Gene Summary

Gene:MTA2; metastasis associated 1 family member 2
Aliases: PID, MTA1L1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that has been identified as a component of NuRD, a nucleosome remodeling deacetylase complex identified in the nucleus of human cells. It shows a very broad expression pattern and is strongly expressed in many tissues. It may represent one member of a small gene family that encode different but related proteins involved either directly or indirectly in transcriptional regulation. Their indirect effects on transcriptional regulation may include chromatin remodeling. It is closely related to another member of this family, a protein that has been correlated with the metastatic potential of certain carcinomas. These two proteins are so closely related that they share the same types of domains. These domains include two DNA binding domains, a dimerization domain, and a domain commonly found in proteins that methylate DNA. One of the proteins known to be a target protein for this gene product is p53. Deacetylation of p53 is correlated with a loss of growth inhibition in transformed cells supporting a connection between these gene family members and metastasis. [provided by RefSeq, May 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:metastasis-associated protein MTA2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 09 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MTA2 (cancer-related)

Ma L, Yao Z, Deng W, et al.
The Many Faces of MTA3 Protein in Normal Development and Cancers.
Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2016; 17(8):726-734 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a family of chromatin remodeling proteins, metastasis-associated proteins (MTAs) have shown to be the master regulators in both physiological and pathological contexts. Although MTA3 is the latest being identified in MTA family, it has started to draw as much attention as the other family members. MTA3 is expressed in various tissues and is associated with different physiological functions. In cancerous context, both MTA1 and MTA2 are generally considered as oncogenes because they are capable of enhancing metastasis. However, MTA3 appears to play more complicated roles in cancers depending on the contexts. As a tumor suppressor, MTA3 usually down-regulates Snail, the master regulator of epithelium-mesenchymal transition, and subsequently represses cancer cell invasion and migration. Additionally, MTA3 may function by enhancing cancer cell differentiation without affecting proliferation in certain cancers. On the other hand, MTA3 might function in oncogene - related properties similarly as MTA1 and MTA2. In this review, we summarize our current understanding about MTA3 in normal development, cancers as well as other human diseases by comparing the similarities and differences between MTA3 and the other members of the MTA family.

Majeed W, Iftikhar A, Khaliq T, et al.
Gastric Carcinoma: Recent Trends in Diagnostic Biomarkers and Molecular Targeted Therapies.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(7):3053-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is generally associated with poor survival rates and accounts for a remarkable proportion of global cancer mortality. The prevalence of gastric carcinoma varies in different regions of world and across teh various ethnic groups. On the basis of pathological assessment, gastric cancer can be categorized as intestinal and diffuse carcinomas. The etiology is diverse, including chemical carcinogen exposure, and high salt intake Helicobacter pylori also plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of certain gastric carcinomas. The development of gastric cancer involves various alterations in mRNAs, genes (GOLPH3, MTA2) and proteins (Coronins). miRNAs, Hsamir135b, MiR21, miR106b, miR17, miR18a, MiR21, miR106b, miR17, miR18a and MiRNA375, miRNA1955p are the latest diagnostic biomarkers which can facilitate the early diagnosis of gastric carcinomas. Recent development in the treatment strategies for gastric carcinoma include the introduction of monoclonal antibodies, TKI inhibitors, inhibitors of PDGFR β, VEGFR1, VEGFR2, AntiEGFR and antiHER2 agents which can be applied along with conventional therapies.

Sharapova SO, Chang EY, Guryanova IE, et al.
Next generation sequencing revealed DNA ligase IV deficiency in a "developmentally normal" patient with massive brain Epstein-Barr virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Clin Immunol. 2016; 163:108-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Here we present an unusual case of DNA ligase IV deficiency syndrome without dysmorphic facial findings and microcephaly complicated with Epstein-Barr virus-associated large B-cell lymphoma with the right lung involvement and a massive brain tumor lesion in a two-year-old female.
METHODS: PID panel was used for sequencing 55 genes. Most genes have >98% exon coverage including splicing sites. LIG4 gene has 100% exon and splicing site coverage. This was used in Ion Torrent PGM system, the library kit was made by Agilent with Haloplex technology. The sequence analysis software was Alamut, direct sequencing of LIG4 gene was performed after NGS results.
RESULT: We identified three heterozygous mutations in LIG4 gene c.2736+3delC and c.8 C>T (p.A3V) inherited from mother and c.26C>T (p.T9I) - from father after PID panel sequencing and some additional polymorphisms in ATM, NOD2 and NLRP3 genes.
CONCLUSION: This case broadens the clinical spectrum of DNA ligase IV deficiency.

Hyland PL, Zhang H, Yang Q, et al.
Pathway, in silico and tissue-specific expression quantitative analyses of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma genome-wide association studies data.
Int J Epidemiol. 2016; 45(1):206-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oesophageal cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in China where essentially all cases are histologically oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Agnostic pathway-based analyses of genome-wide association study (GWAS) data combined with tissue-specific expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis and publicly available functional data can identify biological pathways and/or genes enriched with functionally-relevant disease-associated variants.
METHOD: We used the adaptive multilocus joint test to analyse 1827 pathways containing 6060 genes using GWAS data from 1942 ESCC cases and 2111 controls with Chinese ancestry. We examined the function of risk alleles using in silico and eQTL analyses in oesophageal tissues.
RESULTS: Associations with ESCC risk were observed for 36 pathways predominantly involved in apoptosis, cell cycle regulation and DNA repair and containing known GWAS-associated genes. After excluding genes with previous GWAS signals, candidate pathways (and genes) for ESCC risk included taste transduction (KEGG_hsa04742; TAS2R13, TAS2R42, TAS2R14, TAS2R46,TAS2R50), long-patch base excision repair (Reactome_pid; POLD2) and the metabolics pathway (KEGG_hsa01100; MTAP, GAPDH, DCTD, POLD2, AMDHD1). We identified and validated CASP8 rs13016963 and IDH2 rs11630814 as eQTLs, and CASP8 rs3769823 and IDH2 rs4561444 as the potential functional variants in high-linkage disequilibrium with these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), respectively. Further, IDH2 mRNA levels were down-regulated in ESCC (tumour:normal-fold change = 0.69, P =  .75E-14).
CONCLUSION: Agnostic pathway-based analyses and integration of multiple types of functional data provide new evidence for the contribution of genes in taste transduction and metabolism to ESCC susceptibility, and for the functionality of both established and new ESCC risk-related SNPs.

Picard C, Al-Herz W, Bousfiha A, et al.
Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: an Update on the Classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies Expert Committee for Primary Immunodeficiency 2015.
J Clin Immunol. 2015; 35(8):696-726 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiencies compiled by the Primary Immunodeficiency Expert Committee (PID EC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). In the two years since the previous version, 34 new gene defects are reported in this updated version. For each disorder, the key clinical and laboratory features are provided. In this new version we continue to see the increasing overlap between immunodeficiency, as manifested by infection and/or malignancy, and immune dysregulation, as manifested by auto-inflammation, auto-immunity, and/or allergy. There is also an increased number of genetic defects that lead to susceptibility to specific organisms which reflects the finely tuned nature of immune defense systems. This classification is the most up to date catalogue of all known and published primary immunodeficiencies and acts as a current reference of the knowledge of these conditions and is an important aid for the genetic and molecular diagnosis of patients with these rare diseases.

Bousfiha A, Jeddane L, Al-Herz W, et al.
The 2015 IUIS Phenotypic Classification for Primary Immunodeficiencies.
J Clin Immunol. 2015; 35(8):727-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There are now nearly 300 single-gene inborn errors of immunity underlying phenotypes as diverse as infection, malignancy, allergy, auto-immunity, and auto-inflammation. For each of these five categories, a growing variety of phenotypes are ascribed to Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases (PID), making PIDs a rapidly expanding field of medicine. The International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) PID expert committee (EC) has published every other year a classification of these disorders into tables, defined by shared pathogenesis and/or clinical consequences. In 2013, the IUIS committee also proposed a more user-friendly, phenotypic classification, based on the selection of key phenotypes at the bedside. We herein propose the revised figures, based on the accompanying 2015 IUIS PID EC classification.

Palendira U, Rickinson AB
Primary immunodeficiencies and the control of Epstein-Barr virus infection.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015; 1356:22-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human primary immunodeficiency (PID) states, where mutations in single immune system genes predispose individuals to certain infectious agents and not others, are experiments of nature that hold important lessons for the immunologist. The number of genetically defined PIDs is rising rapidly, as is the opportunity to learn from them. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpesvirus, has long been of interest because of its complex interaction with the immune system. Thus, it causes both infectious mononucleosis (IM), an immunopathologic disease associated with exaggerated host responses, and at least one malignancy, EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease, when those responses are impaired. Here, we describe the full range of PIDs currently linked with an increased risk of EBV-associated disease. These provide examples where IM-like immunopathology is fatally exaggerated, and others where responses impaired at the stage of induction, expansion, or effector function predispose to malignancy. Current evidence from this rapidly moving field supports the view that lesions in both natural killer cell and T cell function can lead to EBV pathology.

Vavougios GD, Solenov EI, Hatzoglou C, et al.
Computational genomic analysis of PARK7 interactome reveals high BBS1 gene expression as a prognostic factor favoring survival in malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015; 309(7):L677-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of our study was to assess the differential gene expression of Parkinson protein 7 (PARK7) interactome in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) using data mining techniques to identify novel candidate genes that may play a role in the pathogenicity of MPM. We constructed the PARK7 interactome using the ConsensusPathDB database. We then interrogated the Oncomine Cancer Microarray database using the Gordon Mesothelioma Study, for differential gene expression of the PARK7 interactome. In ConsensusPathDB, 38 protein interactors of PARK7 were identified. In the Gordon Mesothelioma Study, 34 of them were assessed out of which SUMO1, UBC3, KIAA0101, HDAC2, DAXX, RBBP4, BBS1, NONO, RBBP7, HTRA2, and STUB1 were significantly overexpressed whereas TRAF6 and MTA2 were significantly underexpressed in MPM patients (network 2). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that MPM patients with high BBS1 expression had a median overall survival of 16.5 vs. 8.7 mo of those that had low expression. For validation purposes, we performed a meta-analysis in Oncomine database in five sarcoma datasets. Eight network 2 genes (KIAA0101, HDAC2, SUMO1, RBBP4, NONO, RBBP7, HTRA2, and MTA2) were significantly differentially expressed in an array of 18 different sarcoma types. Finally, Gene Ontology annotation enrichment analysis revealed significant roles of the PARK7 interactome in NuRD, CHD, and SWI/SNF protein complexes. In conclusion, we identified 13 novel genes differentially expressed in MPM, never reported before. Among them, BBS1 emerged as a novel predictor of overall survival in MPM. Finally, we identified that PARK7 interactome is involved in novel pathways pertinent in MPM disease.

Khan FH, Pandian V, Ramraj S, et al.
Reorganization of metastamiRs in the evolution of metastatic aggressive neuroblastoma cells.
BMC Genomics. 2015; 16:501 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MetastamiRs have momentous clinical relevance and have been correlated with disease progression in many tumors. In this study, we identified neuroblastoma metastamiRs exploiting unique mouse models of favorable and high-risk metastatic human neuroblastoma. Further, we related their deregulation to the modulation of target proteins and established their association with clinical outcomes.
RESULTS: Whole genome miRNA microarray analysis identified 74 metastamiRs across the manifold of metastatic tumors. RT-qPCR on select miRNAs validated profile expression. Results from bio-informatics across the ingenuity pathway, miRCancer, and literature data-mining endorsed the expression of these miRNAs in multiple tumor systems and showed their role in metastasis, identifying them as metastamiRs. Immunoblotting and TMA-IHC analyses revealed alterations in the expression/phosphorylation of metastamiRs' targets, including ADAMTS-1, AKT1/2/3, ASK1, AURKβ, Birc1, Birc2, Bric5, β-CATENIN, CASP8, CD54, CDK4, CREB, CTGF, CXCR4, CYCLIN-D1, EGFR, ELK1, ESR1, CFOS, FOSB, FRA, GRB10, GSK3β, IL1α, JUND, kRAS, KRTAP1, MCP1, MEGF10, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, MMP10, MTA2, MYB, cMYC, NF2, NOS3, P21, pP38, PTPN3, CLEAVED PARP, PKC, SDF-1β, SEMA3D, SELE, STAT3, TLR3, TNFα, TNFR1, and VEGF in aggressive cells ex vivo and in a manifold of metastatic tumors in vivo. miRNA mimic (hsa-miR-125b, hsa-miR-27b, hsa-miR-93, hsa-miR-20a) and inhibitor (hsa-miR-1224-3p, hsa-miR-1260) approach for select miRNAs revealed the direct influence of the altered metastamiRs in the regulation of identified protein targets. Clinical outcome association analysis with the validated metastamiRs' targets corresponded strongly with poor overall and relapse-free survival.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, these results identified a comprehensive list of neuroblastoma metastamiRs, related their deregulation to altered expression of protein targets, and established their association with poor clinical outcomes. The identified set of distinctive neuroblastoma metastamiRs could serve as potential candidates for diagnostic markers for the switch from favorable to high-risk metastatic disease.

Minemura S, Tanaka T, Arai M, et al.
Gene expression profiling of laterally spreading tumors.
BMC Gastroenterol. 2015; 15:64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) are generally defined as lesions >10 mm in diameter, are characterized by lateral expansion along the luminal wall with a low vertical axis. In contrast to other forms of tumor, LSTs are generally considered to have a superficial growth pattern and the potential for malignancy. We focused on this morphological character of LSTs, and analyzed the gene expression profile of LSTs.
METHODS: The expression of 168 genes in 41 colorectal tumor samples (17 LST-adenoma, 12 LST-carcinoma, 12 Ip [pedunculated type of the Paris classification)-adenoma, all of which were 10 mm or more in diameter] was analyzed by PCR array. Based on the results, we investigated the expression levels of genes up-regulated in LST-adenoma, compared to Ip-adenoma, by hierarchical and K-means clustering. To confirm the results of the array analysis, using an additional 60 samples (38 LST-adenoma, 22 Ip-adenoma), we determined the localization of the gene product by immunohistochemical staining.
RESULT: The expression of 129 genes differed in colorectal tumors from normal mucosa by PCR array analysis. As a result of K-means clustering, the expression levels of five genes, AKT1, BCL2L1, ERBB2, MTA2 and TNFRSF25, were found to be significantly up-regulated (p < 0.05) in LST-adenoma, compared to Ip-adenoma. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that the BCL2L1 protein was significantly and meaningfully up-regulated in LST-adenoma compared to Ip-adenoma (p = 0.010). With respect to apoptosis status in LST-Adenoma, it assumes that BCL2L1 is anti-apoptotic protein, the samples such as BCL2L1 positive and TUNEL negative, or BCL2L1 negative and TUNEL positive are consistent with the assumption. 63.2 % LST-adenoma samples were consistent with the assumption.
CONCLUSIONS: LSTs have an unusual profile of gene expression compared to other tumors and BCL2L1 might be concerned in the organization of LSTs.

Si W, Huang W, Zheng Y, et al.
Dysfunction of the Reciprocal Feedback Loop between GATA3- and ZEB2-Nucleated Repression Programs Contributes to Breast Cancer Metastasis.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 27(6):822-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
How loss-of-function of GATA3 contributes to the development of breast cancer is poorly understood. Here, we report that GATA3 nucleates a transcription repression program composed of G9A and MTA3-, but not MTA1- or MTA2-, constituted NuRD complex. Genome-wide analysis of the GATA3/G9A/NuRD(MTA3) targets identified a cohort of genes including ZEB2 that are critically involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cell invasion. We demonstrate that the GATA3/G9A/NuRD(MTA3) complex inhibits the invasive potential of breast cancer cells in vitro and suppresses breast cancer metastasis in vivo. Strikingly, the expression of GATA3, G9A, and MTA3 is concurrently downregulated during breast cancer progression, leading to an elevated expression of ZEB2, which, in turn, represses the expression of G9A and MTA3 through the recruitment of G9A/NuRD(MTA1).

Zhang B, Zhang H, Shen G
Metastasis-associated protein 2 (MTA2) promotes the metastasis of non-small-cell lung cancer through the inhibition of the cell adhesion molecule Ep-CAM and E-cadherin.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2015; 45(8):755-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Metastasis-associated protein 2 is considered as an intrinsic subunit of the nucleosome remodelling and histone deacetylase complex, which contributes to the epigenetic silencing genes. More and more evidence suggests that metastasis-associated protein 2 is required to maintain the malignant phenotype, but the role of metastasis-associated protein 2 function in mediating tumour metastasis in non-small-cell lung cancer has not been explored.
METHODS: Bioinformatics was used to detect the GEO 3141 database, the online tool of Kmplot was used to confirm the high expression of metastasis-associated protein 2 in influencing 5-year overall survival. Wound-healing assay, Transwell invasion assay and Living imaging assay together showed that MTA2 shRNA inhibited cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays showed metastasis-associated protein 2 binding on the promoter of the epithelial transmembrane glycoprotein (Ep-CAM) and cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin.
RESULTS: The patient samples collected in our hospital show that metastasis-associated protein 2 was expressed in aggressive lung cancer cells, and its higher expression is correlated with poor prognosis. Metastasis-associated protein 2 promoted cell migration and invasion in vitro and in vivo through binding on the promoter of Ep-CAM and E-cadherin. Luciferase reporter assays showed repressed or enhanced E-cadherin or Ep-CAM promoter-driven luciferase reporter under metastasis-associated protein 2 overexpression or depletion. The changes in the level of protein and RNA implied that suppression of downstream E-cadherin or Ep-CAM was an important mechanism by which metastasis-associated protein 2 triggered epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, our experiments reveal the mechanism for metastasis-associated protein 2 in facilitating invasive potential of non-small-cell lung cancer cells, suggesting that metastasis-associated protein 2 might be a potential therapeutic target for treating the metastasis of non-small-cell lung cancer.

Zhou C, Ji J, Cai Q, et al.
MTA2 enhances colony formation and tumor growth of gastric cancer cells through IL-11.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:343 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have preliminarily reported MTA2 expression in gastric cancer and its biological functions by using knockdown cell models, while the molecular mechanisms of MTA2 in regulating malignant behaviors are still unclear.
METHODS: MTA2 overexpression models were established by transfection assay in gastric cancer cells BGC-823 and MKN28. Cell proliferation assay, colony formation in soft agar, wound-healing assay and transwell migration assay were performed with MTA2 overexpression and negative control (NC) cells. Subcutaneous xenografts and pulmonary metastasis models by BGC-823/MTA2 and BGC-823/NC cells were used to observe the capacity of growth and metastasis in vivo. Differential gene expression in MTA2 knockdown and overexpression cells was analyzed by microarrays. IL-11, which demonstrated as differential expression in microarray, was detected by real-time PCR, western blot, ELISA and immunohistochemistry staining. Recombinant human IL-11 (rhIL-11) was administrated in cell proliferation and colony formation as rescue assay.
RESULTS: The numbers of colonies in soft agar were significantly more in BGC-823/MTA2 and MKN28/MTA2 cells, comparing with those in their NC cells. Capabilities of cell proliferation, wound-healing and cell migration were not significantly changed in MTA2 overexpression cells. The sizes of subcutaneous xenografts and pulmonary metastases of BGC-832/MTA2 cells were significantly larger than those in BGC-823/NC group. Differential expression of IL-11 was identified by genome expression microarray both in MTA2 knockdown and overexpression cells. IL-11 expression was elevated in BGC-823/MTA2 cells, whereas reduced in SGC-7901/shMTA2 cells. Administration of rhIL-11 recovered colony formation capacity of SGC-7901/shMTA2 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: MTA2 overexpression enhances colony formation and tumor growth of gastric cancer cells, but not plays important role in cancer cell migration and metastasis. IL-11 is one of the downstream effectors of MTA2 in regulating gastric cancer cells growth.

Vignot S, Lefebvre C, Frampton GM, et al.
Comparative analysis of primary tumour and matched metastases in colorectal cancer patients: evaluation of concordance between genomic and transcriptional profiles.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(7):791-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Focal and temporal tumour heterogeneity can represent a major challenge for biology-guided therapies. This study proposes to investigative molecular discrepancies between primary colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and matched metastases.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Surgical samples from primary and matched metastatic tissues from 13 CRC patients along with their adjacent normal tissue were evaluated. A mutational analysis was performed using a targeted Next Generation Sequencing assay (Foundation Medicine) with a focus on known recurrent somatic mutations as surrogate of key oncogenic events. Gene expression analysis was also performed to investigate transcriptional discrepancies.
RESULTS: Among the 26 samples, 191 mutations were identified including mutations in APC (13 pts), TP53 (11 pts), and KRAS (7 pts). Global concordance rate for mutations was 78% between primary and metastatic tumours and raised to 90% for 12 known recurrent mutations in CRC. Differential gene expression analysis revealed a low number of significantly variant transcripts between primary and metastatic tumours once the tissue effect was taken into account. Only two pathways (ST_ADRENERGIC, PID_REELINPATHWAY) were differentially up-regulated in metastases among 17 variant pathways. A common profile in primary and metastatic tumours revealed conserved pathways mostly involved in cell cycle regulation. Only two pathways were significantly down regulated compared to normal control, including regulation of autophagy (KEGG_REGULATION_OF_AUTOPHAGY).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that profiles of primary tumour can identify key alterations present in matched CRC metastases at first metastatic progression. Gene expression analysis identified mainly conserved pathways between primary tumour and matched liver metastases.

Liu J, Wang H, Huang C, Qian H
Subcellular localization of MTA proteins in normal and cancer cells.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2014; 33(4):843-56 [PubMed] Related Publications
The subcellular localization of a protein is closely linked to and indicates its function. The metastatic tumor antigen (MTA) family has been under continuous investigation since its identification two decades ago. MTA1, MTA2, and MTA3 are the main members of the MTA family. MTA1, as the representative member of this family, has been shown to be widely expressed in both embryonic and adult tissues, as well as in normal and cancerous conditions, indicating that MTA1 has functions both in physiological and pathological contexts. MTA1 is expressed at a higher level in most cancers than in their normal tissue counterparts. Even in normal cells, MTA1 levels vary a great deal from tissue to tissue. Importantly, MTA1 shows a multiple localization pattern in the cell, as do MTA2 and MTA3. Different MTA components in different subcellular compartments may exert different molecular functions in the cell. Previous studies revealed that MTA1 and MTA2 are predominately localized to the nucleus, while MTA3 is observed in both the nucleus and cytoplasm. Recent studies have reported that MTA1 is located in the nucleus, cytoplasm, and the nuclear envelope. In the nucleus, MTA1 dynamically interacts with chromatin in a MTA1-K532 methylation-dependent manner, whereas cytoplasmic MTA1 binds to the microtubule skeleton. MTA1 also shows a dynamic distribution during the cell cycle. Further investigations are needed to identify the exact subcellular localizations of MTA proteins. We review the sub-cellular localization patterns of the MTA family members and give a comprehensive overview of their respective molecular activities in multiple contexts.

Covington KR, Fuqua SA
Role of MTA2 in human cancer.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2014; 33(4):921-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis is the ultimate cause of death for most cancer patients. While many mechanisms have been delineated for regulation of growth and tumor initiation of the primary tumor, very little is known about the process of metastasis. Metastasis requires dynamic alteration of cellular processes in order for cells to disseminate from the primary tumor to distant sites. These alterations often involve dramatic changes in the regulation of cytoskeletal and cell-environment interactions. Furthermore, controlled refinement of these interactions requires feedback to regulatory networks in the nucleus. MTA2 is a member of the metastasis tumor-associated family of transcriptional regulators and is a central component of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation complex. MTA2 acts as a central hub for cytoskeletal organization and transcription and provides a link between nuclear and cytoskeletal organization. We will focus on MTA2 in this chapter, especially its role in breast cancer metastasis.

Sen N, Gui B, Kumar R
Physiological functions of MTA family of proteins.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2014; 33(4):869-77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although the functional significance of the metastasic tumor antigen (MTA) family of chromatin remodeling proteins in the pathobiology of cancer is fairly well recognized, the physiological role of MTA proteins continues to be an understudied research area and is just beginning to be recognized. Similar to cancer cells, MTA1 also modulates the expression of target genes in normal cells either by acting as a corepressor or coactivator. In addition, physiological functions of MTA proteins are likely to be influenced by its differential expression, subcellular localization, and regulation by upstream modulators and extracellular signals. This review summarizes our current understanding of the physiological functions of the MTA proteins in model systems. In particular, we highlight recent advances of the role MTA proteins play in the brain, eye, circadian rhythm, mammary gland biology, spermatogenesis, liver, immunomodulation and inflammation, cellular radio-sensitivity, and hematopoiesis and differentiation. Based on the growth of knowledge regarding the exciting new facets of the MTA family of proteins in biology and medicine, we speculate that the next burst of findings in this field may reveal further molecular regulatory insights of non-redundant functions of MTA coregulators in the normal physiology as well as in pathological conditions outside cancer.

Ning Z, Gan J, Chen C, et al.
Molecular functions and significance of the MTA family in hormone-independent cancer.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2014; 33(4):901-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
The members of the metastasis-associated protein (MTA) family play pivotal roles in both physiological and pathophysiological processes, especially in cancer development and metastasis, and their role as master regulators has come to light. Due to the fact that they were first identified as crucial factors in estrogen receptor-mediated breast cancer metastasis, most of the early studies focused on their hormone-dependent functions. However, the accumulating evidence shows that the members of MTA family are deregulated in most, if not all, the cancers studied so far. Therefore, the levels as well as the activities of the MTA family members are widely accepted as potential biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and predictors of overall survival. They function differently in different cancers with specific mechanisms. p53 and HIF-1α appear to be the respectively common upstream and downstream regulator of the MTA family in both development and metastasis of a wide spectrum of cancers. Here, we review the expression and clinical significance of the MTA family, focusing on hormone-independent cancers. To illustrate the molecular mechanisms, we analyze the MTA family-related signaling pathways in different cancers. Finally, targeting the MTA family directly or the pathways involved in the MTA family indirectly could be invaluable strategies in the development of cancer therapeutics.

Rybchenko LA, Bychkova AM, Skyban GV, Klymenko SV
Prognosis of probability of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations carriage in women with compromised family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer.
Probl Radiac Med Radiobiol. 2013; (18):253-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Burdened family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer may indicate the mutations carriage in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes.
OBJECTIVE: Estimation and compare of the Manchester Scoring system, Penn II and Myriad algorithm in an ability to distinguish the cases with BRCA1/2 mutation those and no mutant alleles at the individual level among the Ukrainian women with early onset of a breast cancer and/or compromised family history with breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Results of genealogy, molecular genetic and morphological study from 44 females with breast cancer, with early development of the disease or family history of a breast cancer and/or ovarian cancer were the material of research. Determination of carriers BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among women was performed by Manchester Scoring system and Penn II and Myriad algorithm.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Manchester Scoring system has better capacity to distinguish patients with and without mutant alleles at the individual level. The area under the curve of Manchester Scoring system is 0.84, Penn II - 0.66, Myriad - 0.68.

Lu J, Jin ML
Short-hairpin RNA-mediated MTA2 silencing inhibits human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 proliferation and metastasis.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(14):5577-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of metastasis-associated tumor gene family 2 (MTA2) depletion on human breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis.
METHODS: A short-hairpin RNA targeting MTA2 was chemically synthesized and transfected into a lentivirus to construct Lv-shMTA2 for infection into the MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cell line. At 48 hours after infection cells were harvested and mRNA and protein levels of MTA2 were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. Cell viability and metastasis were assessed by CCK-8, wound-healing assay and Transwell assay, respectively. In addition, a xenograft model of human breast cancer was constructed to investigate cancerous cell growth and capacity for metastasis.
RESULTS: After infection with Lv-shMTA2, mRNA and protein levels of MTA2 was significantly reduced (p<0.05) and MDA-MB231 cell proliferation and metastasis were inhibited (p<0.05). In addition, mean tumor size was smaller than that in control group nude mice (p<0.05) and numbers of metastatic deposits in lung were lower than in control group mice (p<0.05). Depletion of MTA2 affected MMP-2 and apoptosis-related protein expression.
CONCLUSIONS: For the first time to our knowledge we showed that MTA2 depletion could significantly inhibit human breast cancer cell growth and metastasis, implying that MTA2 might be involved in the progression of breast cancer. The role of MTA2 in breast cancer growth and metastasis might be linked with regulation of matrix metalloproteinase and apoptosis.

Uraki S, Sugimoto K, Shiraki K, et al.
Human β-defensin-3 inhibits migration of colon cancer cells via downregulation of metastasis-associated 1 family, member 2 expression.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(3):1059-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
The innate immune system plays an important role as the first line of defense against many types of microbes. Accumulating reports suggest that human β-defensins (hBDs) are expressed by and have certain roles in some cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of hBD-3 in colon cancer cells. The expression of hBD-3 was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis of colon cancer cell lines and immunohistochemical staining of colon cancer tissues. The effect of hBD-3 on proliferation of colon cancer was assessed using the MTT assay and a real-time cell analyzer, and the effect of hBD-3 on the migration of colon cancer cells was also examined. The results showed that hBD-3 is not expressed in colon cancer cells but is produced by tumor-infiltrating monocytes. Migration of colon cancer cells was significantly inhibited by hBD-3 in a dose-dependent manner, although proliferation of colon cancer cells was not affected by administration of hBD-3. Moreover, reduced expression of metastasis-associated 1 family, member 2 (MTA2) mRNA in colon cancer cells was associated with exposure to hBD-3. In conclusion, progression of colon cancer was inhibited by hBD-3 in a paracrine fashion. Therefore, hBD-3 may be a potent new agent for treating colon cancer.

O'Neill DJ, Williamson SC, Alkharaif D, et al.
SETD6 controls the expression of estrogen-responsive genes and proliferation of breast carcinoma cells.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(7):942-50 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The lysine methyltransferase SETD6 modifies the histone variant H2AZ, a key component of nuclear receptor-dependent transcription. Herein, we report the identification of several factors that associate with SETD6 and are implicated in nuclear hormone receptor signaling. Specifically, SETD6 associates with the estrogen receptor α (ERα), histone deacetylase HDAC1, metastasis protein MTA2, and the transcriptional co-activator TRRAP. Luciferase reporter assays identify SETD6 as a transcriptional repressor, in agreement with its association with HDAC1 and MTA2. However, SETD6 behaves as a co-activator of several estrogen-responsive genes, such as PGR and TFF1. Consistent with these results, silencing of SETD6 in several breast carcinoma cell lines induced cellular proliferation defects accompanied by enhanced expression of the cell cycle inhibitor CDKN1A and induction of apoptosis. Herein, we have identified several chromatin proteins that associate with SETD6 and described SETD6 as an essential factor for nuclear receptor signaling and cellular proliferation.

Huang KC, Yang KC, Lin H, et al.
Analysis of schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma genetic network with corresponding modularity and pathways: novel insights to the immune system.
BMC Genomics. 2013; 14 Suppl 5:S10 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenic patients show lower incidences of cancer, implicating schizophrenia may be a protective factor against cancer. To study the genetic correlation between the two diseases, a specific PPI network was constructed with candidate genes of both schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma. The network, designated schizophrenia-hepatocellular carcinoma network (SHCN), was analysed and cliques were identified as potential functional modules or complexes. The findings were compared with information from pathway databases such as KEGG, Reactome, PID and ConsensusPathDB.
RESULTS: The functions of mediator genes from SHCN show immune system and cell cycle regulation have important roles in the eitology mechanism of schizophrenia. For example, the over-expressing schizophrenia candidate genes, SIRPB1, SYK and LCK, are responsible for signal transduction in cytokine production; immune responses involving IL-2 and TREM-1/DAP12 pathways are relevant for the etiology mechanism of schizophrenia. Novel treatments were proposed by searching the target genes of FDA approved drugs with genes in potential protein complexes and pathways. It was found that Vitamin A, retinoid acid and a few other immune response agents modulated by RARA and LCK genes may be potential treatments for both schizophrenia and hepatocellular carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study showing specific mediator genes in the SHCN which may suppress tumors. We also show that the schizophrenic protein interactions and modulation with cancer implicates the importance of immune system for etiology of schizophrenia.

Li FY, Chaigne-Delalande B, Su H, et al.
XMEN disease: a new primary immunodeficiency affecting Mg2+ regulation of immunity against Epstein-Barr virus.
Blood. 2014; 123(14):2148-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus that infects and persists in 95% of adults worldwide and has the potential to cause fatal disease, especially lymphoma, in immunocompromised hosts. Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) that predispose to EBV-associated malignancies have provided novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of immune defense against EBV. We have recently characterized a novel PID now named "X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect, EBV infection, and neoplasia" (XMEN) disease characterized by loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding magnesium transporter 1 (MAGT1), chronic high-level EBV with increased EBV-infected B cells, and heightened susceptibility to EBV-associated lymphomas. The genetic etiology of XMEN disease has revealed an unexpected quantitative role for intracellular free magnesium in immune functions and has led to novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Here, we review the clinical presentation, genetic mutation spectrum, molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis, and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations for this previously unrecognized disease.

Zhou C, Ji J, Cai Q, et al.
MTA2 promotes gastric cancer cells invasion and is transcriptionally regulated by Sp1.
Mol Cancer. 2013; 12(1):102 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MTA2 gene belongs to metastasis associated family, and is highly expressed in some solid tumors, including gastric cancer. Its biological function in gastric cancer is currently undefined.
METHODS: Metastasis-associated tumor gene family 2 (MTA2) and transcription factor specificity protein 1 (Sp1) expression were detected in 127 gastric cancer samples by immunohistochemistry staining. SGC-7901 and AGS gastric cancer cell lines transfected by MTA2 shRNA was used for biological function investigation. Binding and regulation activities of Sp1 on MTA2 promoter were investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter gene.
RESULTS: The expression rate of MTA2 in gastric cancer tissues was 55.9% (71/127), and its expression was closely related to the depth of tumor invasion, lymph nodes metastasis, and TNM staging. MTA2 knockdown in human SGC-7901 and AGS gastric cancer cells significantly inhibited migration and invasion in vitro, and disrupted structure of cytoskeleton. MTA2 knockdown also attenuated xenografts growth and lung metastasis in nude mice model. MTA2 expression was positively correlated with transcription factor Sp1 in gastric cancer tissues (r = 0.326, P < 0.001). Sp1 bound to human MTA2 gene promoter at region from -1043 bp to -843 bp. Transcriptional activity of MTA2 promoter could be enhanced by Sp1 overexpression.
CONCLUSIONS: MTA2 knockdown impairs invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer cells, and attenuates xenografts growth in vivo. Sp1 regulates MTA2 expression at transcriptional level.

Rasmussen CB, Faber MT, Jensen A, et al.
Pelvic inflammatory disease and risk of invasive ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors.
Cancer Causes Control. 2013; 24(7):1459-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors.
METHODS: In a population-based case-control study in Denmark, we included 554 women with invasive ovarian cancer, 202 with ovarian borderline tumors, and 1,564 controls aged 35-79 years. The analyses were performed in multiple logistic regression models.
RESULTS: We found a significantly increased risk of ovarian borderline tumors among women with a history of PID (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.08-2.08) but no apparent association between PID and risk of invasive ovarian cancer (OR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.65-1.05). We found no effect of age at time of first PID or time since first PID on the risk for either condition.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a history of PID is associated with an increased risk of ovarian borderline tumors, which may support the hypothesis that inflammation is an etiological factor. The lack of an association between previous PID and invasive ovarian cancer may indicate an etiological difference between ovarian borderline tumors and invasive ovarian cancer. However, an important limitation of the study is the use of self-reported PID.

Seibold P, Hall P, Schoof N, et al.
Polymorphisms in oxidative stress-related genes and mortality in breast cancer patients--potential differential effects by radiotherapy?
Breast. 2013; 22(5):817-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
We assessed whether variants in 22 oxidative stress-related genes are associated with mortality of breast cancer patients and whether the associations differ according to radiotherapy. Using a prospective cohort of 1348 postmenopausal breast cancer patients, we estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for 109 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using Cox proportional hazards regression. Validation of results was attempted using two Scandinavian studies. Eleven SNPs in MT2A, NFE2L2, NQO1, PRDX1, and PRDX6 were significantly associated with overall mortality after a median follow-up of 5.7 years. Three SNPs in NQO1 (rs2917667) and in PRDX6 (rs7314, rs4916362) were consistently associated with increased risk of dying across all three study populations (pooled: HRNQO1_rs2917667 1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44, p = 0.051; HRPRDX6_rs7314 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.35, p = 0.056, HRPRDX6_rs4916362 1.14 95% CI 1.00-1.32, p = 0.062). Potential effect modification by radiotherapy was found for CAT_rs769218. In conclusion, genetic variants in NQO1 and PRDX6 may modify breast cancer prognosis.

Isaksson HS, Sorbe B, Nilsson TK
Whole blood RNA expression profiles in ovarian cancer patients with or without residual tumors after primary cytoreductive surgery.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 27(5):1331-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Significant improvements in the treatment results of ovarian cancer have been achieved during the last decades, but further improvements require additional methods identifying signs of the disease and its biological behavior, preferably by a simple blood test. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes may express genes that carry such clinical information. Therefore, we studied the relative gene expressions of 168 cancer- and metastasis-specific genes in blood samples from ovarian cancer patients with different prognoses after primary cytoreductive surgery. Total RNA was extracted from whole blood and the relative gene expression profile of 168 genes were analyzed using real-time qPCR assays. Two groups of patients were analyzed; one group with residual tumor mass after primary surgery, and one group where the tumor was macroscopically radically resected, resulting in no visible tumor mass left behind. The group with the remaining tumor mass after surgery showed significantly different gene expression profiles compared to the group with no remaining tumor mass. Differences were noted for the metastasis associated 1 family, member 2 gene (MTA2), the TNF, α-catenin, interleukin 1β, the KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor and the matrix metallo-proteinase 10 genes. All genes were downregulated with a fold-change between 1.15 to 1.57; there were no upregulated genes. Thus, a signature of genes involved in metastasis, invasion and inflammation was found to be significantly downregulated in native unstimulated blood leukocytes from ovarian cancer patients with a poor prognosis. Preoperatively it may serve as a guide to the biology of the tumor and postoperatively in the optimization of adjuvant treatment of ovarian cancer patients.

Menashe I, Figueroa JD, Garcia-Closas M, et al.
Large-scale pathway-based analysis of bladder cancer genome-wide association data from five studies of European background.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(1):e29396 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pathway analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) offer a unique opportunity to collectively evaluate genetic variants with effects that are too small to be detected individually. We applied a pathway analysis to a bladder cancer GWAS containing data from 3,532 cases and 5,120 controls of European background (n = 5 studies). Thirteen hundred and ninety-nine pathways were drawn from five publicly available resources (Biocarta, Kegg, NCI-PID, HumanCyc, and Reactome), and we constructed 22 additional candidate pathways previously hypothesized to be related to bladder cancer. In total, 1421 pathways, 5647 genes and ∼90,000 SNPs were included in our study. Logistic regression model adjusting for age, sex, study, DNA source, and smoking status was used to assess the marginal trend effect of SNPs on bladder cancer risk. Two complementary pathway-based methods (gene-set enrichment analysis [GSEA], and adapted rank-truncated product [ARTP]) were used to assess the enrichment of association signals within each pathway. Eighteen pathways were detected by either GSEA or ARTP at P≤0.01. To minimize false positives, we used the I(2) statistic to identify SNPs displaying heterogeneous effects across the five studies. After removing these SNPs, seven pathways ('Aromatic amine metabolism' [P(GSEA) = 0.0100, P(ARTP) = 0.0020], 'NAD biosynthesis' [P(GSEA) = 0.0018, P(ARTP) = 0.0086], 'NAD salvage' [P(ARTP) = 0.0068], 'Clathrin derived vesicle budding' [P(ARTP) = 0.0018], 'Lysosome vesicle biogenesis' [P(GSEA) = 0.0023, P(ARTP)<0.00012], 'Retrograde neurotrophin signaling' [P(GSEA) = 0.00840], and 'Mitotic metaphase/anaphase transition' [P(GSEA) = 0.0040]) remained. These pathways seem to belong to three fundamental cellular processes (metabolic detoxification, mitosis, and clathrin-mediated vesicles). Identification of the aromatic amine metabolism pathway provides support for the ability of this approach to identify pathways with established relevance to bladder carcinogenesis.

Greenblum SI, Efroni S, Schaefer CF, Buetow KH
The PathOlogist: an automated tool for pathway-centric analysis.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2011; 12:133 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The PathOlogist is a new tool designed to transform large sets of gene expression data into quantitative descriptors of pathway-level behavior. The tool aims to provide a robust alternative to the search for single-gene-to-phenotype associations by accounting for the complexity of molecular interactions.
RESULTS: Molecular abundance data is used to calculate two metrics--'activity' and 'consistency'--for each pathway in a set of more than 500 canonical molecular pathways (source: Pathway Interaction Database, The tool then allows a detailed exploration of these metrics through integrated visualization of pathway components and structure, hierarchical clustering of pathways and samples, and statistical analyses designed to detect associations between pathway behavior and clinical features.
CONCLUSIONS: The PathOlogist provides a straightforward means to identify the functional processes, rather than individual molecules, that are altered in disease. The statistical power and biologic significance of this approach are made easily accessible to laboratory researchers and informatics analysts alike. Here we show as an example, how the PathOlogist can be used to establish pathway signatures that robustly differentiate breast cancer cell lines based on response to treatment.

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