Gene Summary

Gene:LMO1; LIM domain only 1
Aliases: TTG1, RBTN1, RHOM1
Summary:This locus encodes a transcriptional regulator that contains two cysteine-rich LIM domains but lacks a DNA-binding domain. LIM domains may play a role in protein interactions; thus the encoded protein may regulate transcription by competitively binding to specific DNA-binding transcription factors. Alterations at this locus have been associated with acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia. Chromosomal rearrangements have been observed between this locus and at least two loci, the delta subunit of the T-cell antigen receptor gene and the LIM domain binding 1 gene. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • LIM Domain Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Adult T-Cell Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Mutation
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • LMO1
  • Neuroblastoma
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Gene Expression
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Alleles
  • Base Sequence
  • T-Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Protein 1
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
  • Metalloproteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Oncogenes
  • Adolescents
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Leukaemia
  • Chromosome 11
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Transcription Factors
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Infant
  • Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Transfection
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Genotype
  • Childhood Cancer
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LMO1 (cancer-related)

Saeki N, Saito A, Sugaya Y, et al.
Indirect Down-regulation of Tumor-suppressive
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2018 Sep-Oct; 15(5):413-420 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Overall survival for the high-risk group of neuroblastoma (NB) patients still remains at 40-50%, necessitating the establishment of a curable treatment. LIM domain only 1 (LMO1) gene encoding a transcriptional regulator is an NB-susceptibility gene with a tumor-promoting activity. Previously we conducted chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA sequencing analyses on NB cell lines and identified 3 protein-coding genes regulated by LMO1. In this study, we extended our analyses to capture microRNA genes directly or indirectly regulated by LMO1.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using microarrays, we conducted a comparative gene expression analysis on an NB cell line SK-N-SH; between the cells with and without LMO1 suppression.
RESULTS: Overall, 18 microRNAs were identified to be indirectly down-regulated by LMO1 including 7 microRNAs of the let-7 family, whose cell proliferation inhibitory activity was observed.
CONCLUSION: Target genes of the LMO1-regulated microRNAs and their relevant pathways may be a potential therapeutic target.

Saeki N, Saito A, Sugaya Y, et al.
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and DNA Sequencing Identified a LIMS1/ILK Pathway Regulated by LMO1 in Neuroblastoma.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics. 2018 May-Jun; 15(3):165-174 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Overall survival for the high-risk group of neuroblastoma (NB) remains at 40-50%. An integrative genomics study revealed that LIM domain only 1 (LMO1) encoding a transcriptional regulator to be an NB-susceptibility gene with a tumor-promoting activity, that needs to be revealed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA sequencing analyses and cell proliferation assays on two NB cell lines.
RESULTS: We identified three genes regulated by LMO1 in the cells, LIM and senescent cell antigen-like domains 1 (LIMS1), Ras suppressor protein 1 (RSU1) and relaxin 2 (RLN2). LIMS1 and RSU1 encode proteins functioning with integrin-linked kinase (ILK), and inhibition of LIMS1, ILK or RLN2 by shRNA reduced cell proliferation of the NB cells, which was also suppressed with an ILK inhibiting compound Cpd 22.
CONCLUSION: The downstream of LMO1-regulatory cascade includes a tumor-promoting LIMS1/ILK pathway, which has a potential to be a novel therapeutic target.

Hungate EA, Applebaum MA, Skol AD, et al.
Evaluation of Genetic Predisposition for MYCN-Amplified Neuroblastoma.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017; 109(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To investigate genetic predispositions for MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma, we performed a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies totaling 615 MYCN-amplified high-risk neuroblastoma cases and 1869 MYCN-nonamplified non-high-risk neuroblastoma cases as controls using a fixed-effects model with inverse variance weighting. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified a novel locus at 3p21.31 indexed by the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs80059929 (odds ratio [OR] = 2.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.17 to 4.02, Pmeta = 6.47 × 10-12) associated with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma, which was replicated in 127 MYCN-amplified cases and 254 non-high-risk controls (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.12 to 4.69, Preplication = .02). To confirm this signal is exclusive to MYCN-amplified tumors, we performed a second meta-analysis comparing 728 MYCN-nonamplified high-risk patients to identical controls. rs80059929 was not statistically significant in MYCN-nonamplified high-risk patients (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.71, Pmeta = .19). SNP rs80059929 is within intron 16 in the KIF15 gene. Additionally, the previously reported LMO1 neuroblastoma risk locus was statistically significant only in patients with MYCN-nonamplified high-risk tumors (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.75, Pmeta = 1.51 × 10-8; Pmeta = .95). Our results indicate that common genetic variation predisposes to different neuroblastoma genotypes, including the likelihood of somatic MYCN-amplification.

Liu Z, Thiele CJ
When LMO1 Meets MYCN, Neuroblastoma Is Metastatic.
Cancer Cell. 2017; 32(3):273-275 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
LMO1 is a high-risk neuroblastoma susceptibility gene, but how LMO1 cooperates with MYCN in neuroblastoma tumorigenesis is unclear. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Zhu et al. develop a novel zebrafish model that elucidates a mechanism by which LMO1 and MYCN synergistically initiate neuroblastoma and contribute to metastatic disease progression.

Zhu S, Zhang X, Weichert-Leahey N, et al.
LMO1 Synergizes with MYCN to Promote Neuroblastoma Initiation and Metastasis.
Cancer Cell. 2017; 32(3):310-323.e5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A genome-wide association study identified LMO1, which encodes an LIM-domain-only transcriptional cofactor, as a neuroblastoma susceptibility gene that functions as an oncogene in high-risk neuroblastoma. Here we show that dβh promoter-mediated expression of LMO1 in zebrafish synergizes with MYCN to increase the proliferation of hyperplastic sympathoadrenal precursor cells, leading to a reduced latency and increased penetrance of neuroblastomagenesis. The transgenic expression of LMO1 also promoted hematogenous dissemination and distant metastasis, which was linked to neuroblastoma cell invasion and migration, and elevated expression levels of genes affecting tumor cell-extracellular matrix interaction, including loxl3, itga2b, itga3, and itga5. Our results provide in vivo validation of LMO1 as an important oncogene that promotes neuroblastoma initiation, progression, and widespread metastatic dissemination.

Kalender Atak Z, Imrichova H, Svetlichnyy D, et al.
Identification of cis-regulatory mutations generating de novo edges in personalized cancer gene regulatory networks.
Genome Med. 2017; 9(1):80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The identification of functional non-coding mutations is a key challenge in the field of genomics. Here we introduce μ-cisTarget to filter, annotate and prioritize cis-regulatory mutations based on their putative effect on the underlying "personal" gene regulatory network. We validated μ-cisTarget by re-analyzing the TAL1 and LMO1 enhancer mutations in T-ALL, and the TERT promoter mutation in melanoma. Next, we re-sequenced the full genomes of ten cancer cell lines and used matched transcriptome data and motif discovery to identify master regulators with de novo binding sites that result in the up-regulation of nearby oncogenic drivers. μ-cisTarget is available from http://mucistarget.aertslab.org .

Al-Absi B, Razif MFM, Noor SM, et al.
Contributions of IKZF1, DDC, CDKN2A, CEBPE, and LMO1 Gene Polymorphisms to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in a Yemeni Population.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2017; 21(10):592-599 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide and candidate gene association studies have previously revealed links between a predisposition to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and genetic polymorphisms in the following genes: IKZF1 (7p12.2; ID: 10320), DDC (7p12.2; ID: 1644), CDKN2A (9p21.3; ID: 1029), CEBPE (14q11.2; ID: 1053), and LMO1 (11p15; ID: 4004). In this study, we aimed to conduct an investigation into the possible association between polymorphisms in these genes and ALL within a sample of Yemeni children of Arab-Asian descent.
METHODS: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IKZF1, three SNPs in DDC, two SNPs in CDKN2A, two SNPs in CEBPE, and three SNPs in LMO1 were genotyped in 289 Yemeni children (136 cases and 153 controls), using the nanofluidic Dynamic Array (Fluidigm 192.24 Dynamic Array). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate ALL risk, and the strength of association was expressed as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals.
RESULTS: We found that the IKZF1 SNP rs10235796 C allele (p = 0.002), the IKZF1 rs6964969 A>G polymorphism (p = 0.048, GG vs. AA), the CDKN2A rs3731246 G>C polymorphism (p = 0.047, GC+CC vs. GG), and the CDKN2A SNP rs3731246 C allele (p = 0.007) were significantly associated with ALL in Yemenis of Arab-Asian descent. In addition, a borderline association was found between IKZF1 rs4132601 T>G variant and ALL risk. No associations were found between the IKZF1 SNPs (rs11978267; rs7789635), DDC SNPs (rs3779084; rs880028; rs7809758), CDKN2A SNP (rs3731217), the CEBPE SNPs (rs2239633; rs12434881) and LMO1 SNPs (rs442264; rs3794012; rs4237770) with ALL in Yemeni children.
CONCLUSION: The IKZF1 SNPs, rs10235796 and rs6964969, and the CDKN2A SNP rs3731246 (previously unreported) could serve as risk markers for ALL susceptibility in Yemeni children.

Li Z, Abraham BJ, Berezovskaya A, et al.
APOBEC signature mutation generates an oncogenic enhancer that drives LMO1 expression in T-ALL.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(10):2057-2064 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oncogenic driver mutations are those that provide a proliferative or survival advantage to neoplastic cells, resulting in clonal selection. Although most cancer-causing mutations have been detected in the protein-coding regions of the cancer genome; driver mutations have recently also been discovered within noncoding genomic sequences. Thus, a current challenge is to gain precise understanding of how these unique genomic elements function in cancer pathogenesis, while clarifying mechanisms of gene regulation and identifying new targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we report a C-to-T single nucleotide transition that occurs as a somatic mutation in noncoding sequences 4 kb upstream of the transcriptional start site of the LMO1 oncogene in primary samples from patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This single nucleotide alteration conforms to an APOBEC-like cytidine deaminase mutational signature, and generates a new binding site for the MYB transcription factor, leading to the formation of an aberrant transcriptional enhancer complex that drives high levels of expression of the LMO1 oncogene. Since APOBEC-signature mutations are common in a broad spectrum of human cancers, we suggest that noncoding nucleotide transitions such as the one described here may activate potent oncogenic enhancers not only in T-lymphoid cells but in other cell lineages as well.

Porcher C, Chagraoui H, Kristiansen MS
SCL/TAL1: a multifaceted regulator from blood development to disease.
Blood. 2017; 129(15):2051-2060 [PubMed] Related Publications
SCL/TAL1 (stem cell leukemia/T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia [T-ALL] 1) is an essential transcription factor in normal and malignant hematopoiesis. It is required for specification of the blood program during development, adult hematopoietic stem cell survival and quiescence, and terminal maturation of select blood lineages. Following ectopic expression, SCL contributes to oncogenesis in T-ALL. Remarkably, SCL's activities are all mediated through nucleation of a core quaternary protein complex (SCL:E-protein:LMO1/2 [LIM domain only 1 or 2]:LDB1 [LIM domain-binding protein 1]) and dynamic recruitment of conserved combinatorial associations of additional regulators in a lineage- and stage-specific context. The finely tuned control of SCL's regulatory functions (lineage priming, activation, and repression of gene expression programs) provides insight into fundamental developmental and transcriptional mechanisms, and highlights mechanistic parallels between normal and oncogenic processes. Importantly, recent discoveries are paving the way to the development of innovative therapeutic opportunities in SCL

He J, Zhong W, Zeng J, et al.
LMO1 gene polymorphisms contribute to decreased neuroblastoma susceptibility in a Southern Chinese population.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(16):22770-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is one of the most commonly diagnosed extracranial solid tumors in infancy; however, the etiology of neuroblastoma remains largely unknown. Previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) indicated that several common genetic variations (rs110419 A > G, rs4758051 G > A, rs10840002 A > G and rs204938 A > G) in the LIM domain only 1 (LMO1) gene were associated with neuroblastoma susceptibility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the four GWAS-identified LMO1 gene polymorphisms and neuroblastoma risk in a Southern Chinese population. We genotyped the four polymorphisms in 256 neuroblastoma cases and 531 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the strength of the associations. False-positive report probability was calculated for all significant findings. We found that the rs110419 A > G polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased neuroblastoma risk (AG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.47-0.91; GG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.36-0.91; AG/GG vs. AA: adjusted OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.46-0.86), and the protective effect was more predominant in children of age > 18 months, males, subgroups with tumor in adrenal gland and mediastinum, and patients in clinical stages III/IV. These results suggested that LMO1 gene rs110419 A > G polymorphism may contribute to protection against neuroblastoma. Our findings call for further validation studies with larger sample size.

Oldridge DA, Wood AC, Weichert-Leahey N, et al.
Genetic predisposition to neuroblastoma mediated by a LMO1 super-enhancer polymorphism.
Nature. 2015; 528(7582):418-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a paediatric malignancy that typically arises in early childhood, and is derived from the developing sympathetic nervous system. Clinical phenotypes range from localized tumours with excellent outcomes to widely metastatic disease in which long-term survival is approximately 40% despite intensive therapy. A previous genome-wide association study identified common polymorphisms at the LMO1 gene locus that are highly associated with neuroblastoma susceptibility and oncogenic addiction to LMO1 in the tumour cells. Here we investigate the causal DNA variant at this locus and the mechanism by which it leads to neuroblastoma tumorigenesis. We first imputed all possible genotypes across the LMO1 locus and then mapped highly associated single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) to areas of chromatin accessibility, evolutionary conservation and transcription factor binding sites. We show that SNP rs2168101 G>T is the most highly associated variant (combined P = 7.47 × 10(-29), odds ratio 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.70), and resides in a super-enhancer defined by extensive acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 within the first intron of LMO1. The ancestral G allele that is associated with tumour formation resides in a conserved GATA transcription factor binding motif. We show that the newly evolved protective TATA allele is associated with decreased total LMO1 expression (P = 0.028) in neuroblastoma primary tumours, and ablates GATA3 binding (P < 0.0001). We demonstrate allelic imbalance favouring the G-containing strand in tumours heterozygous for this SNP, as demonstrated both by RNA sequencing (P < 0.0001) and reporter assays (P = 0.002). These findings indicate that a recently evolved polymorphism within a super-enhancer element in the first intron of LMO1 influences neuroblastoma susceptibility through differential GATA transcription factor binding and direct modulation of LMO1 expression in cis, and this leads to an oncogenic dependency in tumour cells.

Gu H, Liu T, Cai X, et al.
Upregulated LMO1 in prostate cancer acts as a novel coactivator of the androgen receptor.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(6):2181-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
LMO1, a nuclear transcription coregulator, is implicated in the pathogenesis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and neuroblastoma. However, the role of LMO1 in human prostate cancer (PCa) is still unknown. Androgen receptor (AR) plays a critical role in the progression of prostate cancer. The activation of AR signaling pathway could be modulated by AR cofactors. In the present study, we discovered that LMO1 could bind to AR and co-localize with AR in the nucleus. In addition, the expression of LMO1 in human PCa tissues was significantly higher than that in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) tissues. Moreover, LMO1 appeared to be a novel coactivator to enhance AR transcriptional activities, followed by the elevation of expression of P21 and PSA, downstream targets of AR. Taken together, LMO1 appears to be a coactivator of AR involved in the progression of prostate cancer, and could be a promising molecular target for treating prostate cancer.

Lu J, Chu P, Wang H, et al.
Candidate Gene Association Analysis of Neuroblastoma in Chinese Children Strengthens the Role of LMO1.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0127856 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children and the most frequently diagnosed cancer in the first year of life. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of Caucasian and African populations have shown that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in several genes are associated with the risk of developing NB, while few studies have been performed on Chinese children. Herein, we examined the association between the genetic polymorphisms in candidate genes and the risk of NB in Chinese children. In total, 127 SNPs in nine target genes, revealed by GWAS studies of other ethnic groups and four related lincRNAs, were genotyped in 549 samples (244 NB patients and 305 healthy controls). After adjustment for gender and age, there were 21 SNPs associated with NB risk at the two-sided P < 0.05 level, 11 of which were located in LMO1. After correction for multiple comparisons, only rs204926 in LMO1 remained significantly different between cases and controls (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.31-0.65, adjusted P = 0.003). In addition, 16 haplotypes in four separate genes were significantly different between case and control groups at an unadjusted P value < 0.05, 11 of which were located in LMO1. A major haplotype, ATC, containing rs204926, rs110420, and rs110419, conferred a significant increase in risk for NB (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 1.41-2.36, adjusted P < 0.001). The major finding of our study was obtained for risk alleles within the LMO1 gene. Our data suggest that genetic variants in LMO1 are associated with increased NB risk in Chinese children.

Capasso M, Diskin S, Cimmino F, et al.
Common genetic variants in NEFL influence gene expression and neuroblastoma risk.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(23):6913-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The genetic etiology of sporadic neuroblastoma is still largely obscure. In a genome-wide association study, we identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with neuroblastoma at the CASC15, BARD1, LMO1, DUSP12, HSD17B12, HACE1, and LIN28B gene loci, but these explain only a small fraction of neuroblastoma heritability. Other neuroblastoma susceptibility genes are likely hidden among signals discarded by the multiple testing corrections. In this study, we evaluated eight additional genes selected as candidates for further study based on proven involvement in neuroblastoma differentiation. SNPs at these candidate genes were tested for association with disease susceptibility in 2,101 cases and 4,202 controls, with the associations found replicated in an independent cohort of 459 cases and 809 controls. Replicated associations were further studied for cis-effect using gene expression, transient overexpression, silencing, and cellular differentiation assays. The neurofilament gene NEFL harbored three SNPs associated with neuroblastoma (rs11994014: Pcombined = 0.0050; OR, 0.88; rs2979704: Pcombined = 0.0072; OR, 0.87; rs1059111: Pcombined = 0.0049; OR, 0.86). The protective allele of rs1059111 correlated with increased NEFL expression. Biologic investigations showed that ectopic overexpression of NEFL inhibited cell growth specifically in neuroblastoma cells carrying the protective allele. NEFL overexpression also enhanced differentiation and impaired the proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of cells with protective allele and basal NEFL expression, while impairing invasiveness and proliferation of cells homozygous for the risk genotype. Clinically, high levels of NEFL expression in primary neuroblastoma specimens were associated with better overall survival (P = 0.03; HR, 0.68). Our results show that common variants of NEFL influence neuroblastoma susceptibility and they establish that NEFL expression influences disease initiation and progression.

Zhang Y, Yang J, Wang J, et al.
LMO1 is a novel oncogene in lung cancer, and its overexpression is a new predictive marker for anti-EGFR therapy.
Med Oncol. 2014; 31(8):99 [PubMed] Related Publications
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. We report that one oncogene amplified on chromosome 3q26, LMO1, a master transcriptional regulator of stemness, operates to drive strong growth phenotype in NSCLC. We first validate gene expression changes of LMO genes by real-time quantitative RT-PCR real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis and immunohistochemistry, and we identified gene overexpression of LMO1 compared with non-cancerous tissues (p < 0.01). Next, we discovered that LMO1 promoted cancer cell proliferation in our in vitro/vivo cell proliferation assay, and our cell signaling experiments showed that LMO1 expression correlated with elevated AKT phosphorylation in NSCLC, while the AKT phosphorylation was required for LMO1's oncogenic effects. In addition, we compared complete response rate, stable disease rate, disease progression rate, and the disease control rate of patient with different LMO1 gene expression which pointed to the usefulness of LMO1 overexpression, as a new predictive marker for responsiveness to cetuximab. All in all, LMO1 is a commonly activated tumor promoter that activates AKT signaling in NSCLC and a new predictive marker for targeted therapy.

Liu J, Yan P, Jing N, Yang J
LMO1 is a novel oncogene in colorectal cancer and its overexpression is a new predictive marker for anti-EGFR therapy.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(8):8161-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the world. We report that one oncogene amplified on chromosome 3q26, LMO1, a master transcriptional regulator of stemness, operates to drive strong growth phenotype in CRC. The gene expression changes of LMO1 in human CRC tissues compared with noncancerous tissues were detected using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) analysis and immunohistochemistry, which identified the gene overexpression of LMO1 in CRC. Moreover, we discovered that LMO1 promoted cancer cell proliferation in vitro/in vivo and LMO1 expression correlated with elevated AKT phosphorylation in CRC while the AKT phosphorylation was required for oncogenic effects of LMO1. Next, our data point to the usefulness of LMO1 overexpression, as a new predictive marker for responsiveness to cetuximab. All in all, LMO1 is a commonly activated tumor promoter that activates AKT signaling in CRC and a new predictive marker for targeted therapy.

Atak ZK, Gianfelici V, Hulselmans G, et al.
Comprehensive analysis of transcriptome variation uncovers known and novel driver events in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
PLoS Genet. 2013; 9(12):e1003997 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RNA-seq is a promising technology to re-sequence protein coding genes for the identification of single nucleotide variants (SNV), while simultaneously obtaining information on structural variations and gene expression perturbations. We asked whether RNA-seq is suitable for the detection of driver mutations in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). These leukemias are caused by a combination of gene fusions, over-expression of transcription factors and cooperative point mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. We analyzed 31 T-ALL patient samples and 18 T-ALL cell lines by high-coverage paired-end RNA-seq. First, we optimized the detection of SNVs in RNA-seq data by comparing the results with exome re-sequencing data. We identified known driver genes with recurrent protein altering variations, as well as several new candidates including H3F3A, PTK2B, and STAT5B. Next, we determined accurate gene expression levels from the RNA-seq data through normalizations and batch effect removal, and used these to classify patients into T-ALL subtypes. Finally, we detected gene fusions, of which several can explain the over-expression of key driver genes such as TLX1, PLAG1, LMO1, or NKX2-1; and others result in novel fusion transcripts encoding activated kinases (SSBP2-FER and TPM3-JAK2) or involving MLLT10. In conclusion, we present novel analysis pipelines for variant calling, variant filtering, and expression normalization on RNA-seq data, and successfully applied these for the detection of translocations, point mutations, INDELs, exon-skipping events, and expression perturbations in T-ALL.

Mandoli A, Singh AA, Jansen PW, et al.
CBFB-MYH11/RUNX1 together with a compendium of hematopoietic regulators, chromatin modifiers and basal transcription factors occupies self-renewal genes in inv(16) acute myeloid leukemia.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(4):770-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Different mechanisms for CBFβ-MYH11 function in acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16) have been proposed such as tethering of RUNX1 outside the nucleus, interference with transcription factor complex assembly and recruitment of histone deacetylases, all resulting in transcriptional repression of RUNX1 target genes. Here, through genome-wide CBFβ-MYH11-binding site analysis and quantitative interaction proteomics, we found that CBFβ-MYH11 localizes to RUNX1 occupied promoters, where it interacts with TAL1, FLI1 and TBP-associated factors (TAFs) in the context of the hematopoietic transcription factors ERG, GATA2 and PU.1/SPI1 and the coregulators EP300 and HDAC1. Transcriptional analysis revealed that upon fusion protein knockdown, a small subset of the CBFβ-MYH11 target genes show increased expression, confirming a role in transcriptional repression. However, the majority of CBFβ-MYH11 target genes, including genes implicated in hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal such as ID1, LMO1 and JAG1, are actively transcribed and repressed upon fusion protein knockdown. Together these results suggest an essential role for CBFβ-MYH11 in regulating the expression of genes involved in maintaining a stem cell phenotype.

Mansour MR, Sanda T, Lawton LN, et al.
The TAL1 complex targets the FBXW7 tumor suppressor by activating miR-223 in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
J Exp Med. 2013; 210(8):1545-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in 60% of cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and initiates T-ALL in mouse models. By performing global microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling after depletion of TAL1, together with genome-wide analysis of TAL1 occupancy by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to massively parallel DNA sequencing, we identified the miRNA genes directly controlled by TAL1 and its regulatory partners HEB, E2A, LMO1/2, GATA3, and RUNX1. The most dynamically regulated miRNA was miR-223, which is bound at its promoter and up-regulated by the TAL1 complex. miR-223 expression mirrors TAL1 levels during thymic development, with high expression in early thymocytes and marked down-regulation after the double-negative-2 stage of maturation. We demonstrate that aberrant miR-223 up-regulation by TAL1 is important for optimal growth of TAL1-positive T-ALL cells and that sustained expression of miR-223 partially rescues T-ALL cells after TAL1 knockdown. Overexpression of miR-223 also leads to marked down-regulation of FBXW7 protein expression, whereas knockdown of TAL1 leads to up-regulation of FBXW7 protein levels, with a marked reduction of its substrates MYC, MYB, NOTCH1, and CYCLIN E. We conclude that TAL1-mediated up-regulation of miR-223 promotes the malignant phenotype in T-ALL through repression of the FBXW7 tumor suppressor.

Matthews JM, Lester K, Joseph S, Curtis DJ
LIM-domain-only proteins in cancer.
Nat Rev Cancer. 2013; 13(2):111-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
LIM-domain proteins are a large family of proteins that are emerging as key molecules in a wide variety of human cancers. In particular, all members of the human LIM-domain-only (LMO) proteins, LMO1-4, which are required for many developmental processes, are implicated in the onset or the progression of several cancers, including T cell leukaemia, breast cancer and neuroblastoma. These small proteins contain two protein-interacting LIM domains but little additional sequence, and they seem to function by nucleating the formation of new transcriptional complexes and/or by disrupting existing transcriptional complexes to modulate gene expression programmes. Through these activities, the LMO proteins have important cellular roles in processes that are relevant to cancer such as self-renewal, cell cycle regulation and metastasis. These functions highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting these proteins in cancer.

Oram SH, Thoms J, Sive JI, et al.
Bivalent promoter marks and a latent enhancer may prime the leukaemia oncogene LMO1 for ectopic expression in T-cell leukaemia.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(6):1348-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
LMO1 is a transcriptional regulator and a T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) oncogene. Although first identified in association with a chromosomal translocation in T-ALL, the ectopic expression of LMO1 occurs far more frequently in the absence of any known mutation involving its locus. Given that LMO1 is barely expressed in any haematopoietic lineage, and activation of transcriptional drivers in leukaemic cells is not well described, we investigated the regulation of this gene in normal haematopoietic and leukaemic cells. We show that LMO1 has two promoters that drive reporter gene expression in transgenic mice to neural tissues known to express endogenous LMO1. The LMO1 promoters display bivalent histone marks in multiple blood lineages including T-cells, and a 3' flanking region at LMO1 +57 contains a transcriptional enhancer that is active in developing blood cells in transgenic mouse embryos. The LMO1 promoters become activated in T-ALL together with the 3' enhancer, which is bound in primary T-ALL cells by SCL/TAL1 and GATA3. Taken together, our results show that LMO1 is poised for expression in normal progenitors, where activation of SCL/TAL1 together with a breakdown of epigenetic repression of LMO1 regulatory elements induces ectopic LMO1 expression that contributes to the development and maintenance of T-ALL.

Capasso M, Diskin SJ, Totaro F, et al.
Replication of GWAS-identified neuroblastoma risk loci strengthens the role of BARD1 and affirms the cumulative effect of genetic variations on disease susceptibility.
Carcinogenesis. 2013; 34(3):605-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several neuroblastoma (NB) susceptibility loci have been identified within LINC00340, BARD1, LMO1, DUSP12, HSD17B12, DDX4, IL31RA, HACE1 and LIN28B by genome-wide association (GWA) studies including European American individuals. To validate and comprehensively evaluate the impact of the identified NB variants on disease risk and phenotype, we analyzed 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in an Italian population (370 cases and 809 controls). We assessed their regulatory activity on gene expression in lymphoblastoid (LCLs) and NB cell lines. We evaluated the cumulative effect of the independent loci on NB risk and high-risk phenotype development in Italian and European American (1627 cases and 2575 controls) populations. All NB susceptibility genes replicated in the Italian dataset except for DDX4 and IL31RA, and the most significant SNP was rs6435862 in BARD1 (P = 8.4 × 10(-15)). BARD1 showed an additional and independent SNP association (rs7585356). This variant influenced BARD1 mRNA expression in LCLs and NB cell lines. No evidence of epistasis among the NB-associated variants was detected, whereas a cumulative effect of risk variants on NB risk (European Americans: P (trend) = 6.9 × 10(-30), Italians: P (trend) = 8.55 × 10(13)) and development of high-risk phenotype (European Americans: P (trend) = 6.9 × 10(-13), Italians: P (trend) = 2.2 × 10(-1)) was observed in a dose-dependent manner. These results provide further evidence that the risk loci identified in GWA studies contribute to NB susceptibility in distinct populations and strengthen the role of BARD1 as major genetic contributor to NB risk. This study shows that even in the absence of interaction the combination of several low-penetrance alleles has potential to distinguish subgroups of patients at different risks of developing NB.

Zhou X, Sang M, Liu W, et al.
LMO4 inhibits p53-mediated proliferative inhibition of breast cancer cells through interacting p53.
Life Sci. 2012; 91(9-10):358-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The LIM domain only proteins (LMOs) which consist of four members (LMO1-LMO4) are a family of nuclear transcription coregulators that are characterized by the exclusive presence of two tandem LIM domains and no other functional domains. They regulate gene transcription by functioning as "linker" or "scaffolding" proteins by virtue of their LIM domains and are involved in the formation of multiprotein complexes with several DNA-binding factors and transcriptional regulatory proteins. In the present study, we tried to find the physical interaction between p53 and LMO4, and the effect of LMO4 on p53-mediated proliferative inhibition of breast cancer cells.
MAIN METHODS: FCM analysis was developed to detect the apoptosis of breast cancer cells after adriamycin (ADR) treatment. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to detect the expression of LMO4 and p53-related genes and proteins. Immunoprecipitation assay was used to detect the interaction between LMO4 and p53. Colony formation assay was developed to detect the proliferation of breast cancer cells.
KEY FINDINGS: We found that p53 was induced, but LMO4 was down-regulated in response to ADR. We also found that enforced expression of p53 inhibited the expression of LMO4, suggesting that LMO4 is a direct transcriptional target of p53. Furthermore, LMO4 can interact with p53 and inhibit p53-mediated inhibition of colony formation of breast cancer MDA-MB-453 cells.
SIGNIFICANCE: The present study showed that LMO4 is a direct target of p53 and inhibits p53-mediated proliferative inhibition of breast cancer cells through interacting p53.

Sanda T, Lawton LN, Barrasa MI, et al.
Core transcriptional regulatory circuit controlled by the TAL1 complex in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Cell. 2012; 22(2):209-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The oncogenic transcription factor TAL1/SCL is aberrantly expressed in over 40% of cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), emphasizing its importance in the molecular pathogenesis of T-ALL. Here we identify the core transcriptional regulatory circuit controlled by TAL1 and its regulatory partners HEB, E2A, LMO1/2, GATA3, and RUNX1. We show that TAL1 forms a positive interconnected autoregulatory loop with GATA3 and RUNX1 and that the TAL1 complex directly activates the MYB oncogene, forming a positive feed-forward regulatory loop that reinforces and stabilizes the TAL1-regulated oncogenic program. One of the critical downstream targets in this circuitry is the TRIB2 gene, which is oppositely regulated by TAL1 and E2A/HEB and is essential for the survival of T-ALL cells.

Latorre V, Diskin SJ, Diamond MA, et al.
Replication of neuroblastoma SNP association at the BARD1 locus in African-Americans.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2012; 21(4):658-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma is an often fatal pediatric cancer more frequent in European-American than African-American children. African-American children, however, are at higher risk for the more severe form of neuroblastoma and have worse overall survival than European-American children. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated to neuroblastoma in children of European descent. Knowledge of their association to neuroblastoma in African-American children is still lacking.
METHODS: We genotyped and imputed SNPs located in three gene regions reported to be associated to neuroblastoma in children of European descent, and tested them for association in 390 African-American patients with neuroblastoma compared with 2,500 healthy, ethnically matched controls.
RESULTS: SNPs in the BARD1 gene region show a similar pattern of association to neuroblastoma in African-American and European-American children. The more restricted extent of linkage disequilibrium in the African-American population suggests a smaller candidate region for the putative causal variants than previously reported. Limited association was observed at the other two gene regions tested, including LMO1 in 11p15 and FLJ22536 in 6p22.
CONCLUSIONS: Common BARD1 SNPs affect risk of neuroblastoma in African-Americans. The role of other SNPs associated to neuroblastoma in children of European descent could not be confirmed, possibly due to different patterns of linkage disequilibrium or limited statistical power to detect association to variants with small effect on disease risk. Extension of GWAS to populations of African descent is important to confirm their results and validity beyond the European populations and can help to refine the location of the putative causal variants.

Homminga I, Vuerhard MJ, Langerak AW, et al.
Characterization of a pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient with simultaneous LYL1 and LMO2 rearrangements.
Haematologica. 2012; 97(2):258-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Translocation of the LYL1 oncogene are rare in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, whereas the homologous TAL1 gene is rearranged in approximately 20% of patients. Previous gene-expression studies have identified an immature T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia subgroup with high LYL1 expression in the absence of chromosomal aberrations. Molecular characterization of a t(7;19)(q34;p13) in a pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient led to the identification of a translocation between the TRB@ and LYL1 loci. Similar to incidental T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases with synergistic, double translocations affecting TAL1/2 and LMO1/2 oncogenes, this LYL1-translocated patient also had an LMO2 rearrangement pointing to oncogenic cooperation between LYL1 and LMO2. In hierarchical cluster analyses based on gene-expression data, this sample consistently clustered along with cases having TAL1 or LMO2 rearrangements. Therefore, LYL1-rearranged cases are not necessarily associated with immature T-cell development, despite high LYL1 levels, but elicit a TALLMO expression signature.

Beuten J, Gelfond JA, Piwkham D, et al.
Candidate gene association analysis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia identifies new susceptibility locus at 11p15 (LMO1).
Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(9):1349-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
To determine the contribution of susceptibility loci in explaining the genetic basis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we genotyped 29 high-potential candidate genes with 672 tagged single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a sample (163 cases and 251 healthy controls) of Caucasian children. Fifty SNPs in 15 genes were significantly associated with ALL risk at the P < 0.05 level. After correction for multiple testing, rs442264 within the LIM domain only 1 (LMO1) gene at 11p15 remained significant [odds ratio (OR) = 1.90, P = 3 × 10(-5)]. In addition, a major haplotype within LMO1 comprising 14 SNPs with individual risk associations was found to significantly increase ALL risk (OR = 1.79, P = 0.0006). A stratified analysis on subtype indicated that risk associations of LMO1 variants are significant in children with precursor B-cell leukemia. These data show that genetic variants within LMO1 are associated with ALL and identify this gene as a strong candidate for precursor B-cell leukemogenesis.

Nguyen le B, Diskin SJ, Capasso M, et al.
Phenotype restricted genome-wide association study using a gene-centric approach identifies three low-risk neuroblastoma susceptibility Loci.
PLoS Genet. 2011; 7(3):e1002026 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a malignant neoplasm of the developing sympathetic nervous system that is notable for its phenotypic diversity. High-risk patients typically have widely disseminated disease at diagnosis and a poor survival probability, but low-risk patients frequently have localized tumors that are almost always cured with little or no chemotherapy. Our genome-wide association study (GWAS) has identified common variants within FLJ22536, BARD1, and LMO1 as significantly associated with neuroblastoma and more robustly associated with high-risk disease. Here we show that a GWAS focused on low-risk cases identified SNPs within DUSP12 at 1q23.3 (P = 2.07 × 10⁻⁶), DDX4 and IL31RA both at 5q11.2 (P = 2.94 × 10⁻⁶ and 6.54 × 10⁻⁷ respectively), and HSD17B12 at 11p11.2 (P = 4.20 × 10⁻⁷) as being associated with the less aggressive form of the disease. These data demonstrate the importance of robust phenotypic data in GWAS analyses and identify additional susceptibility variants for neuroblastoma.

Wang K, Diskin SJ, Zhang H, et al.
Integrative genomics identifies LMO1 as a neuroblastoma oncogene.
Nature. 2011; 469(7329):216-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer of the sympathetic nervous system that accounts for approximately 10% of all paediatric oncology deaths. To identify genetic risk factors for neuroblastoma, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 2,251 patients and 6,097 control subjects of European ancestry from four case series. Here we report a significant association within LIM domain only 1 (LMO1) at 11p15.4 (rs110419, combined P = 5.2 × 10(-16), odds ratio of risk allele = 1.34 (95% confidence interval 1.25-1.44)). The signal was enriched in the subset of patients with the most aggressive form of the disease. LMO1 encodes a cysteine-rich transcriptional regulator, and its paralogues (LMO2, LMO3 and LMO4) have each been previously implicated in cancer. In parallel, we analysed genome-wide DNA copy number alterations in 701 primary tumours. We found that the LMO1 locus was aberrant in 12.4% through a duplication event, and that this event was associated with more advanced disease (P < 0.0001) and survival (P = 0.041). The germline single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) risk alleles and somatic copy number gains were associated with increased LMO1 expression in neuroblastoma cell lines and primary tumours, consistent with a gain-of-function role in tumorigenesis. Short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated depletion of LMO1 inhibited growth of neuroblastoma cells with high LMO1 expression, whereas forced expression of LMO1 in neuroblastoma cells with low LMO1 expression enhanced proliferation. These data show that common polymorphisms at the LMO1 locus are strongly associated with susceptibility to developing neuroblastoma, but also may influence the likelihood of further somatic alterations at this locus, leading to malignant progression.

Kusy S, Gerby B, Goardon N, et al.
NKX3.1 is a direct TAL1 target gene that mediates proliferation of TAL1-expressing human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
J Exp Med. 2010; 207(10):2141-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TAL1 (also known as SCL) is expressed in >40% of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs). TAL1 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that can interfere with the transcriptional activity of E2A and HEB during T cell leukemogenesis; however, the oncogenic pathways directly activated by TAL1 are not characterized. In this study, we show that, in human TAL1-expressing T-ALL cell lines, TAL1 directly activates NKX3.1, a tumor suppressor gene required for prostate stem cell maintenance. In human T-ALL cell lines, NKX3.1 gene activation is mediated by a TAL1-LMO-Ldb1 complex that is recruited by GATA-3 bound to an NKX3.1 gene promoter regulatory sequence. TAL1-induced NKX3.1 activation is associated with suppression of HP1-α (heterochromatin protein 1 α) binding and opening of chromatin on the NKX3.1 gene promoter. NKX3.1 is necessary for T-ALL proliferation, can partially restore proliferation in TAL1 knockdown cells, and directly regulates miR-17-92. In primary human TAL1-expressing leukemic cells, the NKX3.1 gene is expressed independently of the Notch pathway, and its inactivation impairs proliferation. Finally, TAL1 or NKX3.1 knockdown abrogates the ability of human T-ALL cells to efficiently induce leukemia development in mice. These results suggest that tumor suppressor or oncogenic activity of NKX3.1 depends on tissue expression.

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