Gene Summary

Gene:LOX; lysyl oxidase
Aliases: AAT10
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the lysyl oxidase family of proteins. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants, at least one of which encodes a preproprotein that is proteolytically processed to generate a regulatory propeptide and the mature enzyme. The copper-dependent amine oxidase activity of this enzyme functions in the crosslinking of collagens and elastin, while the propeptide may play a role in tumor suppression. In addition, defects in this gene have been linked with predisposition to thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein-lysine 6-oxidase
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (14)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • siRNA
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • DNA Methylation
  • Messenger RNA
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Base Sequence
  • Promoter Regions
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Breast Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Gene Expression
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Apoptosis
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Lung Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Enzymologic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Species Specificity
  • Western Blotting
  • Arachidonate 12-Lipoxygenase
  • Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase
  • Down-Regulation
  • Cell Movement
  • Syndecan-2
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Risk Factors
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Transcription
  • Phenotype
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Arachidonate 15-Lipoxygenase
  • Chromosome 5
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: LOX (cancer-related)

Fraga A, Ribeiro R, Coelho A, et al.
Genetic polymorphisms in key hypoxia-regulated downstream molecules and phenotypic correlation in prostate cancer.
BMC Urol. 2017; 17(1):12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In this study we sought if, in their quest to handle hypoxia, prostate tumors express target hypoxia-associated molecules and their correlation with putative functional genetic polymorphisms.
METHODS: Representative areas of prostate carcinoma (n = 51) and of nodular prostate hyperplasia (n = 20) were analysed for hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α), carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), lysyl oxidase (LOX) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR2) immunohistochemistry expression using a tissue microarray. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood and used to genotype functional polymorphisms at the corresponding genes (HIF1A +1772 C > T, rs11549465; CA9 + 201 A > G; rs2071676; LOX +473 G > A, rs1800449; KDR - 604 T > C, rs2071559).
RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry analyses disclosed predominance of positive CAIX and VEGFR2 expression in epithelial cells of prostate carcinomas compared to nodular prostate hyperplasia (P = 0.043 and P = 0.035, respectively). In addition, the VEGFR2 expression score in prostate epithelial cells was higher in organ-confined and extra prostatic carcinoma compared to nodular prostate hyperplasia (P = 0.031 and P = 0.004, respectively). Notably, for LOX protein the immunoreactivity score was significantly higher in organ-confined carcinomas compared to nodular prostate hyperplasia (P = 0.015). The genotype-phenotype analyses showed higher LOX staining intensity for carriers of the homozygous LOX +473 G-allele (P = 0.011). Still, carriers of the KDR-604 T-allele were more prone to have higher VEGFR2 expression in prostate epithelial cells (P < 0.006).
CONCLUSIONS: Protein expression of hypoxia markers (VEGFR2, CAIX and LOX) on prostate epithelial cells was different between malignant and benign prostate disease. Two genetic polymorphisms (LOX +473 G > A and KDR-604 T > C) were correlated with protein level, accounting for a potential gene-environment effect in the activation of hypoxia-driven pathways in prostate carcinoma. Further research in larger series is warranted to validate present findings.

Chen GY, Shu YC, Chuang DY, Wang YC
Inflammatory and Apoptotic Regulatory Activity of Tanshinone IIA in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Cells.
Am J Chin Med. 2016; 44(6):1187-1206 [PubMed] Related Publications
Helicobacter pylori infections induce host cell inflammation and apoptosis, however, they are conflicting. Tanshinone IIA is an active compound of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. In this study, we investigated the regulatory effects of tanshinone IIA on H. pylori-induced inflammation and apoptosis in vitro. Tanshinone IIA treatments (13.6-54.4[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M) significantly decreased nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) [p-38 and C-terminal Jun-kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2)] protein expressions and inflammatory substance [cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), 5-lipooxygenase (5-LOX), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-1[Formula: see text] (IL-1[Formula: see text], IL-6, and IL-8] production in the H. pylori-infected cells. In contrast, tanshinone IIA treatments significantly increased apoptotic relevant protein [Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase 9] expressions and increased mitochondrial transmembrane potential ([Formula: see text] disruption, mitochondrial cytochrome [Formula: see text] (cyt [Formula: see text] release, and caspase cascades. Tanshinone IIA treatments effectively decreased H. pylori-induced inflammation and significantly promoted H. pylori-induced intrinsic apoptosis through NF-kB and MAPK (p-38 and JNK) pathways. Tanshinone IIA has great potential as a candidate to protect host cells from H. pylori-induced severe inflammation and gastric cancer.

Tunçer S, Tunçay Çağatay S, Keşküş AG, et al.
Interplay between 15-lipoxygenase-1 and metastasis-associated antigen 1 in the metastatic potential of colorectal cancer.
Cell Prolif. 2016; 49(4):448-59 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Metastasis-associated antigen 1 (MTA1) is implicated in metastasis while 15-lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1) reduces cell motility, when re-expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aimed to understand any potential interplay between MTA1 and 15-LOX-1 in CRC metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: ALOX15 and MTA1 expression in tumour and normal samples were analysed from TCGA RNA-seq data, microarray data sets and a human CRC cDNA array. Western blots, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), luciferase assays and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) were carried out in HT-29 and LoVo cells re-expressing 15-LOX-1 to determine NF- κB activity at the MTA1 promoter. Functional assays in cells ectopically expressing either 15-LOX-1, MTA-1 or both, were carried out to determine adhesion and cell motility.
RESULTS: Significantly higher expression of MTA1 was observed in tumours compared to normal tissues; MTA1 overexpression resulted in reduced adhesion in CRC cell lines. Re-expression of 15-LOX-1 in the CRC cell lines reduced expression of endogenous MTA1, corroborated by negative correlation between the two genes in two independent human CRC microarray data sets, with greater significance in specific subsets of patients. DNA binding and transcriptional activity of NF-κB at the MTA1 promoter was significantly lower in cells re-expressing 15-LOX-1. Functionally, the same cells had reduced motility, which was rescued when they overexpressed MTA1, and further corroborated by expressions of E-cadherin and vimentin.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression of MTA1 and 15-LOX-1 negatively correlated in specific subsets of CRC. Mechanistically, this is at least in part through reduced recruitment of NF-κB to the MTA1 promoter.

Lisowska KM, Olbryt M, Student S, et al.
Unsupervised analysis reveals two molecular subgroups of serous ovarian cancer with distinct gene expression profiles and survival.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2016; 142(6):1239-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer is typically diagnosed at late stages, and thus, patients' prognosis is poor. Improvement in treatment outcomes depends, at least partly, on better understanding of ovarian cancer biology and finding new molecular markers and therapeutic targets.
METHODS: An unsupervised method of data analysis, singular value decomposition, was applied to analyze microarray data from 101 ovarian cancer samples; then, selected genes were validated by quantitative PCR.
RESULTS: We found that the major factor influencing gene expression in ovarian cancer was tumor histological type. The next major source of variability was traced to a set of genes mainly associated with extracellular matrix, cell motility, adhesion, and immunological response. Hierarchical clustering based on the expression of these genes revealed two clusters of ovarian cancers with different molecular profiles and distinct overall survival (OS). Patients with higher expression of these genes had shorter OS than those with lower expression. The two clusters did not derive from high- versus low-grade serous carcinomas and were unrelated to histological (ovarian vs. fallopian) origin. Interestingly, there was considerable overlap between identified prognostic signature and a recently described invasion-associated signature related to stromal desmoplastic reaction. Several genes from this signature were validated by quantitative PCR; two of them-DSPG3 and LOX-were validated both in the initial and independent sets of samples and were significantly associated with OS and disease-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: We distinguished two molecular subgroups of serous ovarian cancers characterized by distinct OS. Among differentially expressed genes, some may potentially be used as prognostic markers. In our opinion, unsupervised methods of microarray data analysis are more effective than supervised methods in identifying intrinsic, biologically sound sources of variability. Moreover, as histological type of the tumor is the greatest source of variability in ovarian cancer and may interfere with analyses of other features, it seems reasonable to use histologically homogeneous groups of tumors in microarray experiments.

Nilsson M, Adamo H, Bergh A, Halin Bergström S
Inhibition of Lysyl Oxidase and Lysyl Oxidase-Like Enzymes Has Tumour-Promoting and Tumour-Suppressing Roles in Experimental Prostate Cancer.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:19608 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and LOX-like (LOXL) enzymes are key players in extracellular matrix deposition and maturation. LOX promote tumour progression and metastasis, but it may also have tumour-inhibitory effects. Here we show that orthotopic implantation of rat prostate AT-1 tumour cells increased LOX and LOXLs mRNA expressions in the tumour and in the surrounding non-malignant prostate tissue. Inhibition of LOX enzymes, using Beta-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), initiated before implantation of AT-1 cells, reduced tumour growth. Conversely, treatment that was started after the tumours were established resulted in unaffected or increased tumour growth. Moreover, treatment with BAPN did not suppress the formation of spontaneous lymph node metastases, or lung tumour burden, when tumour cells were injected intravenously. A temporal decrease in collagen fibre content, which is a target for LOX, was observed in tumours and in the tumour-adjacent prostate tissue. This may explain why early BAPN treatment is more effective in inhibiting tumour growth compared to treatment initiated later. Our data suggest that the enzymatic function of the LOX family is context-dependent, with both tumour-suppressing and tumour-promoting properties in prostate cancer. Further investigations are needed to understand the circumstances under which LOX inhibition may be used as a therapeutic target for cancer patients.

Wang S, Liu JC, Kim D, et al.
Targeted Pten deletion plus p53-R270H mutation in mouse mammary epithelium induces aggressive claudin-low and basal-like breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2016; 18(1):9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), an aggressive disease comprising several subtypes including basal-like and claudin-low, involves frequent deletions or point mutations in TP53, as well as loss of PTEN. We previously showed that combined deletion of both tumor suppressors in the mouse mammary epithelium invariably induced claudin-low-like TNBC. The effect of p53 mutation plus Pten deletion on mammary tumorigenesis and whether this combination can induce basal-like TNBC in the mouse are unknown.
METHODS: WAP-Cre:Pten(f/f):p53(lox.stop.lox_R270H) composite mice were generated in which Pten is deleted and a p53-R270H mutation in the DNA-binding domain is induced upon expression of Cre-recombinase in pregnancy-identified alveolar progenitors. Tumors were characterized by histology, marker analysis, transcriptional profiling [GEO-GSE75989], bioinformatics, high-throughput (HTP) FDA drug screen as well as orthotopic injection to quantify tumor-initiating cells (TICs) and tail vein injection to identify lung metastasis.
RESULTS: Combined Pten deletion plus induction of p53-R270H mutation accelerated formation of four distinct mammary tumors including poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma (PDA) and spindle/mesenchymal-like lesions. Transplantation assays revealed highest frequency of TICs in PDA and spindle tumors compared with other subtypes. Hierarchical clustering demonstrated that the PDA and spindle tumors grouped closely with human as well as mouse models of basal and claudin-low subtypes, respectively. HTP screens of primary Pten(∆):p53(∆) vs. Pten(∆):p53(R270H) spindle tumor cells with 1120 FDA-approved drugs identified 8-azaguanine as most potent for both tumor types, but found no allele-specific inhibitor. A gene set enrichment analysis revealed increased expression of a metastasis pathway in Pten(∆):p53(R270H) vs. Pten(∆):p53(∆) spindle tumors. Accordingly, following tail vein injection, both Pten(∆):p53(R270H) spindle and PDA tumor cells induced lung metastases and morbidity significantly faster than Pten(∆):p53(∆) double-deletion cells, and this was associated with the ability of Pten(∆):p53(R270H) tumor cells to upregulate E-cadherin expression in lung metastases.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that WAP-Cre:Pten(f/f):p53(lox.stop.lox_R270H) mice represent a tractable model to study basal-like breast cancer because unlike p53 deletion, p53(R270H) mutation in the mouse does not skew tumors toward the claudin-low subtype. The WAP-Cre:Pten(f/f):p53(lox.stop.lox_R270H) mice develop basal-like breast cancer that is enriched in TICs, can readily form lung metastasis, and provides a preclinical model to study both basal-like and claudin-low TNBC in immune-competent mice.

Görögh T, Quabius ES, Heidebrecht H, et al.
Lysyl oxidase like-4 monoclonal antibody demonstrates therapeutic effect against head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells and xenografts.
Int J Cancer. 2016; 138(10):2529-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
A new member of the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family, lysyl oxidase-like 4 (LOXL4), is overexpressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) compared to normal squamous epithelium. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) derived from fusion of Balb/c mouse splenocytes immunized with LOXL4 specific peptide was used to evaluate its therapeutic efficacy in 15 HNSCC cell lines associated with LOXL4 overexpression. For xenograft experiments 41 severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were used to analyze LOXL4-mAb mediated tumor regression. Cell viability was analyzed using cytotoxicity-, and clonogenic-assays. Significant suppression of tumor cell growth was observed in 12 out of 15 (80%) tumor cell lines after 48 hr exposure to the mAb (LD50 of 15 µg/ml to 45 µg/ml). The effect induced by the antibody could be blocked by pre-incubation of the antibody with the peptide used for immunization of the mice and antibody generation, indicating that the effect of the antibody is specific. In mice inoculated with HNSCC cells, i.v. injections of the LOXL4-mAb resulted within 70 days in extensive tumor destruction in all treated animals whereas no tumor regression occurred in control animals. In mice pre-immunized i.v. with LOXL4-mAb and subsequently injected with HNSCC cells, tumor development was considerably delayed in contrast to non LOXL4-mAb pre-immunized animals. These results demonstrate that the LOXL4-mAb has potent antitumor activity and suggest its suitability as a therapeutic immune agent applicable to HNSCC exhibiting tumor specific upregulation of LOXL4.

Cox TR, Gartland A, Erler JT
Lysyl Oxidase, a Targetable Secreted Molecule Involved in Cancer Metastasis.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(2):188-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Secondary metastatic cancer remains the single biggest cause of mortality and morbidity across most solid tumors. In breast cancer, 100% of deaths are attributed to metastasis. At present, there are no "cures" for secondary metastatic cancer of any form and there is an urgent unmet clinical need to improve the tools available in our arsenal against this disease, both in terms of treatment, but also prevention. Recently, we showed that hypoxic induction of the extracellular matrix modifying enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX) correlates with metastatic dissemination to the bone in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer and is essential for the formation of premetastatic osteolytic lesions. We showed that in models of breast cancer metastasis, targeting LOX, or its downstream effects, significantly inhibited premetastatic niche formation and the resulting metastatic burden, offering preclinical validation of this enzyme as a therapeutic target for metastatic breast cancer. Our work is the latest in an emerging body of work supporting the targeting of LOX and calls for greater efforts in developing therapeutics against this extracellular secreted factor in the prevention of cancer progression across multiple solid tumor types.

Che XH, Chen CL, Ye XL, et al.
Dual inhibition of COX-2/5-LOX blocks colon cancer proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 35(3):1680-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammation is emerging as a new hallmark of cancer. Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism, the family of cyclooxygenases (COXs) and lipoxygenase (LOX) play important roles in AA-related inflammatory cascades. In 94 colorectal cancer samples collected from the Han population, the immunohistochemical results indicated that 68% of the patients with colorectal cancer had a co-expression of both COX-2 and 5-LOX, while both displayed low expression in the matched normal tissues. In cell lines, three colorectal cancer cell lines exhibited high expression of COX-2 and 5-LOX. During stable silencing of the expression of COX-2 or 5-LOX in LoVo cancer cells, we found that downregulation of either COX-2 or 5-LOX significantly diminished the growth, migration and invasion of the colon cancer cells and specifically, downregulation of COX-2 could elicit upregulation of 5-LOX protein and vice versa. The above results suggested that the simultaneous blocking of COX-2 and 5-LOX activity may bring more potential benefits in managing the progression of colon cancer. Therefore, we sought to explore the effectiveness of a dual COX-2/5-LOX inhibitor darbufelone on the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of colon cancer cells, as well as the underlying mechanism of action. The results indicated that darbufelone significantly decreased the proliferative and invasive abilities of the colon cancer cells, in a dose-dependent manner. During the study of the related mechanisms, we found an upregulation of p27 and downregulation of cyclin D1 as well as CDK4 after darbufelone treatment, which indicated that darbufelone could arrest the cell cycle of LoVo cells at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, the activation of caspase-3 and -9, upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 demonstrated the occurrence of apoptosis by darbufelone. Finally, darbufelone also prevented the migration and invasion of LoVo cells, which may be ascribed to the upregulation of E-cadherin and ZO-1. In summary, our data suggest that the inhibition of both COX-2/5-LOX may be an effective therapeutic approach for colon cancer management, particularly for those patients with high expression of COX-2/5-LOX.

Singh BN, Rawat AK, Bhagat RM, Singh BR
Black tea: Phytochemicals, cancer chemoprevention, and clinical studies.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2017; 57(7):1394-1410 [PubMed] Related Publications
Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular, flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink consumed by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids that exhibit a range of promising pharmacological properties. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets, including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK, which may be the basis of how dose of black tea prevents and cures cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea; however, its effect in human trails is uncertain, although more clinical experiments are needed at molecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

Ko YS, Lee WS, Joo YN, et al.
Polyphenol mixtures of Euphorbia supina the inhibit invasion and metastasis of highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(6):3035-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Korean prostrate spurge Euphorbia supina is abundant in polyphenols and has been used as a folk medicine in Korea against a variety of diseases. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effect of polyphenol mixtures of Korean Euphorbia supina (PES) on the invasion and metastasis of highly metastatic breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Firstly, PES showed no cytotoxicity on cancer cells and endothelial cells (ECs) at the doses of 0.1-10 µg/ml, but showed significant cytotoxicity from 50 µg/ml. Thus, we performed subsequent experiments with PES at doses up to 5 µg/ml. PES dose‑dependently suppressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition by downregulating the mesenchymal markers, Snail1 and N-cadherin, showing significant inhibition from 1 and 5 µg/ml, respectively. In addition, PES significantly inhibited MMP-9 activity and LOX release induced by TNF-α at 5 µg/ml. Then, we determined the effect of PES on the expression of adhesion molecules and VE-cadherin phosphorylation. The results showed that PES effectively reduced TNF-α-mediated VCAM-1 expression but not ICAM expression both in the MDA-MB-231 cells and ECs, resulting in the reduced adhesion of MDA-MB-231 to ECs. Finally, PES effectively inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell invasion through ECs, suggesting that PES may serve as a therapeutic agent against cancer metastasis with minimal cytotoxicity to normal cells.

Kawaguchi Y, Hinoi T, Saito Y, et al.
Mouse model of proximal colon-specific tumorigenesis driven by microsatellite instability-induced Cre-mediated inactivation of Apc and activation of Kras.
J Gastroenterol. 2016; 51(5):447-57 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: KRAS gene mutations are found in 40-50% of colorectal cancer cases, but their functional contribution is not fully understood. To address this issue, we generated genetically engineered mice with colon tumors expressing an oncogenic Kras(G12D) allele in the context of the Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) deficiency to compare them to tumors harboring Apc deficiency alone.
METHODS: CDX2P9.5-G22Cre (referred to as G22Cre) mice showing inducible Cre recombinase transgene expression in the proximal colon controlled under the CDX2 gene promoter were intercrossed with Apc (flox/flox) mice and LSL-Kras (G12D) mice carrying loxP-flanked Apc and Lox-Stop-Lox oncogenic Kras(G12D) alleles, respectively, to generate G22Cre; Apc(flox/flox); Kras(G12D) and G22Cre; Apc(flox/flox); KrasWT mice. Gene expression profiles of the tumors were analyzed using high-density oligonucleotide arrays.
RESULTS: Morphologically, minimal difference in proximal colon tumor was observed between the two mouse models. Consistent with previous findings in vitro, Glut1 transcript and protein expression was up-regulated in the tumors of G22Cre;Apc (flox/flox) ; Kras(G12D) mice. Immunohistochemical staining analysis revealed that GLUT1 protein expression correlated with KRAS mutations in human colorectal cancer. Microarray analysis identified 11 candidate genes upregulated more than fivefold and quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that Aqp8, Ttr, Qpct, and Slc26a3 genes were upregulated 3.7- to 30.2-fold in tumors with mutant Kras.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated the validity of the G22Cre; Apc(flox/flox) ;Kras (G12D) mice as a new mouse model with oncogenic Kras activation. We believe that this model can facilitate efforts to define novel factors that contribute to the pathogenesis of human colorectal cancer with KRAS mutations.

Li MY, Yuan HL, Ko FW, et al.
Antineoplastic effects of 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid in non-small cell lung cancer.
Cancer. 2015; 121 Suppl 17:3130-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that the levels of 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-LOX-1) and 15-LOX-2 as well as their metabolites 13-S-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13(S)-HODE) and 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE) are significantly reduced in smokers with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Furthermore, animal model experiments have indicated that the reduction of these molecules occurs before the establishment of cigarette smoking carcinogen-induced lung tumors, and this suggests roles in lung tumorigenesis. However, the functions of these molecules remain unknown in NSCLC.
METHODS: NSCLC cells were treated with exogenous 13(S)-HODE and 15(S)-HETE, and then the ways in which they affected cell function were examined. 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 were also overexpressed in tumor cells to restore these 2 enzymes to generate endogenous 13(S)-HODE and 15(S)-HETE before cell function was assessed.
RESULTS: The application of exogenous 13(S)-HODE and 15(S)-HETE significantly enhanced the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and activated caspases 9 and 3. The overexpression of 15-LOX-1 and 15-LOX-2 obviously promoted the endogenous levels of 13(S)-HODE and 15(S)-HETE, which were demonstrated to be more effective in the inhibition of NSCLC.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that exogenous or endogenous 13(S)-HODE and 15(S)-HETE can functionally inhibit NSCLC, likely by activating PPARγ. The restoration of 15-LOX activity to increase the production of endogenous 15(S)-HETE and 13(S)-HODE may offer a novel research direction for molecular targeting treatment of smoking-related NSCLC. This strategy can potentially avoid side effects associated with the application of synthetic PPARγ ligands.

Mashima R, Okuyama T
The role of lipoxygenases in pathophysiology; new insights and future perspectives.
Redox Biol. 2015; 6:297-310 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are dioxygenases that catalyze the formation of corresponding hydroperoxides from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. LOX enzymes are expressed in immune, epithelial, and tumor cells that display a variety of physiological functions, including inflammation, skin disorder, and tumorigenesis. In the humans and mice, six LOX isoforms have been known. 15-LOX, a prototypical enzyme originally found in reticulocytes shares the similarity of amino acid sequence as well as the biochemical property to plant LOX enzymes. 15-LOX-2, which is expressed in epithelial cells and leukocytes, has different substrate specificity in the humans and mice, therefore, the role of them in mammals has not been established. 12-LOX is an isoform expressed in epithelial cells and myeloid cells including platelets. Many mutations in this isoform are found in epithelial cancers, suggesting a potential link between 12-LOX and tumorigenesis. 12R-LOX can be found in the epithelial cells of the skin. Defects in this gene result in ichthyosis, a cutaneous disorder characterized by pathophysiologically dried skin due to abnormal loss of water from its epithelial cell layer. Similarly, eLOX-3, which is also expressed in the skin epithelial cells acting downstream 12R-LOX, is another causative factor for ichthyosis. 5-LOX is a distinct isoform playing an important role in asthma and inflammation. This isoform causes the constriction of bronchioles in response to cysteinyl leukotrienes such as LTC4, thus leading to asthma. It also induces neutrophilic inflammation by its recruitment in response to LTB4. Importantly, 5-LOX activity is strictly regulated by 5-LOX activating protein (FLAP) though the distribution of 5-LOX in the nucleus. Currently, pharmacological drugs targeting FLAP are actively developing. This review summarized these functions of LOX enzymes under pathophysiological conditions in mammals.

You Y, Zheng Q, Dong Y, et al.
Higher Matrix Stiffness Upregulates Osteopontin Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Mediated by Integrin β1/GSK3β/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0134243 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increased stromal stiffness is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development and progression. However, the molecular mechanism by which matrix stiffness stimuli modulate HCC progress is largely unknown. In this study, we explored whether matrix stiffness-mediated effects on osteopontin (OPN) expression occur in HCC cells. We used a previously reported in vitro culture system with tunable matrix stiffness and found that OPN expression was remarkably upregulated in HCC cells with increasing matrix stiffness. Furthermore, the phosphorylation level of GSK3β and the expression of nuclear β-catenin were also elevated, indicating that GSK3β/β-catenin pathway might be involved in OPN regulation. Knock-down analysis of integrin β1 showed that OPN expression and p-GSK3β level were downregulated in HCC cells grown on high stiffness substrate compared with controls. Simultaneously, inhibition of GSK-3β led to accumulation of β-catenin in the cytoplasm and its enhanced nuclear translocation, further triggered the rescue of OPN expression, suggesting that the integrin β1/GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway is specifically activated for matrix stiffness-mediated OPN upregulation in HCC cells. Tissue microarray analysis confirmed that OPN expression was positively correlated with the expression of LOX and COL1. Taken together, high matrix stiffness upregulated OPN expression in HCC cells via the integrin β1/GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. It highlights a new insight into a pathway involving physical mechanical signal and biochemical signal molecules which contributes to OPN expression in HCC cells.

Wuest M, Kuchar M, Sharma SK, et al.
Targeting lysyl oxidase for molecular imaging in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. 2015; 17:107 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Lysyl oxidase (LOX; ExPASy ENZYME entry: EC and members of the LOX-like family, LOXL1-LOXL4, are copper-dependent enzymes that can modify proteins of the extracellular matrix. Expression of LOX is elevated in many human cancers, including breast cancer. LOX expression correlates with the level of tissue hypoxia, and it is known to play a critical role in breast cancer metastasis. The goal of the present study was to target LOX with (1) molecular probe fluorescent labeling to visualize LOX in vitro and (2) a radiolabeled peptide to target LOX in vivo in three different preclinical models of breast cancer.
METHODS: Gene expression of all five members of the LOX family was analyzed at the transcript level via microarray analysis using tissue biopsy samples from 176 patients with breast cancer. An oligopeptide sequence (GGGDPKGGGGG) was selected as a substrate-based, LOX-targeting structure. The peptide was labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) for confocal microscopy experiments with the murine breast cancer cell line EMT-6. In vivo molecular imaging experiments were performed using a C-terminal amidated peptide, GGGDPKGGGGG, labeled with a short-lived positron emitter, fluorine-18 ((18)F), for positron emission tomography (PET) in three different breast cancer models: EMT6, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The PET experiments were carried out in the presence or absence of β-aminopropionitrile (BAPN), an irreversible inhibitor of LOX.
RESULTS: Immunostaining experiments using a LOX-specific antibody on EMT-6 cells cultured under hypoxic conditions confirmed the elevation of LOX expression in these cells. An FITC-labeled oligopeptide, FITC-Ava-GGGDPKGGGGG-NH2, was found to be localized in different cellular compartments under these conditions. After injection of [(18)F]fluorobenzoate-GGGDPKGGGGG-NH2, radioactivity uptake was visible in all three breast cancer models in vivo. Tumor uptake was reduced by predosing the animals with 2 mg of BAPN 4 h or 24 h before injection of the radiotracer.
CONCLUSIONS: The present data support further investigation into the development of LOX-binding radiolabeled peptides as molecular probes for molecular imaging of LOX expression in cancer.

Rani P, Pal D, Hegde RR, Hashim SR
Acetamides: chemotherapeutic agents for inflammation-associated cancers.
J Chemother. 2016; 28(4):255-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Now clear evidences are available to support the hypothesis that inflammation accelerates the conditions including events and molecules that reach to various types of cancers. Inflammation is a normal response to infection containing the innate and adaptive immune systems. However, when allowed to continue, unresolved, perturbation of cellular microenvironment takes place; therefore, it leads to adaptations in genes that are linked to cancer. In addition, a lot of data are accessible confirming the concept that tumour microenvironment is orchestrated by various inflammatory cells and goes to neoplastic process and finally invasion, migration and metastasis. However, infiltrations of leucocytes lead to angiogenesis, propagation and invasion. An inflammatory microenvironment that perhaps fostering impact of angiogenesis include cytokines, chemokines, enzymes and growth factors that play key role for expansion and invasion of cancer cells. This insight highlights the pathogenesis of inflammation-associated cancers and also touches and fosters the role of acetamides for the treatment and chemoprevention of carcinomas that are allied with inflammation.

Sørensen BS, Knudsen A, Wittrup CF, et al.
The usability of a 15-gene hypoxia classifier as a universal hypoxia profile in various cancer cell types.
Radiother Oncol. 2015; 116(3):346-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A 15-gene hypoxia profile has previously demonstrated to have both prognostic and predictive impact for hypoxic modification in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. This gene expression profile may also have a prognostic value in other histological cancer types, and could potentially have a function as a universal hypoxia profile. The hypoxia induced upregulation of the included genes, and the validity of the previously used reference genes was established in this study, in a range of different cell lines representing carcinomas of the prostate, colon, and esophagus.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven adenocarcinoma and one squamous cell lines: Six colon carcinomas (HTC8, HT29, LS174T, SW116, SW948 and T48), 3 prostate carcinomas (LNCaP, DU-145 and PC-3) and 3 esophagus carcinoma cell lines (OE19, OE21 and OE33) were cultured under normoxic or hypoxic conditions (0% O2) for 24hours. Total RNA was extracted and gene expression levels measured by qPCR. For each tissue type, individual reference genes were selected and applied in the normalization of the relative expression levels.
RESULTS: In all three tissue types, individual, optimal, reference genes were selected. In the analysis of the hypoxia induced genes, both the original reference genes and the new selected reference genes were used. There was no significant difference in the obtained data. The gene expression analysis demonstrated cell line specific differences in the hypoxia response of the 15 genes, with BNIP3 not being upregulated at hypoxic conditions in 3 out of 6 colon cancer cell lines, and ALDOA in OE21 and FAM162A and SLC2A1 in SW116 only showing limited hypoxia induction. Furthermore, in the esophagus cell lines, the normoxic and hypoxic expression levels of LOX and BNIP3 were below the detection limit in OE19 and OE33, respectively. However, a combined analysis of the 15 genes in both adenocarcinoma cell lines and squamous carcinoma cell lines demonstrated a very consistent expression pattern in hypoxic induced gene expression across all cell lines.
CONCLUSION: This study addressed the tissue type dependency of hypoxia induced genes included in a 15-gene hypoxic profile in carcinoma cell lines from prostate, colon, and esophagus cancer, and demonstrated that in vitro, with minor fluctuations, the genes in the hypoxic profile are hypoxia inducible, and the hypoxia profile may be applicable in other sites than HNSCC.

Bai C, Yang M, Fan Z, et al.
Associations of chemo- and radio-resistant phenotypes with the gap junction, adhesion and extracellular matrix in a three-dimensional culture model of soft sarcoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) culture models are considered to recapitulate the cell microenvironment in solid tumors, including the extracellular matrix (ECM), cell-cell interactions, and signal transduction. These functions are highly correlated with cellular behaviors and contribute to resistances against chemo- and radio-therapies. However, the biochemical effects and mechanisms remain unknown in soft sarcoma. Therefore, we developed an in vitro 3D model of sarcoma to analyze the reasons of the chemo- and radio-resistance in therapies.
METHODS: Four soft sarcoma cell lines, HT1080, RD, SW872, and human osteosarcoma cell line 1 (HOSS1), a cell line established from a patient-derived xenograft, were applied to 3D culture and treated with growth factors in methylcellulose-containing medium. Spheroids were examined morphologically and by western blotting, RT-qPCR, and immunofluorescence staining to analyze cell adhesion, gap junctions, ECM genes, and related factors. Proliferation and colony formation assays were performed to assess chemo- and radio-resistances between 3D and two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. Annexin V and Propidium Iodide staining was used to detect early apoptotic sarcoma cells treated with Doxorubicin, Gemcitabine, and Docetaxel in the 3D model.
RESULTS: The four soft sarcoma cell lines formed spheres in vitro by culture in modified condition medium. Compared with 2D cell culture, expression of ECM genes and proteins, including COL1A1, LOX, SED1, FN1, and LAMA4, was significantly increased in 3D culture. Analysis of cadherin and gap junction molecules showed significant changes in the gene and protein expression profiles under 3D conditions. These changes affected cell-cell communication and were mainly associated with biological processes such as cell proliferation and apoptosis related to chemo- and radio-resistances.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed significant differences between 3D and 2D cell culture systems, and indicated that cellular responsiveness to external stress such as radiation and chemotherapeutics is influenced by differential expression of genes and proteins involved in regulation of the ECM, cell adhesion, and gap junction signaling.

Zhu J, Huang S, Wu G, et al.
Lysyl Oxidase Is Predictive of Unfavorable Outcomes and Essential for Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Dig Dis Sci. 2015; 60(10):3019-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is frequently overexpressed in a variety of malignancies and involved in tumor invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, it has been shown that LOX is closely related to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
AIMS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the exact role of LOX and the correlation between LOX and VEGF in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: The expression levels of LOX in HCC tissue and adjacent noncancerous tissue were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical analysis. The effect of LOX knockdown on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion was investigated in vitro. The role of LOX in the regulation of VEGF was further characterized in HCC cells that had been treated with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β).
RESULTS: Our study showed that LOX was up-regulated in HCC cell lines and tissue. HCC patients with elevated expression of LOX had relatively shorter disease-free survival and overall survival. Knockdown of LOX reduced the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HCC cells. Additionally, the expression level of LOX positively correlated with that of VEGF. After treatment with TGF-β, the levels of LOX and VEGF were both up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. In the cells treated with siRNA of LOX, levels of VEGF and phosphorylated p38 were significantly decreased and could not be up-regulated by TGF-β. Inhibition of p38 MAPK signaling abrogated TGF-β-mediated up-regulation of VGEF but did not affect LOX expression.
CONCLUSIONS: LOX appears to be a predictor of less favorable outcomes and may regulate the expression of VEGF via p38 MAPK signaling.

Tang K, Cai Y, Joshi S, et al.
Convergence of eicosanoid and integrin biology: 12-lipoxygenase seeks a partner.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:111 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Integrins and enzymes of the eicosanoid pathway are both well-established contributors to cancer. However, this is the first report of the interdependence of the two signaling systems. In a screen for proteins that interacted with, and thereby potentially regulated, the human platelet-type 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX, ALOX12), we identified the integrin β4 (ITGB4).
METHODS: Using a cultured mammalian cell model, we have demonstrated that ITGB4 stimulation leads to recruitment of 12-LOX from the cytosol to the membrane where it physically interacts with the integrin to become enzymatically active to produce 12(S)-HETE, a known bioactive lipid metabolite that regulates numerous cancer phenotypes.
RESULTS: The net effect of the interaction was the prevention of cell death in response to starvation. Additionally, regulation of β4-mediated, EGF-stimulated invasion was shown to be dependent on 12-LOX, and downstream Erk signaling in response to ITGB4 activation also required 12-LOX.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of an enzyme of the eicosanoid pathway being recruited to and regulated by activated β4 integrin. Integrin β4 has recently been shown to induce expansion of prostate tumor progenitors and there is a strong correlation between stage/grade of prostate cancer and 12-LOX expression. The 12-LOX enzymatic product, 12(S)-HETE, regulates angiogenesis and cell migration in many cancer types. Therefore, disruption of integrin β4-12LOX interaction could reduce the pro-inflammatory oncogenic activity of 12-LOX. This report on the consequences of 12-LOX and ITGB4 interaction sets a precedent for the linkage of integrin and eicosanoid biology through direct protein-protein association.

Bessadóttir M, Eiríksson FF, Becker S, et al.
Anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of lichen-derived compound protolichesterinic acid are not mediated by its lipoxygenase-inhibitory activity.
Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2015; 98:39-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lipoxygenases (LOXs) and their products are involved in several biological functions and have been associated with carcinogenesis. Protolichesterinic acid (PA), a lichen metabolite, inhibits 5- and 12-LOX and has anti-proliferative effects on various cancer cell lines. Here, PA was shown to inhibit proliferation of multiple myeloma cells, RPMI 8226 and U266, and pancreatic cancer cells AsPC-1. Apoptosis was induced only in multiple myeloma cells. Cell-cycle associated changes in expression and sub-cellular localization of 5- and 12-LOX were not affected by PA but increased cytoplasmic localisation was found to accompany morphological changes at later stages. Assessment by mass spectrometry showed that PA entered the pancreatic cancer cells. However, effects on LOX metabolites were only evident after treatment with concentrations exceeding those having anti-proliferative effects and no effects were measurable in the myeloma cells. We conclude that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of PA are not mediated directly through inhibition of LOX activity.

Handorf AM, Zhou Y, Halanski MA, Li WJ
Tissue stiffness dictates development, homeostasis, and disease progression.
Organogenesis. 2015; 11(1):1-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tissue development is orchestrated by the coordinated activities of both chemical and physical regulators. While much attention has been given to the role that chemical regulators play in driving development, researchers have recently begun to elucidate the important role that the mechanical properties of the extracellular environment play. For instance, the stiffness of the extracellular environment has a role in orienting cell division, maintaining tissue boundaries, directing cell migration, and driving differentiation. In addition, extracellular matrix stiffness is important for maintaining normal tissue homeostasis, and when matrix mechanics become imbalanced, disease progression may ensue. In this article, we will review the important role that matrix stiffness plays in dictating cell behavior during development, tissue homeostasis, and disease progression.

Ryner L, Guan Y, Firestein R, et al.
Upregulation of Periostin and Reactive Stroma Is Associated with Primary Chemoresistance and Predicts Clinical Outcomes in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(13):2941-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Up to one third of ovarian cancer patients are intrinsically resistant to platinum-based treatment. However, predictive and therapeutic strategies are lacking due to a poor understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. This study aimed to identify key molecular characteristics that are associated with primary chemoresistance in epithelial ovarian cancers.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Gene expression profiling was performed on a discovery set of 85 ovarian tumors with clinically well-defined response to chemotherapies as well as on an independent validation dataset containing 138 ovarian patients from the chemotreatment arm of the ICON7 trial.
RESULTS: We identified a distinct "reactive stroma" gene signature that is specifically associated with primary chemoresistant tumors and was further upregulated in posttreatment recurrent tumors. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and RNA in situ hybridization (RNA ISH) analyses on three of the highest-ranked signature genes (POSTN, LOX, and FAP) confirmed that modulation of the reactive stroma signature genes within the peritumoral stromal compartments was specifically associated with the clinical chemoresistance. Consistent with these findings, chemosensitive ovarian cells grown in the presence of recombinant POSTN promoted resistance to carboplatin and paclitaxel treatment in vitro. Finally, we validated the reactive stroma signature in an independent dataset and demonstrated that a high POSTN expression level predicts shorter progression-free survival following first-line chemotherapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight the important interplay between cancer and the tumor microenvironment in ovarian cancer biology and treatment. The identified reactive stromal components in this study provide a molecular basis to the further development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for overcoming chemoresistance in ovarian cancer.

da Silva R, Uno M, Marie SK, Oba-Shinjo SM
LOX expression and functional analysis in astrocytomas and impact of IDH1 mutation.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0119781 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lysyl oxidase (LOX) is involved in vital biological processes such as cell motility, cell signaling and gene regulation. Deregulation of this protein can contribute to tumor formation and progression. Although it is known that LOX is involved in invasion, proliferation and tumor migration in other types of tumors, studies of LOX in astrocytomas of different grades are scarce. The purpose of our study was to characterize LOX, BMP1 and HIF1A expression by real-time PCR in astrocytomas with WHO grades I to IV compared to non-neoplastic brain tissue. IDH1 mutational status was determined by PCR and sequencing. LOX protein expression was also analyzed by immunohistochemistry. LOX functional analyses were performed using siRNA knockdown and the specific inhibitor BAPN in two glioblastoma cell lines. The expression levels of LOX, BMP1 and HIF1A were correlated and analyzed according to IDH1 mutation status and to the clinical end-point of overall survival of glioblastoma patients. The results demonstrate that increased expression and activity of LOX, BMP1 and HIF1A were positively correlated with the malignant grade of astrocytomas. LOX protein expression also increased according to the degree of malignancy, with localization in the cytoplasm and nucleus and staining observed in endothelial cells. Glioblastoma with a mutation in IDH1 expressed lower levels of LOX in the nucleus, and IDH1-mutated cases showed lower LOX expression levels when compared to wild-type IDH1 cases. LOX knockdown and inhibition by BAPN in U87MG and A172 cell lines affected migration, invasion and soft agar colony formation. Taken together, these results corroborate the role of LOX in the migration, invasion and angiogenesis of astrocytomas. Furthermore, LOX expression is influenced by IDH1 mutational status. This work provides new insights for researchers aiming to design targeted therapies to control astrocytomas.

Mao F, Xu M, Zuo X, et al.
15-Lipoxygenase-1 suppression of colitis-associated colon cancer through inhibition of the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.
FASEB J. 2015; 29(6):2359-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The IL-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) pathway is a critical signaling pathway for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-δ, a lipid nuclear receptor, up-regulates IL-6. 15-Lipoxygenase-1 (15-LOX-1), which is crucial to production of lipid signaling mediators to terminate inflammation, down-regulates PPAR-δ. 15-LOX-1 effects on IL-6/STAT3 signaling and CAC tumorigenesis have not been determined. We report that intestinally targeted transgenic 15-LOX-1 expression in mice inhibited azoxymethane- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced CAC, IL-6 expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, and IL-6/STAT3 downstream target (Notch3 and MUC1) expression. 15-LOX-1 down-regulation was associated with IL-6 up-regulation in human colon cancer mucosa. Reexpression of 15-LOX-1 in human colon cancer cells suppressed IL-6 mRNA expression, STAT3 phosphorylation, IL-6 promoter activity, and PPAR-δ mRNA and protein expression. PPAR-δ overexpression in colonic epithelial cells promoted CAC tumorigenesis in mice and increased IL-6 expression and STAT3 phosphorylation, whereas concomitant 15-LOX-1 expression in colonic epithelial cells (15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice) suppressed these effects: the number of tumors per mouse (mean ± sem) was 4.22 ± 0.68 in wild-type littermates, 6.67 ± 0.83 in PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.026), and 2.25 ± 0.25 in 15-LOX-1-PPAR-δ-Gut mice (P = 0.0006). Identification of 15-LOX-1 suppression of PPAR-δ to inhibit IL-6/STAT3 signaling-driven CAC tumorigenesis provides mechanistic insights that can be used to molecularly target CAC.

Janakiram NB, Mohammed A, Bryant T, et al.
Improved innate immune responses by Frondanol A5, a sea cucumber extract, prevent intestinal tumorigenesis.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2015; 8(4):327-37 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sea cucumbers are a source of antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer compounds. We show that sea cucumber extract Frondanol A5 is capable of enhancing innate immune responses and inhibiting intestinal tumors in APC(Min/+) mice. APC(Min/+) mice were fed semi-purified diets containing 0, 250, or 500 ppm FrondanolA5 for 14 weeks before we assessed intestinal tumor inhibition. Dietary Frondanol A5 suppressed small intestinal polyp sizes and formation up to 30% (P < 0.02) in males and up to 50% (P < 0.01) in females. Importantly, 250 and 500 ppm Frondanol A5 diet suppressed colon tumor multiplicities by 65% (P < 0.007) and 75% (P < 0.0001), compared with untreated male APC(Min/+) mice. In female APC(Min/+) mice, both dose levels of Frondanol A5 suppressed colon tumor multiplicities up to 80% (P < 0.0001). Isolated peritoneal macrophages from treated mice showed increased phagocytosis efficiency (control 24% vs. treated 50%; P < 0.01) and an increase in GILT mRNA expression, indicating increased innate immune responses by these cells in treated animals. Similarly, we observed an increase in GILT expression in treated tumors, compared with untreated tumors. Furthermore, an increase in G-CSF cytokine, a decrease in inflammatory cytokines and marker 5-LOX, its regulator FLAP, proliferation (PCNA), and angiogenesis (VEGF) markers were observed in treatment groups. These data suggest that Frondanol A5 decreased inflammatory angiogenic molecules and increased GILT expression and macrophage phagocytosis. These decreases may have improved the innate immune systems of the treated mice, thus aiding in inhibition of intestinal tumor formation. These results suggest that Frondanol A5 exhibits significant chemopreventive potential against intestinal tumorigenesis.

Safari R, Meuwissen R
Practical use of advanced mouse models for lung cancer.
Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1267:93-124 [PubMed] Related Publications
To date a variety of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) mouse models have been developed that mimic human lung cancer. Chemically induced or spontaneous lung cancer in susceptible inbred strains has been widely used, but the more recent genetically engineered somatic mouse models recapitulate much better the genotype-phenotype correlations found in human lung cancer. Additionally, improved orthotopic transplantation of primary human cancer tissue fragments or cells into lungs of immune-compromised mice can be valuable tools for preclinical research such as antitumor drug tests. Here we give a short overview of most somatic mouse models for lung cancer that are currently in use. We accompany each different model with a description of its practical use and application for all major lung tumor types, as well as the intratracheal injection or direct injection of fresh or freeze-thawed tumor cells or tumor cell lines into lung parenchyma of recipient mice. All here presented somatic mouse models are based on the ability to (in) activate specific alleles at a time, and in a tissue-specific cell type, of choice. This spatial-temporal controlled induction of genetic lesions allows the selective introduction of main genetic lesions in an adult mouse lung as found in human lung cancer. The resulting conditional somatic mouse models can be used as versatile powerful tools in basic lung cancer research and preclinical translational studies alike. These distinctively advanced lung cancer models permit us to investigate initiation (cell of origin) and progression of lung cancer, along with response and resistance to drug therapy. Cre/lox or FLP/frt recombinase-mediated methods are now well-used techniques to develop tissue-restricted lung cancer in mice with tumor-suppressor gene and/or oncogene (in)activation. Intranasal or intratracheal administration of engineered adenovirus-Cre or lentivirus-Cre has been optimized for introducing Cre recombinase activity into pulmonary tissues, and we discuss here the different techniques underlying these applications. Concomitant with Cre/Flp recombinase-based models are the tetracycline (Tet)-inducible bitransgenic systems in which presence or absence of doxycycline can turn the expression of a specific oncogene on or off. The use of several Tet-inducible lung cancer models for NSCLC is presented here in which the reversal of oncogene expression led to complete tumor regression and provided us with important insight of how oncogene dependence influence lung cancer survival and growth. As alternative to Tet-inducible models, we discuss the application of reversible expressed, transgenic mutant estrogen receptor (ER) fusion proteins, which are regulated via systemic tamoxifen administration. Most of the various lung cancer models can be combined through the generation of transgenic compound mice so that the use of these somatic mouse models can be even more enhanced for the study of specific molecular pathways that facilitate growth and maintenance of lung cancer. Finally, this description of the practical application and methodology of mouse models for lung cancer should be helpful in assisting researchers to make the best choices and optimal use of (existing) somatic models that suits the specific experimental needs in their study of lung cancer.

Sarveswaran S, Chakraborty D, Chitale D, et al.
Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase selectively triggers disruption of c-Myc signaling in prostate cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2015; 290(8):4994-5006 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Myc is up-regulated in almost all cancer types and is the subject of intense investigation because of its pleiotropic effects controlling a broad spectrum of cell functions. However, despite its recognition as a stand-alone molecular target, development of suitable strategies to block its function is hindered because of its nonenzymatic nature. We reported earlier that arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase (5-Lox) plays an important role in the survival and growth of prostate cancer cells, although details of the underlying mechanisms have yet to be characterized. By whole genome gene expression array, we observed that inhibition of 5-Lox severely down-regulates the expression of c-Myc oncogene in prostate cancer cells. Moreover, inhibition of 5-Lox dramatically decreases the protein level, nuclear accumulation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activities of c-Myc. Both the 5-Lox inhibition-induced down-regulation of c-Myc and induction of apoptosis are mitigated when the cells are treated with 5-oxoeicosatetraenoic acid, a metabolite of 5-Lox, confirming a role of 5-Lox in these processes. c-Myc is a transforming oncogene widely expressed in prostate cancer cells and maintains their transformed phenotype. Interestingly, MK591, a specific 5-Lox inhibitor, strongly affects the viability of Myc-overactivated prostate cancer cells and completely blocks their invasive and soft agar colony-forming abilities, but it spares nontransformed cells where expression of 5-Lox is undetectable. These findings indicate that the oncogenic function of c-Myc in prostate cancer cells is regulated by 5-Lox activity, revealing a novel mechanism of 5-Lox action and suggesting that the oncogenic function of c-Myc can be suppressed by suitable inhibitors of 5-Lox.

Boufraqech M, Nilubol N, Zhang L, et al.
miR30a inhibits LOX expression and anaplastic thyroid cancer progression.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(2):367-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most lethal human malignancies, but its genetic drivers remain little understood. In this study, we report losses in expression of the miRNA miR30a, which is downregulated in ATC compared with differentiated thyroid cancer and normal tissue. miR30a downregulation was associated with advanced differentiated thyroid cancer and higher mortality. Mechanistically, we found miR30a decreased cellular invasion and migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition marker levels, lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression, and metastatic capacity. LOX was identified as a direct target of miR30a that was overexpressed in ATC and associated with advanced differentiated thyroid cancer and higher mortality rate. Consistent with its role in other cancers, we found that LOX inhibited cell proliferation, cellular invasion, and migration and metastasis in vitro and in vivo. Together, our findings establish a critical functional role for miR30a downregulation in mediating LOX upregulation and thyroid cancer progression, with implications for LOX targeting as a rational therapeutic strategy in ATC.

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