Gene Summary

Gene:RREB1; ras responsive element binding protein 1
Aliases: HNT, FINB, LZ321, Zep-1, RREB-1
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a zinc finger transcription factor that binds to RAS-responsive elements (RREs) of gene promoters. It has been shown that the calcitonin gene promoter contains an RRE and that the encoded protein binds there and increases expression of calcitonin, which may be involved in Ras/Raf-mediated cell differentiation. Multiple transcript variants encoding several different isoforms have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2009]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:ras-responsive element-binding protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: RREB1 (cancer-related)

Campa M, Patel M, Aubert P, et al.
Blue Nevus-Like Metastasis of a Cutaneous Melanoma Identified by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization.
Am J Dermatopathol. 2016; 38(9):695-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
A blue nevus-like melanoma is a rare melanoma variant arising from or histologically similar to a blue nevus. It can be challenging to distinguish a cellular blue nevus from a blue nevus-like melanoma, particularly in cases of blue nevus-like melanoma lacking a transition from a clearly benign component. We present a case of a 78-year-old man who refused treatment for a previously existing melanoma and subsequently developed a gray nodule near the site of the previous melanoma. After fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed copy number gains in RREB1, this was diagnosed as a blue nevus-like metastatic melanoma. Blue nevus-like metastatic melanoma is most commonly seen near the site of the primary cutaneous melanoma. This entity should be considered in a patient with a history of melanoma and a new blue nevus-like lesion.

Liang Y, Sun R, Li L, et al.
A Functional Polymorphism in the Promoter of MiR-143/145 Is Associated With the Risk of Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Chinese Women: A Case-Control Study.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(31):e1289 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MiR-143/145 is down-regulated in cervical cancer, which may serve as a tumor suppressor by targeting KRAS and Ras-responsive element-binding protein (RREB1). Activated KRAS leads to down-regulation of miR-143/145 transcription in a RREB1-dependent manner, establishing a miR-143/145-KRAS-RREB1 feedback loop. A polymorphism rs4705343C/T in the promoter of miR-143/145 might influence the binding of TATA-binding protein. We hypothesized that the miR-143/145 rs4705343 and KRAS rs712 may be related to the occurrence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). In this study, we genotyped the 2 polymorphisms in 415 patients with CSCC and 504 controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The promoter activities were measured by the Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay System. We found that the rs4705343TC genotype was associated with an increased risk of CSCC (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.80). The significantly increased association was also observed in a dominant genetic model (adjusted OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.01-1.72). Combined analysis showed that individuals carrying the genotypes of rs4705343 TC/CC and rs712GT/TT had a 1.47-fold increased risk of CSCC (adjusted OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01-2.15). By using multifactor dimensionality reduction software method, we identified a significant interaction between the miR-143/145 rs4705343 and KRAS rs712. Dual-Luciferase Reporter Assay showed that the luciferase activity was significantly lower in cells transfected with the rs4705343C allele than that of the rs4705343T allele. These findings indicate that miR-143/145 rs4705343 and KRAS rs712 may contribute to the etiology of CSCC in Chinese women.

Dika E, Fanti PA, Fiorentino M, et al.
Spitzoid tumors in children and adults: a comparative clinical, pathological, and cytogenetic analysis.
Melanoma Res. 2015; 25(4):295-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
Spitzoid neoplasms may represent a difficult diagnosis in the practice of dermatopathology. We evaluated the concordance of the fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assay, histopathology, and dermoscopy in a group of adults and in a group of children with spitzoid neoplasms. The FISH assay, designed to detect the copy number of the RREB1 (6p25), MYB (6q23), and CCND1 (11q13) genes and of centromere 6 (Cep 6), was performed in a group of children and in a group of adults with a histopathologic diagnosis of spitzoid neoplasms. FISH data were compared with dermoscopy and histopathology. Fifteen spitzoid neoplasms were collected from 13 patients (five children and eight adults): nine lesions were histologically diagnosed as typical Spitz nevi; three lesions were melanomas and three were atypical Spitz nevi. The conventional FISH criteria were concordant with the clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of Spitz nevi in four adults and in three children. FISH criteria of the other neoplasms showed a concordance with the histopathologic diagnosis in three cases. Discordant results were obtained in five cases (two children, three adults). The FISH melanoma assay proved more reliable in spitzoid lesions found in adults than in children. This assay should be interpreted carefully in pediatric patients with Spitz nevi in the context of histological features as melanomas in the pediatric population may show distinct chromosomal aberrations.

Pletneva MA, Andea A, Palanisamy N, et al.
Clear cell melanoma: a cutaneous clear cell malignancy.
Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2014; 138(10):1328-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
Clear cell melanoma is a rare clear cell malignancy. Accurate diagnosis of clear cell melanoma requires integration of immunohistochemical and morphologic findings, with molecular studies to rule out clear cell sarcoma. The differential diagnosis includes melanoma, carcinoma, perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, and epidermotropic clear cell sarcoma. We use a case of a lesion on the helix of an 86-year-old man as an example. Histologic examination revealed an ulcerated clear cell malignant tumor. Tumor cell cytoplasm contained periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-sensitive glycogen. Tumor cells showed positive labeling for S100, HMB-45, and Melan-A, and negative labeling for cytokeratins, p63, and smooth muscle actin. Molecular studies demonstrated BRAF V600E mutation, copy gains at the 6p25 (RREB1) and 11q13 (CCND1) loci, and absence of EWSR1-ATF1 fusion. These findings supported a diagnosis of clear cell melanoma. The rare pure clear cell morphology occurs due to accumulation of intracytoplasmic glycogen. We review the differential diagnosis of clear cell melanoma and describe the utility of immunohistochemical and molecular studies in confirming this diagnosis.

Magro CM, Abraham RM, Guo R, et al.
Deep penetrating nevus-like borderline tumors: A unique subset of ambiguous melanocytic tumors with malignant potential and normal cytogenetics.
Eur J Dermatol. 2014 Sep-Oct; 24(5):594-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deep penetrating nevi (DPN) are a relatively uncommon subtype of melanocytic nevi. A small subset of these lesions exhibit atypical features (cytologic and architectural atypia, mitotic activity) seen in melanoma. These lesions we term the deep penetrating nevus-like borderline tumor. Unequivocal melanomas can show overlapping morphologic features of DPN, which have been termed plexiform melanomas.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: 40 cases of DPN-like borderline tumor were identified along with 6 cases of plexiform melanoma. Clinical follow up was obtained, along with cytogenetic analysis in the form of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and/or comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).
RESULTS: The DPN-like borderline tumor cases included 24 females and 16 males. Of sentinel lymph node biopsies performed, 1/3 of cases showed lymph node involvement. All patients where an aggressive clinical approach was adopted remain free of disease. All 6 DPN-like borderline tumor cases tested by CGH showed normal cytogenetics, as did 7 of 9 cases tested by FISH. Of the plexiform melanomas, 4/6 patients died of disease. In 3 cases there was morphologic progression from a DPN-like borderline tumor to overt melanoma. In one case of progression, cytogenetics was normal in the DPN-like borderline tumor and then abnormal in the progressed melanoma.
CONCLUSION: DPN-like borderline tumors are melanocytic tumors associated with a high incidence of regional lymph node disease and exhibiting the potential for melanoma progression despite a normal cytogenetic profile. Patients with these lesions should be aggressively managed, with at least complete re-excision and consideration of sentinel node biopsy, regardless of cytogenetic data.

Xiao J, Lee ST, Xiao Y, et al.
PTPRG inhibition by DNA methylation and cooperation with RAS gene activation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(5):1101-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
While the cytogenetic and genetic characteristics of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALL) are well studied, less clearly understood are the contributing epigenetic mechanisms that influence the leukemia phenotype. Our previous studies and others identified gene mutation (RAS) and DNA methylation (FHIT) to be associated with the most common cytogenetic subgroup of childhood ALL, high hyperdiploidy (having five more chromosomes). We screened DNA methylation profiles, using a genome-wide high-dimension platform of 166 childhood ALLs and 6 normal pre-B cell samples and observed a strong association of DNA methylation status at the PTPRG locus in human samples with levels of PTPRG gene expression as well as with RAS gene mutation status. In the 293 cell line, we found that PTPRG expression induces dephosphorylation of ERK, a downstream RAS target that may be critical for mutant RAS-induced cell growth. In addition, PTPRG expression is upregulated by RAS activation under DNA hypomethylating conditions. An element within the PTPRG promoter is bound by the RAS-responsive transcription factor RREB1, also under hypomethylating conditions. In conclusion, we provide evidence that DNA methylation of the PTPRG gene is a complementary event in oncogenesis induced by RAS mutations. Evidence for additional roles for PTPR family member genes is also suggested. This provides a potential therapeutic target for RAS-related leukemias as well as insight into childhood ALL etiology and pathophysiology.

Ponti G, Ruini C, Massi D, et al.
Fluorescence in-situ hybridization and dermoscopy in the assessment of controversial melanocytic tumors.
Melanoma Res. 2013; 23(6):474-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the 'gold standard' for melanoma diagnosis remains histopathological analysis, presently dermoscopists play a significant role in the diagnostic process. However, even a combined approach may not allow a clear-cut judgment on equivocal melanocytic lesions. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) can offer assistance in the evaluation of chromosome abnormalities associated with malignancies, and its role is emerging in melanoma diagnosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic role of the FISH in the assessment of controversial lesions, defined as those lesions showing discrepancies between dermatoscopic and histological evaluations. Twenty clinically and histologically ambiguous melanocytic lesions were selected. After the first histopathologic diagnosis, a second pathologist examined the specimens in a blinded review for a second opinion and to identify the most suitable areas to hybridize using probes specific to RREB1, MYB, and CCND1 genes and the centromere of chromosome 6. The first histopathological evaluation led to the diagnosis of melanoma in seven cases, whereas the second identified eight cases of malignant melanoma and was in agreement with the first in 65% of cases and with dermoscopy in 40% of cases. Cytogenetic abnormalities detected by FISH are markers of malignancy that can be useful in the characterization of difficult-to-diagnose melanocytic tumors, when the dermatologist and the pathologist have a different opinions.

Sureban SM, May R, Qu D, et al.
DCLK1 regulates pluripotency and angiogenic factors via microRNA-dependent mechanisms in pancreatic cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e73940 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Stem cell pluripotency, angiogenesis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) have been shown to be significantly upregulated in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and many other aggressive cancers. The dysregulation of these processes is believed to play key roles in tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis, and is contributory to PDAC being the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the US. The tumor suppressor miRNA miR-145 downregulates critical pluripotency factors and oncogenes and results in repressed metastatic potential in PDAC. Additionally, the miR-200 family regulates several angiogenic factors which have been linked to metastasis in many solid tumors. We have previously demonstrated that downregulation of DCLK1 can upregulate critical miRNAs in both in vitro and in vivo cancer models and results in downregulation of c-MYC, KRAS, NOTCH1 and EMT-related transcription factors. A recent report has also shown that Dclk1 can distinguish between normal and tumor stem cells in Apc (min/+) mice and that ablation of Dclk1(+) cells resulted in regression of intestinal polyps without affecting homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that the knockdown of DCLK1 using poly(lactide-co-glycolide)-encapsulated-DCLK1-siRNA results in AsPC1 tumor growth arrest. Examination of xenograft tumors revealed, (a) increased miR-145 which results in decreased pluripotency maintenance factors OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4 as well as KRAS and RREB1; (b) increased let-7a which results in decreased pluripotency factor LIN28B; and (c) increased miR-200 which results in decreased VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and EMT-related transcription factors ZEB1, ZEB2, SNAIL and SLUG. Specificity of DCLK1 post-transcriptional regulation of the downstream targets of miR-145, miR-200 and let-7a was accomplished utilizing a luciferase-based reporter assay. We conclude that DCLK1 plays a significant master regulatory role in pancreatic tumorigenesis through the regulation of multiple tumor suppressor miRNAs and their downstream pro-tumorigenic pathways. This novel concept of targeting DCLK1 alone has several advantages over targeting single pathway or miRNA-based therapies for PDAC.

Pham H, Rodriguez CE, Donald GW, et al.
miR-143 decreases COX-2 mRNA stability and expression in pancreatic cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 439(1):6-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNA), inhibit the translation or accelerate the degradation of message RNA (mRNA) by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) in regulating growth and survival through gene suppression. Deregulated miRNA expression contributes to disease progression in several cancers types, including pancreatic cancers (PaCa). PaCa tissues and cells exhibit decreased miRNA, elevated cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and increased prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) resulting in increased cancer growth and metastases. Human PaCa cell lines were used to demonstrate that restoration of miRNA-143 (miR-143) regulates COX-2 and inhibits cell proliferation. miR-143 were detected at fold levels of 0.41 ± 0.06 in AsPC-1, 0.20 ± 0.05 in Capan-2 and 0.10 ± 0.02 in MIA PaCa-2. miR-143 was not detected in BxPC-3, HPAF-II and Panc-1 which correlated with elevated mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK) and MAPK kinase (MEK) activation. Treatment with 10 μM of MEK inhibitor U0126 or PD98059 increased miR-143, respectively, by 187 ± 18 and 152 ± 26-fold in BxPC-3 and 182 ± 7 and 136 ± 9-fold in HPAF-II. miR-143 transfection diminished COX-2 mRNA stability at 60 min by 2.6 ± 0.3-fold in BxPC-3 and 2.5 ± 0.2-fold in HPAF-II. COX-2 expression and cellular proliferation in BxPC-3 and HPAF-II inversely correlated with increasing miR-143. PGE2 levels decreased by 39.3 ± 5.0% in BxPC-3 and 48.0 ± 3.0% in HPAF-II transfected with miR-143. Restoration of miR-143 in PaCa cells suppressed of COX-2, PGE2, cellular proliferation and MEK/MAPK activation, implicating this pathway in regulating miR-143 expression.

Wang L, Rao M, Fang Y, et al.
A genome-wide high-resolution array-CGH analysis of cutaneous melanoma and comparison of array-CGH to FISH in diagnostic evaluation.
J Mol Diagn. 2013; 15(5):581-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Benign melanocytic nevi and cutaneous melanomas can be difficult to differentiate by means of routine microscopic analysis. Recent evidence has suggested that cytogenomic analysis may be a useful diagnostic method for evaluation of melanocytic proliferations. We investigated the array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) platform for DNA copy number analysis of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in melanocytic tumors and compared aCGH analysis with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays in diagnosis of melanoma. aCGH findings and FISH results were interpreted independently in a blinded fashion. Positive findings were not noted in any benign nevi at aCGH analysis, whereas substantial unbalanced genomic aberrations were revealed in 92% of melanomas. Positive results were obtained in 72% of melanomas via the four-probe FISH assay (RREB1/MYB/CEP6/CCND1). A few additional FISH studies were performed to verify some aCGH findings of focal amplification of oncogenes and homozygous deletion of tumor suppressor genes. The overall concordance in aberrations detected using the two methods was 90%. Most discrepancies were due to a minor abnormal clone identified via FISH that was below analytical sensitivity of the FFPE aCGH test. Our study demonstrated that copy number analysis of FFPE tumor samples via aCGH is a robust and reliable method in diagnosis of melanoma and that aCGH and FISH tests should be used as complementary methods to improve the accuracy of genetic evaluation of melanocytic tumors.

Tuborgh A, Meyer C, Marschalek R, et al.
Complex three-way translocation involving MLL, ELL, RREB1, and CMAHP genes in an infant with acute myeloid leukemia and t(6;19;11)(p22.2;p13.1;q23.3).
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2013; 141(1):7-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rearrangements affecting the MLL gene in hematological malignancies are associated with poor prognosis. Most often they are reciprocal translocations and more rarely complex forms involving at least 3 chromosomes. We describe an unusual case with cutaneous leukemic infiltrates that waxed and waned until progression to acute myeloid leukemia, AML-M5. The leukemic cells harbored a novel apparent 3-way translocation t(6;19;11)(p22.2;p13.1;q23.3). We utilized advanced molecular cytogenetic methods including 24-color karyotyping, high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and DNA sequencing to characterize the genomic complement in the leukemic cells from aspirated bone marrow cells at AML diagnosis. Karyotyping showed 47,XY,t(6;19;11)(p22;p13;q23),+der(6)t(6;11)(p22;q23)[17]/48,sl,+8[3]/48,sl,+8,der(12)t(1;12)(q11;p13)[3]/ 48,sdl,der(Y)t(Y;1)(q12;q11),+8[7] conferring MLL-ELL fusion. Oligo-aCGH analysis confirmed gains of 6p22qter and 11q23.3qter involving the CMAHP and MLL genes, respectively. DNA sequencing disclosed an additional breakpoint at 6p24.3 (at RREB1 gene). Retrospective fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed presence of the MLL-involving rearrangement in the initial stages of disease before clear morphological signs of bone marrow involvement. The patient responded well to therapy and remains in remission>6 years from diagnosis. This apparent 3-way translocation is remarkable because of its rarity and presentation with myeloid sarcoma, and may, as more cases are characterized, further our understanding onto how such complex translocations contribute to promote leukemogenesis and respond to therapy.

Dyduch G, Jach R, Huras H, et al.
Recurrent vulvar melanoma in 35-year-old pregnant women.
J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2013; 17(2):223-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Vulvar melanoma represents between 3% and 10% of vulvar neoplasms. We present a case of a 34-year-old pregnant woman presenting with a pigmented lesion on the left labium majus; she reported no family history of melanoma. The histological diagnosis was malignant melanoma, superficial spreading type, with Breslow thickness of 0.9 mm; the excision was complete. Eight months before, an atypical genital nevus was completely excised from a nearby location. The pregnancy was finished by cesarean delivery at term, and 3 months later, another pigmented lesion was noticed near but not within the scars. Partial right vulvectomy was performed, and histological diagnosis was malignant melanoma of superficial spreading type, with Breslow thickness of 0.7 mm. The specimen obtained in the first operation was reviewed, and although histological examination was diagnostic for atypical genital nevus, Vysis Melanoma Fluorescence in situ hybridization Probe Kit revealed increased copy numbers of RREB1, which could be consistent with a diagnosis of malignant melanoma.

Mudhar HS, Smith K, Talley P, et al.
Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) in histologically challenging conjunctival melanocytic lesions.
Br J Ophthalmol. 2013; 97(1):40-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Even in experienced hands, the classification of some melanocytic lesions of the conjunctiva remains challenging. In skin pathology, the recent application of fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) has been demonstrated to be of use for the analysis and diagnosis of ambiguous melanocytic neoplasms of the skin. This study set out to evaluate this method on seven prospective conjunctival cases that were histologically equivocal.
METHODS: 18 unequivocal retrospective melanocytic controls were exposed to FISH. Commercially available probes assessing copy numbers of RREB1 (6p25), MYB (6q23) and CCND1 (11q13) genes compared with CEP6 (a chromosome six centromeric reference point) were used. After control verification, seven prospective, equivocal cases were identified and exposed to FISH.
RESULTS: There was complete correlation between FISH result and the control section histopathology report. Control cases of melanoma cases were all positive for FISH and control benign lesions were negative. Of the seven equivocal cases, five were positive and classed as invasive melanoma or melanoma-in situ, one was negative and one tetraploid, classed as negative (these last two cases were classed as naevi with careful clinical observation).
CONCLUSIONS: FISH is very useful in classifying equivocal conjunctival melanocytic lesions, especially those with atypical junctional activity and naevoid melanocytic proliferations of the conjunctiva.

Requena C, Rubio L, Traves V, et al.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization for the differential diagnosis between Spitz naevus and spitzoid melanoma.
Histopathology. 2012; 61(5):899-909 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: The differential diagnosis between Spitz naevus and spitzoid melanoma can be extremely difficult, or even impossible. In recent years, many attempts have been made to find specific histopathological or immunohistochemical markers, although none has proved successful. Because the prognosis and treatment of each are very different, it is important to distinguish between these entities. We evaluated the ability of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay-designed to detect the copy number of the RREB1 (6p25), MYB (6q23) and CCND1 (11q13) genes and of centromere 6 (Cep 6)-in order to distinguish between Spitz naevus and spitzoid melanoma.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 12 spitzoid melanomas and six Spitz naevi from our records. The diagnosis of both conditions was based on previously described histopathological criteria. We obtained valuable results for FISH in eight spitzoid melanomas and five Spitz naevi. Chromosomal aberrations were detected in seven of the eight spitzoid melanomas (FISH-positive) and in none of the five Spitz naevi. The FISH-negative spitzoid melanoma was the least typical in its group.
CONCLUSIONS: FISH was able to distinguish between Spitz naevus and spitzoid melanoma, with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 100%. Our findings suggest that FISH could prove a useful tool in the differential diagnosis between these entities.

Turri-Zanoni M, Medicina D, Lombardi D, et al.
Sinonasal mucosal melanoma: Molecular profile and therapeutic implications from a series of 32 cases.
Head Neck. 2013; 35(8):1066-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Primary sinonasal mucosal melanomas are aggressive tumors with a poor clinical control by current treatments, raising the urgent need of novel strategies.
METHODS: By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), direct sequencing, and immunohistochemistry, we investigate the spectrum of molecular abnormalities in a cohort of 32 cases of primary sinonasal mucosal melanomas.
RESULTS: We found that all primary sinonasal mucosal melanomas lack BRAF V600E mutation; in addition, they are characterized by somatic mutations of NRAS (22%) and KIT (12.5%), together with amplification of RREB1 (100%) and loss of MYB (76%). The large majority of cases showed KIT protein expression (96.9%). Among tumor suppressor genes, primary sinonasal mucosal melanomas showed loss of PTEN (48.1%) and p16/INK4a (55.2%). All tested cases showed expression of pAkt and pErk, suggesting a combined activation of PI3K/Akt and RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: This molecular fingerprint strongly argues against the clinical efficacy of BRAF-inhibitors, but could candidate primary sinonasal mucosal melanomas to therapeutic strategies targeting RAS and KIT mutations or inhibiting PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway.

Kent OA, Fox-Talbot K, Halushka MK
RREB1 repressed miR-143/145 modulates KRAS signaling through downregulation of multiple targets.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(20):2576-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
A lack of expression of miR-143 and miR-145 has been demonstrated to be a frequent feature of colorectal tumors. Activating KRAS mutations have been reported in 30-60% of colorectal cancers and an inverse correlation between Kras and miR-143/145 expression has been observed. Previously, we have demonstrated that oncogenic Kras leads to repression of the miR-143/145 cluster in pancreatic cancer and is dependent on the Ras responsive element (RRE) binding protein (RREB1), which negatively regulates miR-143/145 expression. In the present study, we have found that RREB1 is overexpressed in colorectal adenocarcinoma tumors and cell lines, and the expression of the miR-143/145 primary transcript is inversely related to RREB1 expression. In colorectal cancer cell lines, the miR-143/145 cluster is repressed by RREB1 downstream of constitutively active KRAS. RREB1 is activated by the MAPK pathway and negatively represses the miR-143/145 promoter through interaction with two RREs. In addition, overexpression of miR-143 or miR-145 in HCT116 cells abrogates signaling through the MAPK, PI3K and JNK pathways by downregulation of both KRAS and RREB1 in addition to downregulation of a cohort of genes in the MAPK signaling cascade. These results establish a complex network of regulation through which the miR-143/145 cluster is able to modulate KRAS signaling in colorectal cancer.

Martin V, Banfi S, Bordoni A, et al.
Presence of cytogenetic abnormalities in Spitz naevi: a diagnostic challenge for fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis.
Histopathology. 2012; 60(2):336-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Spitz naevi are difficult to diagnose, because of significant overlap with melanomas. It has been recently demonstrated that the LSI RREB1(6p25)/LSI MYB(6q23)/LSI CCND1(11q13)/CEP6 fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assay is a reliable tool with which to distinguish benign naevi and melanomas. Little is known about its diagnostic usefulness in Spitz naevi.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 51 patients with Spitz naevi and long-term median follow-up (8.18 years) with the multicolour FISH probe. Control groups included 11 benign naevi and 14 melanomas. Spitz naevi from 32 (63%) patients did not show cytogenetic abnormalities (FISH-). In contrast, Spitz naevi from 19 (37%) patients showed changes in the investigated loci (FISH+). Spitz naevi with the FISH+ profile showed chromosome X polysomy in 14/18 (78%) patients. All Spitz naevi with the FISH- profile were disomic. All melanomas displayed a FISH+ profile, and 4/11 (36%) showed chromosome X polysomy. No differences in clinicopathological features were detected between Spitz naevi with and without genetic abnormalities.
CONCLUSIONS: The presence of gene copy number changes in Spitz naevi as detected by FISH is higher than expected, and Spitz naevi at the genetic level represent a heterogeneous group. The findings of similar cytogenetic alterations in Spitz naevi and melanomas suggest that there should be cautious interpretation of FISH analysis in this setting.

Senetta R, Paglierani M, Massi D
Fluorescence in-situ hybridization analysis for melanoma diagnosis.
Histopathology. 2012; 60(5):706-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanocytic proliferation constitutes a heterogeneous group of lesions with remarkable differences in their biology and clinical outcome. Thus, accurate histological diagnosis of these cases is mandatory to establish the most appropriate surgical treatment and follow-up. Although histological examination alone is usually sufficient to identify melanomas among the greater number of nevi, the definition of the benign or malignant nature of a subset of melanocytic tumours, exhibiting atypical features, is a challenging task. Novel techniques that may assist in the histopathological diagnosis in difficult cases have been extensively researched over recent years. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), performed with a panel of four probes, including three locus-specific identifier (RREB1, MYB, and CCND1) genes, seems to represent a sensitive and specific molecular tool for the diagnosis of non-ambiguous melanocytic lesions. Some studies have agreed that FISH may be an ancillary diagnostic instrument, but cannot replace light microscopy, to distinguish benign nevi from malignant melanomas in daily practice. However, in the context of ambiguous melanocytic tumours, results are still controversial, and additional and substantial work is needed to develop reliable probes that may identify, with high sensitivity, specific subsets of ambiguous melanocytic lesions, including spitzoid proliferation.

Pramanik D, Campbell NR, Karikari C, et al.
Restitution of tumor suppressor microRNAs using a systemic nanovector inhibits pancreatic cancer growth in mice.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2011; 10(8):1470-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mis-expression of microRNAs (miRNA) is widespread in human cancers, including in pancreatic cancer. Aberrations of miRNA include overexpression of oncogenic miRs (Onco-miRs) or downregulation of so-called tumor suppressor TSG-miRs. Restitution of TSG-miRs in cancer cells through systemic delivery is a promising avenue for pancreatic cancer therapy. We have synthesized a lipid-based nanoparticle for systemic delivery of miRNA expression vectors to cancer cells (nanovector). The plasmid DNA-complexed nanovector is approximately 100 nm in diameter and shows no apparent histopathologic or biochemical evidence of toxicity upon intravenous injection. Two miRNA candidates known to be downregulated in the majority of pancreatic cancers were selected for nanovector delivery: miR-34a, which is a component of the p53 transcriptional network and regulates cancer stem cell survival, and the miR-143/145 cluster, which together repress the expression of KRAS2 and its downstream effector Ras-responsive element binding protein-1 (RREB1). Systemic intravenous delivery with either miR-34a or miR-143/145 nanovectors inhibited the growth of MiaPaCa-2 subcutaneous xenografts (P < 0.01 for miR-34a; P < 0.05 for miR-143/145); the effects were even more pronounced in the orthotopic (intrapancreatic) setting (P < 0.0005 for either nanovector) when compared with vehicle or mock nanovector delivering an empty plasmid. Tumor growth inhibition was accompanied by increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. The miRNA restitution was confirmed in treated xenografts by significant upregulation of the corresponding miRNA and significant decreases in specific miRNA targets (SIRT1, CD44 and aldehyde dehydrogenase for miR34a, and KRAS2 and RREB1 for miR-143/145). The nanovector is a platform with potential broad applicability in systemic miRNA delivery to cancer cells.

Costello LC, Levy BA, Desouki MM, et al.
Decreased zinc and downregulation of ZIP3 zinc uptake transporter in the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2011; 12(4):297-303 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an untreatable deadly cancer. The factors involved in its early development remain unknown; which contributes to the absence of biomarkers for early detection of malignancy or at-risk subjects, and the absence of efficacious therapeutic agents. Because zinc changes are implicated in some cancers, we determined if it might be involved in the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. With in situ Dithizone and Zinquin staining of normal pancreas and adenocarcinoma tissue sections, we show for the first time, a consistent major loss of zinc in ductal and acinar epithelium in adenocarcinoma compared to the normal epithelium. This decrease in zinc is evident in well-differentiated through poorly-differentiated stages of malignancy. Immunohistochemistry identified ZIP3 as the basilar membrane zinc uptake transporter in normal ductal/acinar epithelium; and that the transporter is absent in adenocarcinoma. In situ Rt-PCR revealed that ZIP3 gene expression is silenced in adenocarcinoma. The ZIP3 down regulation accompanied the loss of zinc in early and progressing malignancy. RREB1 transcription factor was down regulated along with ZIP3; and might be involved in the silencing of ZIP3 expression. Zinc treatment was cytotoxic to malignant Panc1 cells. The combination of concurrent zinc, ZIP3, and RREB-1 changes represent early events in the development of adenocarcinoma; and suggest that zinc might be a tumor suppressor of pancreatic cancer. This report provides the clinical foundation for further mechanistic studies that will provide important insight into pancreatic carcinogenesis, and can lead to the development of effective early biomarkers and effective therapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer.

Massi D, Cesinaro AM, Tomasini C, et al.
Atypical Spitzoid melanocytic tumors: a morphological, mutational, and FISH analysis.
J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011; 64(5):919-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Identification of the clinical behavior of atypical Spitzoid tumors with conflicting histopathologic features remains controversial.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess whether molecular findings may be helpful in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment of atypical Spitzoid tumors.
METHODS: A total of 38 controversial, atypical Spitzoid lesions (≥ 1 mm in thickness) were analyzed for clinicopathological features, chromosomal alterations by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis (RREB1/MYB/CCND1/CEP6), BRAF(V600E) mutation by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction confirmed by sequencing, and H-RAS gene mutation by direct sequencing.
RESULTS: Atypical Spitzoid lesions developed in 21 female and 17 male patients (mean age 22 years). Nine patients underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy and a sentinel lymph node micrometastasis was detected in 4 of these 9 cases. Four additional patients, who did not receive a sentinel lymph node biopsy, experienced bulky lymph node metastases and one experienced visceral metastases and death. Lesions from patients with lymph node involvement showed more deep mitoses (P < .01), less inflammation (P = .05), and more plasma cells (P = .04). FISH analysis demonstrated the presence of chromosomal alterations in 6 of 25 cases. Correlation with follow-up data showed that the only case with fatal outcome showed multiple chromosomal alterations by FISH analysis. BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected in 12 of 16 cases (75%) and H-RAS mutation on exon 3 was found in 3 of 11 cases (27%).
LIMITATIONS: Our results require validation in a larger series with longer follow-up information.
CONCLUSIONS: FISH assay may be of help in the prognostic evaluation of atypical Spitzoid tumors. Diagnostic significance of BRAF(V600E) and H-RAS mutations in this setting remains unclear.

Jiang Q, Quaynor B, Sun A, et al.
The Samd9L gene: transcriptional regulation and tissue-specific expression in mouse development.
J Invest Dermatol. 2011; 131(7):1428-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Normophosphatemic familial tumoral calcinosis (NFTC) is caused by mutations in the SAMD9 gene. This gene is absent in mouse, while there is a murine paralog, Samd9-like (Samd9L). To clarify the relationships between SAMD9 and SAMD9L, we investigated the transcriptional regulation and expression pattern of mouse Samd9L. An ∼1.5-kb mouse Samd9L promoter fragment was cloned, and a series of 5' deletion constructs were linked to a luciferase reporter gene. All constructs showed significant activity in transfected epithelial cells and mouse fibroblasts, and the presence of regulatory cis-elements as close as 87 bp upstream of the transcription start site was identified. Ras-responsive element binding protein 1 (Rreb-1) was identified in this region by protein-DNA binding array. The expression of Samd9L was upregulated by calcitonin, and this was preceded by a significant increase in the expression of Rreb-1 mRNA. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of Samd9L revealed near-ubiquitous expression, with the highest level in the kidney. Tissue-specific expression was also confirmed both by in situ β-gal staining and quantitative enzymatic activity assay in a transgenic Samd9L(+/-) mouse in which the LacZ gene replaced exon 2 in the Samd9L gene. These findings assist in understanding the regulation of Samd9L in the context of its paralogous gene, SAMD9, which harbors mutations in NFTC.

Zou J, Milon BC, Desouki MM, et al.
hZIP1 zinc transporter down-regulation in prostate cancer involves the overexpression of ras responsive element binding protein-1 (RREB-1).
Prostate. 2011; 71(14):1518-24 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A marked decrease in the level of zinc is a consistent characteristic of prostate cancer; which results from down-regulation of ZIP1 zinc transporter. The aim of this study was to determine if RREB-1 transcription is involved in the down-regulation of ZIP1 gene expression; and to determine the expression of RREB-1 in benign and cancerous prostate in situ.
METHODS: Overexpression and siRNA knock down of RREB-1 were used to determine the effect of RREB-1 on hZIP1 abundance in PC-3 cells. Immunohistochemistry with tissue microarrays (TMAs) and tissue sections was used to determine the levels of RREB-1 expression in prostate in situ.
RESULTS: Overexpression of RREB-1 resulted in a decrease in the abundance of hZIP1 in the plasma membrane of PC-3 cells; whereas siRNA knock down significantly increased hZIP1 expression. Prostate TMAs and tissue sections showed an inverse relationship between RREB-1 and hZIP1 staining.
CONCLUSIONS: RREB-1 overexpression results in down-regulation of hZIP1 and contributes to the loss of hZIP1 expression and zinc in prostate cancer. This is an early event in prostate carcinogenesis.

Kent OA, Chivukula RR, Mullendore M, et al.
Repression of the miR-143/145 cluster by oncogenic Ras initiates a tumor-promoting feed-forward pathway.
Genes Dev. 2010; 24(24):2754-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although activating mutations in RAS oncogenes are known to result in aberrant signaling through multiple pathways, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the Ras oncogenic program remains poorly characterized. Here we demonstrate that Ras activation leads to repression of the miR-143/145 cluster in cells of human, murine, and zebrafish origin. Loss of miR-143/145 expression is observed frequently in KRAS mutant pancreatic cancers, and restoration of these miRNAs abrogates tumorigenesis. miR-143/145 down-regulation requires the Ras-responsive element-binding protein (RREB1), which represses the miR-143/145 promoter. Additionally, KRAS and RREB1 are targets of miR-143/miR-145, revealing a feed-forward mechanism that potentiates Ras signaling.

Gerami P, Wass A, Mafee M, et al.
Fluorescence in situ hybridization for distinguishing nevoid melanomas from mitotically active nevi.
Am J Surg Pathol. 2009; 33(12):1783-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nevoid melanoma may resemble benign compound or intradermal nevi by their silhouette and profile on low power. Higher power usually reveals nuclear atypia, confluence of cells, incomplete maturation and dermal mitotic activity. However, to some extent all of these features maybe seen in benign compound or intradermal nevi and no single criteria can be used to differentiate nevoid melanoma from a benign nevus. The distinction can be particularly problematic in nevi that show mitotic activity and we have noted a recent trend in diagnosis of melanocytic neoplasms with dermal mitosis as nevoid melanoma despite the presence of normal maturation in the dermis and lack of significant nuclear atypia. Therefore in this study we evaluated 10 nevoid melanomas, 4 of which resulted in metastasis and 10 mitotically active nevi with fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting key chromosomal loci previously shown to effectively discriminate been malignant and benign melanocytic neoplasms. All 10 nevoid melanomas showed copy number abnormalities by fluorescence in situ hybridization in either chromosome 6 or 11 while none of the 10 mitotically active nevi did. The results demonstrate that fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting key chromosomal loci on chromosomes 6 and 11 can be effective in discriminating nevoid melanomas from mitotically active nevi. Additionally, our study presents further evidence that dermal mitoses alone without other diagnostic features such as nuclear atypia and lack of maturation does not constitute sufficient evidence alone for a diagnosis of melanoma.

Milon BC, Agyapong A, Bautista R, et al.
Ras responsive element binding protein-1 (RREB-1) down-regulates hZIP1 expression in prostate cancer cells.
Prostate. 2010; 70(3):288-96 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Normal prostate accumulates extremely high levels of zinc compared to other soft tissues. In contrast, the level of zinc in the prostate decreases significantly in prostate cancer. We have shown that down-regulation of the expression of the zinc transporter hZIP1 in prostate cancer is an important event that is responsible for the decrease of zinc levels. However, the mechanism of hZIP1 down-regulation is not known. We have hypothesized that hZIP1 is down-regulated through transcriptional regulation.
METHODS: The hZIP1 promoter was studied using luciferase reporter assays, site-directed mutagenesis, gel shift, and ChIP assay.
RESULTS: We have characterized a promoter region, downstream of the transcription start site, responsible for repression of hZIP1 transcription. We demonstrate that this region contains a binding site for the Ras-Responsive Element Binding protein 1 (RREB-1) and that the binding of RREB-1 to the hZIP1 promoter is involved in the decrease of hZIP1 transcription in PC-3 cells.
CONCLUSION: The Ras pathway and activation of RREB-1 are involved in hZIP1 down-regulation and may play a role in the decrease of the transporter expression in prostate cancer.

Morey AL, Murali R, McCarthy SW, et al.
Diagnosis of cutaneous melanocytic tumours by four-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation.
Pathology. 2009; 41(4):383-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Accurate classification of primary melanocytic tumours as benign or malignant is crucial for prognostic prediction and appropriate patient management. Several chromosomal aberrations have been frequently identified in melanomas, but are absent in melanocytic naevi. We performed four-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of melanocytic tumours to determine the accuracy of the technique in classifying melanocytic tumours as benign or malignant.
METHODS: FISH was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 histologically unequivocal melanocytic tumours (10 metastatic melanomas, 10 primary melanomas and 20 benign melanocytic naevi) using the product Vysis LSI RREB1/LSI MYB/LSI CCND1/CEP 6 probes (Abbott Molecular Laboratories, USA), which is designed to detect the copy number of the RREB1 (6p25), MYB (6q23), and CCND1 (11q13) genes and FISH positivity is defined by means of a scoring algorithm.
RESULTS: FISH distinguished the melanomas and the naevi with a sensitivity of 90% (10/10 primary melanoma cases and 8/10 metastatic melanoma cases, respectively), and a specificity of 95%. The most common abnormalities in the melanomas were increased copies of 11q (70%) and 6p (70%), followed by 6q loss relative to cep6 (50%). Fifteen of the 18 positive melanomas were positive by more than one criterion.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that FISH, using a panel of four probes, is a sensitive and specific method of classifying benign and malignant melanocytic tumours. The four-colour FISH technique has the potential to assist in the stratification of the subgroup of melanocytic tumours which are difficult to classify using conventional histology.

Uren AG, Kool J, Matentzoglu K, et al.
Large-scale mutagenesis in p19(ARF)- and p53-deficient mice identifies cancer genes and their collaborative networks.
Cell. 2008; 133(4):727-41 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
p53 and p19(ARF) are tumor suppressors frequently mutated in human tumors. In a high-throughput screen in mice for mutations collaborating with either p53 or p19(ARF) deficiency, we identified 10,806 retroviral insertion sites, implicating over 300 loci in tumorigenesis. This dataset reveals 20 genes that are specifically mutated in either p19(ARF)-deficient, p53-deficient or wild-type mice (including Flt3, mmu-mir-106a-363, Smg6, and Ccnd3), as well as networks of significant collaborative and mutually exclusive interactions between cancer genes. Furthermore, we found candidate tumor suppressor genes, as well as distinct clusters of insertions within genes like Flt3 and Notch1 that induce mutants with different spectra of genetic interactions. Cross species comparative analysis with aCGH data of human cancer cell lines revealed known and candidate oncogenes (Mmp13, Slamf6, and Rreb1) and tumor suppressors (Wwox and Arfrp2). This dataset should prove to be a rich resource for the study of genetic interactions that underlie tumorigenesis.

Oxford G, Smith SC, Hampton G, Theodorescu D
Expression profiling of Ral-depleted bladder cancer cells identifies RREB-1 as a novel transcriptional Ral effector.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(50):7143-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although the monomeric GTPases RalA and RalB have been shown to regulate a variety of transcription factors, little is known regarding the differences or similarities in transcriptional programs regulated by RalA compared to RalB. Further, the association of these transcriptional pathways to human carcinogenesis and progression remains unclear. Here, we studied the role of RalA and/or RalB in transcriptional regulation by combining short interfering RNA depletion of Ral with gene expression profiling via microarray in the human bladder cancer cell line, UMUC-3. A large number of genes were found to be similarly modulated in cells with RalA and RalB depletion, suggesting that RalA and RalB impinge on overlapping transcriptional signaling pathways. However, smaller sets of genes were modulated by depletion of RalA or RalB, indicating that these closely related proteins also regulate nonoverlapping transcriptional pathways. Computational analysis of upstream sequences of genes modulated by Ral depletion identified Ras-responsive element-binding protein (RREB)-1, as a putative Ral transcriptional target, which we verified experimentally. Importantly, as a group, Ral-regulated probe sets identified here were disproportionally represented among those differentially expressed as a function of human bladder transformation. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that Ral family members mediate both common and specific transcriptional programs that are associated with human cancer and identify RREB-1 as a novel transcriptional effector of Ral.

Mukhopadhyay NK, Ferdinand AS, Mukhopadhyay L, et al.
Unraveling androgen receptor interactomes by an array-based method: discovery of proto-oncoprotein c-Rel as a negative regulator of androgen receptor.
Exp Cell Res. 2006; 312(19):3782-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) plays a key role in the development and function of male reproductive organs. Using a high-throughput transcription factor-transcription factor (TF-TF) interaction array method, we captured the AR interactomes in androgen-responsive LNCaP cells. Several known and unknown partners of AR, including AP-2, Pax 3/5 (BSAP), c-Rel, RREB-1, LIII BP, and NPAS2 were identified. We investigated one unreported AR-associated transcription factor, the proto-oncoprotein c-Rel, in detail. C-Rel belongs to the NF-kB/Rel families and is persistently active in a number of diseases, including cancer. The presence of c-Rel transcript, protein, and its in vitro and in vivo association with AR was determined. Co-localization of c-Rel with AR both in cytoplasm and nucleus was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation data indicated that c-Rel, like AR, is a part of the nucleoprotein complex regulating the androgen-responsive prostate-specific antigen (PSA) promoter. Overexpression of c-Rel downregulated the promoter activity of both PSA and GRE4-TATA-Luc plasmids in LNCaP and COS cells. Analysis of AR and c-Rel protein levels indicated that the promoter downregulation was not due to reciprocal decrease in the amounts of AR or c-Rel. In summary, we have identified several new partners of AR by using the TF-TF array method and have provided the first evidence of a functional role for c-Rel in androgen-responsive human prostate cancer cells.

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