Gene Summary

Gene:PHIP; pleckstrin homology domain interacting protein
Aliases: ndrp, BRWD2, DIDOD, WDR11, DCAF14
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that binds to the insulin receptor substrate 1 protein and regulates glucose transporter translocation in skeletal muscle cells. The encoded protein may also regulate growth and survival of pancreatic beta cells. Elevated copy number of this gene may be associated with melanoma severity and the encoded protein may promote melanoma metastasis in human patients. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:PH-interacting protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (19)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Risk Factors
  • siRNA
  • Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Cooking
  • DNA Adducts
  • Pyridines
  • DNA Damage
  • Anticarcinogenic Agents
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Genotype
  • Polymorphism
  • Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • DNA Repair
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Meat
  • Heterocyclic Compounds
  • Imidazoles
  • Carcinogens
  • APC
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Rectal Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Food
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Mutation
  • Diet
  • Neoplasms, Experimental
  • Chromosome 6
  • Mutagens
  • Amines
  • Cancer DNA
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PHIP (cancer-related)

Weber J, de la Rosa J, Grove CS, et al.
PiggyBac transposon tools for recessive screening identify B-cell lymphoma drivers in mice.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):1415 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
B-cell lymphoma (BCL) is the most common hematologic malignancy. While sequencing studies gave insights into BCL genetics, identification of non-mutated cancer genes remains challenging. Here, we describe PiggyBac transposon tools and mouse models for recessive screening and show their application to study clonal B-cell lymphomagenesis. In a genome-wide screen, we discover BCL genes related to diverse molecular processes, including signaling, transcriptional regulation, chromatin regulation, or RNA metabolism. Cross-species analyses show the efficiency of the screen to pinpoint human cancer drivers altered by non-genetic mechanisms, including clinically relevant genes dysregulated epigenetically, transcriptionally, or post-transcriptionally in human BCL. We also describe a CRISPR/Cas9-based in vivo platform for BCL functional genomics, and validate discovered genes, such as Rfx7, a transcription factor, and Phip, a chromatin regulator, which suppress lymphomagenesis in mice. Our study gives comprehensive insights into the molecular landscapes of BCL and underlines the power of genome-scale screening to inform biology.

Suzuki S, Kato H, Fuji S, et al.
Early detection of prostate carcinogens by immunohistochemistry of HMGB2.
J Toxicol Sci. 2018; 43(6):359-367 [PubMed] Related Publications
Screening prostatic carcinogens is time-consuming due to the time needed to induce preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. To overcome this, we investigated alternative molecular markers for detection of prostatic carcinogens in a short period in rats. After treatment with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), expression of high-mobility group protein B2 (HMGB2) was up-regulated in rat ventral prostate. To evaluate the applicability of HMGB2 in the early detection of carcinogenicity of chemicals using animal models, we examined HMGB2 expression in prostate of rats. Six-week-old male F344 rats were gavaged for four weeks with a total of eight individual chemicals, divided into two categories based on prostate carcinogenicity. Animals were sacrificed at the end of the study and HMGB2 immunohistochemistry was performed. HMGB2 expression in least one prostate lobe was significantly increased by all four prostate carcinogens compared with the controls. In contrast, the four chemicals that were not carcinogenic in the prostate did not cause HMGB2 up-regulation. Additionally, high HMGB2 expression in neoplastic lesions in both rat and human was detected. Therefore HMGB2 expression may be a good screening tool for the identification of potential of prostate carcinogens.

de Semir D, Bezrookove V, Nosrati M, et al.
PHIP as a therapeutic target for driver-negative subtypes of melanoma, breast, and lung cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(25):E5766-E5775 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The identification and targeting of key molecular drivers of melanoma and breast and lung cancer have substantially improved their therapy. However, subtypes of each of these three common, lethal solid tumors lack identified molecular drivers, and are thus not amenable to targeted therapies. Here we show that pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) promotes the progression of these "driver-negative" tumors. Suppression of PHIP expression significantly inhibited both tumor cell proliferation and invasion, coordinately suppressing phosphorylated AKT, cyclin D1, and talin1 expression in all three tumor types. Furthermore, PHIP's targetable bromodomain is functional, as it specifically binds the histone modification H4K91ac. Analysis of TCGA profiling efforts revealed PHIP overexpression in triple-negative and basal-like breast cancer, as well as in the bronchioid subtype of nonsmall cell lung cancer. These results identify a role for PHIP in the progression of melanoma and breast and lung cancer subtypes lacking identified targeted therapies. The use of selective, anti-PHIP bromodomain inhibitors may thus yield a broad-based, molecularly targeted therapy against currently nontargetable tumors.

Ho V, Brunetti V, Peacock S, et al.
Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon mucosa.
Mutat Res. 2017; 821:5-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Meat consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. This research investigated the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure and bulky DNA adduct levels, a biomarker of DNA damage, in colon mucosa.
METHODS: Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure (PhIP and meat mutagenicity) and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon tissue measured using
RESULTS: PhIP and higher meat mutagenicity exposures were not associated with levels of bulky DNA adducts in colon mucosa. The XPC polymorphism (rs2228001) was found to associate with bulky DNA adduct levels, whereby genotypes conferring lower DNA repair activity were associated with higher DNA adduct levels than the normal activity genotype. Among individuals with genotypes associated with lower DNA repair (XPD, rs13181 and rs1799179) or detoxification activity (GSTP1, rs1695), higher PhIP or meat mutagenicity exposures were associated with higher DNA adduct levels. Significant interactions between the XPC polymorphism (rs2228000) and both dietary PhIP and meat mutagenicity on DNA adduct levels was observed, but associations were inconsistent with the a priori hypothesized direction of effect.
CONCLUSION: Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens may be associated with increased DNA damage occurring directly in the colon among genetically susceptible individuals.

Yan H, Bi L, Wang Y, et al.
Integrative analysis of multi-omics data reveals distinct impacts of DDB1-CUL4 associated factors in human lung adenocarcinomas.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):333 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Many DDB1-CUL4 associated factors (DCAFs) have been identified and serve as substrate receptors. Although the oncogenic role of CUL4A has been well established, specific DCAFs involved in cancer development remain largely unknown. Here we infer the potential impact of 19 well-defined DCAFs in human lung adenocarcinomas (LuADCs) using integrative omics analyses, and discover that mRNA levels of DTL, DCAF4, 12 and 13 are consistently elevated whereas VBRBP is reduced in LuADCs compared to normal lung tissues. The transcriptional levels of DCAFs are significantly correlated with their gene copy number variations. SKIP2, DTL, DCAF6, 7, 8, 13 and 17 are frequently gained whereas VPRBP, PHIP, DCAF10, 12 and 15 are frequently lost. We find that only transcriptional level of DTL is robustly, significantly and negatively correlated with overall survival across independent datasets. Moreover, DTL-correlated genes are enriched in cell cycle and DNA repair pathways. We also identified that the levels of 25 proteins were significantly associated with DTL overexpression in LuADCs, which include significant decreases in protein level of the tumor supressor genes such as PDCD4, NKX2-1 and PRKAA1. Our results suggest that different CUL4-DCAF axis plays the distinct roles in LuADC development with possible relevance for therapeutic target development.

Chen YS, Wang R, Dashwood WM, et al.
A miRNA signature for an environmental heterocyclic amine defined by a multi-organ carcinogenicity bioassay in the rat.
Arch Toxicol. 2017; 91(10):3415-3425 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) produced during high-temperature cooking have been studied extensively in terms of their genotoxic/genetic effects, but recent work has implicated epigenetic mechanisms involving non-coding RNAs. Colon tumors induced in the rat by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) have altered microRNA (miRNA) signatures linked to dysregulated pluripotency factors, such as c-Myc and Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). We tested the hypothesis that dysregulated miRNAs from PhIP-induced colon tumors would provide a "PhIP signature" for use in other target organs obtained from a 1-year carcinogenicity bioassay in the rat. Downstream targets that were corroborated in the rat were then investigated in human cancer datasets. The results confirmed that multiple let-7 family members were downregulated in PhIP-induced skin, colon, lung, small intestine, and Zymbal's gland tumors, and were associated with c-myc and Hmga2 upregulation. PhIP signature miRNAs with the profile mir-21

Wang R, Chen YS, Dashwood WM, et al.
Divergent roles of p120-catenin isoforms linked to altered cell viability, proliferation, and invasiveness in carcinogen-induced rat skin tumors.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(7):1733-1742 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The heterocyclic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) targets multiple organs for tumorigenesis in the rat, including the colon and the skin. PhIP-induced skin tumors were subjected to mutation screening, which identified genetic changes in Hras (7/40, 17.5%) and Tp53 (2/40, 5%), but not in Ctnnb1, a commonly mutated gene in PhIP-induced colon tumors. Despite the absence of Ctnnb1 mutations, β-catenin was overexpressed in nuclear and plasma membrane fractions from PhIP-induced skin tumors, coinciding with loss of p120-catenin from the plasma membrane, and the appearance of multiple p120-catenin-associated bands in the nuclear extracts. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that p120-catenin isoforms 1 and 4 were upregulated in PhIP-induced skin tumors, whereas p120-catenin isoform 3 was expressed uniformly, compared with adjacent normal-looking tissue. In human epidermoid carcinoma and colon cancer cells, transient transfection of p120-catenin isoform 1A enhanced the viability and cell invasion index, whereas transient transfection of p120-catenin isoform 4A increased cell viability and cell proliferation. Knockdown of p120-catenin revealed a corresponding reduction in the expression of β-catenin and a transcriptionally regulated target, Ccnd1/Cyclin D1. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments identified associations of β-catenin with p120-catenin isoforms in PhIP-induced skin tumors and human cancer cell lines. The results are discussed in the context of therapeutic strategies that might target different p120-catenin isoforms, providing an avenue to circumvent constitutively active β-catenin arising via distinct mechanisms in skin and colon cancer.

Xu GJ, Shah AA, Li MZ, et al.
Systematic autoantigen analysis identifies a distinct subtype of scleroderma with coincident cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(47):E7526-E7534 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Scleroderma is a chronic autoimmune rheumatic disease associated with widespread tissue fibrosis and vasculopathy. Approximately two-thirds of all patients with scleroderma present with three dominant autoantibody subsets. Here, we used a pair of complementary high-throughput methods for antibody epitope discovery to examine patients with scleroderma with or without known autoantibody specificities. We identified a specificity for the minor spliceosome complex containing RNA Binding Region (RNP1, RNA recognition motif) Containing 3 (RNPC3) that is found in patients with scleroderma without known specificities and is absent in unrelated autoimmune diseases. We found strong evidence for both intra- and intermolecular epitope spreading in patients with RNA polymerase III (POLR3) and the minor spliceosome specificities. Our results demonstrate the utility of these technologies in rapidly identifying antibodies that can serve as biomarkers of disease subsets in the evolving precision medicine era.

Wang H, Liu A, Kuo Y, et al.
Obesity promotes PhIP-induced small intestinal carcinogenesis in hCYP1A-db/db mice: involvement of mutations and DNA hypermethylation of Apc.
Carcinogenesis. 2016; 37(7):723-730 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cancer. To study the promotion of dietary carcinogen-induced gastrointestinal cancer by obesity, we employed 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) to induce intestinal tumorigenesis in CYP1A-humanized (hCYP1A) mice, in which mouse Cyp1a1/1a2 was replaced with human CYP1A1/1A2 Obesity was introduced in hCYP1A mice by breeding with Lepr(db/+) mice to establish the genetically induced obese hCYP1A-Lepr(db/db) mice or by feeding hCYP1A mice a high-fat diet. PhIP induced the formation of small intestinal tumors at the ages of weeks 28-40 in obese hCYP1A mice, but not in lean hCYP1A mice. No tumors were found in colon and other gastrointestinal organs in the lean or obese mice. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we found strong positive staining of NF-κB p65, pSTAT3 and COX2 as well as elevated levels of nuclear β-catenin (Ctnnb1) in small intestinal tumors, but not in normal tissues. By sequencing Apc and Ctnnb1 genes, we found that most PhIP-induced small intestinal tumors in obese mice carried only a single heterozygous mutation in Apc By bisulfite-sequencing of CpG islands of Apc, we found DNA hypermethylation in a CpG cluster located in its transcription initiation site, which most likely caused the inactivation of the wild-type Apc allele. Our findings demonstrate that PhIP-induced small intestinal carcinogenesis in hCYP1A-db/db mice is promoted by obesity and involves Apc mutation and inactivation by DNA hypermethylation. This experimental result is consistent with the association of obesity and the increased incidence of small intestinal cancer in humans in recent decades.

He X, Feng S
Role of Metabolic Enzymes P450 (CYP) on Activating Procarcinogen and their Polymorphisms on the Risk of Cancers.
Curr Drug Metab. 2015; 16(10):850-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are the most important metabolizing enzyme family exists among all organs. Apart from their role in the deactivation of most endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, they also mediate most procarcinogens oxidation to ultimate carcinogens. There are several modes of CYP450s activation of procarcinogens. 1) Formation of epoxide and diol-epoxides intermediates, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mediates PAHs oxidation to epoxide intermediates; 2) Formation of diazonium ions, such as CYP2A6, CYP2A13 and CYP2E1 mediates activation of most nitrosamines to unstable metabolites, which can rearrange to give diazonium ions. 3) Formation of reactive semiquinones and quinines, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transformation of estradiol to catechol estrogens, subsequently formation semiquinones; 4) Formation of toxic O-esterification, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 metabolizes PhIP to N(2)-acetoxy-PhIP and N(2)-sulfonyloxy-PhIP, which are carcinogenic metabolites. 5) Formation of free radical, such as CYP2E1 is involved in activation tetrachloromethane to free radicals. While for CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, only a minor role has been found in procarcinogens activation. In addition, as the gene polymorphisms reflected, the polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1A2 (- 163C/A and -2467T/delT), CYP1B1 (-48G/C, -119G/T and -432G/C), CYP2E1 (-1293G/C and -1053 C/T) have been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), and CYP2E1 (PstI/Rsa and 9-bp insertion) have an association with higher risk colon cancers, whereas CYP1A2 (-163C/A and -3860G/A) polymorphism is found to be among the protective factors. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1B1 -432G/C, CYP2B6 (-516G/T and -785A/G) may increase the risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 are responsible for most of the procarcinogens activation, and their gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of cancers.

Melkonian SC, Daniel CR, Ye Y, et al.
Gene-environment interaction of genome-wide association study-identified susceptibility loci and meat-cooking mutagens in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer. 2016; 122(1):108-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Meat-cooking mutagens may be associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. In the current study, the authors examined associations between meat-cooking mutagens, genetic susceptibility variants, and risk of RCC.
METHODS: The authors used 659 newly diagnosed RCC cases and 699 healthy controls to investigate the association between dietary intake of meat-cooking mutagens and RCC. They examined whether associations varied by risk factors for RCC and genetic susceptibility variants previously identified from genome-wide association studies. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using tertiles of intake of dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/heterocyclic amines.
RESULTS: Dietary intake of the mutagenic compounds 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-(4,5-f) quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1 methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) were found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of RCC (odds ratios across tertiles: 1.00 [referent], 1.28 [95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.74], and 1.95 [95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.66] [P for trend <.001], respectively; and 1.00 [referent], 1.41 [95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.90], and 1.54 [95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.07] [P for trend =.02], respectively). The authors observed evidence of interactions between PhIP and RCC susceptibility variants in 2 genes: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 2 (ITPR2) (rs718314; multiplicative P for interaction = .03 and additive P for interaction =.002) and endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 (EPAS1) (rs7579899; additive P for interaction =.06).
CONCLUSIONS: The intake of meat may increase the risk of RCC through mechanisms related to the cooking compounds MeIQx and PhIP. These associations may be modified by genetic susceptibility to RCC. Further research is necessary to understand the biological mechanisms underlying these interactions.

Pluchino LA, Liu AK, Wang HC
Reactive oxygen species-mediated breast cell carcinogenesis enhanced by multiple carcinogens and intervened by dietary ergosterol and mimosine.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2015; 80:12-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most breast cancers occur sporadically due to long-term exposure to low-dose carcinogens in the diet and the environment. Specifically, smoke, polluted air, and high-temperature cooked meats comprise multiple carcinogens, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). We sought to determine if these carcinogens act together to induce breast cell carcinogenesis, and if so, whether noncytotoxic dietary agents could intervene. We demonstrated that coexposure to physiologically achievable doses of NNK, B[α]P, and PhIP (NBP) holistically enhanced initiation and progression of breast cell carcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of the ERK pathway were transiently induced by NBP in each exposure, and cross talk between reinforced ROS elevation and ERK activation played an essential role in increased DNA oxidation and damage. After cumulative exposures to NBP, this cross talk contributed to enhanced initiation of cellular carcinogenesis and led to enhanced acquisition of cancer-associated properties. Using NBP-induced transient changes, such as ROS elevation and ERK pathway activation, and cancer-associated properties as targeted endpoints, we revealed, for the first time, that two less-studied dietary compounds, ergosterol and mimosine, at physiologically achievable noncytotoxic levels, were highly effective in intervention of NBP-induced cellular carcinogenesis. Combined ergosterol and mimosine were more effective than individual agents in blocking NBP-induced transient endpoints, including ROS-mediated DNA oxidation, which accounted for their preventive ability to suppress progression of NBP-induced cellular carcinogenesis. Thus, dietary components, such as mushrooms containing ergosterol and legumes containing mimosine, should be considered for affordable prevention of sporadic breast cancer associated with long-term exposure to environmental and dietary carcinogens.

Wang H, Zhou H, Liu A, et al.
Genetic analysis of colon tumors induced by a dietary carcinogen PhIP in CYP1A humanized mice: Identification of mutation of β-catenin/Ctnnb1 as the driver gene for the carcinogenesis.
Mol Carcinog. 2015; 54(11):1264-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Replacing mouse Cyp1a with human CYP1A enables the humanized CYP1A mice to mimic human metabolism of the dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), by N(2) -hydroxylation to a proximate carcinogen. Our previous study demonstrated that PhIP, combined with the dextrin sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, induces colon carcinogenesis in hCYP1A mice. Here, we employed whole exome sequencing and found multiple gene mutations in PhIP/DSS-induced colon tumors. Mutations in the exon 3 of Ctnnb1/β-catenin, however, were the predominant events. We further sequenced the key fragments of Apc, Ctnnb1, and Kras, because mutations of these genes in the humans are commonly found as the drivers of colorectal cancer. Mutations on either codon 32 or 34 in the exon 3 of Ctnnb1 were found in 39 out of 42 tumors, but no mutation was found in either Apc or Kras. The sequence context of codons 32 and 34 suggests that PhIP targets +3G in a TGGA motif of Ctnnb1. Since mutations that activate Wnt signal is a major driving force for human colorectal cancers, we conclude that the mutated β-catenin is the driver in PhIP/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis. This result suggests that the colon tumors in hCYP1A mice mimic human colorectal carcinogenesis not only in the dietary etiology involving PhIP, but also in the aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway as the driving force.

Li RJ, Tian JJ, Li WQ, et al.
Effect of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine on oxidative stress and gene expression of c-fos, c-jun, p16 and Rb in rat colons and protective role of seabuckthorn seed oil.
J Environ Sci Health B. 2014; 49(4):279-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exposure to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP), a typical example of heterocyclic amine compounds, increases colon cancer risk. Seabuckthorn (SBT) seed oil is a biologically active substance extracted from seeds of wild Hippophae rhamnoides L. Here, we sought to investigate the toxicological mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and cancer-related gene expression in the rat colons as well as the protective effect of SBT seed oil against colonic oxidative damage. Our results showed that PhIP significantly decreased the anti-oxidative enzyme activities whereas increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, protein carbonyl (PCO) levels and DNA-protein cross-links (DPC) coefficients in the rat colons compared with the solvent-control group. Moreover, PhIP activated expression of c-fos and c-jun and inhibited p16 and Rb expression. Additionally, SBT seed oil plus PhIP significantly improved antioxidant markers and reduced the levels of MDA, PCO and DPC compared to those in rats exposed to PhIP alone. These data indicated that PhIP could induce oxidative stress and abnormal alterations of cancer-related gene expression in the rat colons while SBT seed oil may be beneficial because of its ability to alleviate the PhIP-induced oxidative damage to the rats.

Igarashi M, Hippo Y, Ochiai M, et al.
AKT is critically involved in cooperation between obesity and the dietary carcinogen amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] (PhIP) toward colon carcinogenesis in rats.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 443(3):852-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Obesity is highly associated with colon cancer development. Whereas it is generally attributed to pro-tumorigenic effects of high fat diet (HFD), we here show that a common genetic basis for predisposition to obesity and colon cancer might also underlie the close association. Comparison across multiple rat strains revealed that strains prone to colon tumorigenesis initiated by a dietary carcinogen amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) tended to develop obesity. Through transcriptome and extensive immunoblotting analyses, we identified the basal level of activated AKT in colonic crypts as a biomarker for the common predisposition. Notably, PhIP induced activation of AKT, which could persist for several weeks under a low fat diet (LFD), but not under HFD. On the other hand, PhIP and HFD independently induced Wnt pathway activation and inhibited apoptosis, through distinct mechanisms involving GSK-3β, caspase 3 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Taken together, these observations provide mechanistic insights into how PhIP-induced activation of AKT might cooperate with HFD at multiple levels toward development of colon cancer.

Krupar R, Hartl M, Wirsching K, et al.
Comparison of HPV prevalence in HNSCC patients with regard to regional and socioeconomic factors.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014; 271(6):1737-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
HPV infection is considered as an independent risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Due to highly variable prevalence results in numerous studies, it is, however, difficult to estimate the relevance of HPV infection as risk factor for a specific patient collective. This study aimed to elucidate the disparities of HPV prevalence by analyzing socioeconomically and regionally different patient collectives. Two age, gender, stage and tumor location matched cohorts of 18 private health insured (PHIP) and 16 statutory health insured patients (SIP) suffering from an oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and treated at a university hospital were screened for p16 overexpression and HPV infection by immunohistochemistry and PCR. In addition 85 HNSCC patients of an otolaryngology private practice (PPP) in a rural area were screened for p16 overexpression and positive cases were tested for HPV infection. HPV prevalence was 72.2% in the PHIP collective in comparison to 25.0% (p = 0.015) in the SIP collective with a significantly improved 5-year overall survival (p = 0.003) of the PHIP collective. The total HPV prevalence of PPP group was 7.1% with the highest infection rate in tonsillar carcinomas (33.3%) and a larger percentage of female patients in the HPV positive group (p = 0.037). This study shows that variable HPV infection rates in HNSCC can be caused by the selection of particular patient collectives, which suggest taking socioeconomic and regional factors into account for a decision on HPV testing, if it is not performed on a routine basis.

Bezrookove V, De Semir D, Nosrati M, et al.
Prognostic impact of PHIP copy number in melanoma: linkage to ulceration.
J Invest Dermatol. 2014; 134(3):783-790 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ulceration is an important prognostic factor in melanoma whose biologic basis is poorly understood. Here we assessed the prognostic impact of pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) copy number and its relationship to ulceration. PHIP copy number was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a tissue microarray cohort of 238 melanomas. Elevated PHIP copy number was associated with significantly reduced distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; P=0.01) and disease-specific survival (DSS; P=0.009) by Kaplan-Meier analyses. PHIP FISH scores were independently predictive of DMFS (P=0.03) and DSS (P=0.03). Increased PHIP copy number was an independent predictor of ulceration status (P=0.04). The combined impact of increased PHIP copy number and tumor vascularity on ulceration status was highly significant (P<0.0001). Stable suppression of PHIP in human melanoma cells resulted in significantly reduced glycolytic activity in vitro, with lower expression of lactate dehydrogenase 5, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha subunit, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and was accompanied by reduced microvessel density in vivo. These results provide further support for PHIP as a molecular prognostic marker of melanoma, and reveal a significant linkage between PHIP levels and ulceration. Moreover, they suggest that ulceration may be driven by increased glycolysis and angiogenesis.

Okudaira N, Okamura T, Tamura M, et al.
Long interspersed element-1 is differentially regulated by food-borne carcinogens via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(41):4903-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A single human cell contains more than 5.0 × 10(5) copies of long interspersed element-1 (L1), 80-100 of which are competent for retrotransposition (L1-RTP). Recent observations have revealed the presence of de novo L1 insertions in various tumors, but little is known about its mechanism. Here, we found that 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), food-borne carcinogens that are present in broiled meats, induced L1-RTP. This induction was dependent on a cellular cascade comprising the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a mitogen-activated protein kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β. Notably, these compounds exhibited differential induction of L1-RTP. MeIQx-induced L1-RTP was dependent on AhR nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1), a counterpart of AhR required for gene expression in response to environmental pollutants. By contrast, PhIP-induced L1-RTP did not require ARNT1 but was dependent on estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR repressor. In vivo studies using transgenic mice harboring the human L1 gene indicated that PhIP-induced L1-RTP was reproducibly detected in the mammary gland, which is a target organ of PhIP-induced carcinoma. Moreover, picomolar levels of each compound induced L1-RTP, which is comparable to the PhIP concentration detected in human breast milk. Data suggest that somatic cells possess machineries that induce L1-RTP in response to the carcinogenic compounds. Together with data showing that micromolar levels of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) were non-genotoxic, our observations indicate that L1-RTP by environmental compounds is a novel type of genomic instability, further suggesting that analysis of L1-RTP by HCAs is a novel approach to clarification of modes of carcinogenesis.

Sliva D, Loganathan J, Jiang J, et al.
Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e47873 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that mushroom intake is inversely correlated with gastric, gastrointestinal and breast cancers. We have recently demonstrated anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene extract isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether GLT prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice.
METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colon carcinogenesis was induced by the food-borne carcinogen (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine [PhIP]) and inflammation (dextran sodium sulfate [DSS]) in mice. Mice were treated with 0, 100, 300 and 500 mg GLT/kg of body weight 3 times per week for 4 months. Cell proliferation, expression of cyclin D1 and COX-2 and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of GLT on XRE/AhR, PXR and rPXR was evaluated by the reporter gene assays. Expression of metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2, CYP3A1 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. GLT treatment significantly suppressed focal hyperplasia, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and tumor formation in mice exposed to PhIP/DSS. The anti-proliferative effects of GLT were further confirmed by the decreased staining with Ki-67 in colon tissues. PhIP/DSS-induced colon inflammation was demonstrated by the significant shortening of the large intestine and macrophage infiltrations, whereas GLT treatment prevented the shortening of colon lengths, and reduced infiltration of macrophages in colon tissue. GLT treatment also significantly down-regulated PhIP/DSS-dependent expression of cyclin D1, COX-2, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that GLT could be considered as an alternative dietary approach for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer.

Barbir A, Linseisen J, Hermann S, et al.
Effects of phenotypes in heterocyclic aromatic amine (HCA) metabolism-related genes on the association of HCA intake with the risk of colorectal adenomas.
Cancer Causes Control. 2012; 23(9):1429-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA), formed by high-temperature cooking of meat, are well-known risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Enzymes metabolizing HCAs may influence the risk of CRC depending on the enzyme activity level. We aimed to assess effect modification by polymorphisms in the HCA-metabolizing genes on the association of HCA intake with colorectal adenoma (CRA) risk, which are precursors of CRC.
METHODS: A case-control study nested in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort was conducted. Between 1994 and 2005, 413 adenoma cases were identified and 796 controls were matched to cases. Genotypes were determined and used to predict phenotypes (i.e., enzyme activities). Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: CRA risk was positively associated with PhIP, MeIQx, and DiMeIQx (p trend = 0.006, 0.022, and 0.045, respectively) intake. SULT1A1 phenotypes modified the effect of MeIQx on CRA risk (p (Interaction) > 0.01) such that the association of MeIQx intake with CRA was stronger for slow than for normal phenotypes. Other modifying effects by phenotypes did not reach statistical significance.
CONCLUSIONS: HCA intake is positively associated with CRA risk, regardless of phenotypes involved in the metabolizing process. Due to the number of comparisons made in the analysis, the modifying effect of SULT1A1 on the association of HCA intake with CRA risk may be due to chance.

Van Hemelrijck M, Rohrmann S, Steinbrecher A, et al.
Heterocyclic aromatic amine [HCA] intake and prostate cancer risk: effect modification by genetic variants.
Nutr Cancer. 2012; 64(5):704-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
The association between heterocyclic aromatic amine (HCA) intake and prostate cancer (PCa) risk may be modified by genetic variation in enzymes involved in HCA metabolism. We examined this question in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Heidelberg cohort. The study included 204 PCa cases and 360 matched controls. At baseline, participants provided dietary and lifestyle data and blood samples that were used for genotyping. Dietary HCA intake-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx-was estimated using information on meat consumption, cooking methods, and browning degree. Risk estimates for gene × HCA interactions were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. We found inverse associations between PhIP, MeIQx, or DiMeIQx intake and PCa risk when having <2 deletions of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes (P(interaction): 0.03, 0.01, and 0.03, respectively), which is supported by analysis of darkly browned meat consumption data. Statistically significant effect modification of both HCA (DiMeIQx) and darkly browned meat intake and PCa risk was observed for allelic variants of MnSOD (rs4880) (P(interaction): 0.02). Despite limitations due to study size, we conclude that the association between HCA intake and PCa risk could be modified by polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1, and MnSOD.

Wang M, Chen S, Wang S, et al.
Effects of phytochemicals sulforaphane on uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase expression as well as cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells.
Chin J Physiol. 2012; 55(2):134-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our study investigated the effects of the chemopreventive agent sulforaphane (SFN) on human colon cancer Caco-2 cells and potential underlying mechanisms of the effects. When treated with SFN at hypotoxic levels, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) was induced in a dose-dependent manner. SFN at 25 μM showed the highest UGT1A-induction activity, inducing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 mRNA expression, and increasing UGT-mediated N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronidation. SFN- induced UGT1A expression may have resulted from Nrf2 nuclear translocation or activation. At higher concentrations, e.g. 75 μM, SFN caused G1/G2 cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis possibly through reducing anti-apoptotic bcl-2 expression and increasing apoptosis-inducing bax expression in Caco-2 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated the chemopreventive effects of SFN on human colon cancer Caco-2 cells may have been partly attributed to Nrf2-mediated UGT1A induction and apoptosis induction, and our studies provided theoretic and experimental basis for clinical application of SFN to human colon cancer prevention.

De Semir D, Nosrati M, Bezrookove V, et al.
Pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) as a marker and mediator of melanoma metastasis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(18):7067-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although melanomas with mutant v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) can now be effectively targeted, there is no molecular target for most melanomas expressing wild-type BRAF. Here, we show that the activation of Pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP), promotes melanoma metastasis, can be used to classify a subset of primary melanomas, and is a prognostic biomarker for melanoma. Systemic, plasmid-based shRNA targeting of Phip inhibited the metastatic progression of melanoma, whereas stable suppression of Phip in melanoma cell lines suppressed metastatic potential and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. The human PHIP gene resides on 6q14.1, and although 6q loss has been observed in melanoma, the PHIP locus was preserved in melanoma cell lines and patient samples, and its overexpression was an independent adverse predictor of survival in melanoma patients. In addition, a high proportion of PHIP-overexpressing melanomas harbored increased PHIP copy number. PHIP-overexpressing melanomas include tumors with wild-type BRAF, neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog, and phosphatase and tensin homolog, demonstrating PHIP activation in triple-negative melanoma. These results describe previously unreported roles for PHIP in predicting and promoting melanoma metastasis, and in the molecular classification of melanoma.

Choudhary S, Sood S, Donnell RL, Wang HC
Intervention of human breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(4):876-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, such as those in the diet, through a multistep disease process progressing from non-cancerous to premalignant and malignant stages. The chemical carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines found in high-temperature cooked meats and is recognized as a mammary carcinogen. However, the PhIP's mechanism of action in breast cell carcinogenesis is not clear. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that cumulative exposures to PhIP at physiologically achievable, pico to nanomolar concentrations effectively induced progressive carcinogenesis of human breast epithelial MCF10A cells from a non-cancerous stage to premalignant and malignant stages in a dose- and exposure-dependent manner. Progressive carcinogenesis was measured by increasingly- acquired cancer-associated properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth, acinar-conformational disruption, proliferation, migration, invasion, tumorigenicity with metastasis and increased stem-like cell populations. These biological changes were accompanied by biochemical and molecular changes, including upregulated H-Ras gene expression, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation, Nox-1 expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation, increased HIF-1α, Sp1, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and reduced E-cadherin. The Ras-ERK-Nox-ROS pathway played an important role in not only initiation but also maintenance of cellular carcinogenesis induced by PhIP. Using biological, biochemical and molecular changes as targeted endpoints, we identified that the green tea catechin components epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, at non-cytotoxic doses, were capable of suppressing PhIP-induced cellular carcinogenesis and tumorigenicity.

Svendsen C, Meinl W, Glatt H, et al.
Intestinal carcinogenesis of two food processing contaminants, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, in transgenic FVB min mice expressing human sulfotransferases.
Mol Carcinog. 2012; 51(12):984-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Humans express sulfotransferases (SULTs) of the SULT1A subfamily in many tissues, whilst the single SULT1A gene present in rodents is mainly expressed in liver. The food processing contaminants, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are bioactivated by human SULT1A1 and SULT1A2. FVB multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mice, which spontaneously develop tumors and flat aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in intestine, were crossed with transgenic FVB mice expressing human SULT1A1 and 1A2 (hSULT) in several tissues, giving rise to wild-type and Min mice with and without hSULT. One-week-old Min mice with or without hSULT were given HMF (375 or 750 mg/kg bw) or saline by gavage three times a week for 11 wk. In another experiment, the F1 generation received subcutaneous injections of 50 mg/kg bw PhIP or saline 1 wk before birth, and 1, 2, and 3 wk after birth. HMF did not affect the formation of tumors, but may have induced some flat ACF (incidence 15-20%) in Min mice with and without hSULT. No control mouse developed any flat ACF. With the limitation that these putative effects were weak, they were unaffected by hSULT expression. The carcinogenic effect of PhIP increased in the presence of hSULT, with a significant increase in both incidence (31-80%) and number of colonic tumors (0.4-1.3 per animal). Thus, intestinal expression of human SULT1A1 and 1A2 might increase the susceptibility to compounds bioactivated via this pathway implying that humans might be more susceptible than conventional rodent models.

Larman HB, Zhao Z, Laserson U, et al.
Autoantigen discovery with a synthetic human peptidome.
Nat Biotechnol. 2011; 29(6):535-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immune responses targeting self-proteins (autoantigens) can lead to a variety of autoimmune diseases. Identification of these antigens is important for both diagnostic and therapeutic reasons. However, current approaches to characterize autoantigens have, in most cases, met only with limited success. Here we present a synthetic representation of the complete human proteome, the T7 peptidome phage display library (T7-Pep), and demonstrate its application to autoantigen discovery. T7-Pep is composed of >413,000 36-residue, overlapping peptides that cover all open reading frames in the human genome, and can be analyzed using high-throughput DNA sequencing. We developed a phage immunoprecipitation sequencing (PhIP-Seq) methodology to identify known and previously unreported autoantibodies contained in the spinal fluid of three individuals with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. We also show how T7-Pep can be used more generally to identify peptide-protein interactions, suggesting the broader utility of our approach for proteomic research.

Bushey RT, Chen G, Blevins-Primeau AS, et al.
Characterization of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2A1 (UGT2A1) variants and their potential role in tobacco carcinogenesis.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011; 21(2):55-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To examine UGT2A1 expression in human tissues, determine its glucuronidation activity against tobacco carcinogens, and assess the potential functional role of UGT2A1 missense single nucleotide polymorphisms on UGT2A1 enzyme activity.
METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and real time polymerase chain reaction were used to assess UGT2A1 gene expression in various human tissues. A glucuronidation assay measured by reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine UGT2A1 activity.
RESULTS: UGT2A1 was expressed in aerodigestive tract tissues including trachea, larynx, tonsil, lung, and colon; no expression was observed in breast, whole brain, pancreas, prostate, kidney, liver, or esophagus. UGT2A1 exhibited highest expression in the lung, followed by trachea >tonsil >larynx >colon >olfactory tissue. Cell homogenates prepared from wildtype UGT2A1(75Lys308Gly) overexpressing HEK293 cells showed significant glucuronidation activity against a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including, 1-hydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol, and 5-methylchrysene-1,2-diol. No activity was observed in UGT2A1 overexpressing cell homogenate against substrates that form N-glucuronides, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), nicotine, or N-OH-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (N-OH PhIP). A significant (P<0.05) decrease (approximately 25%) in glucuronidation activity (Vmax/KM) was observed against all polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons substrates for the UGT2A1(75Lys308Gly) variant compared with homogenates from wildtype UGT2A1(75Lys308Gly); no activity was observed for cell homogenates overexpressing the UGT2A1 variant for all substrates tested.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that UGT2A1 is an important detoxification enzyme in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons within target tissues for tobacco carcinogens and functional polymorphisms in UGT2A1 may play a role in tobacco-related cancer risk.

Cheung C, Loy S, Li GX, et al.
Rapid induction of colon carcinogenesis in CYP1A-humanized mice by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and dextran sodium sulfate.
Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(2):233-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most abundant heterocyclic amine produced during the cooking of meats and fish, is suspected to be a human carcinogen. Metabolic activation of PhIP is primarily mediated by the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2. Metabolism of PhIP by CYP1A2 differs considerably between humans and rodents, with more N(2)-hydroxylation (activation) and less 4'-hydroxylation (detoxication) in humans. Transgenic CYP1A-humanized mice (hCYP1A-mice), which have the human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes but lack the murine orthologs Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2, provide an excellent opportunity to develop a relevant model to study dietary-induced colon carcinogenesis. The treatment with 200 mg/kg PhIP by oral gavage, followed by 1.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water for 7 days, was found to be an effective combination to induce colon carcinogenesis in hCYP1A-mice. Tumor multiplicity at week 6 was calculated to be 3.75 ± 0.70 and for week 10 was 3.90 ± 0.61 with 80-95% of the tumors being adenocarcinomas. No tumors were found in the similarly treated wild-type mice. Western blots revealed overexpression of β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in colon tumor samples. Strong nuclear localization of β-catenin was observed in tumors. These results illustrate that PhIP and DSS combination produces rapid colon carcinogenesis in hCYP1A-mice and this is an effective model to mimic human colon carcinogenesis.

Narushima S, Sakata T, Hioki K, et al.
Inhibitory effect of yogurt on aberrant crypt foci formation in the rat colon and colorectal tumorigenesis in RasH2 mice.
Exp Anim. 2010; 59(4):487-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inhibitory effects of yogurt consisting of milk fermented by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain 2038 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus strain 1131 on formation of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats and also on development of colorectal tumors in transgenic mice harboring human prototype c-Ha-ras genes (rasH2 mice) were examined. F344 rats and rasH2 mice were fed commercial diet containing freeze-dried yogurt or starter medium (non-fermented milk). Rats were inoculated orally with heterocyclic amine 2-amino-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine hydrochloride (PhIP) for two weeks. The rats were necropsied 14 days after the PhIP treatment, and ACF in the colon and rectum were counted. RasH2 mice were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) for 20 weeks. Three weeks after the last injection of DMH, rasH2 mice were necropsied to determine the number and the size of colorectal tumors. Yogurt supplementation in diet significantly reduced the number of ACF and aberrant crypts (ACs) in rats fed control diet (P<0.01), but not in rats fed non-fermented milk diet. On the other hand, rasH2 mice receiving the yogurt-supplemented diet had significantly reduced numbers of tumors induced by DMH compared with those fed the non-fermented milk-supplemented diet (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that the yogurt used in this study appears to have tumor-suppressing properties, and rasH2 mice are a useful model for the evaluation of antitumor activities of foods.

Fukuda H, Takamura-Enya T, Masuda Y, et al.
Translesional DNA synthesis through a C8-guanyl adduct of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in Vitro: REV1 inserts dC opposite the lesion, and DNA polymerase kappa potentially catalyzes extension reaction from the 3'-dC terminus.
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(38):25585-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is the most abundant heterocyclic amine in cooked foods, and is both mutagenic and carcinogenic. It has been suspected that the carcinogenicity of PhIP is derived from its ability to form DNA adducts, principally dG-C8-PhIP. To shed further light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of mutations by PhIP, in vitro DNA synthesis analyses were carried out using a dG-C8-PhIP-modified oligonucleotide template. In this template, the dG-C8-PhIP adduct was introduced into the second G of the TCC GGG AAC sequence located in the 5' region. This represents one of the mutation hot spots in the rat Apc gene that is targeted by PhIP. Guanine deletions at this site in the Apc gene have been found to be preferentially induced by PhIP in rat colon tumors. DNA synthesis with A- or B-family DNA polymerases, such as Escherichia coli polymerase (pol) I and human pol delta, was completely blocked at the adducted guanine base. Translesional synthesis polymerases of the Y-family, pol eta, pol iota, pol kappa, and REV1, were also used for in vitro DNA synthesis analyses with the same templates. REV1, pol eta, and pol kappa were able to insert dCTP opposite dG-C8-PhIP, although the efficiencies for pol eta and pol kappa were low. pol kappa was also able to catalyze the extension reaction from the dC opposite dG-C8-PhIP, during which it often skipped over one dG of the triple dG sequence on the template. This slippage probably leads to the single dG base deletion in colon tumors.

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