Gene Summary

Gene:MYH11; myosin heavy chain 11
Aliases: AAT4, FAA4, SMHC, SMMHC
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a smooth muscle myosin belonging to the myosin heavy chain family. The gene product is a subunit of a hexameric protein that consists of two heavy chain subunits and two pairs of non-identical light chain subunits. It functions as a major contractile protein, converting chemical energy into mechanical energy through the hydrolysis of ATP. The gene encoding a human ortholog of rat NUDE1 is transcribed from the reverse strand of this gene, and its 3' end overlaps with that of the latter. The pericentric inversion of chromosome 16 [inv(16)(p13q22)] produces a chimeric transcript that encodes a protein consisting of the first 165 residues from the N terminus of core-binding factor beta in a fusion with the C-terminal portion of the smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. This chromosomal rearrangement is associated with acute myeloid leukemia of the M4Eo subtype. Alternative splicing generates isoforms that are differentially expressed, with ratios changing during muscle cell maturation. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (18)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Leukaemia
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Core Binding Factors
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Pathology, Molecular
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Homologous Transplantat
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Mutation
  • Transcription Factor RelA
  • Wilms Tumour
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Pericardium
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • FISH
  • Trisomy
  • Base Sequence
  • Young Adult
  • Chromosome 16
  • Core Binding Factor beta Subunit
  • RUNX1 Translocation Partner 1 Protein
  • Messenger RNA
  • Chromosome 8
  • Karyotyping
  • Remission Induction
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Chromosome Inversion
  • Cancer RNA
  • Myeloid Leukemia
  • Infant
  • Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit
  • Adolescents
  • Residual Disease
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Sarcoma, Myeloid
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MYH11 (cancer-related)

Zhao B, Baloch Z, Ma Y, et al.
Identification of Potential Key Genes and Pathways in Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer Through Bioinformatics Analysis.
Cancer Control. 2019 Jan-Dec; 26(1):1073274819831260 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
This study was designed to identify the potential key protein interaction networks, genes, and correlated pathways in early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) via bioinformatics methods. We selected microarray data GSE4107 consisting 12 patient's colonic mucosa and 10 healthy control mucosa; initially, the GSE4107 were downloaded and analyzed using limma package to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A total of 131 DEGs consisting of 108 upregulated genes and 23 downregulated genes of patients in early-onset CRC were selected by the criteria of adjusted P values <.01 and |log2 fold change (FC)| ≥ 2. The gene ontology functional enrichment analysis and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were accomplished to view the biological process, cellular components, molecular function, and the KEGG pathways of DEGs. Finally, protein-protein interactions (PPIs) were constructed, and the hub protein module was identified. Genes such as ACTA2, ACTG2, MYH11, CALD1, MYL9, TPM2, and LMOD1 were strongly implicated in CRC. In summary, in this study, we indicated that molecular mechanisms were involved in muscle contraction and vascular smooth muscle contraction signaling pathway, which improve our understanding of CRC and could be used as new therapeutic targets for CRC.

Platzbecker U, Middeke JM, Sockel K, et al.
Measurable residual disease-guided treatment with azacitidine to prevent haematological relapse in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia (RELAZA2): an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial.
Lancet Oncol. 2018; 19(12):1668-1679 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Monitoring of measurable residual disease (MRD) in patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) or acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) who achieve a morphological complete remission can predict haematological relapse. In this prospective study, we aimed to determine whether MRD-guided pre-emptive treatment with azacitidine could prevent relapse in these patients.
METHODS: The relapse prevention with azacitidine (RELAZA2) study is an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 trial done at nine university health centres in Germany. Patients aged 18 years or older with advanced MDS or AML, who had achieved a complete remission after conventional chemotherapy or allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation, were prospectively screened for MRD during 24 months from baseline by either quantitative PCR for mutant NPM1, leukaemia-specific fusion genes (DEK-NUP214, RUNX1-RUNX1T1, CBFb-MYH11), or analysis of donor-chimaerism in flow cytometry-sorted CD34-positive cells in patients who received allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation. MRD-positive patients in confirmed complete remission received azacitidine 75 mg/m
FINDINGS: Between Oct 10, 2011, and Aug 20, 2015, we screened 198 patients with advanced MDS (n=26) or AML (n=172), of whom 60 (30%) developed MRD during the 24-month screening period and 53 (88%) were eligible to start study treatment. 6 months after initiation of azacitidine, 31 (58%, 95% CI 44-72) of 53 patients were relapse-free and alive (p<0·0001; one-sided binomial test for null hypothesis p
INTERPRETATION: Pre-emptive therapy with azacitidine can prevent or substantially delay haematological relapse in MRD-positive patients with MDS or AML who are at high risk of relapse. Our study also suggests that continuous MRD negativity during regular MRD monitoring might be prognostic for patient outcomes.
FUNDING: Celgene Pharma, José Carreras Leukaemia Foundation, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), and German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) Foundation.

Kim SH, Park WS, Chung J
Tumour heterogeneity in triplet-paired metastatic tumour tissues in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: concordance analysis of target gene sequencing data.
J Clin Pathol. 2019; 72(2):152-156 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The aim of the present study was to determine the concordant correlation in the expression of 88 target genes from triple-paired metastatic tissues in individual patients with metastatic renal carcinoma (mRCC) using a target gene sequencing (TGS) approach.
METHODS: Between 2002 and 2017, a total of 350 triple-paired metastatic tissue samples from 262 patients with mRCC obtained from either nephrectomy or metastasectomy were used for TGS of 88 candidate genes. After quality check, 243 tissue samples from 81 patients were finally applied to TGS. The concordance of triple-paired tissues was analysed with the 88 TGS panels using bioinformatics tools.
RESULTS: Among 81 patients, alterations were observed in 42 (51.9%) for any of the 88 mRCC panel genes; however, no pathogenic gene was detected in 38 (39.5%) . Concordance >95% for altered gene expression among the three tissues was reported in 12 (28.6%) patients, while concordance >95% within two tissues was reported in 30 (71.4%); concordance <50% was reported in the remaining eight patients. Considering several types of genetic alterations, including deletions, insertions, missense and nonsense mutations, and splice variants, genes most frequently detected with genetic alterations in the patients with mRCC were
CONCLUSIONS: The study provides reference information on the genetic alterations at various organ sites and the multi-heterogeneity of mRCC tissues. The concordance of pathogenic gene alterations within tissues was not high, and approximately half of the patients showed no pathogenic gene alterations at all.

Xiaosu Z, Leqing C, Yazhen Q, et al.
Classifying AML patients with inv(16) into high-risk and low-risk relapsed patients based on peritransplantation minimal residual disease determined by CBFβ/MYH11 gene expression.
Ann Hematol. 2019; 98(1):73-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ninety acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with inv(16) were monitored CBFβ/MYH11 transcript around allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). A total of 23 patients received HLA-matched sibling donor transplantation (MSDT) and 67 patients received unmanipulated haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) were analyzed in this study. Patients were divided into four groups based on CBFβ/MYH11 expression prior to transplantation (pre-MRD): with negative (group 1)/positive (group 2) pre-MRD before MSDT; with negative (group 3)/positive (group 4) pre-MRD before haplo-HSCT. The results showed that patients in group 2 had the highest cumulative incidence of relapse (2-year CIR, 40.7%), the lowest leukemia-free survival (2-year LFS, 50.8%), and overall survival (2-year OS, 62.5%). The other three groups of patients had comparable outcomes. The patients were also classified into the other three groups according to CBFβ/MYH11 value of + 1 month after transplantation: group 5: pre- and post-transplant MRD were both negative; group 6: the value of post-transplant MRD was lower than 0.2%; group 7: the value of post-transplant MRD was higher than 0.2%. Group 7 had the highest CIR and the lowest LFS. These results indicated that AML patients with inv(16) were able to be separated into high-risk and low-risk relapse groups based on peritransplant MRD determined by RQ-PCR-based CBFβ/MYH11. Haplo-HSCT might overcome the negative impact of pre-MRD on patient outcomes compared to MSDT.

Pulikkan JA, Hegde M, Ahmad HM, et al.
CBFβ-SMMHC Inhibition Triggers Apoptosis by Disrupting MYC Chromatin Dynamics in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.
Cell. 2018; 174(1):172-186.e21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The fusion oncoprotein CBFβ-SMMHC, expressed in leukemia cases with chromosome 16 inversion, drives leukemia development and maintenance by altering the activity of the transcription factor RUNX1. Here, we demonstrate that CBFβ-SMMHC maintains cell viability by neutralizing RUNX1-mediated repression of MYC expression. Upon pharmacologic inhibition of the CBFβ-SMMHC/RUNX1 interaction, RUNX1 shows increased binding at three MYC distal enhancers, where it represses MYC expression by mediating the replacement of the SWI/SNF complex component BRG1 with the polycomb-repressive complex component RING1B, leading to apoptosis. Combining the CBFβ-SMMHC inhibitor with the BET inhibitor JQ1 eliminates inv(16) leukemia in human cells and a mouse model. Enhancer-interaction analysis indicated that the three enhancers are physically connected with the MYC promoter, and genome-editing analysis demonstrated that they are functionally implicated in deregulation of MYC expression. This study reveals a mechanism whereby CBFβ-SMMHC drives leukemia maintenance and suggests that inhibitors targeting chromatin activity may prove effective in inv(16) leukemia therapy.

Islam T, Rahman R, Gov E, et al.
Drug Targeting and Biomarkers in Head and Neck Cancers: Insights from Systems Biology Analyses.
OMICS. 2018; 22(6):422-436 [PubMed] Related Publications
The head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common cancers in the world, but robust biomarkers and diagnostics are still not available. This study provides in-depth insights from systems biology analyses to identify molecular biomarker signatures to inform systematic drug targeting in HNSCC. Gene expression profiles from tumors and normal tissues of 22 patients with histological confirmation of nonmetastatic HNSCC were subjected to integrative analyses with genome-scale biomolecular networks (i.e., protein-protein interaction and transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory networks). We aimed to discover molecular signatures at RNA and protein levels, which could serve as potential drug targets for therapeutic innovation in the future. Eleven proteins, 5 transcription factors, and 20 microRNAs (miRNAs) came into prominence as potential drug targets. The differential expression profiles of these reporter biomolecules were cross-validated by independent RNA-Seq and miRNA-Seq datasets, and risk discrimination performance of the reporter biomolecules, BLNK, CCL2, E4F1, FOSL1, ISG15, MMP9, MYCN, MYH11, miR-1252, miR-29b, miR-29c, miR-3610, miR-431, and miR-523, was also evaluated. Using the transcriptome guided drug repositioning tool, geneXpharma, several candidate drugs were repurposed, including antineoplastic agents (e.g., gemcitabine and irinotecan), antidiabetics (e.g., rosiglitazone), dermatological agents (e.g., clocortolone and acitretin), and antipsychotics (e.g., risperidone), and binding affinities of the drugs to their potential targets were assessed using molecular docking analyses. The molecular signatures and repurposed drugs presented in this study warrant further attention for experimental studies since they offer significant potential as biomarkers and candidate therapeutics for precision medicine approaches to clinical management of HNSCC.

Jo YS, Kim MS, Yoo NJ, Lee SH
Somatic Mutations and Intratumoral Heterogeneity of MYH11 Gene in Gastric and Colorectal Cancers.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2018; 26(8):562-566 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYH11 functions as a contractile protein, converting chemical energy into mechanical energy through adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis. In cancers, an oncogenic fusion CBFB/MYH11 and frameshift mutations have been reported. Truncating mutants of MYH11 exhibited increased ATPase and motor activity, suggesting their roles in energy balance and movement of cancer cells. MYH11 gene has a mononucleotide repeat (C8) in the coding sequences that could be a mutational target in the cancers exhibiting microsatellite instability (MSI). We analyzed the C8 repeat in 79 gastric cancers (GCs) and 124 colorectal cancers (CRCs) including 113 high MSI (MSI-H) and 90 microsatellite stable/low MSI cases. We detected MYH11 frameshift mutations in 4 (11.8%) GCs and 17 (21.5%) CRCs with MSI-H (21/113, 18.6%), but not in microsatellite stable/low MSI cancers (0/90) (P<0.001). We also analyzed intratumoral heterogeneity (ITH) of the MYH11 frameshift mutations and found that 10 of 16 CRCs (62.5%) harbored the regional ITH. Our results show that MYH11 gene harbors somatic frameshift mutations mostly associated with mutational ITH, which together may be features of MSI-H GCs and CRCs. Practically, the data suggest that multiregional analysis is needed for a better evaluation of mutation status in MSI-H tumors to overcome ITH.

Cheng Z, Hu K, Tian L, et al.
Clinical and biological implications of mutational spectrum in acute myeloid leukemia of FAB subtypes M4 and M5.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2018; 25(3-4):77-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mutational spectrum and molecular characteristics of acute myelomonocytic lineage leukemia, namely acute myeloid leukemia (AML) French-American-British (FAB) subtypes M4 and M5, are largely unknown. In order to explore the mutational spectrum and prognostic factors of FAB-M4 and -M5, next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed to screen for mutated genes and fusion genes relevant to the pathogenesis of AML. Of the 63 patients enrolled in the study, 60% had more than three mutated genes. NPM1 had the highest mutation frequency, followed by DNMT3A, FLT3, NRAS, RUNX1, and TET2. Univariate analysis suggested that age ≥60 years was an independent factor for both poor event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS, P = 0.009, 0.002, respectively), MYH11-CBFβ was associated with better EFS and OS (P = 0.029, 0.016, respectively). However, multivariate analysis was not able to identify any independent risk factor for survival in the cohort of FAB-M4 and -M5 patients, including peripheral white blood cell count, bone marrow blast percentage, MYH11-CBFβ, FLT3-ITD, mutations in NPM1 and DNMT3A, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Our study provided new insight into the mutational spectrum and molecular characteristics of FAB-M4 and -M5. The clinical implications of the genetic signature of FAB-M4 and -M5 need to be further elucidated by larger studies.

Iijima-Yamashita Y, Matsuo H, Yamada M, et al.
Multiplex fusion gene testing in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Pediatr Int. 2018; 60(1):47-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gene abnormalities, particularly chromosome rearrangements generating gene fusion, are associated with clinical characteristics and prognosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Karyotyping is generally performed to enable risk stratification, but the results are not always consistent with those of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and more accurate and rapid methods are required.
METHODS: A total of 487 samples from de novo AML patients enrolled in the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) AML-05 study (n = 448), and from acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients enrolled in the JPLSG AML-P05 study (n = 39) were available for this investigation. Multiplex quantitative RT-PCR was performed to detect eight important fusion genes: AML1(RUNX1)-ETO(RUNX1T1), CBFB-MYH11, MLL(KMT2A)-AF9(MLLT3), MLL-ELL, MLL-AF6(MLLT4), FUS(TLS)-ERG, NUP98-HOXA9, and PML-RARA.
RESULTS: Fusion genes were detected in 207 (46.2%) of the 448 AML-05 patient samples. After exclusion of two samples with PML-RARA, no chromosomal abnormalities were identified on karyotyping in 19 of 205 patients (9.3%) positive for fusion genes on RT-PCR. Fusion genes were confirmed on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 11 of these 19 patients. In contrast, fusion genes were detected in 37 of 39 patients (94.9%) from the AML-P05 study, and 33 of these results were consistent with the karyotyping. There were discrepancies in four patients (10.8%), three with normal karyotypes and one in whom karyotyping was not possible. All four of these patients were PML-RARA positive on FISH.
CONCLUSIONS: Multiplex quantitative RT-PCR-based fusion gene screening may be effective for diagnosis of pediatric AML.

Matsuo H, Iijima-Yamashita Y, Yamada M, et al.
Monitoring of fusion gene transcripts to predict relapse in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
Pediatr Int. 2018; 60(1):41-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), accurate detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) enables better risk-stratified therapy. There are few studies, however, on the monitoring of multiple fusion transcripts and evaluation of their accuracy as indicators of MRD at multiple time points.
METHODS: We retrospectively examined RNA obtained from 82 pediatric AML patients enrolled in the Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) AML-05 study. The expression of six important fusion transcripts (AML1(RUNX1)-ETO, CBFB-MYH11, MLL(KMT2A)-AF9, MLL-ELL, MLL-AF6, and FUS-ERG) was analyzed at five time points 30-40 days apart following diagnosis.
RESULTS: In patients with AML1-ETO (n = 36 at time point 5), all six patients with >3,000 copies and four of 30 patients with ≤3,000 copies relapsed. AML1-ETO transcripts persisted during treatment even in patients without relapse, as well as CBFB-MYH11 transcripts. In contrast, in patients with MLL-AF9 (n = 9 at time point 5), two patients were positive for MLL-AF9 expression (>50 copies) and both relapsed. Only one of seven MLL-AF9-negative patients relapsed. In the AML1-ETO group, MRD-positive patients (>3,000 copies at time point 5) had significantly lower relapse-free survival (RFS; P < 0.0001) and overall survival (OS; P = 0.009) than MRD-negative patients. Similarly, in the MLL-AF9 group, MRD-positive patients (>50 copies at time point 5) had significantly lower RFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.002) than MRD-negative patients.
CONCLUSIONS: Detection of MLL-AF9 transcripts on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a promising marker of relapse in pediatric AML. In contrast, the clinical utility of detecting AML1-ETO and CBFB-MYH11 expression is limited, although higher AML1-ETO expression can be a potential predictor of relapse when assessed according to an optimal threshold.

Zhen T, Kwon EM, Zhao L, et al.
Blood. 2017; 130(22):2431-2442 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inversion of chromosome 16 is a consistent finding in patients with acute myeloid leukemia subtype M4 with eosinophilia, which generates a

Douet-Guilbert N, Chauveau A, Gueganic N, et al.
Acute myeloid leukaemia (FAB AML-M4Eo) with cryptic insertion of cbfb resulting in cbfb-Myh11 fusion.
Hematol Oncol. 2017; 35(3):385-389 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inv(16)(p13q22) and t(16;16)(p13;q22) are cytogenetic hallmarks of acute myelomonoblastic leukaemia, most of them associated with abnormal bone marrow eosinophils [acute myeloid leukaemia French-American-British classification M4 with eosinophilia (FAB AML-M4Eo)] and a relatively favourable clinical course. They generate a 5'CBFB-3'MYH11 fusion gene. However, in a few cases, although RT-PCR identified a CBFB-MYH11 transcript, normal karyotype and/or fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses using commercially available probes are found. We identified a 32-year-old woman with AML-M4Eo and normal karyotype and FISH results. Using two libraries of Bacterial Artificial Chromosome clones on 16p13 and 16q22, FISH analyses identified an insertion of 16q22 material in band 16p13, generating a CBFB-MYH11 type A transcript. Although very rare, insertions should be searched for in patients with discordant cytological and cytogenetic features because of the therapeutic consequences. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

An Y, Wang S, Li S, et al.
Distinct molecular subtypes of uterine leiomyosarcoma respond differently to chemotherapy treatment.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):639 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is an aggressive form of soft tissue tumors. The molecular heterogeneity and pathogenesis of ULMS are not well understood.
METHODS: Expression profiling data were used to determine the possibility and optimal number of ULMS molecular subtypes. Next, clinicopathological characters and molecular pathways were analyzed in each subtype to prospect the clinical applications and progression mechanisms of ULMS.
RESULTS: Two distinct molecular subtypes of ULMS were defined based on different gene expression signatures. Subtype I ULMS recapitulated low-grade ULMS, the gene expression pattern of which resembled normal smooth muscle cells, characterized by overexpression of smooth muscle function genes such as LMOD1, SLMAP, MYLK, MYH11. In contrast, subtype II ULMS recapitulated high-grade ULMS with higher tumor weight and invasion rate, and was characterized by overexpression of genes involved in the pathway of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and tumorigenesis, such as CDK6, MAPK13 and HOXA1.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified two distinct molecular subtypes of ULMS responding differently to chemotherapy treatment. Our findings provide a better understanding of ULMS intrinsic molecular subtypes, and will potentially facilitate the development of subtype-specific diagnosis biomarkers and therapy strategies for these tumors.

Xi WD, Liu YJ, Sun XB, et al.
Bioinformatics analysis of RNA-seq data revealed critical genes in colon adenocarcinoma.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(13):3012-3020 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: RNA-seq data of colon adenocarcinoma (COAD) were analyzed with bioinformatics tools to discover critical genes in the disease. Relevant small molecule drugs, transcription factors (TFs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) were also investigated.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: RNA-seq data of COAD were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differential analysis was performed with package edgeR. False positive discovery (FDR) < 0.05 and |log2 (fold change)|>1 were set as the cut-offs to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Gene coexpression network was constructed with package Ebcoexpress. GO enrichment analysis was performed for the DEGs in the gene coexpression network with DAVID. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis was also performed for the genes with KOBASS 2.0. Modules were identified with MCODE of Cytoscape. Relevant small molecules drugs were predicted by Connectivity map. Relevant miRNAs and TFs were searched by WebGestalt.
RESULTS: A total of 457 DEGs, including 255 up-regulated and 202 down-regulated genes, were identified from 437 COAD and 39 control samples. A gene coexpression network was constructed containing 40 DEGs and 101 edges. The genes were mainly associated with collagen fibril organization, extracellular matrix organization and translation. Two modules were identified from the gene coexpression network, which were implicated in muscle contraction and extracellular matrix organization, respectively. Several critical genes were disclosed, such as MYH11, COL5A2 and ribosomal proteins. Nine relevant small molecule drugs were identified, such as scriptaid and STOCK1N-35874. Accordingly, a total of 17 TFs and 10 miRNAs related to COAD were acquired, such as ETS2, NFAT, AP4, miR-124A, MiR-9, miR-96 and let-7.
CONCLUSIONS: Several critical genes and relevant drugs, TFs and miRNAs were revealed in COAD. These findings could advance the understanding of the disease and benefit therapy development.

Schumacher J, Szankasi P, Kelley TW
Detection and Quantification of Acute Myeloid Leukemia-Associated Fusion Transcripts.
Methods Mol Biol. 2017; 1633:151-161 [PubMed] Related Publications
Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR)-based detection of abnormal fusion transcripts is an important strategy for the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1, inv(16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11 or t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA. In RT-qPCR assays, patient-derived cDNA is subjected to amplification using PCR primers directed against the fusion transcript of interest as well as a reference gene for normalization. Quantification is typically performed by constructing standard curves for each PCR run using a series of plasmid standards of known concentration that harbor the same fusion transcript or the same reference gene of interest. Fusion transcripts and reference gene copy numbers are then calculated in patient samples using these standard curves. The process of constructing standard curves is laborious and consumes additional reagents. In this chapter, we give the method details for a multiplex RT-qPCR strategy to detect and quantify the acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated fusion transcripts PML-RARA in patients with t(15;17) without the need for standard curves. This general method can also be applied to other AML-associated fusion transcripts such as CBFB-MYH11 and RUNX1-RUNX1T1.

Busse TM, Roth JJ, Wilmoth D, et al.
Copy number alterations determined by single nucleotide polymorphism array testing in the clinical laboratory are indicative of gene fusions in pediatric cancer patients.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(10):730-749 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene fusions resulting from structural rearrangements are an established mechanism of tumorigenesis in pediatric cancer. In this clinical cohort, 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based chromosomal microarrays from 1,211 pediatric cancer patients were evaluated for copy number alterations (CNAs) associated with gene fusions. Karyotype or fluorescence in situ hybridization studies were performed in 42% of the patients. Ten percent of the bone marrow or solid tumor specimens had SNP array-associated CNAs suggestive of a gene fusion. Alterations involving ETV6, ABL1-NUP214, EBF1-PDGFRB, KMT2A(MLL), LMO2-RAG, MYH11-CBFB, NSD1-NUP98, PBX1, STIL-TAL1, ZNF384-TCF3, P2RY8-CRLF2, and RUNX1T1-RUNX1 fusions were detected in the bone marrow samples. The most common alteration among the low-grade gliomas was a 7q34 tandem duplication resulting in a KIAA1549-BRAF fusion. Additional fusions identified in the pediatric brain tumors included FAM131B-BRAF and RAF1-QKI. COL1A1-PDGFB, CRTC1-MAML2, EWSR1, HEY1, PAX3- and PAX7-FOXO1, and PLAG1 fusions were determined in a variety of solid tumors and a novel potential gene fusion, FGFR1-USP6, was detected in an aneurysmal bone cyst. The identification of these gene fusions was instrumental in tumor diagnosis. In contrast to hematologic and solid tumors in adults that are predominantly driven by mutations, the majority of hematologic and solid tumors in children are characterized by CNAs and gene fusions. Chromosomal microarray analysis is therefore a robust platform to identify diagnostic and prognostic markers in the clinical setting.

Andrade FG, Noronha EP, Brisson GD, et al.
Molecular Characterization of Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Results of a Multicentric Study in Brazil.
Arch Med Res. 2016; 47(8):656-667 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The biological characterization of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (c-AML) is an important outcome predictor. In Brazil, very little is known about the frequency of AML subgroups, although c-AML accounts for about 18% of leukemias. We carried out this study to investigate the contribution of type I and II gene mutations in the probability of overall survival (pOS) of c-AML in Brazil.
METHODS: Seven hundred and three de novo pediatric AML cases (2000-2015) were assessed throughout a multicentric network study. Mutations in hotspot regions of FLT3, NRAS, KRAS, PTPN11, and c-KIT genes were analyzed as well as fusion genes (RUNX1-RUNX1T1, MLL/KMT2A-r, CBFβ-MYH11, and PML-RARα) associated with AML. Patients were treated out of the clinical trial although following the BFM-AML2004 protocol. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was treated differently. AML with Down syndrome was excluded.
RESULTS: There were significant differences in gene mutations among age ranges (≤2 years-old; >2-10 years old and ≥11 years old) and the nonrandom association between type I/II mutations. Lower white blood cell count (≤50 × 10
CONCLUSIONS: Identification of genetic subgroups contributes to the molecular epidemiology and biology of AML worldwide, reflecting the profile of pediatric AML cases in Brazil.

Tomlinson B, Lazarus HM
Enhancing acute myeloid leukemia therapy - monitoring response using residual disease testing as a guide to therapeutic decision-making.
Expert Rev Hematol. 2017; 10(6):563-574 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Current standards for monitoring the response of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are based on morphologic assessments of the bone marrow and recovery of peripheral blood counts. A growing experience is being developed to enhance the detection of small amounts of AML, or minimal residual disease (MRD). Areas covered: Available techniques include multi-color flow cytometry (MFC) of leukemia associated immunophenotypes (LAIP), quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) for detecting fusion and mutated genes (RUNX1-RUNX1T1, CBFB-MYH11, and NPM1), overexpression of genes such as WT1, and next generation sequencing (NGS) for MRD. Expert commentary: While MRD monitoring is standard of care in some leukemia subsets such as acute promyelocytic leukemia, this approach for the broader AML population does not universally predict outcomes as some patients may experience relapse in the setting of undetectable leukemia while others show no obvious disease progression despite MRD positivity. However, there are instances where MRD can identify patients at increased risk for relapse that may change recommended therapy. Currently, prospective investigations to define clinically relevant MRD thresholds are ongoing. Risk-adapted trials are needed to best define the use of MRD in the follow up of AML patients after initial induction therapy.

Metzeler KH, Bloomfield CD
Clinical Relevance of RUNX1 and CBFB Alterations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Hematological Disorders.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017; 962:175-199 [PubMed] Related Publications
The translocation t(8;21), leading to a fusion between the RUNX1 gene and the RUNX1T1 locus, was the first chromosomal translocation identified in cancer. Since the first description of this balanced rearrangement in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in 1973, RUNX1 translocations and point mutations have been found in various myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms. In this chapter, we summarize the currently available data on the clinical relevance of core binding factor gene alterations in hematological disorders. In the first section, we discuss the prognostic implications of the core binding factor translocations RUNX1-RUNX1T1 and CBFB-MYH11 in AML patients. We provide an overview of the cooperating genetic events in patients with CBF-rearranged AML and their clinical implications, and review current treatment approaches for CBF AML and the utility of minimal residual disease monitoring. In the next sections, we summarize the available data on rare RUNX1 rearrangements in various hematologic neoplasms and the role of RUNX1 translocations in therapy-related myeloid neoplasia. The final three sections of the chapter cover the spectrum and clinical significance of RUNX1 point mutations in AML and myelodysplastic syndromes, in familial platelet disorder with associated myeloid malignancy, and in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Villacis RAR, Basso TR, Canto LM, et al.
Rare germline alterations in cancer-related genes associated with the risk of multiple primary tumor development.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2017; 95(5):523-533 [PubMed] Related Publications
Multiple primary tumors (MPT) have been described in carriers of inherited cancer predisposition genes. However, the genetic etiology of a large proportion of MPT cases remains unclear. We reviewed 267 patients with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes (HCPS) that underwent genetic counseling and selected 22 patients with MPT to perform genomic analysis (CytoScan HD Array, Affymetrix) aiming to identify new alterations related to a high risk of developing MPT. Twenty patients had a positive family history of cancer and 11 met phenotypic criteria for HCPS. Genetic testing for each of the genes associated with these syndromes revealed negative results for pathogenic mutations. Seventeen rare germline copy number variations (CNVs) covering 40 genes were identified in 11 patients, including an EPCAM/MSH2 deletion in one Lynch syndrome patient. An enrichment analysis revealed a significant number of genes (where the CNVs are mapped) associated with carcinogenesis and/or related to functions implicated with tumor development, such as proliferation and cell survival. An interaction network analysis highlighted the importance of TP53 pathway in cancer emergence. A high number of germline copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (cnLOH) was identified in nine cases, particularly in two patients. Eighteen genes were covered by both rare CNVs and cnLOH, including 14 related to tumorigenesis and seven genes (ABCC1, KDM4C, KIAA0430, MYH11, NDE1, PIWIL2, and ULK2) specifically associated with cellular growth and proliferation. Overall, we identified 14 cases with rare CNVs and/or cnLOH that may contribute to the risk of MPT development.
KEY MESSAGE: CNVs may explain the risk of hereditary cancer syndromes in MPT patients. CNVs affecting genes related to cancer are candidates to be involved in MPT risk. EPCAM/MSH2 deletions should be investigated in patients suspected to have LS. Gene enrichment related to the TP53 network is associated with MPT development. cnLOH and CNVs contribute to the risk of MPT development.

Singh AA, Mandoli A, Prange KH, et al.
AML associated oncofusion proteins PML-RARA, AML1-ETO and CBFB-MYH11 target RUNX/ETS-factor binding sites to modulate H3ac levels and drive leukemogenesis.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(8):12855-12865 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosomal translocations are one of the hallmarks of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), often leading to gene fusions and expression of an oncofusion protein. Over recent years it has become clear that most of the AML associated oncofusion proteins molecularly adopt distinct mechanisms for inducing leukemogenesis. Still these unique molecular properties of the chimeric proteins converge and give rise to a common pathogenic molecular mechanism. In the present study we compared genome-wide DNA binding and transcriptome data associated with AML1-ETO, CBFB-MYH11 and PML-RARA oncofusion protein expression to identify unique and common features. Our analyses revealed targeting of oncofusion binding sites to RUNX1 and ETS-factor occupied genomic regions. In addition, it revealed a highly comparable global histone acetylation pattern, similar expression of common target genes and related enrichment of several biological pathways critical for maintenance of AML, suggesting oncofusion proteins deregulate common gene programs despite their distinct binding signatures and mechanisms of action.

Eisfeld AK, Kohlschmidt J, Schwind S, et al.
Mutations in the CCND1 and CCND2 genes are frequent events in adult patients with t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(6):1278-1285 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML) is defined by the presence of either t(8;21)(q22;q22)/RUNX1-RUNX1T1 or inv(16)(p13.1q22)/t(16;16)(p13.1;q22)/CBFB-MYH11. The resulting fusion genes require a 'second hit' to initiate leukemogenesis. Mutation assessment of 177 adults with CBF-AML, including 68 with t(8;21) and 109 with inv(16)/t(16;16), identified not only mutations well known in CBF-AML but also mutations in the CCND1 and CCND2 genes, which represent novel frequent molecular alterations in AML with t(8;21). Altogether, CCND1 (n=2) and CCND2 (n=8) mutations were detected in 10 (15%) patients with t(8;21) in our cohort. A single CCND2 mutation was also found in 1 (0.9%) patient with inv(16). In contrast, CCND1 and CCND2 mutations were detected in only 11 (0.77%) of 1426 non-CBF-AML patients. All CCND2 mutations cluster around the highly conserved amino-acid residue threonine 280 (Thr280). We show that Thr280Ala-mutated CCND2 leads to increased phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein, thereby causing significant cell cycle changes and increased proliferation of AML cell lines. The identification of CCND1 and CCND2 mutations as frequent mutational events in t(8;21) AML may provide further justification for cell cycle-directed therapy in this disease.

Su J, Zhang Y, Su H, et al.
A recurrence model for laryngeal cancer based on SVM and gene function clustering.
Acta Otolaryngol. 2017; 137(5):557-562 [PubMed] Related Publications
CONCLUSION: A prognostic model was obtained for LC. Several critical genes were unveiled. They could be potentially applied for LC recurrence prediction.
OBJECTIVE: Gene expression data of laryngeal cancer (LC) were analyzed to identify critical genes associated with recurrence.
METHODS: Two gene expression datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Dataset GSE27020 is used as the training set, containing 75 non-recurred LC cases and 34 recurred LC cases.
RESULTS: A total of 725 DEGs were identified from the training set. A total of 4126 gene pairs showed significant correlations in non-recurred LC only, corresponding to 533 genes. A total of 7235 gene pairs showed significant correlations in recurred LC only, corresponding to 608 genes. Besides, 1694 gene pairs showed significant correlations in both non-recurred and recurred LC, corresponding to 322 genes. Functional enrichment analysis was performed for the three groups of DEGs. Seven overlapping biological functions were revealed: positive regulation of chondrocyte differentiation, autoimmune thyroid disease, focal adhesion, linoleic acid metabolism, drug metabolism, organic cation transport, and ECM-receptor interaction. Eight feature genes (PDIA3, MYH11, PDK1, SDC3, RPE65, LAMC3, BTK, and UPK1B) were identified. Their prognostic effect was validated by independent test set as well as survival analysis.

Struski S, Lagarde S, Bories P, et al.
NUP98 is rearranged in 3.8% of pediatric AML forming a clinical and molecular homogenous group with a poor prognosis.
Leukemia. 2017; 31(3):565-572 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a rare disease whose prognosis is highly variable according to factors such as chromosomal abnormalities. Recurrent genomic rearrangements are detected in half of pediatric AML by karyotype. NUcleoPorin 98 (NUP98) gene is rearranged with 31 different fusion partner genes. These rearrangements are frequently undetected by conventional cytogenetics, as the NUP98 gene is located at the end of the chromosome 11 short arm (11p15). By screening a series of 574 pediatric AML, we detected a NUP98 rearrangement in 22 cases (3.8%), a frequency similar to CBFB-MYH11 fusion gene (4.0%). The most frequent NUP98 fusion gene partner is NSD1. These cases are homogeneous regarding their biological and clinical characteristics, and associated with bad prognosis only improved by bone marrow transplantation. We detailed the biological characteristics of these AML by exome sequencing which demonstrated few recurrent mutations (FLT3 ITD, WT1, CEBPA, NBPF14, BCR and ODF1). The analysis of the clonal structure in these cases suggests that the mutation order in the NUP98-rearranged pediatric AML begins with the NUP98 rearrangement leading to epigenetic dysregulations then followed by mutations of critical hematopoietic transcription factors and finally, activation of the FLT3 signaling pathway.

Akhter A, Mughal MK, Elyamany G, et al.
Multiplexed automated digital quantification of fusion transcripts: comparative study with fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) technique in acute leukemia patients.
Diagn Pathol. 2016; 11(1):89 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) classification system defines recurrent chromosomal translocations as the sole diagnostic and prognostic criteria for acute leukemia (AL). These fusion transcripts are pivotal in the pathogenesis of AL. Clinical laboratories universally employ conventional karyotype/FISH to detect these chromosomal translocations, which is complex, labour intensive and lacks multiplexing capacity. Hence, it is imperative to explore and evaluate some newer automated, cost-efficient multiplexed technologies to accommodate the expanding genetic landscape in AL.
METHODS: "nCounter® Leukemia fusion gene expression assay" by NanoString was employed to detect various fusion transcripts in a large set samples (n = 94) utilizing RNA from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) diagnostic bone marrow biopsy specimens. This series included AL patients with various recurrent translocations (n = 49), normal karyotype (n = 19), or complex karyotype (n = 21), as well as normal bone marrow samples (n = 5). Fusion gene expression data were compared with results obtained by conventional karyotype and FISH technology to determine sensitivity/specificity, as well as positive /negative predictive values.
RESULTS: Junction probes for PML/RARA; RUNX1-RUNX1T1; BCR/ABL1 showed 100 % sensitivity/specificity. A high degree of correlation was noted for MLL/AF4 (85 sensitivity/100 specificity) and TCF3-PBX1 (75 % sensitivity/100 % specificity) probes. CBFB-MYH11 fusion probes showed moderate sensitivity (57 %) but high specificity (100 %). ETV6/RUNX1 displayed discordance between fusion transcript assay and FISH results as well as rare non-specific binding in AL samples with normal or complex cytogenetics.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study presents preliminary data with high correlation between fusion transcript detection by a throughput automated multiplexed platform, compared to conventional karyotype/FISH technique for detection of chromosomal translocations in AL patients. Our preliminary observations, mandates further vast validation studies to explore automated molecular platforms in diagnostic pathology.

Kosik P, Skorvaga M, Belyaev I
Incidence of preleukemic fusion genes in healthy subjects.
Neoplasma. 2016; 63(5):659-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
The diagnostics of leukemia relies upon multi-parametric approach involving a number of different pathology disciplines such as flow cytometry, histopathology, cytogenetics and molecular genetics [fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)]. Childhood leukemia is often determined by the presence of specific chromosomal translocation that entails the generation of preleukemic fusion genes (PFG). In the last two decades, several studies have reported observations that PFG are present in healthy population and not necessarily result in leukemia. The first such study by Limpens and colleagues on t(14/18)/ BCL2-JH [1] and next in line [2, 3] led to many questions regarding the significance of these chromosomal translocations in leukemogenesis. However, the data on the incidence of PFG are contradictive. This review aims to highlight the molecular genetic approaches used by various studies with regard to differences in diagnostics and incidence of PFG in healthy subjects. The focus is on the incidence and prevalence of the most common PFG such as TEL-AML1, MLL-AF4, BCR-ABL (p190), AML1-ETO, PML-RARA, and CBFB-MYH11 detected in umbilical cord blood, in neonatal blood spots (Guthrie cards (GC)), bone marrow, peripheral blood and tissues of amortized fetuses. We conclude that the incidence of PFG is significantly higher than incidence of leukemia and more sophisticated analysis of PFG in leukemogenic cell populations is warranted to relate the occurrence of PFG with leukemia. The emerging notion is that only those PFG may contribute to development of leukemia which arise in stem cells at specific time windows during development. Thus, screening of PFG in subpopulations of stem cells may be a challenge for assessment of predisposition to leukemia and for validation of cell transplant to minimize donor cell-derived leukemia.

Hu D, Zhou W, Wang F, et al.
Development of a NanoString assay to detect leukemogenic fusion transcripts in acute myeloid leukemia.
Int J Lab Hematol. 2016; 38(6):663-673 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Detection of leukemogenic fusion transcripts in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is critical for AML diagnosis. NanoString nCounter system is a novel probe-based gene expression platform capable of measuring up to 800 targets with advantages of reproducibility, accuracy, and sample type flexibility. To study the potential application of NanoString in leukemia at clinic, we used this technology to detect AML leukemogenic fusion transcripts and compared the performances with clinical molecular assays.
METHODS: We developed a NanoString assay to detect seven leukemogenic fusion transcripts, namely RUNX1-RUNX1T1 (e5e12), PML-RARA (bcr1, bcr2, and bcr3), and CBFB-MYH11 (e5e12, e5e8, and e5e7). We set up the cut-off value for each fusion transcript and tested 42 de novo AML samples. We compared the results with reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and TaqMan reverse quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR), the molecular methods standardly used at clinic.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that the NanoString and RT-PCR results correlate well (P < 0.0001) and are highly concordant (95.2%). Using TaqMan RQ-PCR as a validation method and gold standard, we demonstrated superior accuracy and sensitivity of NanoString compared to RT-PCR and comparable specificity. Furthermore, we showed that NanoString is not as sensitive as TaqMan RQ-PCR in detecting very low level of fusion transcripts.
CONCLUSIONS: NanoString can serve as a reliable and alternative molecular method to multiplexed RT-PCR for diagnosis of de novo AML with the perspective of screening/quantitation of a large number of leukemogenic fusion transcripts and prognostic genes. However, NanoString may not be an alternative method for monitoring minimal residual disease in AML.

Nomdedéu JF, Puigdecanet E, Bussaglia E, et al.
Feasibility of the AML profiler (Skyline™ Array) for patient risk stratification in a multicentre trial: a preliminary comparison with the conventional approach.
Hematol Oncol. 2017; 35(4):778-788 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deoxyribonucleic acid microarrays allow researchers to measure mRNA levels of thousands of genes in a single experiment and could be useful for diagnostic purposes in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We assessed the feasibility of the AML profiler (Skyline™ Array) in genetic stratification of patients with de novo AML and compared the results with those obtained using the standard cytogenetic and molecular approach. Diagnostic bone marrow from 31 consecutive de novo AML cases was used to test MLL-PTD, FLT3-ITD and TKD, NPM1 and CEBPAdm mutations. Purified RNA was used to assess RUNX1-RUNX1T1, PML-RARα and CBFβ-MYH11 rearrangements. RNA remnants underwent gene expression profiling analysis using the AML profiler, which detects chromosomal aberrations: t(8;21), t(15;17), inv(16), mutations (CEBPAdm, ABD-NPM1) and BAALC and EVI1 expression. Thirty cases were successfully analysed with both methods. Five cases had FLT3-ITD. In one case, a t(8;21) was correctly detected by both methods. Four cases had inv(16); in one, the RNA quality was unsatisfactory and it was not hybridized, and in the other three, the AML profiler detected the genetic lesion - this being a rare type I translocation in one case. Two cases with acute promyelocytic leukaemia were diagnosed by both methods. Results for NPM1 mutations were concordant in all but two cases (2/11, non-ABD mutations). Analysis of costs and turnaround times showed that the AML profiler was no more expensive than the conventional molecular approach. These results suggest that the AML profiler could be useful in multicentre trials to rapidly identify patients with AML with a good prognosis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Olsson L, Zettermark S, Biloglav A, et al.
The genetic landscape of paediatric de novo acute myeloid leukaemia as defined by single nucleotide polymorphism array and exon sequencing of 100 candidate genes.
Br J Haematol. 2016; 174(2):292-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytogenetic analyses of a consecutive series of 67 paediatric (median age 8 years; range 0-17) de novo acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) patients revealed aberrations in 55 (82%) cases. The most common subgroups were KMT2A rearrangement (29%), normal karyotype (15%), RUNX1-RUNX1T1 (10%), deletions of 5q, 7q and/or 17p (9%), myeloid leukaemia associated with Down syndrome (7%), PML-RARA (7%) and CBFB-MYH11 (5%). Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A) analysis and exon sequencing of 100 genes, performed in 52 and 40 cases, respectively (39 overlapping), revealed ≥1 aberration in 89%; when adding cytogenetic data, this frequency increased to 98%. Uniparental isodisomies (UPIDs) were detected in 13% and copy number aberrations (CNAs) in 63% (median 2/case); three UPIDs and 22 CNAs were recurrent. Twenty-two genes were targeted by focal CNAs, including AEBP2 and PHF6 deletions and genes involved in AML-associated gene fusions. Deep sequencing identified mutations in 65% of cases (median 1/case). In total, 60 mutations were found in 30 genes, primarily those encoding signalling proteins (47%), transcription factors (25%), or epigenetic modifiers (13%). Twelve genes (BCOR, CEBPA, FLT3, GATA1, KIT, KRAS, NOTCH1, NPM1, NRAS, PTPN11, SMC3 and TP53) were recurrently mutated. We conclude that SNP-A and deep sequencing analyses complement the cytogenetic diagnosis of paediatric AML.

Duployez N, Marceau-Renaut A, Boissel N, et al.
Comprehensive mutational profiling of core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood. 2016; 127(20):2451-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21) or inv(16) have been recognized as unique entities within AML and are usually reported together as core binding factor AML (CBF-AML). However, there is considerable clinical and biological heterogeneity within this group of diseases, and relapse incidence reaches up to 40%. Moreover, translocations involving CBFs are not sufficient to induce AML on its own and the full spectrum of mutations coexisting with CBF translocations has not been elucidated. To address these issues, we performed extensive mutational analysis by high-throughput sequencing in 215 patients with CBF-AML enrolled in the Phase 3 Trial of Systematic Versus Response-adapted Timed-Sequential Induction in Patients With Core Binding Factor Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Treating Patients with Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Interleukin-2 trials (age, 1-60 years). Mutations in genes activating tyrosine kinase signaling (including KIT, N/KRAS, and FLT3) were frequent in both subtypes of CBF-AML. In contrast, mutations in genes that regulate chromatin conformation or encode members of the cohesin complex were observed with high frequencies in t(8;21) AML (42% and 18%, respectively), whereas they were nearly absent in inv(16) AML. High KIT mutant allele ratios defined a group of t(8;21) AML patients with poor prognosis, whereas high N/KRAS mutant allele ratios were associated with the lack of KIT or FLT3 mutations and a favorable outcome. In addition, mutations in epigenetic modifying or cohesin genes were associated with a poor prognosis in patients with tyrosine kinase pathway mutations, suggesting synergic cooperation between these events. These data suggest that diverse cooperating mutations may influence CBF-AML pathophysiology as well as clinical behavior and point to potential unique pathogenesis of t(8;21) vs inv(16) AML.

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