Gene Summary

Gene:PHIP; pleckstrin homology domain interacting protein
Aliases: ndrp, BRWD2, WDR11, DCAF14
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that binds to the insulin receptor substrate 1 protein and regulates glucose transporter translocation in skeletal muscle cells. The encoded protein may also regulate growth and survival of pancreatic beta cells. Elevated copy number of this gene may be associated with melanoma severity and the encoded protein may promote melanoma metastasis in human patients. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2016]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:PH-interacting protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (19)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cooking
  • Prostate Cancer
  • APC
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Polymorphism
  • Breast Cancer
  • Anticarcinogenic Agents
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Rectal Cancer
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Carcinogens
  • Isoenzymes
  • Meat
  • Mutation
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Base Pair Mismatch
  • DNA Adducts
  • Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Mutagens
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2
  • Diet
  • Genotype
  • Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Amines
  • Food
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Cohort Studies
  • Neoplasms, Experimental
  • Cancer DNA
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Chromosome 6
  • Pyridines
  • Heterocyclic Compounds
  • Imidazoles
  • Risk Factors
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PHIP (cancer-related)

He X, Feng S
Role of Metabolic Enzymes P450 (CYP) on Activating Procarcinogen and their Polymorphisms on the Risk of Cancers.
Curr Drug Metab. 2015; 16(10):850-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are the most important metabolizing enzyme family exists among all organs. Apart from their role in the deactivation of most endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, they also mediate most procarcinogens oxidation to ultimate carcinogens. There are several modes of CYP450s activation of procarcinogens. 1) Formation of epoxide and diol-epoxides intermediates, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mediates PAHs oxidation to epoxide intermediates; 2) Formation of diazonium ions, such as CYP2A6, CYP2A13 and CYP2E1 mediates activation of most nitrosamines to unstable metabolites, which can rearrange to give diazonium ions. 3) Formation of reactive semiquinones and quinines, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 transformation of estradiol to catechol estrogens, subsequently formation semiquinones; 4) Formation of toxic O-esterification, such as CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 metabolizes PhIP to N(2)-acetoxy-PhIP and N(2)-sulfonyloxy-PhIP, which are carcinogenic metabolites. 5) Formation of free radical, such as CYP2E1 is involved in activation tetrachloromethane to free radicals. While for CYP2B6 and CYP2D6, only a minor role has been found in procarcinogens activation. In addition, as the gene polymorphisms reflected, the polymorphisms of CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1A2 (- 163C/A and -2467T/delT), CYP1B1 (-48G/C, -119G/T and -432G/C), CYP2E1 (-1293G/C and -1053 C/T) have been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), and CYP2E1 (PstI/Rsa and 9-bp insertion) have an association with higher risk colon cancers, whereas CYP1A2 (-163C/A and -3860G/A) polymorphism is found to be among the protective factors. The polymorphisms CYP1A1 (-3801T/C and -4889A/G), CYP1B1 -432G/C, CYP2B6 (-516G/T and -785A/G) may increase the risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 are responsible for most of the procarcinogens activation, and their gene polymorphisms are associated with the risk of cancers.

Melkonian SC, Daniel CR, Ye Y, et al.
Gene-environment interaction of genome-wide association study-identified susceptibility loci and meat-cooking mutagens in the etiology of renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer. 2016; 122(1):108-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Meat-cooking mutagens may be associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk. In the current study, the authors examined associations between meat-cooking mutagens, genetic susceptibility variants, and risk of RCC.
METHODS: The authors used 659 newly diagnosed RCC cases and 699 healthy controls to investigate the association between dietary intake of meat-cooking mutagens and RCC. They examined whether associations varied by risk factors for RCC and genetic susceptibility variants previously identified from genome-wide association studies. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using tertiles of intake of dietary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons/heterocyclic amines.
RESULTS: Dietary intake of the mutagenic compounds 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo-(4,5-f) quinoxaline (MeIQx) and 2-amino-1 methyl-6-phenylimidazo(4,5-b)pyridine (PhIP) were found to be significantly associated with an increased risk of RCC (odds ratios across tertiles: 1.00 [referent], 1.28 [95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.74], and 1.95 [95% confidence interval, 1.43-2.66] [P for trend <.001], respectively; and 1.00 [referent], 1.41 [95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.90], and 1.54 [95% confidence interval, 1.14-2.07] [P for trend =.02], respectively). The authors observed evidence of interactions between PhIP and RCC susceptibility variants in 2 genes: inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 2 (ITPR2) (rs718314; multiplicative P for interaction = .03 and additive P for interaction =.002) and endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 (EPAS1) (rs7579899; additive P for interaction =.06).
CONCLUSIONS: The intake of meat may increase the risk of RCC through mechanisms related to the cooking compounds MeIQx and PhIP. These associations may be modified by genetic susceptibility to RCC. Further research is necessary to understand the biological mechanisms underlying these interactions.

Pluchino LA, Liu AK, Wang HC
Reactive oxygen species-mediated breast cell carcinogenesis enhanced by multiple carcinogens and intervened by dietary ergosterol and mimosine.
Free Radic Biol Med. 2015; 80:12-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Most breast cancers occur sporadically due to long-term exposure to low-dose carcinogens in the diet and the environment. Specifically, smoke, polluted air, and high-temperature cooked meats comprise multiple carcinogens, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), benzo[α]pyrene (B[α]P), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). We sought to determine if these carcinogens act together to induce breast cell carcinogenesis, and if so, whether noncytotoxic dietary agents could intervene. We demonstrated that coexposure to physiologically achievable doses of NNK, B[α]P, and PhIP (NBP) holistically enhanced initiation and progression of breast cell carcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of the ERK pathway were transiently induced by NBP in each exposure, and cross talk between reinforced ROS elevation and ERK activation played an essential role in increased DNA oxidation and damage. After cumulative exposures to NBP, this cross talk contributed to enhanced initiation of cellular carcinogenesis and led to enhanced acquisition of cancer-associated properties. Using NBP-induced transient changes, such as ROS elevation and ERK pathway activation, and cancer-associated properties as targeted endpoints, we revealed, for the first time, that two less-studied dietary compounds, ergosterol and mimosine, at physiologically achievable noncytotoxic levels, were highly effective in intervention of NBP-induced cellular carcinogenesis. Combined ergosterol and mimosine were more effective than individual agents in blocking NBP-induced transient endpoints, including ROS-mediated DNA oxidation, which accounted for their preventive ability to suppress progression of NBP-induced cellular carcinogenesis. Thus, dietary components, such as mushrooms containing ergosterol and legumes containing mimosine, should be considered for affordable prevention of sporadic breast cancer associated with long-term exposure to environmental and dietary carcinogens.

Wang H, Zhou H, Liu A, et al.
Genetic analysis of colon tumors induced by a dietary carcinogen PhIP in CYP1A humanized mice: Identification of mutation of β-catenin/Ctnnb1 as the driver gene for the carcinogenesis.
Mol Carcinog. 2015; 54(11):1264-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Replacing mouse Cyp1a with human CYP1A enables the humanized CYP1A mice to mimic human metabolism of the dietary carcinogen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), by N(2) -hydroxylation to a proximate carcinogen. Our previous study demonstrated that PhIP, combined with the dextrin sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, induces colon carcinogenesis in hCYP1A mice. Here, we employed whole exome sequencing and found multiple gene mutations in PhIP/DSS-induced colon tumors. Mutations in the exon 3 of Ctnnb1/β-catenin, however, were the predominant events. We further sequenced the key fragments of Apc, Ctnnb1, and Kras, because mutations of these genes in the humans are commonly found as the drivers of colorectal cancer. Mutations on either codon 32 or 34 in the exon 3 of Ctnnb1 were found in 39 out of 42 tumors, but no mutation was found in either Apc or Kras. The sequence context of codons 32 and 34 suggests that PhIP targets +3G in a TGGA motif of Ctnnb1. Since mutations that activate Wnt signal is a major driving force for human colorectal cancers, we conclude that the mutated β-catenin is the driver in PhIP/DSS-induced colon carcinogenesis. This result suggests that the colon tumors in hCYP1A mice mimic human colorectal carcinogenesis not only in the dietary etiology involving PhIP, but also in the aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway as the driving force.

Li RJ, Tian JJ, Li WQ, et al.
Effect of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine on oxidative stress and gene expression of c-fos, c-jun, p16 and Rb in rat colons and protective role of seabuckthorn seed oil.
J Environ Sci Health B. 2014; 49(4):279-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
Exposure to 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4, 5-b] pyridine (PhIP), a typical example of heterocyclic amine compounds, increases colon cancer risk. Seabuckthorn (SBT) seed oil is a biologically active substance extracted from seeds of wild Hippophae rhamnoides L. Here, we sought to investigate the toxicological mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and cancer-related gene expression in the rat colons as well as the protective effect of SBT seed oil against colonic oxidative damage. Our results showed that PhIP significantly decreased the anti-oxidative enzyme activities whereas increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, protein carbonyl (PCO) levels and DNA-protein cross-links (DPC) coefficients in the rat colons compared with the solvent-control group. Moreover, PhIP activated expression of c-fos and c-jun and inhibited p16 and Rb expression. Additionally, SBT seed oil plus PhIP significantly improved antioxidant markers and reduced the levels of MDA, PCO and DPC compared to those in rats exposed to PhIP alone. These data indicated that PhIP could induce oxidative stress and abnormal alterations of cancer-related gene expression in the rat colons while SBT seed oil may be beneficial because of its ability to alleviate the PhIP-induced oxidative damage to the rats.

Igarashi M, Hippo Y, Ochiai M, et al.
AKT is critically involved in cooperation between obesity and the dietary carcinogen amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] (PhIP) toward colon carcinogenesis in rats.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 443(3):852-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Obesity is highly associated with colon cancer development. Whereas it is generally attributed to pro-tumorigenic effects of high fat diet (HFD), we here show that a common genetic basis for predisposition to obesity and colon cancer might also underlie the close association. Comparison across multiple rat strains revealed that strains prone to colon tumorigenesis initiated by a dietary carcinogen amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) tended to develop obesity. Through transcriptome and extensive immunoblotting analyses, we identified the basal level of activated AKT in colonic crypts as a biomarker for the common predisposition. Notably, PhIP induced activation of AKT, which could persist for several weeks under a low fat diet (LFD), but not under HFD. On the other hand, PhIP and HFD independently induced Wnt pathway activation and inhibited apoptosis, through distinct mechanisms involving GSK-3β, caspase 3 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Taken together, these observations provide mechanistic insights into how PhIP-induced activation of AKT might cooperate with HFD at multiple levels toward development of colon cancer.

Krupar R, Hartl M, Wirsching K, et al.
Comparison of HPV prevalence in HNSCC patients with regard to regional and socioeconomic factors.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2014; 271(6):1737-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
HPV infection is considered as an independent risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). Due to highly variable prevalence results in numerous studies, it is, however, difficult to estimate the relevance of HPV infection as risk factor for a specific patient collective. This study aimed to elucidate the disparities of HPV prevalence by analyzing socioeconomically and regionally different patient collectives. Two age, gender, stage and tumor location matched cohorts of 18 private health insured (PHIP) and 16 statutory health insured patients (SIP) suffering from an oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and treated at a university hospital were screened for p16 overexpression and HPV infection by immunohistochemistry and PCR. In addition 85 HNSCC patients of an otolaryngology private practice (PPP) in a rural area were screened for p16 overexpression and positive cases were tested for HPV infection. HPV prevalence was 72.2% in the PHIP collective in comparison to 25.0% (p = 0.015) in the SIP collective with a significantly improved 5-year overall survival (p = 0.003) of the PHIP collective. The total HPV prevalence of PPP group was 7.1% with the highest infection rate in tonsillar carcinomas (33.3%) and a larger percentage of female patients in the HPV positive group (p = 0.037). This study shows that variable HPV infection rates in HNSCC can be caused by the selection of particular patient collectives, which suggest taking socioeconomic and regional factors into account for a decision on HPV testing, if it is not performed on a routine basis.

Bezrookove V, De Semir D, Nosrati M, et al.
Prognostic impact of PHIP copy number in melanoma: linkage to ulceration.
J Invest Dermatol. 2014; 134(3):783-90 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ulceration is an important prognostic factor in melanoma whose biologic basis is poorly understood. Here we assessed the prognostic impact of pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) copy number and its relationship to ulceration. PHIP copy number was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in a tissue microarray cohort of 238 melanomas. Elevated PHIP copy number was associated with significantly reduced distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS; P=0.01) and disease-specific survival (DSS; P=0.009) by Kaplan-Meier analyses. PHIP FISH scores were independently predictive of DMFS (P=0.03) and DSS (P=0.03). Increased PHIP copy number was an independent predictor of ulceration status (P=0.04). The combined impact of increased PHIP copy number and tumor vascularity on ulceration status was highly significant (P<0.0001). Stable suppression of PHIP in human melanoma cells resulted in significantly reduced glycolytic activity in vitro, with lower expression of lactate dehydrogenase 5, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha subunit, and vascular endothelial growth factor, and was accompanied by reduced microvessel density in vivo. These results provide further support for PHIP as a molecular prognostic marker of melanoma, and reveal a significant linkage between PHIP levels and ulceration. Moreover, they suggest that ulceration may be driven by increased glycolysis and angiogenesis.

Okudaira N, Okamura T, Tamura M, et al.
Long interspersed element-1 is differentially regulated by food-borne carcinogens via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(41):4903-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A single human cell contains more than 5.0 × 10(5) copies of long interspersed element-1 (L1), 80-100 of which are competent for retrotransposition (L1-RTP). Recent observations have revealed the presence of de novo L1 insertions in various tumors, but little is known about its mechanism. Here, we found that 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,8-dimethyl-imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), food-borne carcinogens that are present in broiled meats, induced L1-RTP. This induction was dependent on a cellular cascade comprising the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a mitogen-activated protein kinase, and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β. Notably, these compounds exhibited differential induction of L1-RTP. MeIQx-induced L1-RTP was dependent on AhR nuclear translocator 1 (ARNT1), a counterpart of AhR required for gene expression in response to environmental pollutants. By contrast, PhIP-induced L1-RTP did not require ARNT1 but was dependent on estrogen receptor α (ERα) and AhR repressor. In vivo studies using transgenic mice harboring the human L1 gene indicated that PhIP-induced L1-RTP was reproducibly detected in the mammary gland, which is a target organ of PhIP-induced carcinoma. Moreover, picomolar levels of each compound induced L1-RTP, which is comparable to the PhIP concentration detected in human breast milk. Data suggest that somatic cells possess machineries that induce L1-RTP in response to the carcinogenic compounds. Together with data showing that micromolar levels of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) were non-genotoxic, our observations indicate that L1-RTP by environmental compounds is a novel type of genomic instability, further suggesting that analysis of L1-RTP by HCAs is a novel approach to clarification of modes of carcinogenesis.

Sliva D, Loganathan J, Jiang J, et al.
Mushroom Ganoderma lucidum prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e47873 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies suggest that mushroom intake is inversely correlated with gastric, gastrointestinal and breast cancers. We have recently demonstrated anticancer and anti-inflammatory activity of triterpene extract isolated from mushroom Ganoderma lucidum (GLT). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether GLT prevents colitis-associated carcinogenesis in mice.
METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colon carcinogenesis was induced by the food-borne carcinogen (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazol[4,5-b]pyridine [PhIP]) and inflammation (dextran sodium sulfate [DSS]) in mice. Mice were treated with 0, 100, 300 and 500 mg GLT/kg of body weight 3 times per week for 4 months. Cell proliferation, expression of cyclin D1 and COX-2 and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of GLT on XRE/AhR, PXR and rPXR was evaluated by the reporter gene assays. Expression of metabolizing enzymes CYP1A2, CYP3A1 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. GLT treatment significantly suppressed focal hyperplasia, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and tumor formation in mice exposed to PhIP/DSS. The anti-proliferative effects of GLT were further confirmed by the decreased staining with Ki-67 in colon tissues. PhIP/DSS-induced colon inflammation was demonstrated by the significant shortening of the large intestine and macrophage infiltrations, whereas GLT treatment prevented the shortening of colon lengths, and reduced infiltration of macrophages in colon tissue. GLT treatment also significantly down-regulated PhIP/DSS-dependent expression of cyclin D1, COX-2, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 in colon tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that GLT could be considered as an alternative dietary approach for the prevention of colitis-associated cancer.

Barbir A, Linseisen J, Hermann S, et al.
Effects of phenotypes in heterocyclic aromatic amine (HCA) metabolism-related genes on the association of HCA intake with the risk of colorectal adenomas.
Cancer Causes Control. 2012; 23(9):1429-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA), formed by high-temperature cooking of meat, are well-known risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Enzymes metabolizing HCAs may influence the risk of CRC depending on the enzyme activity level. We aimed to assess effect modification by polymorphisms in the HCA-metabolizing genes on the association of HCA intake with colorectal adenoma (CRA) risk, which are precursors of CRC.
METHODS: A case-control study nested in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort was conducted. Between 1994 and 2005, 413 adenoma cases were identified and 796 controls were matched to cases. Genotypes were determined and used to predict phenotypes (i.e., enzyme activities). Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: CRA risk was positively associated with PhIP, MeIQx, and DiMeIQx (p trend = 0.006, 0.022, and 0.045, respectively) intake. SULT1A1 phenotypes modified the effect of MeIQx on CRA risk (p (Interaction) > 0.01) such that the association of MeIQx intake with CRA was stronger for slow than for normal phenotypes. Other modifying effects by phenotypes did not reach statistical significance.
CONCLUSIONS: HCA intake is positively associated with CRA risk, regardless of phenotypes involved in the metabolizing process. Due to the number of comparisons made in the analysis, the modifying effect of SULT1A1 on the association of HCA intake with CRA risk may be due to chance.

Van Hemelrijck M, Rohrmann S, Steinbrecher A, et al.
Heterocyclic aromatic amine [HCA] intake and prostate cancer risk: effect modification by genetic variants.
Nutr Cancer. 2012; 64(5):704-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
The association between heterocyclic aromatic amine (HCA) intake and prostate cancer (PCa) risk may be modified by genetic variation in enzymes involved in HCA metabolism. We examined this question in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Heidelberg cohort. The study included 204 PCa cases and 360 matched controls. At baseline, participants provided dietary and lifestyle data and blood samples that were used for genotyping. Dietary HCA intake-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-3,4,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx-was estimated using information on meat consumption, cooking methods, and browning degree. Risk estimates for gene × HCA interactions were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. We found inverse associations between PhIP, MeIQx, or DiMeIQx intake and PCa risk when having <2 deletions of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes (P(interaction): 0.03, 0.01, and 0.03, respectively), which is supported by analysis of darkly browned meat consumption data. Statistically significant effect modification of both HCA (DiMeIQx) and darkly browned meat intake and PCa risk was observed for allelic variants of MnSOD (rs4880) (P(interaction): 0.02). Despite limitations due to study size, we conclude that the association between HCA intake and PCa risk could be modified by polymorphisms of GSTT1, GSTM1, and MnSOD.

Wang M, Chen S, Wang S, et al.
Effects of phytochemicals sulforaphane on uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase expression as well as cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells.
Chin J Physiol. 2012; 55(2):134-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our study investigated the effects of the chemopreventive agent sulforaphane (SFN) on human colon cancer Caco-2 cells and potential underlying mechanisms of the effects. When treated with SFN at hypotoxic levels, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) was induced in a dose-dependent manner. SFN at 25 μM showed the highest UGT1A-induction activity, inducing UGT1A1, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10 mRNA expression, and increasing UGT-mediated N-hydroxy-PhIP glucuronidation. SFN- induced UGT1A expression may have resulted from Nrf2 nuclear translocation or activation. At higher concentrations, e.g. 75 μM, SFN caused G1/G2 cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis possibly through reducing anti-apoptotic bcl-2 expression and increasing apoptosis-inducing bax expression in Caco-2 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated the chemopreventive effects of SFN on human colon cancer Caco-2 cells may have been partly attributed to Nrf2-mediated UGT1A induction and apoptosis induction, and our studies provided theoretic and experimental basis for clinical application of SFN to human colon cancer prevention.

De Semir D, Nosrati M, Bezrookove V, et al.
Pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) as a marker and mediator of melanoma metastasis.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(18):7067-72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although melanomas with mutant v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) can now be effectively targeted, there is no molecular target for most melanomas expressing wild-type BRAF. Here, we show that the activation of Pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP), promotes melanoma metastasis, can be used to classify a subset of primary melanomas, and is a prognostic biomarker for melanoma. Systemic, plasmid-based shRNA targeting of Phip inhibited the metastatic progression of melanoma, whereas stable suppression of Phip in melanoma cell lines suppressed metastatic potential and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. The human PHIP gene resides on 6q14.1, and although 6q loss has been observed in melanoma, the PHIP locus was preserved in melanoma cell lines and patient samples, and its overexpression was an independent adverse predictor of survival in melanoma patients. In addition, a high proportion of PHIP-overexpressing melanomas harbored increased PHIP copy number. PHIP-overexpressing melanomas include tumors with wild-type BRAF, neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog, and phosphatase and tensin homolog, demonstrating PHIP activation in triple-negative melanoma. These results describe previously unreported roles for PHIP in predicting and promoting melanoma metastasis, and in the molecular classification of melanoma.

Choudhary S, Sood S, Donnell RL, Wang HC
Intervention of human breast cell carcinogenesis chronically induced by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine.
Carcinogenesis. 2012; 33(4):876-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
More than 85% of breast cancers are sporadic and attributable to long-term exposure to environmental carcinogens, such as those in the diet, through a multistep disease process progressing from non-cancerous to premalignant and malignant stages. The chemical carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is one of the most abundant heterocyclic amines found in high-temperature cooked meats and is recognized as a mammary carcinogen. However, the PhIP's mechanism of action in breast cell carcinogenesis is not clear. Here, we demonstrated, for the first time, that cumulative exposures to PhIP at physiologically achievable, pico to nanomolar concentrations effectively induced progressive carcinogenesis of human breast epithelial MCF10A cells from a non-cancerous stage to premalignant and malignant stages in a dose- and exposure-dependent manner. Progressive carcinogenesis was measured by increasingly- acquired cancer-associated properties of reduced dependence on growth factors, anchorage-independent growth, acinar-conformational disruption, proliferation, migration, invasion, tumorigenicity with metastasis and increased stem-like cell populations. These biological changes were accompanied by biochemical and molecular changes, including upregulated H-Ras gene expression, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation, Nox-1 expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation, increased HIF-1α, Sp1, tumor necrosis factor-α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and reduced E-cadherin. The Ras-ERK-Nox-ROS pathway played an important role in not only initiation but also maintenance of cellular carcinogenesis induced by PhIP. Using biological, biochemical and molecular changes as targeted endpoints, we identified that the green tea catechin components epicatechin-3-gallate and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, at non-cytotoxic doses, were capable of suppressing PhIP-induced cellular carcinogenesis and tumorigenicity.

Svendsen C, Meinl W, Glatt H, et al.
Intestinal carcinogenesis of two food processing contaminants, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, in transgenic FVB min mice expressing human sulfotransferases.
Mol Carcinog. 2012; 51(12):984-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
Humans express sulfotransferases (SULTs) of the SULT1A subfamily in many tissues, whilst the single SULT1A gene present in rodents is mainly expressed in liver. The food processing contaminants, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), are bioactivated by human SULT1A1 and SULT1A2. FVB multiple intestinal neoplasia (Min) mice, which spontaneously develop tumors and flat aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in intestine, were crossed with transgenic FVB mice expressing human SULT1A1 and 1A2 (hSULT) in several tissues, giving rise to wild-type and Min mice with and without hSULT. One-week-old Min mice with or without hSULT were given HMF (375 or 750 mg/kg bw) or saline by gavage three times a week for 11 wk. In another experiment, the F1 generation received subcutaneous injections of 50 mg/kg bw PhIP or saline 1 wk before birth, and 1, 2, and 3 wk after birth. HMF did not affect the formation of tumors, but may have induced some flat ACF (incidence 15-20%) in Min mice with and without hSULT. No control mouse developed any flat ACF. With the limitation that these putative effects were weak, they were unaffected by hSULT expression. The carcinogenic effect of PhIP increased in the presence of hSULT, with a significant increase in both incidence (31-80%) and number of colonic tumors (0.4-1.3 per animal). Thus, intestinal expression of human SULT1A1 and 1A2 might increase the susceptibility to compounds bioactivated via this pathway implying that humans might be more susceptible than conventional rodent models.

Larman HB, Zhao Z, Laserson U, et al.
Autoantigen discovery with a synthetic human peptidome.
Nat Biotechnol. 2011; 29(6):535-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immune responses targeting self-proteins (autoantigens) can lead to a variety of autoimmune diseases. Identification of these antigens is important for both diagnostic and therapeutic reasons. However, current approaches to characterize autoantigens have, in most cases, met only with limited success. Here we present a synthetic representation of the complete human proteome, the T7 peptidome phage display library (T7-Pep), and demonstrate its application to autoantigen discovery. T7-Pep is composed of >413,000 36-residue, overlapping peptides that cover all open reading frames in the human genome, and can be analyzed using high-throughput DNA sequencing. We developed a phage immunoprecipitation sequencing (PhIP-Seq) methodology to identify known and previously unreported autoantibodies contained in the spinal fluid of three individuals with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. We also show how T7-Pep can be used more generally to identify peptide-protein interactions, suggesting the broader utility of our approach for proteomic research.

Bushey RT, Chen G, Blevins-Primeau AS, et al.
Characterization of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2A1 (UGT2A1) variants and their potential role in tobacco carcinogenesis.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011; 21(2):55-65 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To examine UGT2A1 expression in human tissues, determine its glucuronidation activity against tobacco carcinogens, and assess the potential functional role of UGT2A1 missense single nucleotide polymorphisms on UGT2A1 enzyme activity.
METHODS: Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and real time polymerase chain reaction were used to assess UGT2A1 gene expression in various human tissues. A glucuronidation assay measured by reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine UGT2A1 activity.
RESULTS: UGT2A1 was expressed in aerodigestive tract tissues including trachea, larynx, tonsil, lung, and colon; no expression was observed in breast, whole brain, pancreas, prostate, kidney, liver, or esophagus. UGT2A1 exhibited highest expression in the lung, followed by trachea >tonsil >larynx >colon >olfactory tissue. Cell homogenates prepared from wildtype UGT2A1(75Lys308Gly) overexpressing HEK293 cells showed significant glucuronidation activity against a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including, 1-hydroxy-benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-diol, and 5-methylchrysene-1,2-diol. No activity was observed in UGT2A1 overexpressing cell homogenate against substrates that form N-glucuronides, such as 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), nicotine, or N-OH-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine (N-OH PhIP). A significant (P<0.05) decrease (approximately 25%) in glucuronidation activity (Vmax/KM) was observed against all polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons substrates for the UGT2A1(75Lys308Gly) variant compared with homogenates from wildtype UGT2A1(75Lys308Gly); no activity was observed for cell homogenates overexpressing the UGT2A1 variant for all substrates tested.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that UGT2A1 is an important detoxification enzyme in the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons within target tissues for tobacco carcinogens and functional polymorphisms in UGT2A1 may play a role in tobacco-related cancer risk.

Cheung C, Loy S, Li GX, et al.
Rapid induction of colon carcinogenesis in CYP1A-humanized mice by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and dextran sodium sulfate.
Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(2):233-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most abundant heterocyclic amine produced during the cooking of meats and fish, is suspected to be a human carcinogen. Metabolic activation of PhIP is primarily mediated by the enzyme cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2. Metabolism of PhIP by CYP1A2 differs considerably between humans and rodents, with more N(2)-hydroxylation (activation) and less 4'-hydroxylation (detoxication) in humans. Transgenic CYP1A-humanized mice (hCYP1A-mice), which have the human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 genes but lack the murine orthologs Cyp1a1 and Cyp1a2, provide an excellent opportunity to develop a relevant model to study dietary-induced colon carcinogenesis. The treatment with 200 mg/kg PhIP by oral gavage, followed by 1.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water for 7 days, was found to be an effective combination to induce colon carcinogenesis in hCYP1A-mice. Tumor multiplicity at week 6 was calculated to be 3.75 ± 0.70 and for week 10 was 3.90 ± 0.61 with 80-95% of the tumors being adenocarcinomas. No tumors were found in the similarly treated wild-type mice. Western blots revealed overexpression of β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 in colon tumor samples. Strong nuclear localization of β-catenin was observed in tumors. These results illustrate that PhIP and DSS combination produces rapid colon carcinogenesis in hCYP1A-mice and this is an effective model to mimic human colon carcinogenesis.

Narushima S, Sakata T, Hioki K, et al.
Inhibitory effect of yogurt on aberrant crypt foci formation in the rat colon and colorectal tumorigenesis in RasH2 mice.
Exp Anim. 2010; 59(4):487-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inhibitory effects of yogurt consisting of milk fermented by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus strain 2038 and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus strain 1131 on formation of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats and also on development of colorectal tumors in transgenic mice harboring human prototype c-Ha-ras genes (rasH2 mice) were examined. F344 rats and rasH2 mice were fed commercial diet containing freeze-dried yogurt or starter medium (non-fermented milk). Rats were inoculated orally with heterocyclic amine 2-amino-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine hydrochloride (PhIP) for two weeks. The rats were necropsied 14 days after the PhIP treatment, and ACF in the colon and rectum were counted. RasH2 mice were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) for 20 weeks. Three weeks after the last injection of DMH, rasH2 mice were necropsied to determine the number and the size of colorectal tumors. Yogurt supplementation in diet significantly reduced the number of ACF and aberrant crypts (ACs) in rats fed control diet (P<0.01), but not in rats fed non-fermented milk diet. On the other hand, rasH2 mice receiving the yogurt-supplemented diet had significantly reduced numbers of tumors induced by DMH compared with those fed the non-fermented milk-supplemented diet (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that the yogurt used in this study appears to have tumor-suppressing properties, and rasH2 mice are a useful model for the evaluation of antitumor activities of foods.

Fukuda H, Takamura-Enya T, Masuda Y, et al.
Translesional DNA synthesis through a C8-guanyl adduct of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in Vitro: REV1 inserts dC opposite the lesion, and DNA polymerase kappa potentially catalyzes extension reaction from the 3'-dC terminus.
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(38):25585-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is the most abundant heterocyclic amine in cooked foods, and is both mutagenic and carcinogenic. It has been suspected that the carcinogenicity of PhIP is derived from its ability to form DNA adducts, principally dG-C8-PhIP. To shed further light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of mutations by PhIP, in vitro DNA synthesis analyses were carried out using a dG-C8-PhIP-modified oligonucleotide template. In this template, the dG-C8-PhIP adduct was introduced into the second G of the TCC GGG AAC sequence located in the 5' region. This represents one of the mutation hot spots in the rat Apc gene that is targeted by PhIP. Guanine deletions at this site in the Apc gene have been found to be preferentially induced by PhIP in rat colon tumors. DNA synthesis with A- or B-family DNA polymerases, such as Escherichia coli polymerase (pol) I and human pol delta, was completely blocked at the adducted guanine base. Translesional synthesis polymerases of the Y-family, pol eta, pol iota, pol kappa, and REV1, were also used for in vitro DNA synthesis analyses with the same templates. REV1, pol eta, and pol kappa were able to insert dCTP opposite dG-C8-PhIP, although the efficiencies for pol eta and pol kappa were low. pol kappa was also able to catalyze the extension reaction from the dC opposite dG-C8-PhIP, during which it often skipped over one dG of the triple dG sequence on the template. This slippage probably leads to the single dG base deletion in colon tumors.

Koutros S, Berndt SI, Sinha R, et al.
Xenobiotic metabolizing gene variants, dietary heterocyclic amine intake, and risk of prostate cancer.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(5):1877-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We recently reported that heterocyclic amines (HCA) are associated with prostate cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We now use extensive genetic data from this resource to determine if risks associated with dietary HCAs {2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP); 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-b]quinoxaline (MeIQx); and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx)} from cooked meat are modified by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes involved in HCA metabolism (CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTM3, GSTP1, NAT1, NAT2, SULT1A1, SULT1A2, and UGT1A locus). We conducted a nested case-control study that included 1,126 prostate cancer cases and 1,127 controls selected for a genome-wide association study for prostate cancer. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR), 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), and P values for the interaction between SNPs, HCA intake, and risk of prostate cancer. The strongest evidence for an interaction was noted between DiMeIQx and MeIQx and the polymorphism rs11102001 downstream of the GSTM3 locus (P(interaction) = 0.001 for both HCAs; statistically significant after correction for multiple testing). Among men carrying the A variant, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high DiMeIQx intake was 2-fold greater than that with low intake (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.7). The SNP rs11102001, which encodes a nonsynonymous amino acid change P356S in EPS8L3, is a potential candidate modifier of the effect of HCAs on prostate cancer risk. The observed effect provides evidence to support the hypothesis that HCAs may act as promoters of malignant transformation by altering mitogenic signaling.

Winter HK, Ehrlich VA, Grusch M, et al.
Use of four new human-derived liver-cell lines for the detection of genotoxic compounds in the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay.
Mutat Res. 2008; 657(2):133-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
One of the main problems of in vitro genotoxicity assays is that the lack of adequate representation of drug-metabolising enzymes in indicator cell lines that are currently used in routine testing may lead to false results. In the present study, we investigated the ability of four new human-derived livercell lines to detect the DNA-damaging effects of representatives of different classes of genotoxic carcinogens that require metabolic activation, namely the nitrosamine N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), the heterocyclic aromatic amines 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1), the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was used in all experimental series as a positive control and parallel experiments were carried out with human HepG2 cells, which have been used in earlier studies. DNA damage was monitored in single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assays. Furthermore, RT-PCR experiments were carried out to study the expression of genes encoding for a panel of different phase-I and phase-II enzymes, which are involved in the activation/detoxification of genotoxic carcinogens. With one of the newly isolated hepatocellular lines, HCC1.2, positive results were obtained with all model compounds, two other new lines (HCC2 and HCC3), HepG2 and the virally immortalized line NKNT-3 were less sensitive and/or failed to detect some of the genotoxins. PCR analyses showed that all cell lines express genes coding for a variety of xenobiotic drug-metabolising enzymes. The highest levels were found in general in HCC1.2, while in NKNT-3 cells some genes were not transcribed. Overall, our results indicate that the line HCC1.2 may be useful for the development of improved in vitro genotoxicity test systems.

Suzuki H, Morris JS, Li Y, et al.
Interaction of the cytochrome P4501A2, SULT1A1 and NAT gene polymorphisms with smoking and dietary mutagen intake in modification of the risk of pancreatic cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2008; 29(6):1184-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aromatic amines, N-nitroso compounds and heterocyclic amines are suspected human pancreatic carcinogens. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, N-acetyltransferase (NAT) 1, NAT2 and sulfotransferase (SULT) are enzymes involved in the metabolism of these carcinogens. To test the hypothesis that genetic variations in carcinogen metabolism modify the risk of pancreatic cancer (PC), we investigated the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the CYP1A2, NAT1, NAT2 and SULT1A1 gene on modification of the risk of PC in a hospital-based study of 755 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 636 healthy frequency-matched controls. Smoking and dietary mutagen exposure information was collected by personal interviews. Genotypes were determined using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and Taqman methods. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis. We observed no significant main effects of any of these genes on the risk of PC. The CYP1A2 and NAT1 but not SULT1A1 and NAT2 genotypes showed significant interactions with heavy smoking in women not men. In contrast, a significant interaction between NAT1 genotype and dietary mutagen intake on modifying the risk of PC were observed among men but not women. The OR (95% CI) of PC was 2.23 (1.33-3.72) and 2.54 (1.51-4.25) for men having the NAT1*10 and a higher intake of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine and benzo[a]pyrene, respectively, compared with individuals having no NAT1*10 or a lower intake of these dietary mutagens. These data suggest the existence of gender-specific susceptibility to tobacco carcinogen and dietary mutagen exposure in PC.

Ferguson LR, Philpott M
Nutrition and mutagenesis.
Annu Rev Nutr. 2008; 28:313-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diet-related mutagenesis plays an etiologic role in chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Many dietary mutagens are DNA reactive, leading to distinct spectra of base-pair substitution mutations and structural chromosome changes. Examples include aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, ptaquiloside, various pyrrolizidine alkaloids, heterocyclic amines including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzo[a]pyrene. However, endogenously or exogenously formed reactive species, inhibitors of topoisomerase II enzymes (e.g., flavonoids), of DNA repair (e.g., caffeine), or of the mitotic spindle (possibly acrylamide), also cause mutations, including structural chromosome changes and copy number variants. Genomic instability also results from inadequate nutrient intake (e.g., folate and selenium). Antimutagens include vitamin C, carotenoids, chlorophyllin, dietary fibers, and plant polyphenols acting through various mechanisms. Polymorphisms in genes for nutrient uptake, metabolism, and excretion will affect dietary intake in determining individual risk of disease development. Human studies utilizing nutrigenomic/nutrigenetic technologies will be essential to quantifying and overcoming diet-related mutagenesis.

Hewitt R, Forero A, Luncsford PJ, Martin FL
Enhanced micronucleus formation and modulation of BCL-2:BAX in MCF-7 cells after exposure to binary mixtures.
Environ Health Perspect. 2007; 115 Suppl 1:129-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Within mixtures, interactions between different xenobiotics may occur to give rise to additive, synergistic, inhibitory and/or stimulatory effects in target cells. The role that xenobiotics individually or in mixtures, and at environmental concentrations, play in the etiology of common human diseases often remains obscure.
METHODS: In the presence or absence of lindane, chromosomal aberrations were detected in MCF-7 cells after 24-hr treatment with benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Micronuclei were scored in 1,000 binucleate cells/treatment. We investigated intracellular responses using quantitative gene expression analyses of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [CDKN1A (P21(WAF1/CIP1))], B-cell leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL-2), BCL-2-associated X (BAX), and isoforms of cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. Immunocytochemical analyses of p53, p21(Waf1/Cip1), Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression in MCF-7 cells were also carried out.
RESULTS: After exposure to binary mixtures of B[a]P plus lindane or PhIP plus lindane, a 10-fold increase in micronucleus formation resulted; these test agents individually induced 2- to 5-fold increases. Lindane increased the ratio of Bcl-2:Bax, as did 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). Although treatment with B[a]P alone was found to elevate expression of P21(WAF1/CIP1)and CYP isoenzymes, it reduced the ratio of BCL-2:BAX mRNA transcripts. Treatment with a binary mixture of 10(-8) M B[a]P plus 10(-12) M lindane or 10(-10) M E(2) reversed B[a]P-induced reductions in the ratio of Bcl-2- to Bax-positive cells. In contrast, treatments with PhIP (known to possess hormonelike properties) plus lindane or E(2) resulted in profound reductions in Bcl-2:Bax ratio.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that low-dose treatments (i.e., close to environmental levels) may increase DNA damage while influencing survival in exposed cells and that these effects may depend on the endocrine activity of test agents.

Vore M, Leggas M
Progesterone acts via progesterone receptors A and B to regulate breast cancer resistance protein expression.
Mol Pharmacol. 2008; 73(3):613-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2) is an ATP-dependent efflux multidrug transporter that belongs to the G family of half-transporters that consist of six transmembrane-spanning domains and must homodimerize to form the active membrane transporter. It is expressed in the apical plasma membrane domain of the small intestine, endothelium, and liver, where it has been shown to play an important role in limiting drug absorption and distribution and in enhancing drug clearance, respectively. BCRP is also expressed in the apical membrane of mammary alveolar epithelia, where it mediates efflux of substrates into milk, and in the placental syncytiotro-phoblasts, where it reduces fetal exposure to these substrates. BCRP substrates include numerous drugs (topotecan, nitrofurantoin, cimetidine) as well as food carcinogens (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine) and the vitamins riboflavin and folic acid. BCRP expression is regulated by a number of nuclear transcription factors, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Hif-1. This issue of Molecular Pharmacology includes a study (p. 845) now conclusively demonstrating that progesterone acts via the progesterone A and B receptors to regulate BCRP expression in a placental cell line.

Naiki-Ito A, Asamoto M, Hokaiwado N, et al.
Gpx2 is an overexpressed gene in rat breast cancers induced by three different chemical carcinogens.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(23):11353-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene expression alterations are essential for the process of carcinogenesis. A carcinogen may have specific mechanisms for inducing tumors, which may involve inducing characteristic gene expression alterations. In this study, we attempted to identify genes crucial for mammary carcinogenesis. For this purpose, we used human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic rats (Hras128), which are highly sensitive to mammary carcinogens including N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene, and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. DNA microarray analysis revealed that glutathione peroxidase 2 (Gpx2) was commonly up-regulated in the mammary carcinomas induced by the three different carcinogens, and its up-regulation was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and Western blotting analysis. In addition, expression of GPX2 was recognized in all 41 immunohistochemically examined cases of human breast cancer. Forced suppression of GPX2 expression by siRNA resulted in significant growth inhibition in both rat and human mammary carcinoma cell lines with wild-type p53 cells. Thus, these data suggested that GPX2 may be involved in mammary carcinogenesis and cell proliferation in both rats and humans, indicating that GPX2 may be a novel target for the prevention and therapy of breast cancer.

Butler LM, Millikan RC, Sinha R, et al.
Modification by N-acetyltransferase 1 genotype on the association between dietary heterocyclic amines and colon cancer in a multiethnic study.
Mutat Res. 2008; 638(1-2):162-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer incidence is greater among African Americans, compared to whites in the U.S., and may be due in part to differences in diet, genetic variation at metabolic loci, and/or the joint effect of diet and genetic susceptibility. We examined whether our previously reported associations between meat-derived heterocyclic amine (HCA) intake and colon cancer were modified by N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) or 2 (NAT2) genotypes and whether there were differences by race.
METHODS: In a population-based, case-control study of colon cancer, exposure to HCAs was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire with a meat-cooking and doneness module, among African Americans (217 cases and 315 controls) and whites (290 cases and 534 controls).
RESULTS: There was no association with NAT1*10 versus NAT1-non*10 genotypes for colon cancer. Among whites, there was a positive association for NAT2-"rapid/intermediate" genotype [odds ratio (OR)=1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.0, 1.8], compared to the NAT2-"slow" that was not observed among African Americans. Colon cancer associations with HCA intake were modified by NAT1, but not NAT2, regardless of race. However, the "at-risk" NAT1 genotype differed by race. For example, among African Americans, the positive association with 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) was confined to those with NAT1*10 genotype (OR=1.8; 95% CI=1.0, 3.3; P for interaction=0.02, comparing highest to lowest intake), but among whites, an association with 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) was confined to those with NAT1-non*10 genotype (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.1, 3.1; P for interaction=0.03).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate modification by NAT1 for HCA and colon cancer associations, regardless of race. Although the at-risk NAT1 genotype differs by race, the magnitude of the individual HCA-related associations in both race groups are similar. Therefore, our data do not support the hypothesis that NAT1 by HCA interactions contribute to differences in colorectal cancer incidence between African Americans and whites.

Clapper ML, Cooper HS, Chang WC
Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis-associated neoplasia: a promising model for the development of chemopreventive interventions.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2007; 28(9):1450-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Individuals diagnosed with ulcerative colitis face a significantly increased risk of developing colorectal dysplasia and cancer during their lifetime. To date, little attention has been given to the development of a chemopreventive intervention for this high-risk population. The mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) - induced colitis represents an excellent preclinical system in which to both characterize the molecular events required for tumor formation in the presence of inflammation and assess the ability of select agents to inhibit this process. Cyclic administration of DSS in drinking water results in the establishment of chronic colitis and the development of colorectal dysplasias and cancers with pathological features that resemble those of human colitis-associated neoplasia. The incidence and multiplicity of lesions observed varies depending on the mouse strain used (ie, Swiss Webster, C57BL/6J, CBA, ICR) and the dose (0.7%-5.0%) and schedule (1-15 cycles with or without a subsequent recovery period) of DSS. The incidence of neoplasia can be increased and its progression to invasive cancer accelerated significantly by administering DSS in combination with a known colon carcinogen (azoxymethane (AOM), 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-1- methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)) or iron. More recent induction of colitis-associated neoplasia in genetically defined mouse strains has provided new insight into the role of specific genes (ie, adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), p53, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Msh2) in the development of colitis-associated neoplasias. Emerging data from chemopreventive intervention studies document the efficacy of several agents in inhibiting DSS-induced neoplasia and provide great promise that colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia is a preventable disease.

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