissue culture plastic. Finally, inactivation of the LDB1 gene in these cells decreased growth and vascularization of xenografted human tumor cells in vivo. These data show that LMO4, LDB1, and SSBP2 and/or SSBP3 regulate metastasis, proliferation, and angiogenesis in HNSCC and provide the first evidence that SSBPs control LMO4 and LDB1 protein abundance in a cancer context.

Han MR, Long J, Choi JY, et al.
Genome-wide association study in East Asians identifies two novel breast cancer susceptibility loci.
Hum Mol Genet. 2016; 25(15):3361-3371 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies among women worldwide. Genetic factors have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer aetiology. We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 14 224 cases and 14 829 controls of East Asian women to search for novel genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two loci were found to be associated with breast cancer risk at the genome-wide significance level. The first locus, represented by rs12118297 at 1p22.3 (near the LMO4 gene), was associated with breast cancer risk with odds ratio (OR) and (95% confidence interval (CI)) of 0.91 (0.88-0.94) and a P-value of 4.48 × 10

Bai R, Weng C, Dong H, et al.
MicroRNA-409-3p suppresses colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis partly by targeting GAB1 expression.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(10):2310-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and its metastasis accounts for the majority of deaths. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CRC progression are not well characterized. In this study, we identified miR-409-3p as a tumor suppressor of CRC. MiR-409-3p expression was significantly downregulated in CRC tissue compared to adjacent non-tumor tissue, and reduced miR-409-3p expression was correlated with CRC metastasis. In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that miR-409-3p negatively regulated CRC metastatic capacities, including suppressing cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. To explore the mechanism of action of miR-409-3p, we adopted a pathway and pathophysiological event-based target screening and validation approach, and found nine known metastasis-related genes as potential targets. The 3'-UTR binding assays between the candidates and miR-409-3p suggested that only GAB1, NR4A2 and LMO4 were directly regulated by the miRNA. However, endogenous expression analysis revealed that only GAB1 was modulated by miR-409-3p in CRC cells at both the mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, we provided evidence to conclude that GAB1 was partially responsible for miR-409-3p-mediated metastasis. Taken together, our data demonstrate that miR-409-3p is a metastatic suppressor, and post-transcriptional inhibition of the oncoprotein GAB1 is one of the mechanisms of action of this miRNA. Our finding suggests miR-409-3p might be a novel target for CRC metastasis treatment.

Meng G, Li Y, Lv Y, et al.
Preliminary screening of differentially expressed genes involved in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene-mediated proliferation in human osteosarcoma cells.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):3009-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is essential in human brain development and has been linked to several cancer types and neuro-developmental disorders. This study aims to screen the MeCP2 related differentially expressed genes and discover the therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma. CCK8 assay was used to detect the proliferation and SaOS2 and U2OS cells. Apoptosis of cells was detected by flow cytometry analysis that monitored Annexin V-APC/7-DD binding and 7-ADD uptake simultaneously. Denaturing formaldehyde agarose gel electrophoresis was employed to examine the quality of total RNA 18S and 28S units. Gene chip technique was utilized to discover the differentially expressed genes correlated with MeCP2 gene. Differential gene screening criteria were used to screen the changed genes. The gene up-regulation or down-regulation more than 1.5 times was regarded as significant differential expression genes. The CCK8 results indicated that the cell proliferation of MeCP2 silencing cells (LV-MeCP2-RNAi) was significantly decreased compared to non-silenced cells (LV-MeCP2-RNAi-CN) (P < 0.05). MeCP2 silencing could also induce significant apoptosis compared to non-silenced cells (P < 0.05); 107 expression changed genes were screened from a total of 49,395 transcripts. Among the total 107 transcripts, 34 transcripts were up-regulated and 73 transcripts were down-regulated. There were five significant differentially expressed genes, including IGFBP4, HOXC8, LMO4, MDK, and CTGF, which correlated with the MeCP2 gene. The methylation frequency of CpG in IGFBP4 gene could achieve 55%. In conclusion, the differentially expressed IGFBP4, HOXC8, LMO4, MDK, and CTGF genes may be involved in MeCP2 gene-mediated proliferation and apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells.

Salmans ML, Yu Z, Watanabe K, et al.
The co-factor of LIM domains (CLIM/LDB/NLI) maintains basal mammary epithelial stem cells and promotes breast tumorigenesis.
PLoS Genet. 2014; 10(7):e1004520 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mammary gland branching morphogenesis and ductal homeostasis relies on mammary stem cell function for the maintenance of basal and luminal cell compartments. The mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the basal cell compartment are currently unknown. We explored these mechanisms in the basal cell compartment and identified the Co-factor of LIM domains (CLIM/LDB/NLI) as a transcriptional regulator that maintains these cells. Clims act within the basal cell compartment to promote branching morphogenesis by maintaining the number and proliferative potential of basal mammary epithelial stem cells. Clim2, in a complex with LMO4, supports mammary stem cells by directly targeting the Fgfr2 promoter in basal cells to increase its expression. Strikingly, Clims also coordinate basal-specific transcriptional programs to preserve luminal cell identity. These basal-derived cues inhibit epidermis-like differentiation of the luminal cell compartment and enhance the expression of luminal cell-specific oncogenes ErbB2 and ErbB3. Consistently, basal-expressed Clims promote the initiation and progression of breast cancer in the MMTV-PyMT tumor model, and the Clim-regulated branching morphogenesis gene network is a prognostic indicator of poor breast cancer outcome in humans.

Ferronha T, Rabadán MA, Gil-Guiñon E, et al.
LMO4 is an essential cofactor in the Snail2-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of neuroblastoma and neural crest cells.
J Neurosci. 2013; 33(7):2773-83 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is an embryonic tumor derived from cells of the neural crest. Taking advantage of a newly developed neural crest lineage tracer and based on the hypothesis that the molecular mechanisms that mediate neural crest delamination are also likely to be involved in the spread of neuroblastoma, we were able to identify genes that are active both in neural crest development and neuroblastoma tumor formation. A subsequent search of the neuroblastoma gene server for human orthologues of genes differentially expressed in the chick embryo neural crest screen retrieved the LIM domain only protein 4 (LMO4), which was expressed in both cell types analyzed. Functional experiments in these two model systems revealed that LMO4 activity is required for neuroblastoma cell invasion and neural crest delamination. Moreover, we identified LMO4 as an essential cofactor in Snail2-mediated cadherin repression and in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of both neural crest and neuroblastoma cells. Together, our results suggest that the association of high levels of LMO4 with aggressive neuroblastomas is dependent on LMO4 regulation of cadherin expression and hence, tumor invasiveness.

Karachaliou N, Costa C, Gimenez-Capitan A, et al.
BRCA1, LMO4, and CtIP mRNA expression in erlotinib-treated non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations.
J Thorac Oncol. 2013; 8(3):295-300 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Lung adenocarcinoma patients harboring EGFR activating mutations attain improved progression-free survival (PFS) with treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. However, patients ultimately relapse, indicating that other genetic factors could influence outcome in such patients. We hypothesized that PFS could be influenced by the expression of genes in DNA repair pathways.
METHODS: We examined the mRNA expression of C terminus-binding protein-interacting protein and Lin11, Isl-1, and Mec-3 domain only 4 (LMO4) in pretreatment tumor samples from 91 erlotinib-treated advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations in whom breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1) expression and the concomitant presence of the EGFR T790M mutation had previously been assessed. Gene expression was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, using β-actin as endogenous gene. Results were correlated with PFS and overall survival.
RESULTS: In patients with low LMO4 levels, PFS was 13 months, whereas it was not reached for those with high LMO4 levels (p = 0.03). In patients with low levels of both BRCA1 and LMO4, PFS was 19 months whereas it was not reached in those with low BRCA1 and high LMO4 mRNA levels (p = 0.04). In patients with high BRCA1 and low LMO4 levels, PFS was 8 months, whereas it was 18 months in those with high levels of both genes (p = 0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Low BRCA1 and high LMO4 levels were associated with longer PFS to erlotinib. Baseline assessment of BRCA1 and LMO4 mRNA expression can help predict outcome to erlotinib.

Yue L, Li L, Liu F, et al.
The oncoprotein HBXIP activates transcriptional coregulatory protein LMO4 via Sp1 to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(4):927-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatitis B X-interacting protein (HBXIP) is an important oncoprotein that plays critical role in the development of cancer. In this study, we report that HBXIP activates LIM-only protein 4 (LMO4), a transcriptional coregulatory protein, in promotion of cell proliferation. We observed that the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of HBXIP were positively associated with those of LMO4 in clinical breast cancer tissues. We further identified that HBXIP upregulated LMO4 at the levels of promoter, mRNA and protein in MCF-7 and LM-MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. The expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, downstream effectors of LMO4, could be upregulated by HBXIP through LMO4. Then, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed that HBXIP was able to interact with the promoter region of LMO4. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that HBXIP occupied the -237/-206 region of LMO4 promoter containing Sp1 binding element. The mutant of Sp1 binding site in the LMO4 promoter impeded the interaction of HBXIP with the promoter. Co-immunoprecipitation, ChIP and luciferase reporter gene assays showed that HBXIP activated LMO4 promoter through binding to Sp1. In function, flow cytometry, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation assays and animal transplantation assays demonstrated that HBXIP-enhanced cell proliferation of breast cancer through upregulating LMO4 in vitro and in vivo. Thus, we concluded that oncoprotein HBXIP is able to activate the transcriptional coregulatory protein LMO4 through transcription factor Sp1 in promotion of proliferation of breast cancer cells. HBXIP may serve as a driver gene to activate transcription in the development of cancer.

Pérez-Magán E, Campos-Martín Y, Mur P, et al.
Genetic alterations associated with progression and recurrence in meningiomas.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2012; 71(10):882-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumors; they arise from the coverings of the brain. Although meningiomas are generally benign, some are more clinically aggressive, as reflected by their histopathological features or by their unexpected recurrence. We hypothesized that recurrent histologically benign meningiomas might have genetic features in common with those showing a more aggressive histology. By comparing gene expression profiles associated with meningioma progression and recurrence in 128 tumor samples (i.e. 83 benign World Health Organization [WHO] Grade I, 37 atypical WHO Grade II, and 8 anaplastic WHO Grade III) from 121 patients, we identified a 49-gene signature of meningioma aggressivity. This signature classified the tumors into 2 groups showing different clinical and pathological behaviors. The signature was composed of genes involved in the cell cycle (TMEM30B, CKS2, and UCHL1) and other pathways previously described as being altered in meningiomas, that is, WNT (SFRP1 and SFRP4) and transforming growth factor-β pathways (LTBP2 and LMO4). Overall, gene downregulation was observed in advanced and recurrent samples versus benign and original ones. We propose that this gene repression may be caused by gene promoter hypermethylation, as in the case of UCHL1 and SFRP1, suggesting that this epigenetic event, together with loss of specific chromosomal regions, may play an important role in meningioma progression and recurrence.

Zhou X, Sang M, Liu W, et al.
LMO4 inhibits p53-mediated proliferative inhibition of breast cancer cells through interacting p53.
Life Sci. 2012; 91(9-10):358-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The LIM domain only proteins (LMOs) which consist of four members (LMO1-LMO4) are a family of nuclear transcription coregulators that are characterized by the exclusive presence of two tandem LIM domains and no other functional domains. They regulate gene transcription by functioning as "linker" or "scaffolding" proteins by virtue of their LIM domains and are involved in the formation of multiprotein complexes with several DNA-binding factors and transcriptional regulatory proteins. In the present study, we tried to find the physical interaction between p53 and LMO4, and the effect of LMO4 on p53-mediated proliferative inhibition of breast cancer cells.
MAIN METHODS: FCM analysis was developed to detect the apoptosis of breast cancer cells after adriamycin (ADR) treatment. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to detect the expression of LMO4 and p53-related genes and proteins. Immunoprecipitation assay was used to detect the interaction between LMO4 and p53. Colony formation assay was developed to detect the proliferation of breast cancer cells.
KEY FINDINGS: We found that p53 was induced, but LMO4 was down-regulated in response to ADR. We also found that enforced expression of p53 inhibited the expression of LMO4, suggesting that LMO4 is a direct transcriptional target of p53. Furthermore, LMO4 can interact with p53 and inhibit p53-mediated inhibition of colony formation of breast cancer MDA-MB-453 cells.
SIGNIFICANCE: The present study showed that LMO4 is a direct target of p53 and inhibits p53-mediated proliferative inhibition of breast cancer cells through interacting p53.

Ziaja-Sołtys M, Rzymowska J
The determination of changes in the expression of genes for selected specific transcriptional factors in in vitro ductal breast cancer cells under the influence of paclitaxel.
Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2011; 16(4):610-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study aimed to determine the changes in the expression of genes for selected specific transcriptional factors that have both activating and repressing functions in in vitro ductal breast cancer cells, under the influence of paclitaxel, applying the microarray technique. The cells are treated with 60 ng/ml and 300 ng/ml doses of paclitaxel that correspond to those applied in breast cancer therapy. About 60 ng/ml doses of paclitaxel cause a statistically significant increase in expression of all the 16 analysed genes coding transcriptional factors, ranging from 1.84-fold (for PO4F2) to 4.65-fold (for LMO4) (p < 0.05) in comparison with the control cells, and enhanced the taxane mechanism of action. The 300 ng/ml doses of paclitaxel cause a cytotoxic effect in the cells. In this article, we argue that these changes in gene expression values may constitute prognostic and predictive factors in ductal breast cancer therapy.

Armeanu-Ebinger S, Bonin M, Häbig K, et al.
Differential expression of invasion promoting genes in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.
Int J Oncol. 2011; 38(4):993-1000 [PubMed] Related Publications
Expression profiling of tumor tissue allows a systematic search for targeted therapies and offers relevant prognostic information. Molecular studies on rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) revealed a more differentiated classification than the histological subgrouping into embryonal (RME) and alveolar (RMA) rhabdomyosarcoma, and reflected the chromosomal aberrations found in RMS. We addressed biological processes like cell migration and emerging drug resistance by expression profiling to identify mechanisms of metastasic invasion and differential response to chemotherapy in RMS. Gene expression analysis was performed in 19 RMS samples using the Affymetrix U133 Plus2 array. Validation of target genes was performed by qRT-PCR. Data were analyzed using Pathway analysis software. Involvement of these genes in invasion processes was evaluated in knock-down experiments using specific interference RNA and Matrigel(TM) invasion assay. In RMA tissues 211 of 534 genes were overexpressed, in RME tissues 323 genes were overexpressed. Pathway analysis software identified a group of genes involved in cell growth, morphology and motility. In patients with distant metastases especially transcription factors such as FOXF1 and LMO4 showed a high expression, which were described as determinants of tumor cell migration. Down-regulation of these factors inhibited the invasion of RMS cells >10-fold. Microarray technology is a powerful method not only to classify RMS samples, but also to identify major regulatory processes. Functional evaluation of LMO4 and FOXF1 identified targets of a molecular network for preventing metastatic invasion in RMS.

Wang K, Diskin SJ, Zhang H, et al.
Integrative genomics identifies LMO1 as a neuroblastoma oncogene.
Nature. 2011; 469(7329):216-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer of the sympathetic nervous system that accounts for approximately 10% of all paediatric oncology deaths. To identify genetic risk factors for neuroblastoma, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2,251 patients and 6,097 control subjects of European ancestry from four case series. Here we report a significant association within LIM domain only 1 (LMO1) at 11p15.4 (rs110419, combined P = 5.2 × 10(-16), odds ratio of risk allele = 1.34 (95% confidence interval 1.25-1.44)). The signal was enriched in the subset of patients with the most aggressive form of the disease. LMO1 encodes a cysteine-rich transcriptional regulator, and its paralogues (LMO2, LMO3 and LMO4) have each been previously implicated in cancer. In parallel, we analysed genome-wide DNA copy number alterations in 701 primary tumours. We found that the LMO1 locus was aberrant in 12.4% through a duplication event, and that this event was associated with more advanced disease (P < 0.0001) and survival (P = 0.041). The germline single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) risk alleles and somatic copy number gains were associated with increased LMO1 expression in neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumours, consistent with a gain-of-function role in tumorigenesis. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated depletion of LMO1 inhibited growth of neuroblastoma cells with high LMO1 expression, whereas forced expression of LMO1 in neuroblastoma cells with low LMO1 expression enhanced proliferation. These data show that common polymorphisms at the LMO1 locus are strongly associated with susceptibility to developing neuroblastoma, but also may influence the likelihood of further somatic alterations at this locus, leading to malignant progression.

Montañez-Wiscovich ME, Shelton MD, Seachrist DD, et al.
Aberrant expression of LMO4 induces centrosome amplification and mitotic spindle abnormalities in breast cancer cells.
J Pathol. 2010; 222(3):271-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The LIM-only protein, LMO4, is a transcriptional modulator overexpressed in breast cancer. It is oncogenic in murine mammary epithelium and is required for G2/M progression of ErbB2-dependent cells as well as growth and invasion of other breast cancer cell types. However, the mechanisms underlying the oncogenic activity of LMO4 remain unclear. Herein, we show that LMO4 is expressed in all breast cancer subtypes examined and its expression level correlates with the degree of proliferation of such tumours. In addition, we have determined that LMO4 silencing induces G2/M arrest in cells from various breast cancer subtypes, suggesting that LMO4 action in the cell cycle is not restricted to a single breast cancer subtype. This arrest was accompanied by increased cell death, amplification of centrosomes, and formation of abnormal mitotic spindles. Consistent with its ability to positively and negatively regulate the formation of active transcription complexes, overexpression of LMO4 also resulted in an increase in centrosome number. Centrosome amplification has been shown to prolong the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and induce apoptosis; thus, we conclude that supernumerary centrosomes mediate the G2/M arrest and cell death in LMO4-deficient cells. Furthermore, the correlation of centrosome amplification with genomic instability suggests that the impact of dysregulated LMO4 on the centrosome cycle may promote LMO4-induced tumour formation.

Montañez-Wiscovich ME, Seachrist DD, Landis MD, et al.
LMO4 is an essential mediator of ErbB2/HER2/Neu-induced breast cancer cell cycle progression.
Oncogene. 2009; 28(41):3608-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ErbB2/HER2/Neu-overexpressing breast cancers are characterized by poor survival due to high proliferation and metastasis rates and identifying downstream targets of ErbB2 should facilitate developing novel therapies for this disease. Gene expression profiling revealed the transcriptional regulator LIM-only protein 4 (LMO4) is upregulated during ErbB2-induced mouse mammary gland tumorigenesis. Although LMO4 is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer and LMO4-overexpressing mice develop mammary epithelial tumors, the mechanisms involved are unknown. In this study, we report that LMO4 is a downstream target of ErbB2 and PI3K in ErbB2-dependent breast cancer cells. Furthermore, LMO4 silencing reduces proliferation of these cells, inducing a G2/M arrest that was associated with decreased cullin-3, an E3-ubiquitin ligase component important for mitosis. Loss of LMO4 subsequently results in reduced Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E. Further supporting a role for LMO4 in modulating proliferation by regulating cullin-3 expression, we found that LMO4 expression oscillates throughout the cell cycle with maximum expression occurring during G2/M and these changes precede oscillations in cullin-3 levels. LMO4 levels are also highest in high-grade/less differentiated breast cancers, which are characteristically highly proliferative. We conclude that LMO4 is a novel cell cycle regulator with a key role in mediating ErbB2-induced proliferation, a hallmark of ErbB2-positive disease.

Yu J, Ohuchida K, Nakata K, et al.
LIM only 4 is overexpressed in late stage pancreas cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2008; 7:93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: LIM-only 4 (LMO4), a member of the LIM-only (LMO) subfamily of LIM domain-containing transcription factors, was initially reported to have an oncogenic role in breast cancer. We hypothesized that LMO4 may be related to pancreatic carcinogenesis as it is in breast carcinogenesis. If so, this could result in a better understanding of tumorigenesis in pancreatic cancer.
METHODS: We measured LMO4 mRNA levels in cultured cells, pancreatic bulk tissues and microdissected target cells (normal ductal cells; pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia-1B [PanIN-1B] cells; PanIN-2 cells; invasive ductal carcinoma [IDC] cells; intraductal papillary-mucinous adenoma [IPMA] cells; IPM borderline [IPMB] cells; and invasive and non-invasive IPM carcinoma [IPMC]) by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).
RESULTS: 9 of 14 pancreatic cancer cell lines expressed higher levels of LMO4 mRNA than did the human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line (HPDE). In bulk tissue samples, expression of LMO4 was higher in pancreatic carcinoma than in intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) or non-neoplastic pancreas (p < 0.0001 for both). We carried out microdissection-based analyses. IDC cells expressed significantly higher levels of LMO4 than did normal ductal epithelia or PanIN-1B cells (p < 0.001 for both) or PanIN-2 cells (p = 0.014). IPMC cells expressed significantly higher levels of LMO4 than did normal ductal epithelia (p < 0.001), IPMA (p < 0.001) and IPMB cells (p = 0.003).
CONCLUSION: Pancreatic carcinomas (both IDC and IPMC) expressed significantly higher levels of LMO4 mRNA than did normal ductal epithelia, PanIN-1B, PanIN-2, IPMA and IPMB. These results suggested that LMO4 is overexpressed at late stages in carcinogenesis of pancreatic cancer.

Wang N, Lin KK, Lu Z, et al.
The LIM-only factor LMO4 regulates expression of the BMP7 gene through an HDAC2-dependent mechanism, and controls cell proliferation and apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(44):6431-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
The nuclear LIM-only protein 4 (LMO4) is upregulated in breast cancer, especially estrogen receptor-negative tumors, and its overexpression in mice leads to hyperplasia and tumor formation. Here, we show that deletion of LMO4 in the mammary glands of mice leads to impaired lobuloalveolar development due to decreased epithelial cell proliferation. With the goal of discovering potential LMO4-target genes, we also developed a conditional expression system in MCF-7 cells for both LMO4 and a dominant negative (DN) form of its co-regulator, cofactor of LIM domains (Clim/Ldb/Nli). We then used DNA microarrays to identify genes responsive to LMO4 and DN-Clim upregulation. One of the genes common to both data sets was bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7), whose expression is also significantly correlated with LMO4 transcript levels in a large dataset of human breast cancers, suggesting that BMP7 is a bona fide target gene of LMO4 in breast cancer. Inhibition of BMP7 partially blocks the effects of LMO4 on apoptosis, indicating that BMP7 mediates at least some functions of LMO4. Gene transfer studies show that LMO4 regulates the BMP7 promoter, and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies show that LMO4 and its cofactor Clim2 are recruited to the BMP7 promoter. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HDAC2 recruitment to the BMP7 promoter is inhibited by upregulation of LMO4 and that HDAC2 knockdown upregulates the promoter. These studies suggest a novel mechanism of action for LMO4: LMO4, Clim2 and HDAC2 are part of a transcriptional complex, and increased LMO4 levels can disrupt the complex, leading to decreased HDAC2 recruitment and increased promoter activity.

Taniwaki M, Daigo Y, Ishikawa N, et al.
Gene expression profiles of small-cell lung cancers: molecular signatures of lung cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2006; 29(3):567-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
To characterize the molecular mechanisms involved in the carcinogenesis and progression of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and identify molecules to be applied as novel diagnostic markers and/or for development of molecular-targeted drugs, we applied cDNA microarray profile analysis coupled with purification of cancer cells by laser-microbeam microdissection (LMM). Expression profiles of 32,256 genes in 15 SCLCs identified 252 genes that were commonly up-regulated and 851 transcripts that were down-regulated in SCLC cells compared with non-cancerous lung tissue cells. An unsupervised clustering algorithm applied to the expression data easily distinguished SCLC from the other major histological type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and identified 475 genes that may represent distinct molecular features of each of the two histological types. In particular, SCLC was characterized by altered expression of genes related to neuroendocrine cell differentiation and/or growth such as ASCL1, NRCAM, and INSM1. We also identified 68 genes that were abundantly expressed both in advanced SCLCs and advanced adenocarcinomas (ADCs), both of which had been obtained from patients with extensive chemotherapy treatment. Some of them are known to be transcription factors and/or gene expression regulators such as TAF5L, TFCP2L4, PHF20, LMO4, TCF20, RFX2, and DKFZp547I048 as well as those encoding nucleotide-binding proteins such as C9orf76, EHD3, and GIMAP4. Our data provide valuable information for better understanding of lung carcinogenesis and chemoresistance.

Lu Z, Lam KS, Wang N, et al.
LMO4 can interact with Smad proteins and modulate transforming growth factor-beta signaling in epithelial cells.
Oncogene. 2006; 25(20):2920-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
LIM-only protein 4 (LMO4) plays critical roles in mammalian development, and has been proposed to play roles in epithelial oncogenesis, including breast cancer. As LMO4 is highly expressed in the epithelial compartments at locations of active mesenchymal-epithelial interactions, we reasoned that LMO4 might act by modulating signaling pathways involved in mesenchymal-epithelial signaling. One such candidate signal is the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) cytokine pathway, which plays important roles both in development and cancer. We show here that the transcriptional response to TGFbeta in epithelial cells is sensitive to LMO4 levels; both up- and downregulation of LMO4 can enhance TGFbeta signaling as assessed by a TGFbeta-responsive reporter gene. Furthermore, LMO4 can interact with the MH1 and linker domains of receptor-mediated Smad proteins, and associate with the endogenous TGFbeta-responsive Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 gene promoter in a TGFbeta-dependent manner, suggesting that such interactions may mediate the effects of LMO4 on TGFbeta signaling. When introduced into mammary epithelial cells, LMO4 potentiated the growth-inhibitory effects of TGFbeta in those cells. These results define a new function for LMO4 as a coactivator in TGFbeta signaling, and provide a potential novel mechanism for LMO4-mediated regulation in development and oncogenesis.

Singh RR, Barnes CJ, Talukder AH, et al.
Negative regulation of estrogen receptor alpha transactivation functions by LIM domain only 4 protein.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(22):10594-601 [PubMed] Related Publications
LIM domain only 4 (LMO4), a member of the LIM-only family of transcriptional coregulatory proteins, consists of two LIM protein-protein interaction domains that enable it to function as a linker protein in multiprotein complexes. Here, we have identified estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and its corepressor, metastasis tumor antigen 1 (MTA1), as two novel binding partners of LMO4. Interestingly, LMO4 exhibited binding with both ERalpha and MTA1 and existed as a complex with ERalpha, MTA1, and histone deacetylases (HDAC), implying that LMO4 was a component of the MTA1 corepressor complex. Consistent with this notion, LMO4 overexpression repressed ERalpha transactivation functions in an HDAC-dependent manner. Accordingly, silencing of endogenous LMO4 expression resulted in a significant increased recruitment of ERalpha to target gene chromatin, stimulation of ERalpha transactivation activity, and enhanced expression of ERalpha-regulated genes. These findings suggested that LMO4 was an integral part of the molecular machinery involved in the negative regulation of ERalpha transactivation function in breast cells. Because LMO4 is up-regulated in human breast cancers, repression of ERalpha transactivation functions by LMO4 might contribute to the process of breast cancer progression by allowing the development of ERalpha-negative phenotypes, leading to increased aggressiveness of breast cancer cells.

Lewis AG, Flanagan J, Marsh A, et al.
Mutation analysis of FANCD2, BRIP1/BACH1, LMO4 and SFN in familial breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2005; 7(6):R1005-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in known predisposition genes account for only about a third of all multiple-case breast cancer families. We hypothesized that germline mutations in FANCD2, BRIP1/BACH1, LMO4 and SFN may account for some of the unexplained multiple-case breast cancer families.
METHODS: The families used in this study were ascertained through the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab). Denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) analysis of the coding regions of these four genes was conducted in the youngest affected cases of 30 to 267 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer families. In addition, a further 399 index cases were also screened for mutations in two functionally significant regions of the FANCD2 gene and 253 index cases were screened for two previously reported mutations in BACH1 (p. P47A and p. M299I).
RESULTS: DHPLC analysis of FANCD2 identified six silent exonic variants, and a large number of intronic variants, which tagged two common haplotypes. One protein truncating variant was found in BRIP1/BACH1, as well as four missense variants, a silent change and a variant in the 3' untranslated region. No missense or splice site mutations were found in LMO4 or SFN. Analysis of the missense, silent and frameshift variants of FANCD2 and BACH1 in relatives of the index cases, and in a panel of controls, found no evidence suggestive of pathogenicity.
CONCLUSION: There is no evidence that highly penetrant exonic or splice site mutations in FANCD2, BRIP1/BACH1, LMO4 or SFN contribute to familial breast cancer. Large scale association studies will be necessary to determine whether any of the polymorphisms or haplotypes identified in these genes contributes to breast cancer risk.

Aoyama M, Ozaki T, Inuzuka H, et al.
LMO3 interacts with neuronal transcription factor, HEN2, and acts as an oncogene in neuroblastoma.
Cancer Res. 2005; 65(11):4587-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
LIM-only proteins (LMO), which consist of LMO1, LMO2, LMO3, and LMO4, are involved in cell fate determination and differentiation during embryonic development. Accumulating evidence suggests that LMO1 and LMO2 act as oncogenic proteins in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, whereas LMO4 has recently been implicated in the genesis of breast cancer. However, little is known about the role of LMO3 in either tumorigenesis or development. In the present study, we have identified LMO3 and HEN2, which encodes a neuronal basic helix-loop-helix protein, as genes whose expression levels were higher in unfavorable neuroblastomas compared with those of favorable tumors. Immunoprecipitation and immunostaining experiments showed that LMO3 was associated with HEN2 in mammalian cell nucleus. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells stably overexpressing LMO3 showed a marked increase in cell growth, a promotion of colony formation in soft agar medium, and a rapid tumor growth in nude mice compared with the control transfectants. More importantly, the increased expression of LMO3 and HEN2 was significantly associated with a poor prognosis in 87 primary neuroblastomas. These results suggest that the deregulated expression of neuronal-specific LMO3 and HEN2 contributes to the genesis and progression of human neuroblastoma in a lineage-specific manner.

Sum EY, Segara D, Duscio B, et al.
Overexpression of LMO4 induces mammary hyperplasia, promotes cell invasion, and is a predictor of poor outcome in breast cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005; 102(21):7659-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The zinc finger protein LMO4 is overexpressed in a high proportion of breast carcinomas. Here, we report that overexpression of a mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Lmo4 transgene in the mouse mammary gland elicits hyperplasia and mammary intraepithelial neoplasia or adenosquamous carcinoma in two transgenic strains with a tumor latency of 13-18 months. To investigate cellular processes controlled by LMO4 and those that may be deregulated during oncogenesis, we used RNA interference. Down-regulation of LMO4 expression reduced proliferation of human breast cancer cells and increased differentiation of mouse mammary epithelial cells. Furthermore, small-interfering-RNA-transfected breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) had a reduced capacity to migrate and invade an extracellular matrix. Conversely, overexpression of LMO4 in noninvasive, immortalized human MCF10A cells promoted cell motility and invasion. Significantly, in a cohort of 159 primary breast cancers, high nuclear levels of LMO4 were an independent predictor of death from breast cancer. Together, these findings suggest that deregulation of LMO4 in breast epithelium contributes directly to breast neoplasia by altering the rate of cellular proliferation and promoting cell invasion.

Colland F, Jacq X, Trouplin V, et al.
Functional proteomics mapping of a human signaling pathway.
Genome Res. 2004; 14(7):1324-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Access to the human genome facilitates extensive functional proteomics studies. Here, we present an integrated approach combining large-scale protein interaction mapping, exploration of the interaction network, and cellular functional assays performed on newly identified proteins involved in a human signaling pathway. As a proof of principle, we studied the Smad signaling system, which is regulated by members of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) superfamily. We used two-hybrid screening to map Smad signaling protein-protein interactions and to establish a network of 755 interactions, involving 591 proteins, 179 of which were poorly or not annotated. The exploration of such complex interaction databases is improved by the use of PIMRider, a dedicated navigation tool accessible through the Web. The biological meaning of this network is illustrated by the presence of 18 known Smad-associated proteins. Functional assays performed in mammalian cells including siRNA knock-down experiments identified eight novel proteins involved in Smad signaling, thus validating this integrated functional proteomics approach.

Wang N, Kudryavtseva E, Ch'en IL, et al.
Expression of an engrailed-LMO4 fusion protein in mammary epithelial cells inhibits mammary gland development in mice.
Oncogene. 2004; 23(8):1507-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
LIM domain factors and associated cofactors are important developmental regulators in pattern formation and organogenesis. In addition, overexpression of two LIM-only factors (LMOs) causes acute lymphocytic leukemia. The more recently discovered LMO factor LMO4 is highly expressed in proliferating epithelial cells, and frequently overexpressed in breast carcinoma. Here we show that while LMO4 is expressed throughout mammary gland development, it is dramatically upregulated in mammary epithelial cells during midpregnancy. The LMO coactivator Clim2/Ldb1/NLI showed a similar expression pattern, consistent with the idea that LMO4 and Clim2 act as a complex in mammary epithelial cells. In MCF-7 cells, LMO4 transcripts were upregulated by heregulin, an activator of ErbB receptors that are known to be important in mammary gland development and breast cancer. To test the hypothesis that LMO4 plays roles in mammary gland development, we created an engrailed-LMO4 fusion protein. This fusion protein maintains the ability to interact with Clim2, but acts as a dominant repressor of both basal and activated transcription when recruited to a DNA-regulatory region. When the engrailed-LMO4 fusion protein was expressed under control of the MMTV promoter in transgenic mice, both ductular development in virgin mice and alveolar development in pregnant mice were inhibited. These results suggest that LMO4 plays a role in promoting mammary gland development.

Sutherland KD, Visvader JE, Choong DY, et al.
Mutational analysis of the LMO4 gene, encoding a BRCA1-interacting protein, in breast carcinomas.
Int J Cancer. 2003; 107(1):155-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The LIM domain-only genes LMO1 and LMO2 are translocated in acute T cell leukemia (T-ALL) and have been shown to be oncogenes in T lymphoid cells. LMO4, the fourth member of this family, is overexpressed in more than 50% of sporadic breast cancers, suggesting a role in breast oncogenesis. We recently found that LMO4 interacts with the breast/ovarian tumor suppressor BRCA1 and that LMO4 can repress its transcriptional activity. Since proto-oncogene deregulation can result from activating mutations in their coding or regulatory sequences, we explored whether the LMO4 gene undergoes somatic mutagenesis in breast cancer. Mutation analysis of the coding and 3' untranslated regions of the LMO4 gene was performed on 82 primary breast and 22 tumor cell lines. A somatic mutation was detected in one primary breast cancer, at the 3' end of exon 2, but was not present in normal DNA derived from the same patient. This mutation causes a frame-shift and potentially results in a truncated LMO4 polypeptide, LIM1(mut), lacking the second LIM domain. This mutant protein could still bind Ldb1 but no longer associated with CtIP or BRCA1. Our results show that somatic mutations within the LMO4 gene do occur in breast cancer but at a very low frequency. Thus, the primary mechanism by which LMO4 is deregulated in breast cancers appears to reflect overexpression of the gene rather than the acquisition of activating genetic mutations.

Wittlin S, Sum EY, Jonas NK, et al.
Two promoters within the human LMO4 gene contribute to its overexpression in breast cancer cells.
Genomics. 2003; 82(3):280-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
LMO4, a member of the LIM-only family of zinc-finger proteins, is overexpressed in more than 50% of primary breast cancers and cell lines, implying a role in the pathogenesis of this cancer. Southern blot analysis of these cell lines did not reveal amplification or rearrangement of the LMO4 gene. To investigate further the mechanism underlying LMO4 overexpression and the generation of two patterns of transcripts, we isolated genomic clones spanning the human gene. Similar to the mouse Lmo4 gene, there are two 5' noncoding exons, exon 1a and exon 1b, which we show are differentially expressed in breast epithelial cells. This reflects differential promoter usage in combination with alternative splicing. Two promoter regions were defined, one upstream of exon 1a and the other upstream of exon 1b. Both promoters exhibited strong activity in breast cancer cells, with up to 400-fold activity above basal levels. These promoters were significantly more active in T-47D and MCF-7 cells relative to SKBR3 cells, consistent with RNA levels. Thus, overexpression of the LMO4 gene in breast cancer cells reflects increased promoter activity and appears to involve aberrant activation of the second promoter in a subset of these cells.

Vu D, Marin P, Walzer C, et al.
Transcription regulator LMO4 interferes with neuritogenesis in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.
Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003; 115(2):93-103 [PubMed] Related Publications
LMO4 is a transcription regulator interacting with proteins involved, among else, in tumorigenesis. Its function in the nervous system, and particularly in the adult nervous system, has however still to be elucidated. We decided to modify its expression in a neuronal model, human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, by permanent transfection of sense or anti-sense Lmo4 cDNAs. Generated clones overexpressing the Lmo4 transcript in sense orientation tended to aggregate. They showed significantly reduced average number of neurites per cell and average neuritic length per cell. The opposite was observed with clones overexpressing the anti-sense Lmo4 transcript. Furthermore, selected clones were subjected to 72 h long-term treatments with retinoic acid and phorbol ester (TPA), two biochemicals known to stimulate differentiation of non-transfected SH-SY5Y cells and other neuroblastoma cells. Neuritogenesis occurred after retinoic acid stimulation in all cases. The inhibitory effect of sense Lmo4 RNA overexpression on neuritic outgrowth was indeed prevented. The protein kinase C activator TPA could not induce neuritogenesis in SH-SY5Y cells overexpressing sense Lmo4 RNA. Thus, sense Lmo4 RNA overexpression, not Lmo4 endogenous transcription, overrides the stimulatory effect of TPA upon neuritic outgrowth. We also showed that Lmo4-dependent neuritic retraction and outgrowth correspond to altered phosphorylation of cytoskeletal proteins. Overall, Lmo4 RNA overexpression interferes with neuritic outgrowth, whereas anti-sense Lmo4 RNA expression favors neuritogenesis in SH-SY5Y cells. Consequently, changes in Lmo4 RNA expression levels might alter the rate of neuritic outgrowth in the developing and adult nervous system.

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