Gene Summary

Gene:RIOX2; ribosomal oxygenase 2
Aliases: ROX, MDIG, MINA, NO52, JMJD10, MINA53
Summary:MINA is a c-Myc (MYC; MIM 190080) target gene that may play a role in cell proliferation or regulation of cell growth. (Tsuneoka et al., 2002 [PubMed 12091391]; Zhang et al., 2005 [PubMed 15897898]).[supplied by OMIM, May 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ribosomal oxygenase 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MINA (cancer-related)

Denichenko P, Mogilevsky M, Cléry A, et al.
Specific inhibition of splicing factor activity by decoy RNA oligonucleotides.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1590 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Alternative splicing, a fundamental step in gene expression, is deregulated in many diseases. Splicing factors (SFs), which regulate this process, are up- or down regulated or mutated in several diseases including cancer. To date, there are no inhibitors that directly inhibit the activity of SFs. We designed decoy oligonucleotides, composed of several repeats of a RNA motif, which is recognized by a single SF. Here we show that decoy oligonucleotides targeting splicing factors RBFOX1/2, SRSF1 and PTBP1, can specifically bind to their respective SFs and inhibit their splicing and biological activities both in vitro and in vivo. These decoy oligonucleotides present an approach to specifically downregulate SF activity in conditions where SFs are either up-regulated or hyperactive.

Buhrmann C, Yazdi M, Popper B, et al.
Induction of the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Human Colorectal Cancer by Human TNF-β (Lymphotoxin) and its Reversal by Resveratrol.
Nutrients. 2019; 11(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor-beta (TNF-β), as an inflammatory mediator that has been shown to promote tumorigenesis, induces NF-κB. Natural multi-targeted agent resveratrol in turn shows anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) allows cancer cells to turn into a motile state with invasive capacities and is associated with metastasis and development of cancer stem cells (CSC). However, TNF-β-induced EMT and the anti-invasion mechanism of resveratrol on CRC are not yet completely understood.
METHODS: We investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of resveratrol on TNF-β/TNF-βR-induced EMT and migration of CRC cells (HCT116, RKO, SW480) in monolayer or 3D alginate cultures.
RESULTS: TNF-β, similar to TNF-α, induced significant cell proliferation, morphological change, from an epithelial to a spindle-like mesenchymal shape with the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia associated with the expression of EMT parameters (elevated vimentin and slug, reduced E-cadherin), increased migration/invasion, and formation of CSC in all CRC cells. Interestingly, these effects were dramatically decreased in the presence of resveratrol or anti-TNF-βR with TNF-β co-treatment, inducing biochemical changes to the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), with a planar cell surface and suppressed formation of CSC cells. This was associated with a significant increase in apoptosis. Furthermore, we found that resveratrol suppressed TNF-β-induced NF-κB and NF-κB-regulated gene biomarkers associated with growth, proliferation, and invasion. Finally, TNF-βR interacts directly with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and NF-κB.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that resveratrol down-regulates TNF-β/TNF-βR-induced EMT, at least in part via specific suppression of NF-κΒ and FAK in CRC cells.

Arnoldussen YJ, Kringlen Ervik T, Samulin Erdem J, et al.
Mechanisms of Toxicity of Industrially Relevant Silicomanganese Dust on Human 1321N1 Astrocytoma Cells: An In Vitro Study.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tremendous efforts are applied in the ferroalloy industry to control and reduce exposure to dust generated during the production process, as inhalable Mn-containing particulate matter has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to investigate the toxicity and biological effects of dust particles from laboratory-scale processes where molten silicomanganese (SiMn) was exposed to air, using a human astrocytoma cell line, 1321N1, as model system. Characterization of the dust indicated presence of both nano-sized and larger particles averaging between 100 and 300 nm. The dust consisted mainly of Si, Mn and O. Investigation of cellular mechanisms showed a dose- and time-dependent effect on cell viability, with only minor changes in the expression of proteins involved in apoptosis. Moreover, gene expression of the neurotoxic biomarker

Arnoldussen YJ, Kringlen Ervik T, Baarnes Eriksen M, et al.
Cellular Responses of Industrially Relevant Silica Dust on Human Glial Cells In Vitro.
Int J Mol Sci. 2019; 20(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite the rigorous emission control measures in the ferroalloy industry, there are still emissions of dust during the production of various alloys. Dust particles were collected from laboratory scale processes where oxide particulate matter was formed from liquid silicon (metallurgical grade). The dust was produced in a dry air atmosphere to mimic industrial conditions. To investigate possible effects of ultrafine dust on the central nervous system, a human astrocytic cell line was employed to investigate inflammatory effects of particles as astrocytes play a number of active and neuron supporting roles in the brain. Toxicity on the astrocytes by amorphous silica generated in laboratory scale was compared to crystalline macro-sized silica using several doses to determine toxicological dose response curves. The cell viability experiments indicated that low particle doses of amorphous silica induced a small nonsignificant reduction in cell viability compared to crystalline silica which led to increased levels of toxicity. The gene expression of amyloid precursor protein (APP), a biomarker of neurodegenerative disease, was affected by particle exposure. Furthermore, particle exposure, in a dose-and time-dependent manner, affected the ability of the cells to communicate through gap junction channels. In conclusion, in vitro studies using low doses of particles are important to understand mechanisms of toxicity of occupational exposure to silica particles. However, these studies cannot be extrapolated to real exposure scenarios at work place, therefore, controlling and keeping the particle exposure levels low at the work place, would prevent potential negative health effects.

Gannon HS, Zou T, Kiessling MK, et al.
Identification of ADAR1 adenosine deaminase dependency in a subset of cancer cells.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):5450 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Systematic exploration of cancer cell vulnerabilities can inform the development of novel cancer therapeutics. Here, through analysis of genome-scale loss-of-function datasets, we identify adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR or ADAR1) as an essential gene for the survival of a subset of cancer cell lines. ADAR1-dependent cell lines display increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes. Activation of type I interferon signaling in the context of ADAR1 deficiency can induce cell lethality in non-ADAR1-dependent cell lines. ADAR deletion causes activation of the double-stranded RNA sensor, protein kinase R (PKR). Disruption of PKR signaling, through inactivation of PKR or overexpression of either a wildtype or catalytically inactive mutant version of the p150 isoform of ADAR1, partially rescues cell lethality after ADAR1 loss, suggesting that both catalytic and non-enzymatic functions of ADAR1 may contribute to preventing PKR-mediated cell lethality. Together, these data nominate ADAR1 as a potential therapeutic target in a subset of cancers.

Raynaud F, Mina M, Tavernari D, Ciriello G
Pan-cancer inference of intra-tumor heterogeneity reveals associations with different forms of genomic instability.
PLoS Genet. 2018; 14(9):e1007669 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genomic instability is a major driver of intra-tumor heterogeneity. However, unstable genomes often exhibit different molecular and clinical phenotypes, which are associated with distinct mutational processes. Here, we algorithmically inferred the clonal phylogenies of ~6,000 human tumors from 32 tumor types to explore how intra-tumor heterogeneity depends on different implementations of genomic instability. We found that extremely unstable tumors associated with DNA repair deficiencies or high chromosomal instability are not the most intrinsically heterogeneous. Conversely, intra-tumor heterogeneity is greatest in tumors exhibiting relatively high numbers of both mutations and copy number alterations, a feature often observed in cancers associated with exogenous mutagens. Independently of the type of instability, tumors with high number of clones invariably evolved through branching phylogenies that could be stratified based on the extent of clonal (early) and subclonal (late) instability. Interestingly, tumors with high number of subclonal mutations frequently exhibited chromosomal instability, TP53 mutations, and APOBEC-related mutational signatures. Vice versa, mutations of chromatin remodeling genes often characterized tumors with few subclonal but multiple clonal mutations. Understanding how intra-tumor heterogeneity depends on genomic instability is critical to identify markers predictive of the tumor complexity and envision therapeutic strategies able to exploit this association.

Litton JK, Rugo HS, Ettl J, et al.
Talazoparib in Patients with Advanced Breast Cancer and a Germline BRCA Mutation.
N Engl J Med. 2018; 379(8):753-763 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The poly(adenosine diphosphate-ribose) inhibitor talazoparib has shown antitumor activity in patients with advanced breast cancer and germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 ( BRCA1/2).
METHODS: We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial in which patients with advanced breast cancer and a germline BRCA1/2 mutation were assigned, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive talazoparib (1 mg once daily) or standard single-agent therapy of the physician's choice (capecitabine, eribulin, gemcitabine, or vinorelbine in continuous 21-day cycles). The primary end point was progression-free survival, which was assessed by blinded independent central review.
RESULTS: Of the 431 patients who underwent randomization, 287 were assigned to receive talazoparib and 144 were assigned to receive standard therapy. Median progression-free survival was significantly longer in the talazoparib group than in the standard-therapy group (8.6 months vs. 5.6 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.71; P<0.001). The interim median hazard ratio for death was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.55 to 1.06; P=0.11 [57% of projected events]). The objective response rate was higher in the talazoparib group than in the standard-therapy group (62.6% vs. 27.2%; odds ratio, 5.0; 95% CI, 2.9 to 8.8; P<0.001). Hematologic grade 3-4 adverse events (primarily anemia) occurred in 55% of the patients who received talazoparib and in 38% of the patients who received standard therapy; nonhematologic grade 3 adverse events occurred in 32% and 38% of the patients, respectively. Patient-reported outcomes favored talazoparib; significant overall improvements and significant delays in the time to clinically meaningful deterioration according to both the global health status-quality-of-life and breast symptoms scales were observed.
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with advanced breast cancer and a germline BRCA1/2 mutation, single-agent talazoparib provided a significant benefit over standard chemotherapy with respect to progression-free survival. Patient-reported outcomes were superior with talazoparib. (Funded by Medivation [Pfizer]; EMBRACA number, NCT01945775 .).

Trink A, Kanter I, Pode-Shakked N, et al.
Geometry of Gene Expression Space of Wilms' Tumors From Human Patients.
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(8):871-881 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Wilms' tumor is a pediatric malignancy that is thought to originate from faulty kidney development during the embryonic stage. However, there is a large variation between tumors from different patients in both histology and gene expression that is not well characterized. Here we use a meta-analysis of published microarray datasets to show that Favorable Histology Wilms' Tumors (FHWT's) fill a triangle-shaped continuum in gene expression space of which the vertices represent three idealized "archetypes". We show that these archetypes have predominantly renal blastemal, stromal, and epithelial characteristics and that they correlate well with the three major lineages of the developing embryonic kidney. Moreover, we show that advanced stage tumors shift towards the renal blastemal archetype. These results illustrate the potential of this methodology for characterizing the cellular composition of Wilms' tumors and for assessing disease progression.

Dreifuss T, Ben-Gal TS, Shamalov K, et al.
Uptake mechanism of metabolic-targeted gold nanoparticles.
Nanomedicine (Lond). 2018; 13(13):1535-1549 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To elucidate the interactions, uptake mechanisms and cytotoxicity profile of glucose-functionalized gold nanoparticles (2GF-GNPs), for expanding and advancing the recently proposed technology of metabolic-based cancer detection to a variety of cancer diseases.
METHODS: Several cell types with different metabolic features were used to assess the involvement of GLUT-1 and different endocytosis pathways in 2GF-GNP uptake, and the cytotoxicity profile of 2GF-GNPs.
RESULTS: Cellular uptake of 2GF-GNP strongly correlated with GLUT-1 surface expression, and occurred mainly through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. 2GF-GNPs showed no toxic effect on cell cycle and proliferation.
CONCLUSION: These findings promote development of metabolic-based cancer detection technologies, and suggest that 2GF-GNPs may enable specific cancer detection in a wide range of tumors characterized by high GLUT-1 expression.

Setten RL, Lightfoot HL, Habib NA, Rossi JJ
Development of MTL-CEBPA: Small Activating RNA Drug for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2018; 19(8):611-621 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oligonucleotide drug development has revolutionised the drug discovery field. Within this field, 'small' or 'short' activating RNAs (saRNA) are a more recently discovered category of short double-stranded RNA with clinical potential. saRNAs promote transcription from target loci, a phenomenon widely observed in mammals known as RNA activation (RNAa).
OBJECTIVE: The ability to target a particular gene is dependent on the sequence of the saRNA. Hence, the potential clinical application of saRNAs is to increase target gene expression in a sequence-specific manner. saRNA-based therapeutics present opportunities for expanding the "druggable genome" with particular areas of interest including transcription factor activation and cases of haploinsufficiency.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: In this mini-review, we describe the pre-clinical development of the first saRNA drug to enter the clinic. This saRNA, referred to as MTL-CEBPA, induces increased expression of the transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPα), a tumour suppressor and critical regulator of hepatocyte function. MTL-CEBPA is presently in Phase I clinical trials for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The clinical development of MTL-CEBPA will demonstrate "proof of concept" that saRNAs can provide the basis for drugs which enhance target gene expression and consequently improve treatment outcome in patients.

Quoc NB, Phuong NDN, Ngan TK, et al.
Expression of Plasma hsa-miR122 in HBV-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) in Vietnamese Patients.
Microrna. 2018; 7(2):92-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the world and considered as one of the most susceptible cancers in humans. The microRNA molecule, hsa-miR122, considered as a potential biological marker linked with the injury of hepatocellular tissue, is the most common microRNA in human liver cancer. Understanding the expression profile of hsa-miR122 plays an important role in the diagnosis of HCC.
OBJECTIVE: Identification and comparison of cut-off values of plasma hsa-miR122 expression were conducted in blood samples of healthy control, HBV infected and HBV-related HCC Vietnamese patients.
METHODS AND RESULT: Fifty-two blood samples of healthy control and HBV-related HCC cases, collected between 2015 and 2017 were obtained from Ho Chi Minh City Oncology Hospital, Vietnam. Written informed consent was attained from all patients and the Human Research Ethics Committee, Oncology Hospital (#08/BVUB-HDDD) approved the research protocol. Total RNA was isolated from blood samples with TrizolTM Reagent (Thermo Fisher Scientific, USA). To analyze the expression level of hsa-miR122, miRNA specific reverse transcription was performed using Sensi- FASTTM cDNA Synthesis Kit (Bioline, UK) as described by the manufacturer, followed by running RT-qPCR with SensiFASTTMSYBR No-ROX Kit (Bioline, UK). The housekeeping gene, GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) was used for normalization. The presence of hsamiR122 and HBV-DNA was identified in human blood using RT-PCR and LAMP techniques. Downregulation of plasma hsa-miR122 was observed in HBV-related HCC patients with a .Ct value of 7.9 ± 2.1 which was significantly lower than found in healthy control (p<0.01). The loss of hsa-miR122 expression was observed in HBV infected patients. We also identified the difference of diagnostic values of this microRNA in different populations and provided a high diagnostic accuracy of HCC (AUC = 0.984 with sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 94%, respectively).
CONCLUSION: hsa-miR122 was downregulated in HBV-related HCC patients and found to be lower by approximately 10 fold than in healthy control, resulting in a potential biomarker for microRNA based diagnosis of HCC in human blood.

Sanchez-Vega F, Mina M, Armenia J, et al.
Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in The Cancer Genome Atlas.
Cell. 2018; 173(2):321-337.e10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic alterations in signaling pathways that control cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, and cell growth are common hallmarks of cancer, but the extent, mechanisms, and co-occurrence of alterations in these pathways differ between individual tumors and tumor types. Using mutations, copy-number changes, mRNA expression, gene fusions and DNA methylation in 9,125 tumors profiled by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we analyzed the mechanisms and patterns of somatic alterations in ten canonical pathways: cell cycle, Hippo, Myc, Notch, Nrf2, PI-3-Kinase/Akt, RTK-RAS, TGFβ signaling, p53 and β-catenin/Wnt. We charted the detailed landscape of pathway alterations in 33 cancer types, stratified into 64 subtypes, and identified patterns of co-occurrence and mutual exclusivity. Eighty-nine percent of tumors had at least one driver alteration in these pathways, and 57% percent of tumors had at least one alteration potentially targetable by currently available drugs. Thirty percent of tumors had multiple targetable alterations, indicating opportunities for combination therapy.

Reebye V, Huang KW, Lin V, et al.
Gene activation of CEBPA using saRNA: preclinical studies of the first in human saRNA drug candidate for liver cancer.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(24):3216-3228 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Liver diseases are a growing epidemic worldwide. If unresolved, liver fibrosis develops and can lead to cirrhosis and clinical decompensation. Around 5% of cirrhotic liver diseased patients develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which in its advanced stages has limited therapeutic options and negative survival outcomes. CEPBA is a master regulator of hepatic function where its expression is known to be suppressed in many forms of liver disease including HCC. Injection of MTL-CEBPA, a small activating RNA oligonucleotide therapy (CEBPA-51) formulated in liposomal nanoparticles (NOV340- SMARTICLES) upregulates hepatic CEBPA expression. Here we show how MTL-CEBPA therapy promotes disease reversal in rodent models of cirrhosis, fibrosis, hepatosteatosis, and significantly reduces tumor burden in cirrhotic HCC. Restoration of liver function markers were observed in a carbon-tetrachloride-induced rat model of fibrosis following 2 weeks of MTL-CEBPA therapy. At 14 weeks, animals showed reduction in ascites and enhanced survival rates. MTL-CEBPA reversed changes associated with hepatosteatosis in non-alcoholic methionine and cholic-deficient diet-induced steaotic liver disease. In diethylnitrosamine induced cirrhotic HCC rats, MTL-CEBPA treatment led to a significant reduction in tumor burden. The data included here and the rapid adoption of MTL-CEBPA into a Phase 1 study may lead to new therapeutic oligonucleotides for undruggable diseases.

Tanaka H, Phipps EA, Wei T, et al.
Altered expression of telomere-associated genes in leukocytes among BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers.
Mol Carcinog. 2018; 57(4):567-575 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Telomere dysfunction resulting from telomere shortening and deregulation of shelterin components has been linked to the pathogenesis of age-related disorders, including cancer. Recent evidence suggests that BRCA1/2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2) tumor suppressor gene products play an important role in telomere maintenance. Although telomere shortening has been reported in BRCA1/2 carriers, the direct effects of BRCA1/2 haploinsufficiency on telomere maintenance and predisposition to cancer development are not completely understood. In this study, we assessed the telomere-associated and telomere-proximal gene expression profiles in peripheral blood leukocytes from patients with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, compared to samples from sporadic and familial breast cancer individuals. We found that 25 genes, including TINF2 gene (a negative regulator of telomere length), were significantly differentially expressed in BRCA1 carriers. Leukocyte telomere length analysis revealed that BRCA1/2 carriers had relatively shorter telomeres than healthy controls. Further, affected BRCA1/2 carriers were well differentiated from unaffected BRCA1/2 carriers by the expression of telomere-proximal genes. Our results link BRCA1/2 haploinsufficiency to changes in telomere length, telomere-associated as well as telomere-proximal gene expression. Thus, this work supports the effect of BRCA1/2 haploinsufficiency in the biology underlying telomere dysfunction in cancer development. Future studies evaluating these findings will require a large study population.

Pinto Y, Buchumenski I, Levanon EY, Eisenberg E
Human cancer tissues exhibit reduced A-to-I editing of miRNAs coupled with elevated editing of their targets.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(1):71-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A-to-I RNA editing is an important post-transcriptional modification, known to be altered in tumors. It targets dozens of sites within miRNAs, some of which impact miRNA biogenesis and function, as well as many miRNA recognition sites. However, the full extent of the effect of editing on regulation by miRNAs and its behavior in human cancers is still unknown. Here we systematically characterized miRNA editing in 10 593 human samples across 32 cancer types and normal controls. We find that the majority of previously reported sites show little to no evidence for editing in this dataset, compile a list of 58 reliable miRNA editing sites, and study them across normal and cancer samples. Edited miRNA versions tend to suppress expression of known oncogenes, and, consistently, we observe a clear global tendency for hypo-editing in tumors, in strike contrast to the behavior for mRNA editing, allowing an accurate classification of normal/tumor samples based on their miRNA editing profile. In many cancers this profile correlates with patients' survival. Finally, thousands of miRNA binding sites are differentially edited in cancer. Our study thus establishes the important effect of RNA editing on miRNA-regulation in the tumor cell, with prospects for diagnostic and prognostic applications.

Ferreira MJ, Pires-Luís AS, Vieira-Coimbra M, et al.
SETDB2 and RIOX2 are differentially expressed among renal cell tumor subtypes, associating with prognosis and metastization.
Epigenetics. 2017; 12(12):1057-1064 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increasing detection of small renal masses by imaging techniques entails the need for accurate discrimination between benign and malignant renal cell tumors (RCTs) as well as among malignant RCTs, owing to differential risk of progression through metastization. Although histone methylation has been implicated in renal tumorigenesis, its potential as biomarker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression remains largely unexplored. Thus, we aimed to characterize the differential expression of histone methyltransferases (HMTs) and histone demethylases (HDMs) in RCTs to assess their potential as metastasis biomarkers. We found that SETDB2 and RIOX2 (encoding for an HMT and an HDM, respectively) expression levels was significantly altered in RCTs; these genes were further selected for validation by quantitative RT-PCR in 160 RCTs. Moreover, SETDB2, RIOX2, and three genes encoding for enzymes involved in histone methylation (NO66, SETD3, and SMYD2), previously reported by our group, were quantified (RT-PCR) in an independent series of 62 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) to assess its potential role in ccRCC metastasis development. Additional validation was performed using TCGA dataset. SETDB2 and RIOX2 transcripts were overexpressed in RCTs compared to renal normal tissues (RNTs) and in oncocytomas vs. RCCs, with ccRCC and papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) displaying the lowest levels. Low SETDB2 expression levels and higher stage independently predicted shorter disease-free survival. In our 62 ccRCC cohort, significantly higher RIOX2, but not SETDB2, expression levels were depicted in cases that developed metastasis during follow-up. These findings were not apparent in TCGA dataset. We concluded that SETDB2 and RIOX2 might be involved in renal tumorigenesis and RCC progression, especially in metastatic spread. Moreover, SETDB2 expression levels might independently discriminate among RCC subgroups with distinct outcome, whereas higher RIOX2 transcript levels might identify ccRCC cases with more propensity to endure metastatic dissemination.

Geng F, Jiang Z, Song X, et al.
Mdig suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and inhibits the invasion and metastasis of non‑small cell lung cancer via regulating GSK-3β/β-catenin signaling.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(6):1898-1908 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mineral dust-induced gene (mdig) can inhibit the invasion and metastasis of A549 cells. The main purpose of this study was to explore the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of mdig on cell invasion and metastasis. Mdig-knockdown and mdig-overexpressing A549 cells and an mdig-overexpressing human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) line were constructed using lentiviral vectors, and western blot analysis was performed to verify the silencing and overexpression of the mdig protein. A Transwell invasion assay was used to detect the invasive abilities of each experimental group, and Transwell migration and scratch assays were used to detect cell migration ability. Western blotting was subsequently conducted to detect the major biochemical indices of the GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway and the protein expression levels and modifications of epithelial‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) transcription factors, as well as changes in the expression levels of EMT molecular markers and intercellular adhesion proteins. The results indicated that overexpression of mdig in A549 cells inhibited cell invasion and metastasis, while silencing of mdig increased the invasive and metastatic properties of cells. The molecular mechanism underlying the effects of mdig downregulation on A549 cell invasion and metastasis was found to involve the inhibition of GSK-3β phosphorylation, which in turn promoted the phosphorylation and destabilization of β-catenin. This was associated with downregulation of the downstream transcription factors slug, snail and ZEB1, thus leading to increased expression levels of epithelial cell markers and upregulation of the intercellular adhesion molecules E-cadherin, claudin‑1, ZO‑1, integrin β1 and integrin β4, which was accompanied by downregulation of the mesenchymal cell markers vimentin and N-cadherin. The HUVECs were used to validate the aforementioned molecular mechanisms and the same conclusions were obtained. The present results indicate that mdig can inhibit the phosphorylation of GSK-3β and promote the phosphorylation and destabilization of β-catenin, in order to suppress the expression of slug, snail, and ZEB1 and the occurrence of EMT, and thereby inhibit the invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Mizrahi A, Barzilai A, Gur-Wahnon D, et al.
Alterations of microRNAs throughout the malignant evolution of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: the role of miR-497 in epithelial to mesenchymal transition of keratinocytes.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(2):218-230 [PubMed] Related Publications
Skin carcinogenesis is known to be a multi-step process with several stages along its malignant evolution. We hypothesized that transformation of normal epidermis to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is causally linked to alterations in microRNAs (miRNA) expression. For this end we decided to evaluate their alterations in the pathologic states ending in cSCC. Total RNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded biopsies of five stages along the malignant evolution of keratinocytes towards cSCC: Normal epidermis, solar elastosis, actinic keratosis KIN1-2, advanced actinic keratosis KIN3 and well-differentiated cSCC. Next-generation small RNA sequencing was performed. We found that 18 miRNAs are overexpressed and 28 miRNAs are underexpressed in cSCC compared to normal epidermis. miR-424, miR-320, miR-222 and miR-15a showed the highest fold change among the overexpressed miRNAs. And miR-100, miR-101 and miR-497 showed the highest fold change among the underexpressed miRNAs. Heat map of hierarchical clustering analysis of significantly changed miRNAs and principle component analysis disclosed that the most prominent change in miRNAs expression occurred in the switch from 'early' stages; normal epidermis, solar elastosis and early actinic keratosis to the 'late' stages of epidermal carcinogenesis; late actinic keratosis and cSCC. We found several miRNAs with 'stage specific' alterations while others display a clear 'gradual', either progressive increase or decrease in expression along the malignant evolution of keratinocytes. The observed alterations focused in miRNAs involved in the regulation of AKT/mTOR or in those involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We chose to concentrate on the evaluation of the molecular role of miR-497. We found that it induces reversion of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. We proved that SERPINE-1 is its biochemical target. The present study allows us to further study the pathways that are regulated by miRNAs along the malignant evolution of keratinocytes towards cSCC.

Voutila J, Reebye V, Roberts TC, et al.
Development and Mechanism of Small Activating RNA Targeting CEBPA, a Novel Therapeutic in Clinical Trials for Liver Cancer.
Mol Ther. 2017; 25(12):2705-2714 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small activating RNAs (saRNAs) are short double-stranded oligonucleotides that selectively increase gene transcription. Here, we describe the development of an saRNA that upregulates the transcription factor CCATT/enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPA), investigate its mode of action, and describe its development into a clinical candidate. A bioinformatically directed nucleotide walk around the CEBPA gene identified an saRNA sequence that upregulates CEBPA mRNA 2.5-fold in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. A nuclear run-on assay confirmed that this upregulation is a transcriptionally driven process. Mechanistic experiments demonstrate that Argonaute-2 (Ago2) is required for saRNA activity, with the guide strand of the saRNA shown to be associated with Ago2 and localized at the CEBPA genomic locus using RNA chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. The data support a sequence-specific on-target saRNA activity that leads to enhanced CEBPA mRNA transcription. Chemical modifications were introduced in the saRNA duplex to prevent activation of the innate immunity. This modified saRNA retains activation of CEBPA mRNA and downstream targets and inhibits growth of liver cancer cell lines in vitro. This novel drug has been encapsulated in a liposomal formulation for liver delivery, is currently in a phase I clinical trial for patients with liver cancer, and represents the first human study of an saRNA therapeutic.

Campbell PJ
Cliques and Schisms of Cancer Genes.
Cancer Cell. 2017; 32(2):129-130 [PubMed] Related Publications
With a few exceptions, cancers typically carry more than one driver mutation, sometimes five, ten, or more, and these driver mutations do not necessarily assort randomly. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Mina et al. systematically characterize patterns of co-mutation and mutual exclusivity in 6,456 cancers across 23 tumor types.

Mina M, Raynaud F, Tavernari D, et al.
Conditional Selection of Genomic Alterations Dictates Cancer Evolution and Oncogenic Dependencies.
Cancer Cell. 2017; 32(2):155-168.e6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer evolves through the emergence and selection of molecular alterations. Cancer genome profiling has revealed that specific events are more or less likely to be co-selected, suggesting that the selection of one event depends on the others. However, the nature of these evolutionary dependencies and their impact remain unclear. Here, we designed SELECT, an algorithmic approach to systematically identify evolutionary dependencies from alteration patterns. By analyzing 6,456 genomes from multiple tumor types, we constructed a map of oncogenic dependencies associated with cellular pathways, transcriptional readouts, and therapeutic response. Finally, modeling of cancer evolution shows that alteration dependencies emerge only under conditional selection. These results provide a framework for the design of strategies to predict cancer progression and therapeutic response.

Zhao X, Voutila J, Ghobrial S, et al.
Treatment of Liver Cancer by C/EBPA saRNA.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017; 983:189-194 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognosis for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains poor and has not improved in over two decades. Most patients with advanced HCC who are not eligible for surgery have limited treatment options due to poor liver function or large, unresectable tumors. Although sorafenib is the standard-of-care treatment for these patients, only a small number respond. For the remaining, the outlook remains bleak. A better approach to target "undruggable" molecular pathways that reverse HCC is therefore urgently needed. Small activating RNAs (saRNAs) may provide a novel strategy to activate expression of genes that become dysregulated in chronic disease. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), a critical regulator of hepatocyte function, is suppressed in many advanced liver diseases. By using an saRNA to activate C/EBPα, we can exploit the cell's own transcription machinery to enhance gene expression without relying on exogenous vectors that have been the backbone of gene therapy. saRNAs do not integrate into the host genome and can be modified to avoid immune stimulation. In preclinical models of liver disease, treatment with C/EBPα saRNA has shown reduction in tumor volume and improvement in serum markers of essential liver function such as albumin, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT). This saRNA that activates C/EBPα for advanced HCC is the first saRNA therapy to have entered a human clinical trial. The hope is that this new tool will help break the dismal 20-year trend and provide a more positive prognosis for patients with severe liver disease.

Huo Q, Ge C, Tian H, et al.
Dysfunction of IKZF1/MYC/MDIG axis contributes to liver cancer progression through regulating H3K9me3/p21 activity.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(5):e2766 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MDIG is known to be overexpressed in many types of human cancers and has demonstrated predictive power in the prognosis of cancer, although the functions and mechanisms of MDIG in liver cancer, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are still unknown. In this study, we report that MDIG and MYC were negatively regulated by IKZF1. MDIG overexpression substantially promoted HCC cell proliferation, cell migration and spreading, whereas knockdown of MDIG would reverse above-mentioned effect. MDIG effects on tumour cell growth were further demonstrated in a tumour xenograft model. Moreover, MDIG had effects on the level of p21(CIP1/WAF1) via H3K9me3 expression in HCC. MDIG was also found to be closely related to the sorafenib resistance of HCC cells in vitro. Clinically, we found that MDIG was frequently overexpressed in human HCCs (69.7%; n=155) and was significantly associated with histological grade and hepatitis B virus infection. Our findings indicate that MDIG plays an important role in HCC progression via MDIG/H3K9me3/p21(CIP1/WAF1) signalling and serves as a potential therapeutic target.

Brodie S, Lee HK, Jiang W, et al.
The novel long non-coding RNA TALNEC2, regulates tumor cell growth and the stemness and radiation response of glioma stem cells.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(19):31785-31801 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite advances in novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM), the median survival of 12-14 months has not changed significantly. Therefore, there is an imperative need to identify molecular mechanisms that play a role in patient survival. Here, we analyzed the expression and functions of a novel lncRNA, TALNEC2 that was identified using RNA seq of E2F1-regulated lncRNAs. TALNEC2 was localized to the cytosol and its expression was E2F1-regulated and cell-cycle dependent. TALNEC2 was highly expressed in GBM with poor prognosis, in GBM specimens derived from short-term survivors and in glioma cells and glioma stem cells (GSCs). Silencing of TALNEC2 inhibited cell proliferation and arrested the cells in the G1\S phase of the cell cycle in various cancer cell lines. In addition, silencing of TALNEC2 decreased the self-renewal and mesenchymal transformation of GSCs, increased sensitivity of these cells to radiation and prolonged survival of mice bearing GSC-derived xenografts. Using miRNA array analysis, we identified specific miRNAs that were altered in the silenced cells that were associated with cell-cycle progression, proliferation and mesenchymal transformation. Two of the downregulated miRNAs, miR-21 and miR-191, mediated some of TALNEC2 effects on the stemness and mesenchymal transformation of GSCs. In conclusion, we identified a novel E2F1-regulated lncRNA that is highly expressed in GBM and in tumors from patients of short-term survival. The expression of TALNEC2 is associated with the increased tumorigenic potential of GSCs and their resistance to radiation. We conclude that TALNEC2 is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of GBM.

Pleniceanu O, Shukrun R, Omer D, et al.
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is central to the initiation and propagation of human angiomyolipoma, suggesting its potential as a therapeutic target
EMBO Mol Med. 2017; 9(4):508-530 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Angiomyolipoma (AML), the most common benign renal tumor, can result in severe morbidity from hemorrhage and renal failure. While mTORC1 activation is involved in its growth, mTORC1 inhibitors fail to eradicate AML, highlighting the need for new therapies. Moreover, the identity of the AML cell of origin is obscure. AML research, however, is hampered by the lack of

Melaiu O, Mina M, Chierici M, et al.
PD-L1 Is a Therapeutic Target of the Bromodomain Inhibitor JQ1 and, Combined with HLA Class I, a Promising Prognostic Biomarker in Neuroblastoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 23(15):4462-4472 [PubMed] Related Publications

Gamell C, Gulati T, Levav-Cohen Y, et al.
Reduced abundance of the E3 ubiquitin ligase E6AP contributes to decreased expression of the INK4/ARF locus in non-small cell lung cancer.
Sci Signal. 2017; 10(461) [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor suppressor p16

Chandra Gupta S, Nandan Tripathi Y
Potential of long non-coding RNAs in cancer patients: From biomarkers to therapeutic targets.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 140(9):1955-1967 [PubMed] Related Publications
Because of high specificity and easy detection in the tissues, serum, plasma, urine and saliva, interest in exploring the potential of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in cancer patients continues to increase. LncRNAs have shown potential as a biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of bladder cancer, prostate cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, breast cancer and many other cancer types. Some lncRNAs have also been used as adjunct to improve the specificity and sensitivity of existing biomarkers. The molecular tools such as RNA-seq, RNA-FISH, ic-SHAPE and quantitative real-time PCR have been used for examining the lncRNAs' potential. Some lncRNAs such as PCA3 is now routinely used in the clinic for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lncRNAs can also be used as a predictor of cancer risk. Although ongoing studies continue to unravel the underlying mechanism, some lncRNAs have been used as therapeutic targets for the selective killing of cancer cells in patients. Thus lncRNAs are emerging as convenient and minimally invasive diagnostic/prognostic markers, and also as therapeutic target. Companies such as the Curna Inc., MiNA Therapeutics Ltd. and RaNA Therapeutics Inc. have been taking steps to develop lncRNA based strategies against cancer. In this review, we discuss the potential of lncRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer patients.

Torres CM, Biran A, Burney MJ, et al.
The linker histone H1.0 generates epigenetic and functional intratumor heterogeneity.
Science. 2016; 353(6307) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumors comprise functionally diverse subpopulations of cells with distinct proliferative potential. Here, we show that dynamic epigenetic states defined by the linker histone H1.0 determine which cells within a tumor can sustain the long-term cancer growth. Numerous cancer types exhibit high inter- and intratumor heterogeneity of H1.0, with H1.0 levels correlating with tumor differentiation status, patient survival, and, at the single-cell level, cancer stem cell markers. Silencing of H1.0 promotes maintenance of self-renewing cells by inducing derepression of megabase-sized gene domains harboring downstream effectors of oncogenic pathways. Self-renewing epigenetic states are not stable, and reexpression of H1.0 in subsets of tumor cells establishes transcriptional programs that restrict cancer cells' long-term proliferative potential and drive their differentiation. Our results uncover epigenetic determinants of tumor-maintaining cells.

Jiang W, Finniss S, Cazacu S, et al.
Repurposing phenformin for the targeting of glioma stem cells and the treatment of glioblastoma.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(35):56456-56470 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. Here, we studied the effects of phenformin, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor and more potent chemical analog of the diabetes drug metformin on the inhibition of cell growth and induction of apoptosis of glioma stem cells (GSCs) using both in vitro and in vivo models. Phenformin inhibited the self-renewal of GSCs, decreased the expression of stemness and mesenchymal markers and increased the expression of miR-124, 137 and let-7. Silencing of let-7 abrogated phenformin effects on the self-renewal of GSCs via a pathway associated with inhibition of H19 and HMGA2 expression. Moreover, we demonstrate that phenformin inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the overall survival of mice orthotopically transplanted with GSCs. Combined treatments of phenformin and temozolomide exerted an increased antitumor effect on GSCs in vitro and in vivo. In addition, dichloroacetate, an inhibitor of the glycolysis enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, that decreases lactic acidosis induced by biguanides, enhanced phenformin effects on the induction of cell death in GSCs and prolonged the survival of xenograft-bearing mice. Our results demonstrate for the first time that phenformin targets GSCs and can be efficiently combined with current therapies for GBM treatment and GSC eradication.

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