MAFB

Gene Summary

Gene:MAFB; MAF bZIP transcription factor B
Aliases: KRML, MCTO, DURS3
Location:20q12
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of lineage-specific hematopoiesis. The encoded nuclear protein represses ETS1-mediated transcription of erythroid-specific genes in myeloid cells. This gene contains no introns. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor MafB
Source:NCBIAccessed: 12 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)

Cancer Overview

MAFB is frequently overexpressed in Myeloma thought to be caused by translocations of IGH (14q32) with a number of different partner genes. MAFB itself is a translocation partner of IGH in a small proportion of Myeloma patients.

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 12 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Genes, Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain
  • Cyclins
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains
  • MAFB
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf
  • RTPCR
  • Down-Regulation
  • Base Sequence
  • Karyotyping
  • Cyclin D1
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Chromosome 11
  • Transcription Factors
  • myc Genes
  • Cyclin D2
  • Plasma Cells
  • Messenger RNA
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • MicroRNAs
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Maf Transcription Factors, Large
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • Diploidy
  • FISH
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Trisomy
  • Young Adult
  • Cluster Analysis
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Translocation
  • VEGFA
  • Phenotype
  • Western Blotting
  • Chromosome 20
  • Chromosome 14
Tag cloud generated 12 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Multiple MyelomaOccasional translocation of MAFB in Myeloma
Bergsagel et al reported that MAFB is involved in 2% of translocations in Myeloma
Multiple MyelomaMAFB overexpresed in Myeloma
Boersma-Vreugdenhil et al (2004) reported that the recurrent translocation t(14;20)(q32;q12) in multiple myeloma results in aberrant expression of MAFB.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MAFB (cancer-related)

Yu H, Jiang HL, Xu D, et al.
Transcription Factor MafB Promotes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Proliferation through Up-Regulation of Cyclin D1.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016; 39(2):700-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MafB, a member of the Maf transcription factor family, plays a key role in the regulation of pancreatic alpha and beta cell differentiation. However, its function in the control of cancer cell proliferation remains unknown.
METHODS: The mRNA and protein expression levels of MafB in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and adjacent non-tumor normal specimens were determined by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Report assay was performed to determine whether the regulation of Cyclin D1 by MafB is at the transcriptional level. The binding of MafB to the Cyclin D1 promoter was determined by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. To determine the potential oncogenic effects of MafB in vivo, HepG2 cells transfected with adenovirus containing empty vector or MafB were injected subcutaneously to the skin under the front legs of the nude mice.
RESULTS: In the current study, we showed that MafB was markedly up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and cells. Enforced overexpression of MafB enhanced, while its deficiency inhibited HCC cell proliferation. Mechanistically, Cyclin D1, an important regulator of cell cycle progression, was identified as a direct transcriptional target of MafB. Consistently, knockdown of Cyclin D1 largely attenuated the proliferative roles of MafB in HCC cells. Importantly, MafB overexpression significantly promoted cancer cell growth in mice.
CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results identified a novel HCC regulatory pathway involving MafB and Cyclin D1, the dysfunction of which drives proliferative character in HCC.

Weinhold N, Heuck CJ, Rosenthal A, et al.
Clinical value of molecular subtyping multiple myeloma using gene expression profiling.
Leukemia. 2016; 30(2):423-30 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Using a data set of 1217 patients with multiple myeloma enrolled in Total Therapies, we have examined the impact of novel therapies on molecular and risk subgroups and the clinical value of molecular classification. Bortezomib significantly improved the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of the MMSET (MS) subgroup. Thalidomide and bortezomib positively impacted the PFS of low-risk (LoR) cases defined by the GEP70 signature, whereas high-risk (HiR) cases showed no significant changes in outcome. We show that molecular classification is important if response rates are to be used to predict outcomes. The t(11;14)-containing CD-1 and CD-2 subgroups showed clear differences in time to response and cumulative response rates but similar PFS and OS. Furthermore, complete remission was not significantly associated with the outcome of the MAF/MAFB (MF) subgroup or HiR cases. HiR cases were enriched in the MF, MS and proliferation subgroups, but the poor outcome of these groups was not linked to subgroup-specific characteristics such as MAF overexpression per se. It is especially important to define risk status if HiR cases are to be managed appropriately because of their aggressive clinical course, high rates of early relapse and the need to maintain therapeutic pressure on the clone.

Yang W, Lan X, Li D, et al.
MiR-223 targeting MAFB suppresses proliferation and migration of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:461 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that miRNAs have major functions in tumor pathogenesis, and this study aimed to identify the candidate miRNA and investigate its role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
METHODS: MiRNA and mRNA expressions were screened by microarray assays. The cell proliferation, colony formation and migration ability were measured by MTT, soft agar and wound healing assays, respectively. The tumor growth suppression was evaluated by xenografting in nude mice. The plasma miR-223 levels in NPC patients were detected by TaqMan analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to confirm miR-223 and MAFB expression levels. The targeting relationship between miR-223 and MAFB was verified using dual luciferase reporter assay.
RESULTS: The miR-223 expression was decreased in CNE-1, CNE-2 cells as compared with NP69 cells, an immortalized human nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line, and its level also reduced in NPC patients' plasma as compared with healthy controls. Exogenous expression of miR-223 in CNE-2 cells could inhibit cell proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Extrogenous miR-223 in CNE-2 cells would decrease the ability of colony formation and migration. MAFB, a transcription factor of Maf family members, was identified as a target gene of miR-223. We found that migration and invasion abilities were inhibited by MAFB silencing.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-223 negatively regulates the growth and migration of NPC cells via reducing MAFB expression, and this finding provides a novel insight into understanding miR-223 regulation mechanism in nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumorigenesis.

Walker BA, Wardell CP, Murison A, et al.
APOBEC family mutational signatures are associated with poor prognosis translocations in multiple myeloma.
Nat Commun. 2015; 6:6997 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have sequenced 463 presenting cases of myeloma entered into the UK Myeloma XI study using whole exome sequencing. Here we identify mutations induced as a consequence of misdirected AID in the partner oncogenes of IGH translocations, which are activating and associated with impaired clinical outcome. An APOBEC mutational signature is seen in 3.8% of cases and is linked to the translocation-mediated deregulation of MAF and MAFB, a known poor prognostic factor. Patients with this signature have an increased mutational load and a poor prognosis. Loss of MAF or MAFB expression results in decreased APOBEC3B and APOBEC4 expression, indicating a transcriptional control mechanism. Kataegis, a further mutational pattern associated with APOBEC deregulation, is seen at the sites of the MYC translocation. The APOBEC mutational signature seen in myeloma is, therefore, associated with poor prognosis primary and secondary translocations and the molecular mechanisms involved in generating them.

Yang L, Liu Y, Zhu L, Xiao M
DNMT3A R882 mutation is associated with elevated expression of MAFB and M4/M5 immunophenotype of acute myeloid leukemia blasts.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(10):2914-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Researchers have recognized that aberrant methylation is an important initiating event in the pathogenesis of hematological malignancies. DNMT3A is a DNA methyltransferase that plays a vital role in de novo methylation of DNA. Somatic mutation of DNMT3A, especially at the Arg882 (R882) site of the DNMT3A coding sequence, has been identified in pre-leukemic stem cell clones as one of the driver mutations of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Statistical analysis has indicated that patients with AML with DNMT3A mutation tend to have the M4/M5 subtype of AML according to the French-American-British classification. In this study we aimed to investigate the association between the typical immunophenotype of leukemic blasts and mutation of DNMT3A R882. In addition, we further determined the relationship between DNMT3A R882 mutation and the expression of monocytic differentiation genes, and its clinical significance.

Türkmen S, Binder A, Gerlach A, et al.
High prevalence of immunoglobulin light chain gene aberrations as revealed by FISH in multiple myeloma and MGUS.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(8):650-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant B-cell neoplasm characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of aberrant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Chromosome aberrations in MM are complex and represent a hallmark of the disease, involving many chromosomes that are altered both numerically and structurally. Nearly half of the cases are nonhyperdiploid and show IGH translocations with the following partner genes: CCND1, FGFR3 and MMSET, MAF, MAFB, and CCND3. The remaining 50% are grouped into a hyperdiploid group that is characterized by multiple trisomies involving chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19, and 21. In this study, we analyzed the immunoglobulin light chain kappa (IGK, 2p12) and lambda (IGL, 22q11) loci in 150 cases, mostly with MM but in a few cases monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), without IGH translocations. We identified aberrations in 27% (= 40 patients) including rearrangements (12%), gains (12%), and deletions (4.6%). In 6 of 18 patients with IGK or/and IGL rearrangements, we detected a MYC rearrangement which suggests that MYC is the translocation partner in the majority of these cases.

Tian E, Sawyer JR, Heuck CJ, et al.
In multiple myeloma, 14q32 translocations are nonrandom chromosomal fusions driving high expression levels of the respective partner genes.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2014; 53(7):549-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
In studies of patients with multiple myeloma (MM), gene expression profiling (GEP) of myeloma cells demonstrates substantially higher expression of MMSET, FGFR3, CCND3, CCND1, MAF, and MAFB--the partner genes of 14q32 translocations--than GEP of plasma cells from healthy individuals. Interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to discriminate between chromosomal translocations involving different regions of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) genes at 14q32. With special probes designed for the constant region (IGHC) and the variable region (IGHV), IGH translocations were shown to be definite, nonrandom chromosomal fusions of IGHC with the loci of FGFR3, CCND1, CCND3, MAF, and MAFB genes; and IGHV with the locus of MMSET gene. When correlated with GEP results, the IGH translocations were found to drive expression levels of the partner genes to significantly higher levels (spikes) than copy-number variations. Hence, 42% of IGH translocations were identified among newly diagnosed MM patients (448/1,060). As GEP has become essential for assessing cancer risk, this novel approach is highly consistent with the cytogenetic features of the chromosomal translocations to effectively stratify molecular subgroups of MM on the basis of gene expression profiles of the IGH translocation partner genes in myeloma cells. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Gu S, Cheung HH, Lee TL, et al.
Molecular mechanisms of regulation and action of microRNA-199a in testicular germ cell tumor and glioblastomas.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83980 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA-199a (miRNA-199a) has been shown to have comprehensive functions and behave differently in different systems and diseases. It is encoded by two loci in the human genome, miR-199a-1 in chromosome 19 and miR-199a-2 in chromosome 1. Both loci give rise to the same miRNAs (miR-199a-5p and miR-199a-3p). The cause of the diverse action of the miRNA in different systems is not clear. However, it is likely due to different regulation of the two genomic loci and variable targets of the miRNA in different cells and tissues. Here we studied promoter methylation of miR-199a in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) and glioblastomas (gliomas) and discovered that hypermethylation in TGCTs of both miR-199a-1 and -2 resulted in its reduced expression, while hypomethylation of miR-199a-2 but not -1 in gliomas may be related to its elevated expression. We also identified a common regulator, REST, which preferentially bound to the methylated promoters of both miR-199a-1 and miR-199a-2. The action of miR-199a is dependent on its downstream targets. We identified MAFB as a putative target of miRNA-199a-5p in TGCTs and confirmed that the tumor suppression activity of the microRNA is mediated by its target MAFB. By studying the mechanisms that control the expressions of miR-199a and its various downstream targets, we hope to use miR-199a as a model to understand the complexity of miRNA biology.

Tucci M, Stucci S, Savonarola A, et al.
Immature dendritic cells in multiple myeloma are prone to osteoclast-like differentiation through interleukin-17A stimulation.
Br J Haematol. 2013; 161(6):821-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin 17A (IL17A), a cytokine involved in allergy, inflammation and osteoclastogenesis, was investigated in multiple myeloma (MM) to assess its role in the osteoclast (OC)-like activity of marrow immature dendritic cells (iDCs). Comparing nine MM patients with control subjects affected by monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, we found high IL17A expression in the marrow plasma of MM patients in parallel with its deposits within the stromal matrix. Increased expression of the IL17A receptor (IL17RA) was also found in primary myeloma iDCs, which underwent OC-like transdifferentiation after IL17A stimulation. To assess the role of IL17A, we measured the activity of the IL17/IL17RA pathway in IL17A-transdifferentiated iDCs and the expression of functional OC genes by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction. These cells showed increased RNA transcription of genes enrolled in the maturation of OCs, while NFATC1 and FOS were induced by IL17A, independently of NFKB1 phosphorylation. Moreover, the concurrent phosphorylation of the Lip isoform of CEBPB and the down-regulation of MAFB supported the activation of IL17RA pathway in OC-like transdifferentiated iDCs that was apparently unrelated to TNFRSF11A signalling. These data emphasize the involvement of iDCs in MM hyperactive osteoclastogenesis and suggest that their bone resorption activity is also regulated, at least in vitro, by IL17RA.

Rio-Machin A, Ferreira BI, Henry T, et al.
Downregulation of specific miRNAs in hyperdiploid multiple myeloma mimics the oncogenic effect of IgH translocations occurring in the non-hyperdiploid subtype.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(4):925-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Currently, multiple myeloma (MM) patients are broadly grouped into a non-hyperdiploid (nh-MM) group, highly enriched for IgH translocations, or into a hyperdiploid (h-MM) group, which is typically characterized by trisomies of some odd-numbered chromosomes. We compared the micro RNA (miRNA) expression profiles of these two groups and we identified 16 miRNAs that were downregulated in the h-MM group, relative to the nh-MM group. We found that target genes of the most differentially expressed miRNAs are directly involved in the pathogenesis of MM; specifically, the inhibition of hsa-miR-425, hsa-miR-152 and hsa-miR-24, which are all downregulated in h-MM, leads to the overexpression of CCND1, TACC3, MAFB, FGFR3 and MYC, which are the also the oncogenes upregulated by the most frequent IgH chromosomal translocations occurring in nh-MM. Importantly, we showed that the downregulation of these specific miRNAs and the upregulation of their targets also occur simultaneously in primary cases of h-MM. These data provide further evidence on the unifying role of cyclin D pathways deregulation as the key mechanism involved in the development of both groups of MM. Finally, they establish the importance of miRNA deregulation in the context of MM, thereby opening up the potential for future therapeutic approaches based on this molecular mechanism.

Vicente-Dueñas C, González-Herrero I, García Cenador MB, et al.
Loss of p53 exacerbates multiple myeloma phenotype by facilitating the reprogramming of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells to malignant plasma cells by MafB.
Cell Cycle. 2012; 11(20):3896-900 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a serious, mostly incurable human cancer of malignant plasma cells. Chromosomal translocations affecting MAFB are present in a significant percentage of multiple myeloma patients. Genetically engineered Sca1-MafB mice, in which MafB expression is limited to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HS/P-Cs), display the phenotypic features of MM. Contrary to many other types of cancer, it is not yet known if the p53 gene plays any essential role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Here, we show, taking advantage of the Sca1-MafB MM mouse model, that loss of p53 does not rescue the multiple myeloma disease, but instead accelerates its development and exacerbates the MM phenotype. Therefore, the efficiency of the MafB-induced MM reprogramming of normal HS/P-Cs to terminally differentiated malignant plasma cells is enhanced by p53 deficiency, in analogy to what happens in reprogramming to pluripotency. These results raise caution about interfering with p53 function when treating multiple myeloma.

Vicente-Dueñas C, Romero-Camarero I, González-Herrero I, et al.
A novel molecular mechanism involved in multiple myeloma development revealed by targeting MafB to haematopoietic progenitors.
EMBO J. 2012; 31(18):3704-17 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Understanding the cellular origin of cancer can help to improve disease prevention and therapeutics. Human plasma cell neoplasias are thought to develop from either differentiated B cells or plasma cells. However, when the expression of Maf oncogenes (associated to human plasma cell neoplasias) is targeted to mouse B cells, the resulting animals fail to reproduce the human disease. Here, to explore early cellular changes that might take place in the development of plasma cell neoplasias, we engineered transgenic mice to express MafB in haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HS/PCs). Unexpectedly, we show that plasma cell neoplasias arise in the MafB-transgenic mice. Beyond their clinical resemblance to human disease, these neoplasias highly express genes that are known to be upregulated in human multiple myeloma. Moreover, gene expression profiling revealed that MafB-expressing HS/PCs were more similar to B cells and tumour plasma cells than to any other subset, including wild-type HS/PCs. Consistent with this, genome-scale DNA methylation profiling revealed that MafB imposes an epigenetic program in HS/PCs, and that this program is preserved in mature B cells of MafB-transgenic mice, demonstrating a novel molecular mechanism involved in tumour initiation. Our findings suggest that, mechanistically, the haematopoietic progenitor population can be the target for transformation in MafB-associated plasma cell neoplasias.

Moreaux J, Klein B, Bataille R, et al.
A high-risk signature for patients with multiple myeloma established from the molecular classification of human myeloma cell lines.
Haematologica. 2011; 96(4):574-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma is a plasma-cell tumor with heterogeneity in molecular abnormalities and treatment response.
DESIGN AND METHODS: We have assessed whether human myeloma cell lines have kept patients' heterogeneity using Affymetrix gene expression profiling of 40 human myeloma cell lines obtained with or without IL6 addition and could provide a signature for stratification of patient risk.
RESULTS: Human myeloma cell lines, especially those derived in the presence of IL6, displayed a heterogeneity that overlaps that of the patients with multiple myeloma. Human myeloma cell lines segregated into 6 groups marked by overexpression of MAF, MMSET, CCND1, FRZB with or without overexpression of cancer testis antigens (CTA). Cell lines of CTA/MAF and MAF groups have a translocation involving C-MAF or MAFB, cell lines of groups CCND1-1 and CCND1-2like have a t(11;14) and cell lines of group MMSET have a t(4;14). The CTA/FRZB group comprises cell lines that had no or no recurrent 14q32 translocation. Expression of 248 genes accounted for human myeloma cell line molecular heterogeneity. Human myeloma cell line heterogeneity genes comprise genes with prognostic value for survival of patients making it possible to build a powerful prognostic score involving a total of 13 genes.
CONCLUSIONS: Human myeloma cell lines derived in the presence of IL6 recapitulate the molecular diversity of multiple myeloma that made it possible to design, using human myeloma cell line heterogeneity genes, a high-risk signature for patients at diagnosis. We propose this classification to be used when addressing the physiopathology of multiple myeloma with human myeloma cell lines.

Borrelli S, Fanoni D, Dolfini D, et al.
C/EBPδ gene targets in human keratinocytes.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(11):e13789 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
C/EBPs are a family of B-Zip transcription factors--TFs--involved in the regulation of differentiation in several tissues. The two most studied members--C/EBPα and C/EBPβ--play important roles in skin homeostasis and their ablation reveals cells with stem cells signatures. Much less is known about C/EBPδ which is highly expressed in the granular layer of interfollicular epidermis and is a direct target of p63, the master regular of multilayered epithelia. We identified C/EBPδ target genes in human primary keratinocytes by ChIP on chip and profiling of cells functionally inactivated with siRNA. Categorization suggests a role in differentiation and control of cell-cycle, particularly of G2/M genes. Among positively controlled targets are numerous genes involved in barrier function. Functional inactivation of C/EBPδ as well as overexpressions of two TF targets--MafB and SOX2--affect expression of markers of keratinocyte differentiation. We performed IHC on skin tumor tissue arrays: expression of C/EBPδ is lost in Basal Cell Carcinomas, but a majority of Squamous Cell Carcinomas showed elevated levels of the protein. Our data indicate that C/EBPδ plays a role in late stages of keratinocyte differentiation.

Yang L, Wang H, Kornblau SM, et al.
Evidence of a role for the novel zinc-finger transcription factor ZKSCAN3 in modulating Cyclin D2 expression in multiple myeloma.
Oncogene. 2011; 30(11):1329-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulation of cyclin D2 contributes to the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, and can occur through translocations that activate MAF/MAFB or MMSET/FGFR3. However, cyclin D2 induction can also be seen in the absence of such translocations, such as in patients with hyperdiploid disease, through unknown mechanisms. In UniGene cluster data-mining and ECgene analysis, we found that zinc-finger with KRAB and SCAN domains 3 (ZKSCAN3), a novel transcription factor, is overrepresented in this malignancy, and three consensus ZKSCAN3 binding sites were found in the cyclin D2 promoter. Analysis of a panel of myeloma cell lines, primary patient samples and datasets from Oncomine and the Multiple Myeloma Genomics Portal (MMGP) revealed expression of ZKSCAN3 messenger RNA (mRNA) in a majority of samples. Studies of cell lines by western blotting, and of primary tissue microarrays by immunohistochemistry, showed ZKSCAN3 protein expression in a majority, and in a manner that paralleled messenger levels in cell lines. ZKSCAN3 overexpression was associated with increased gene copy number or genomic DNA gain/amplification in a subset based on analysis of data from the MMGP, and from fluorescence in situ hybridization studies of cell lines and primary samples. Overexpression of ZKSCAN3 induced cyclin D2 promoter activity in a MAF/MAFB-independent manner, and to an extent that was influenced by the number of consensus ZKSCAN3 binding sites. Moreover, ZKSCAN3 protein expression correlated with cyclin D2 levels in cell lines and primary samples, and its overexpression induced cyclin D2. Conversely, ZKSCAN3 suppression using small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) reduced cyclin D2 levels, and, importantly, inhibited myeloma cell line proliferation. Finally, ZKSCAN3 was noted to specifically bind to oligonucleotides representing sequences from the cyclin D2 promoter, and to the endogenous promoter itself in myeloma cells. Taken together, the data support the conclusion that ZKSCAN3 induction represents a mechanism by which myeloma cells can induce cyclin D2 dysregulation, and contribute to disease pathogenesis.

Lutherborrow M, Bryant A, Jayaswal V, et al.
Expression profiling of cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia identifies microRNAs that target genes involved in monocytic differentiation.
Am J Hematol. 2011; 86(1):2-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are short ribonucleic acids (RNAs) that play an important role in many aspects of cellular biology such as differentiation and apoptosis, due to their role in the regulation of gene expression. Using microRNA microarrays, we characterized the microRNA gene expression of 27 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with normal cytogenetics, focusing on the microRNAs differentially expressed between the M1 and M5 French-American-British (FAB) subtypes. An accurate delineation of these two AML entities was observed based on the expression of 12 microRNAs. We hypothesized that these microRNAs may potentially be involved in the differentiation block of M1 blasts and consequently monocytic differentiation. Using publically available mRNA data and microRNA target prediction software, we identified several key myeloid factors that may be targeted by our candidate microRNAs. The expression changes of the candidate microRNAs during monocytic differentiation of AML cell lines treated with Vitamin D and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate were examined. All six candidate microRNAs were significantly down-regulated over the time course by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction suggesting a link between these microRNAs and monocytic differentiation. To further characterize these microRNAs, we confirmed by luciferase assays that these microRNA target several key myeloid factors such as MAFB, IRF8, and KLF4 identifying a possible mechanism for the control of differentiation by these microRNAs.

Kanai K, Reza HM, Kamitani A, et al.
SUMOylation negatively regulates transcriptional and oncogenic activities of MafA.
Genes Cells. 2010; 15(9):971-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulated expression of Maf proteins (namely c-Maf, MafA and MafB) leads to multiple myeloma in humans and oncogenic transformation of chicken embryonic fibroblasts. Maf proteins are transcriptional activators of tissue-specific gene expression and regulators of cell differentiation. For example, MafA is a critical regulator of crystallin genes and the lens differentiation program in chickens. In mammals, MafA is essential for the development of mature insulin-producing beta-cells of pancreas. It has been shown that MafA protein stability is regulated by phosphorylations at multiple serine and threonine residues. Here, we report that Maf proteins are also post-translationally modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins at a conserved lysine residue in the amino-terminal transactivator domain. A SUMOylation-deficient mutant of MafA (K32R) was more potent than wild-type MafA in transactivating luciferase reporter construct driven by alphaA-crystallin or insulin gene promoter. In ovo electroporation into developing chicken embryo showed that the K32R mutant induced ectopic delta-crystallin gene expression more efficiently than the wild-type MafA. We also demonstrated that the K32R mutant had enhanced ability to induce colony formation of a chicken fibroblast cell line DF-1. Therefore, SUMOylation is a functional post-translational modification of MafA that negatively regulates its transcriptional and transforming activities.

Nair B, van Rhee F, Shaughnessy JD, et al.
Superior results of Total Therapy 3 (2003-33) in gene expression profiling-defined low-risk multiple myeloma confirmed in subsequent trial 2006-66 with VRD maintenance.
Blood. 2010; 115(21):4168-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The Total Therapy 3 trial 2003-33 enrolled 303 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients and was noted to provide superior clinical outcomes compared with predecessor trial Total Therapy 2, especially in gene expression profiling (GEP)-defined low-risk disease. We report here on the results of successor trial 2006-66 with 177 patients, using bortezomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone maintenance for 3 years versus bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone in year 1 and thalidomide/dexamethasone in years 2 and 3 in the 2003-33 protocol. Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) plots were super-imposable for the 2 trials, as were onset of complete response and complete response duration (CRD), regardless of GEP risk. GEP-defined high-risk designation, pertinent to 17% of patients, imparted inferior OS, EFS, and CRD in both protocols and, on multivariate analysis, was the sole adverse feature affecting OS, EFS, and CRD. Mathematical modeling of CRD in low-risk myeloma predicted a 55% cure fraction (P < .001). Despite more rapid onset and higher rate of CR than in other molecular subgroups, CRD was inferior in CCND1 without CD20 myeloma, resembling outcomes in MAF/MAFB and proliferation entities. The robustness of the GEP risk model should be exploited in clinical trials aimed at improving the notoriously poor outcome in high-risk disease.

Våtsveen TK, Tian E, Kresse SH, et al.
OH-2, a hyperdiploid myeloma cell line without an IGH translocation, has a complex translocation juxtaposing MYC near MAFB and the IGK locus.
Leuk Res. 2009; 33(12):1670-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma can be classified into hyperdiploid (HRD) (with 48-74 chromosomes) and non-hyperdiploid tumors (usually with immunoglobulin heavy chain translocations). The OH-2 human myeloma cell line (HMCL) retains the same HRD genotype as the primary tumor, with extra copies of chromosomes 3, 7, 15, 19, and 21. Both OH-2 and primary cells have a complex secondary translocation in which the IGK 3' enhancer is inserted between MYC and MAFB, resulting in dysregulation of both oncogenes. OH-2 provides a unique example of an HMCL and the corresponding primary tumor that are shown to share the same HRD genotype.

Pise-Masison CA, Radonovich M, Dohoney K, et al.
Gene expression profiling of ATL patients: compilation of disease-related genes and evidence for TCF4 involvement in BIRC5 gene expression and cell viability.
Blood. 2009; 113(17):4016-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive and fatal disease. We have examined 32 patients with smoldering, chronic, lymphoma and acute leukemia using Affymetrix HG-U133A2.0 arrays. Using the BRB array program, we identified genes differentially expressed in leukemia cells compared with normal lymphocytes. Several unique genes were identified that were overexpressed in leukemic cells, including TNFSF11, RGS13, MAFb, CSPG2, C/EBP-alpha, and TCF4; 200 of the most highly overexpressed ATL genes were analyzed by the Pathway Studio, version 4.0 program. ATL leukemia cells were characterized by an increase in genes linked to "central" genes CDC2/cyclin B1, SYK/LYN, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and BIRC5. Because of its potential therapeutic importance, we focused our studies on the regulation and function of BIRC5, whose expression was increased in 13 of 14 leukemia samples. TCF4 reporter assays and transfection of DN-TCF4 demonstrated that TCF4 regulates BIRC5 gene expression. Functionally, transfection of ATL cells with BIRC5 shRNA decreased BIRC5 expression and cell viability 80%. Clinical treatment of ATL patients with Zenapax or bortezomib decreased BIRC5 expression and cell viability. These experiments represent the first direct experimental evidence that BIRC5 plays an important role in ATL cell viability and provides important insight into ATL genesis and potential targeted therapies.

van Stralen E, van de Wetering M, Agnelli L, et al.
Identification of primary MAFB target genes in multiple myeloma.
Exp Hematol. 2009; 37(1):78-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: In multiple myeloma (MM), seven primary recurrent translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus have been identified. One of the partner loci maps to 20q12 and involves the MAFB gene resulting in its ectopic expression. We attempt here to identify MAFB target genes in MM.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used an inducible system to upregulate MAFB in MM cell lines not carrying the t(14;20). Microarray expression analysis was used to detect gene expression changes upon MAFB expression. These genes were further evaluated comparatively with gene expression profiles obtained from MM or plasma cell leukemia tumors carrying an activated MAFB gene. Functional implications of these upregulated genes were studied by testing their promoter activity in reporter assays. C-MAF was included comparatively as well.
RESULTS: The inducible cell lines identified a total of 284 modulated transcripts. After further evaluation using ex vivo data 14 common upregulated genes were found, common to the C-MAF pathway as well. The promoter activity of some of these secondary genes proved a functional relationship with MAFB. In connection with one of these secondary genes (NOTCH2), even tertiary upregulated genes were found. Functional studies indicated that inducible MAFB expression conferred antiapoptotic effects.
CONCLUSION: We identified 14 upregulated genes, and their downstream consequences in the combined MAFB/C-MAF pathway. Eleven of these genes are novel in the C-MAF pathway as well. These direct target genes may be responsible for the oncogenic transformation of MAF expressing myeloma cells.

Bunaciu RP, Tang T, Mao CD
Differential expression of Wnt13 isoforms during leukemic cell differentiation.
Oncol Rep. 2008; 20(1):195-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Wnt proteins control cell fate and differentiation during development. Alterations of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway and changes in wnt gene expression are clearly associated with leukemia. The expression of human wnt13/wnt2b is complex as it involves alternative promoters and RNA splicing giving rise to Wnt13A, -B and -C mRNA isoforms, which encode proteins with different intracellular localizations and functions. We investigated the expression of the human wnt13 in relation to leukemic cell differentiation. Differentiated endothelial cells expressed the highest levels of Wnt13 mRNA isoforms among various endothelial and leukemic cell lines. The differentiation of U937 cells towards monocyte/macrophages resulted in an increase of Wnt13B and -C mRNAs while Wnt13A mRNAs were decreased. The differentiation of K562 cells towards megakaryocytes was accompanied with the up-regulation of all Wnt13 mRNA isoforms. In the two differentiation systems, Wnt13B and -C expression correlated with the expression of the MAF-B transcription factor. Our data demonstrate the differential regulation of wnt13 promoters and pinpoint a Wnt13 isoform switch during differentiation of the leukemic U937 cells towards the monocyte/macrophage lineage, thereby suggesting new players in this process.

Vanhoose AM, Samaras S, Artner I, et al.
MafA and MafB regulate Pdx1 transcription through the Area II control region in pancreatic beta cells.
J Biol Chem. 2008; 283(33):22612-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic-duodenal homeobox factor-1 (Pdx1) is highly enriched in islet beta cells and integral to proper cell development and adult function. Of the four conserved 5'-flanking sequence blocks that contribute to transcription in vivo, Area II (mouse base pairs -2153/-1923) represents the only mammalian specific control domain. Here we demonstrate that regulation of beta-cell-enriched Pdx1 expression by the MafA and MafB transcription factors is exclusively through Area II. Thus, these factors were found to specifically activate through Area II in cell line transfection-based assays, and MafA, which is uniquely expressed in adult islet beta cells was only bound to this region in quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation studies. MafA and MafB are produced in beta cells during development and were both bound to Area II at embryonic day 18.5. Expression of a transgene driven by Pdx1 Areas I and II was also severely compromised during insulin+ cell formation in MafB(-/-) mice, consistent with the importance of this large Maf in beta-cell production and Pdx1 expression. These findings illustrate the significance of large Maf proteins to Pdx1 expression in beta cells, and in particular MafB during pancreatic development.

Gabrea A, Martelli ML, Qi Y, et al.
Secondary genomic rearrangements involving immunoglobulin or MYC loci show similar prevalences in hyperdiploid and nonhyperdiploid myeloma tumors.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2008; 47(7):573-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) is thought to involve at least two pathways, which generate hyperdiploid (HRD) or nonhyperdiploid (NHRD) tumors, respectively. Apart from chromosome content, the two pathways are distinguished by five primary immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) rearrangements (4p16, FGFR3, and MMSET; 6p21, CCND3; 11q13, CCND1; 16q23, MAF; 20q12, MAFB) that are present mainly in NHRD tumors. To determine the prevalence and structures of IGH, immunoglobulin (IG) light chain, and MYC genomic rearrangements in MM, we have done comprehensive metaphase fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses on 48 advanced MM tumors and 47 MM cell lines. As expected, the prevalence of the five primary IGH rearrangements was nearly 70% in NHRD tumors, but only 12% in HRD tumors. However, IGH rearrangements not involving one of the five primary partners, and IG light chain rearrangements, have a similar prevalence in HRD and NHRD tumors. In addition, MYC rearrangements, which are thought to be late progression events that sometimes do not involve an IG heavy or light chain locus, also have a similar prevalence in HRD and NHRD tumors. In contrast to the primary IGH rearrangements, which usually are simple balanced translocations, these other IG rearrangements usually have complex structures, as previously described for MYC rearrangements in MM. We conclude that IG light chain and MYC rearrangements, as well as secondary IGH rearrangements, make similar contributions to the progression of both HRD and NHRD MM tumors.

Takimoto M, Ogawa K, Kato Y, et al.
Close relation between 14q32/IGH translocations and chromosome 13 abnormalities in multiple myeloma: a high incidence of 11q13/CCND1 and 16q23/MAF.
Int J Hematol. 2008; 87(3):260-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many B-cell tumors have chromosomal translocations that result from failures of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene during V(D)J recombination, somatic hypermutation (SHM), and class switch recombination (CSR). Nearly half of all multiple myeloma (MM) patients have 14q32/IGH translocations in CSR, including the five common translocations of 11q13/CCND1, 6p21/CCND3, 4p16/FGFR3, 16q23/MAF, and 20q11/MAFB. Although 14q32/IGH translocations are closely related to the biological features of MM, the most consistent and powerful prognostic factor has been reported to be the loss of all (monosomy 13/-13) or part of chromosome 13 (del(13)(q14)/13q-). Our fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis method was designed to detect -13/13q- and 14q32/IGH rearrangements in 23 MM patients. FISH disclosed 14q32/IGH translocations in 10 of the 23 (43.5%) patients. The common translocation partners of 14q32/IGH were 11q13/CCND1 (five patients) and 16q23/MAF (four patients), followed in third place by 4p16/FGFR3 (one patient). Nine of the ten patients carrying 14q32/IGH translocations had -13/13q-. Abnormalities of chromosome 13 included -13 in seven (70%) and del(13)(q14) in two (20%). Our results suggest a significant correlation between the presence of 14q32/IGH translocations and chromosome 13 abnormalities (P = 0.0276) in MM patients.

Sáez B, Martín-Subero JI, Odero MD, et al.
Multicolor interphase cytogenetics for the study of plasma cell dyscrasias.
Oncol Rep. 2007; 18(5):1099-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
Specific chromosomal abnormalities such as chromosome 13 deletions and some translocations affecting the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene, namely t(4;14)(p16;q32) and t(14;16)(q32;q23) have been associated with an adverse prognosis in multiple myeloma. Conventional cytogenetic techniques fail to detect these aberrations in the majority of cases. Thus, we have developed a novel set of interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) assays targeting those regions frequently lost on chromosome 13 as well as those oncogenes most recurrently involved in translocations with the IGH locus in multiple myeloma, i.e. IRTA1/2 (1q21), FGFR3/MMSET (4p16), CCND3 (6p21), IRF4 (6p25), CCND1 (11q13), MAF (16q23), and MAFB (20q12). The probes were combined in a multicolor fashion to develop novel multicolor I-FISH (MI-FISH) assays, whose validity and applicability was evaluated in negative controls and in a series of 13 plasma cell neoplasias. Additionally, a combination of the novel MI-FISH assays with staining for the plasma cell-specific antigen VS38c by means of multicolor FICTION (M-FICTION, fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics as a tool for the investigation of neoplasms) allowed us to selectively analyze the plasma cell compartment, and thereby to increase the assay sensitivity.

Las Heras F, Pritzker KP, Colgan TJ
Chordoma arising in a mature cystic teratoma of the ovary: a case report.
Pathol Res Pract. 2007; 203(6):467-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mature cystic teratoma of the ovary (MCTO) is the most common type of ovarian teratoma and also the most frequent tumor originating from germ cells. It is usually diagnosed in early adulthood and, by definition, is composed of well-differentiated tissues, which originate from all three germ cell layers. Unusual types of tissues can be found in MCTO, such as kidney, adrenal, and prostatic tissues. Malignant transformation is reported in less than 2% of teratomas. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignancy arising in these otherwise benign tumors. We present the first case of MCTO containing a chordoma. The chordoma differentiation was supported by immunohistochemical staining and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (IP-FISH) technique showing 19% of the nuclei of the MCTO displaying polysomy for the chromosome X, while 28% of the chordoma nuclei showed chromosome 7 mosaicism. These results are concordant with previous studies, showing chromosomal anomalies in chromosomes X and 7 in MCTO and chordomas, respectively.

Lombardi L, Poretti G, Mattioli M, et al.
Molecular characterization of human multiple myeloma cell lines by integrative genomics: insights into the biology of the disease.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2007; 46(3):226-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
To investigate the patterns of genetic lesions in a panel of 23 human multiple myeloma cell lines (HMCLs), we made a genomic integrative analysis involving FISH, and both gene expression and genome-wide profiling approaches. The expression profiles of the genes targeted by the main IGH translocations showed that the WHSC1/MMSET gene involved in t(4;14)(p16;q32) was expressed at different levels in all of the HMCLs, and that the expression of the MAF gene was not restricted to the HMCLs carrying t(14;16)(q32;q23). Supervised analyses identified a limited number of genes specifically associated with t(4;14) and involved in different biological processes. The signature related to MAF/MAFB expression included the known MAF target genes CCND2 and ITGB7, as well as genes controlling cell shape and cell adhesion. Genome-wide DNA profiling allowed the identification of a gain on chromosome arm 1q in 88% of the analyzed cell lines, together with recurrent gains on 8q, 18q, 7q, and 20q; the most frequent deletions affected 1p, 13q, 17p, and 14q; and almost all of the cell lines presented LOH on chromosome 13. Two hundred and twenty-two genes were found to be simultaneously overexpressed and amplified in our panel, including the BCL2 locus at 18q21.33. Our data further support the evidence of the genomic complexity of multiple myeloma and reinforce the role of an integrated genomic approach in improving our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the disease. This article contains Supplementary Material available at http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1045-2257/suppmat.

Kang JU, Kang JJ, Kwon KC, et al.
Genetic alterations in primary gastric carcinomas correlated with clinicopathological variables by array comparative genomic hybridization.
J Korean Med Sci. 2006; 21(4):656-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic alterations have been recognized as an important event in the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). We conducted high resolution bacterial artificial chromosome array-comparative genomic hybridization, to elucidate in more detail the genomic alterations, and to establish a pattern of DNA copy number changes with distinct clinical variables in GC. Our results showed some correlations between novel amplified or deleted regions and clinical status. Copy-number gains were frequently detected at 1p, 5p, 7q, 8q, 11p, 16p, 20p and 20q, and losses at 1p, 2q, 4q, 5q, 7q, 9p, 14q, and 18q. Losses at 4q23, 9p23, 14q31.1, or 18q21.1 as well as a gain at 20q12 were correlated with tumor-node-metastasis tumor stage. Losses at 9p23 or 14q31.1 were associated with lymph node status. Metastasis was determined to be related to losses at 4q23 or 4q28.2, as well as losses at 4q15.2, 4q21.21, 4q 28.2, or 14q31.1, with differentiation. One of the notable aspects of this study was that the losses at 4q or 14q could be employed in the evaluation of the metastatic status of GC. Our results should provide a potential resource for the molecular cytogenetic events in GC, and should also provide clues in the hunt for genes associated with GC.

Gabrea A, Leif Bergsagel P, Michael Kuehl W
Distinguishing primary and secondary translocations in multiple myeloma.
DNA Repair (Amst). 2006; 5(9-10):1225-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant post-germinal center tumor of somatically-mutated, isotype-switched plasma cells that accumulate in the bone marrow. It often is preceded by a stable pre-malignant tumor called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), which can sporadically progress to MM. Five recurrent primary translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus on chromosome 14q32 have been identified in MGUS and MM tumors. The five partner loci include 11q13, 6p21, 4p16, 16q23, and 20q12, with corresponding dysregulation of CYCLIN D1, CYCLIN D3, FGFR3/MMSET, c-MAF, and MAFB, respectively, by strong enhancers in the IgH locus. The five recurrent translocations, which are present in 40% of MM tumors, typically are simple reciprocal translocations, mostly having breakpoints within or near IgH switch regions but sometimes within or near VDJ or JH sequences. It is thought that these translocations are caused by aberrant IgH switch recombination, and possibly by aberrant somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells, thus providing an early and perhaps initiating event in transformation. A MYC gene is dysregulated by complex translocations and insertions as a very late event during the progression of MM tumors. Since the IgH switch recombination and somatic hypermutation mechanism are turned off in plasma cells and plasma cell tumors, the MYC rearrangements are thought to be mediated by unknown mechanisms that contribute to structural genomic instability in all kinds of tumors. These rearrangements, which often but not always juxtapose MYC near one of the strong immunoglobulin enhancers, provide a paradigm for secondary translocations. It is hypothesized that secondary translocations not involving a MYC gene can occur at any stage of tumorigenesis, including in pre-malignant MGUS tumor cells.

Boersma-Vreugdenhil GR, Kuipers J, Van Stralen E, et al.
The recurrent translocation t(14;20)(q32;q12) in multiple myeloma results in aberrant expression of MAFB: a molecular and genetic analysis of the chromosomal breakpoint.
Br J Haematol. 2004; 126(3):355-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chromosomal translocations of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene region at 14q32 are regularly involved in B lymphoid malignancies; they may initiate transformation either by deregulation of existing (proto) oncogenes or creation of new hybrid genes with transforming properties. Previously, we reported a reciprocal novel translocation, t(14;20)(q32;q12), found in the myeloma cell line UM3. In this cell line, the t(14;20) is the only translocation involving the IgH locus. Using double colour immunofluorescence in situ hybridization, the t(14;20) was also found in the diagnostic bone marrow sample, excluding a possible in vitro artefact. We also have found this recurrent t(14;20) in four other cell lines and in additional patient material. We cloned the regions containing the breakpoints in the der(14) and der(20) chromosomes from UM3, and analysed ectopic mRNA expression of genes in the breakpoint regions of both derivative chromosomes. Ectopic gene expression was observed for the transcription factor MAFB in der(14). The breakpoint scatter in the five cell lines with a t(14;20)--all expressing MAFB--is comprised within a region of 0.8 Mb. Provisional data indicate that this t(14;20) is associated with an adverse prognosis. Aberrant expression of MAFB may be involved in the oncogenic transformation of myeloma cells that harbour the t(14;20).

Bergsagel PL, Kuehl WM
Molecular pathogenesis and a consequent classification of multiple myeloma.
J Clin Oncol. 2005; 23(26):6333-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
There appear to be two pathways involved in the pathogenesis of premalignant non-immunoglobulin M (IgM) monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM). Nearly half of tumors are nonhyperdiploid, and mostly have one of five recurrent IgH translocations: 16% 11q13 (CCN D1), 3% 6p21 (CCN D3), 5% 16q23 (MAF), 2% 20q12 (MAFB), and 15% 4p16 (FGFR3 and MMSET). The remaining hyperdiploid tumors have multiple trisomies involving chromosomes 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 19, and 21, and infrequently one of these five translocations. Although cyclin D1 is not expressed by healthy lymphoid cells, it is bi-allelically dysregulated in a majority of hyperdiploid tumors. Virtually all MM and MGUS tumors have dysregulated and/or increased expression of cyclin D1, D2, or D3, providing an apparent early, unifying event in pathogenesis. The patterns of translocations and cyclin D expression (TC) define a novel classification that includes eight groups: 11q; 6p; MAF; 4p; D1 (34%); D1+D2 (6%); D2 (17%); and none (2%). The hyperdiploid D1 group is virtually absent in extramedullary MM and MM cell lines, suggesting a particularly strong dependence on interaction with the bone marrow microenvironment. Despite shared progression events (RAS mutations, MYC dysregulation, p53 mutations, and additional disruption of the retinoblastoma pathway), the phenotypes of MGUS and MM tumors in the eight TC groups is determined mainly by early oncogenic events. Similar to acute lymphocytic leukemia, MM seems to include several diseases (groups) that have differences in early or initiating events, global gene expression patterns, bone marrow dependence, clinical features, prognosis, and response to therapy.

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