SNRPN

Gene Summary

Gene:SNRPN; small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N
Aliases: SMN, PWCR, SM-D, sm-N, RT-LI, HCERN3, SNRNP-N, SNURF-SNRPN
Location:15q11.2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is one polypeptide of a small nuclear ribonucleoprotein complex and belongs to the snRNP SMB/SMN family. The protein plays a role in pre-mRNA processing, possibly tissue-specific alternative splicing events. Although individual snRNPs are believed to recognize specific nucleic acid sequences through RNA-RNA base pairing, the specific role of this family member is unknown. The protein arises from a bicistronic transcript that also encodes a protein identified as the SNRPN upstream reading frame (SNURF). Multiple transcription initiation sites have been identified and extensive alternative splicing occurs in the 5' untranslated region. Additional splice variants have been described but sequences for the complete transcripts have not been determined. The 5' UTR of this gene has been identified as an imprinting center. Alternative splicing or deletion caused by a translocation event in this paternally-expressed region is responsible for Angelman syndrome or Prader-Willi syndrome due to parental imprint switch failure. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated protein N
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (9)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Sulfites
  • Cancer DNA
  • Prostate Cancer
  • RNA, Untranslated
  • Breast Cancer
  • Transcription Factors
  • Ribonucleoproteins, Small Nuclear
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Genomic Imprinting
  • Chromosome 15
  • Epigenetics
  • Newborns
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • FISH
  • Disease Progression
  • Long Noncoding RNA
  • DNA Methylation
  • Base Sequence
  • Nucleic Acid Hybridization
  • Alleles
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • IGF2
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Autoantigens
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Gene Expression
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Aneuploidy
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • snRNP Core Proteins
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Pregnancy
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Infant
  • Precancerous Conditions
  • Adolescents
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SNRPN (cancer-related)

Sepulveda JL, Gutierrez-Pajares JL, Luna A, et al.
High-definition CpG methylation of novel genes in gastric carcinogenesis identified by next-generation sequencing.
Mod Pathol. 2016; 29(2):182-93 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancers are the most frequent gastric malignancy and usually arise in the sequence of Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis. CpG methylation is a central mechanism of epigenetic gene regulation affecting cancer-related genes, and occurs early in gastric carcinogenesis. DNA samples from non-metaplastic gastric mucosa with variable levels of gastritis (non-metaplastic mucosa), intestinal metaplasia, or gastric cancer were screened with methylation arrays for CpG methylation of cancer-related genes and 30 gene targets were further characterized by high-definition bisulfite next-generation sequencing. In addition, data from The Cancer Genome Atlas were analyzed for correlation of methylation with gene expression. Overall, 13 genes had significantly increased CpG methylation in gastric cancer vs non-metaplastic mucosa (BRINP1, CDH11, CHFR, EPHA5, EPHA7, FGF2, FLI1, GALR1, HS3ST2, PDGFRA, SEZ6L, SGCE, and SNRPN). Further, most of these genes had corresponding reduced expression levels in gastric cancer compared with intestinal metaplasia, including novel hypermethylated genes in gastric cancer (FLI1, GALR1, SGCE, and SNRPN), suggesting that they may regulate neoplastic transformation from non-malignant intestinal metaplasia to cancer. Our data suggest a tumor-suppressor role for FLI1 in gastric cancer, consistent with recently reported data in breast cancer. For the genes with strongest methylation/expression correlation, namely FLI1, the expression was lowest in microsatellite-unstable tumors compared with other gastric cancer molecular subtypes. Importantly, reduced expression of hypermethylated BRINP1 and SGCE was significantly associated with favorable survival in gastric cancer. In summary, we report novel methylation gene targets that may have functional roles in discrete stages of gastric carcinogenesis and may serve as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer.


MYC Regulates Expression of Pre-mRNA Splicing Machinery in Lymphoma.
Cancer Discov. 2015; 5(7):692 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYC-mediated maintenance of proper mRNA splicing is essential for lymphomagenesis.

Devaney JM, Wang S, Furbert-Harris P, et al.
Genome-wide differentially methylated genes in prostate cancer tissues from African-American and Caucasian men.
Epigenetics. 2015; 10(4):319-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increasing evidence suggests that aberrant DNA methylation changes may contribute to prostate cancer (PCa) ethnic disparity. To comprehensively identify DNA methylation alterations in PCa disparity, we used the Illumina 450K methylation platform to interrogate the methylation status of 485,577 CpG sites focusing on gene-associated regions of the human genome. Genomic DNA from African-American (AA; 7 normal and 3 cancers) and Caucasian (Cau; 8 normal and 3 cancers) was used in the analysis. Hierarchical clustering analysis identified probe-sets unique to AA and Cau samples, as well as common to both. We selected 25 promoter-associated novel CpG sites most differentially methylated by race (fold change > 1.5-fold; adjusted P < 0.05) and compared the β-value of these sites provided by the Illumina, Inc. array with quantitative methylation obtained by pyrosequencing in 7 prostate cell lines. We found very good concordance of the methylation levels between β-value and pyrosequencing. Gene expression analysis using qRT-PCR in a subset of 8 genes after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin showed up-regulation of gene expression in PCa cells. Quantitative analysis of 4 genes, SNRPN, SHANK2, MST1R, and ABCG5, in matched normal and PCa tissues derived from AA and Cau PCa patients demonstrated differential promoter methylation and concomitant differences in mRNA expression in prostate tissues from AA vs. Cau. Regression analysis in normal and PCa tissues as a function of race showed significantly higher methylation prevalence for SNRPN (P = 0.012), MST1R (P = 0.038), and ABCG5 (P < 0.0002) for AA vs. Cau samples. We selected the ABCG5 and SNRPN genes and verified their biological functions by Western blot analysis and siRNA gene knockout effects on cell proliferation and invasion in 4 PCa cell lines (2 AA and 2 Cau patients-derived lines). Knockdown of either ABCG5 or SNRPN resulted in a significant decrease in both invasion and proliferation in Cau PCa cell lines but we did not observe these remarkable loss-of-function effects in AA PCa cell lines. Our study demonstrates how differential genome-wide DNA methylation levels influence gene expression and biological functions in AA and Cau PCa.

Szarek E, Ball ER, Imperiale A, et al.
Carney triad, SDH-deficient tumors, and Sdhb+/- mice share abnormal mitochondria.
Endocr Relat Cancer. 2015; 22(3):345-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Carney triad (CTr) describes the association of paragangliomas (PGL), pulmonary chondromas, and gastrointestinal (GI) stromal tumors (GISTs) with a variety of other lesions, including pheochromocytomas and adrenocortical tumors. The gene(s) that cause CTr remain(s) unknown. PGL and GISTs may be caused by loss-of-function mutations in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) (a condition known as Carney-Stratakis syndrome (CSS)). Mitochondrial structure and function are abnormal in tissues that carry SDH defects, but they have not been studied in CTr. For the present study, we examined mitochondrial structure in human tumors and GI tissue (GIT) of mice with SDH deficiency. Tissues from 16 CTr tumors (n=12), those with isolated GIST (n=1), and those with CSS caused by SDHC (n=1) and SDHD (n=2) mutations were studied by electron microscopy (EM). Samples of GIT from mice with a heterozygous deletion in Sdhb (Sdhb(+) (/-), n=4) were also studied by EM. CTr patients presented with mostly epithelioid GISTs that were characterized by plump cells containing a centrally located, round nucleus and prominent nucleoli; these changes were almost identical to those seen in the GISTs of patients with SDH. In tumor cells from patients, regardless of diagnosis or tumor type, cytoplasm contained an increased number of mitochondria with a 'hypoxic' phenotype: mitochondria were devoid of cristae, exhibited structural abnormalities, and were of variable size. Occasionally, mitochondria were small and round; rarely, they were thin and elongated with tubular cristae. Many mitochondria exhibited amorphous fluffy material with membranous whorls or cystic structures. A similar mitochondrial hypoxic phenotype was seen in Sdhb(+) (/-) mice. We concluded that tissues from SDH-deficient tumors, those from mouse GIT, and those from CTr tumors shared identical abnormalities in mitochondrial structure and other features. Thus, the still-elusive CTr defect(s) is(are) likely to affect mitochondrial function, just like germline SDH-deficiency does.

Zhang JJ, Gu LY, Chen XY, et al.
Endoscopic diagnosis of invasion depth for early colorectal carcinomas: a prospective comparative study of narrow-band imaging, acetic acid, and crystal violet.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2015; 94(7):e528 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Several studies have validated the effectiveness of narrow-band imaging (NBI) in estimating invasion depth of early colorectal cancers. However, comparative diagnostic accuracy between NBI and chromoendoscopy remains unclear. Other than crystal violet, use of acetic acid as a new staining method to diagnose deep submucosal invasive (SM-d) carcinomas has not been extensively evaluated. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement of NBI, acetic acid enhancement, and crystal violet staining in predicting invasion depth of early colorectal cancers. A total of 112 early colorectal cancers were prospectively observed by NBI, acetic acid, and crystal violet staining in sequence by 1 expert colonoscopist. All endoscopic images of each technique were stored and reassessed. Finally, 294 images of 98 lesions were selected for evaluation by 3 less experienced endoscopists. The accuracy of NBI, acetic acid, and crystal violet for real-time diagnosis was 85.7%, 86.6%, and 92.9%, respectively. For image evaluation by novices, NBI achieved the highest accuracy of 80.6%, compared with that of 72.4% by acetic acid, and 75.8% by crystal violet. The kappa values of NBI, acetic acid, and crystal violet among the 3 trainees were 0.74 (95% CI 0.65-0.83), 0.68 (95% CI 0.59-0.77), and 0.70 (95% CI 0.61-0.79), respectively. For diagnosis of SM-d carcinoma, NBI was slightly inferior to crystal violet staining, when performed by the expert endoscopist. However, NBI yielded higher accuracy than crystal violet staining, in terms of less experienced endoscopists. Acetic acid enhancement with pit pattern analysis was capable of predicting SM-d carcinoma, comparable to the traditional crystal violet staining.

Huo Q, Kayikci M, Odermatt P, et al.
Splicing changes in SMA mouse motoneurons and SMN-depleted neuroblastoma cells: evidence for involvement of splicing regulatory proteins.
RNA Biol. 2014; 11(11):1430-46 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is caused by deletions or mutations in the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. The second gene copy, SMN2, produces some, but not enough, functional SMN protein. SMN is essential to assemble small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs) that form the spliceosome. However, it is not clear whether SMA is caused by defects in this function that could lead to splicing changes in all tissues, or by the impairment of an additional, less well characterized, but motoneuron-specific SMN function. We addressed the first possibility by exon junction microarray analysis of motoneurons (MNs) isolated by laser capture microdissection from a severe SMA mouse model. This revealed changes in multiple U2-dependent splicing events. Moreover, splicing appeared to be more strongly affected in MNs than in other cells. By testing mutiple genes in a model of progressive SMN depletion in NB2a neuroblastoma cells, we obtained evidence that U2-dependent splicing changes occur earlier than U12-dependent ones. As several of these changes affect genes coding for splicing regulators, this may acerbate the splicing response induced by low SMN levels and induce secondary waves of splicing alterations.

Lasho TL, Finke CM, Zblewski D, et al.
Novel recurrent mutations in ethanolamine kinase 1 (ETNK1) gene in systemic mastocytosis with eosinophilia and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.
Blood Cancer J. 2015; 5:e275 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although KITD816V occurs universally in adult systemic mastocytosis (SM), the clinical heterogeneity of SM suggests presence of additional phenotype-patterning mutations. Because up to 25% of SM patients have KITD816V-positive eosinophilia, we undertook whole-exome sequencing in a patient with aggressive SM with eosinophilia to identify novel genetic alterations. We conducted sequencing of purified eosinophils (clone/tumor sample), with T-lymphocytes as the matched control/non-tumor sample. In addition to KITD816V, we identified a somatic missense mutation in ethanolamine kinase 1 (ETNK1N244S) that was not present in 50 healthy controls. Targeted resequencing of 290 patients showed ETNK1 mutations to be distributed as follows: (i) SM (n=82; 6% mutated); (ii) chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML; n=29; 14% mutated); (iii) idiopathic hypereosinophilia (n=137; <1% mutated); (iv) primary myelofibrosis (n=32; 0% mutated); and (v) others (n=10; 0% mutated). Of the 82 SM cases, 25 had significant eosinophilia; of these 20% carried ETNK1 mutations. The ten mutations (N244S=6, N244T=1, N244K=1, G245A=2) targeted two contiguous amino acids in the ETNK1 kinase domain, and are predicted to be functionally disruptive. In summary, we identified novel somatic missense ETNK1 mutations that were most frequent in SM with eosinophilia and CMML; this suggests a potential pathogenetic role for dysregulated cytidine diphosphate-ethanolamine pathway metabolites in these diseases.

Jing J, Zhao Y, Wang C, et al.
Effect of small nuclear ribonucleoprotein-associated polypeptide N on the proliferation of medulloblastoma cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(5):3337-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spliceosome mutations have been reported in various types of cancer and a number of antitumor drugs have been observed to tightly bind to spliceosome components. Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein‑associated polypeptide N (SNRPN) is a small ribonuclear protein and is a key spliceosome constituent. However, the role of SNRPN in human medulloblastoma remains unknown. In the present study, the effect of SNRPN on cell growth was investigated in vitro using the Daoy human medulloblastoma cell line. Lentivirus (Lv)-mediated short hairpin (sh) RNA was used to silence SNRPN expression, which was verified by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. Cell proliferation was examined by MTT and colony formation assays. Knockdown of SNRPN markedly reduced the proliferation and colony formation ability of Daoy medulloblastoma cells. In addition, flow cytometric analysis revealed that the cell cycle distribution was altered when the Daoy cells were infected with Lv‑shSNRPN. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of SNRPN on cell proliferation in medulloblastoma. The results indicate that SNRPN may be a potential novel target for the development of pharmacological therapeutics in human medulloblastoma.

Iacovelli S, Hug E, Bennardo S, et al.
Two types of BCR interactions are positively selected during leukemia development in the Eμ-TCL1 transgenic mouse model of CLL.
Blood. 2015; 125(10):1578-88 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common B-cell malignancy characterized by a highly variable course and outcome. The disease is believed to be driven by B-cell receptor (BCR) signals generated by external antigens and/or cell-autonomous BCR interactions, but direct in vivo evidence for this is still lacking. To further define the role of the BCR pathway in the development and progression of CLL, we evaluated the capacity of different types of antigen/BCR interactions to induce leukemia in the Eμ-TCL1 transgenic mouse model. We show that cell autonomous signaling capacity is a uniform characteristic of the leukemia-derived BCRs and represents a prerequisite for CLL development. Low-affinity BCR interactions with autoantigens generated during apoptosis are also positively selected, suggesting that they contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In contrast, high-affinity BCR interactions are not selected, regardless of antigen form or presentation. We also show that the capacity of the leukemic cells to respond to cognate antigen correlates inversely with time to leukemia development, suggesting that signals induced by external antigen increase the aggressiveness of the disease. Collectively, these findings provide in vivo evidence that the BCR pathway drives the development and can influence the clinical course of CLL.

Barrow TM, Barault L, Ellsworth RE, et al.
Aberrant methylation of imprinted genes is associated with negative hormone receptor status in invasive breast cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 137(3):537-47 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epigenetic regulation of imprinted genes enables monoallelic expression according to parental origin, and its disruption is implicated in many cancers and developmental disorders. The expression of hormone receptors is significant in breast cancer because they are indicators of cancer cell growth rate and determine response to endocrine therapies. We investigated the frequency of aberrant events and variation in DNA methylation at nine imprinted sites in invasive breast cancer and examined the association with estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Breast tissue and blood from patients with invasive breast cancer (n = 38) and benign breast disease (n = 30) were compared with those from healthy individuals (n = 36), matched with the cancer patients by age at diagnosis, ethnicity, body mass index, menopausal status and familial history of cancer. DNA methylation and allele-specific expression were analyzed by pyrosequencing. Tumor-specific methylation changes at IGF2 DMR2 were observed in 59% of cancer patients, IGF2 DMR0 in 38%, DIRAS3 DMR in 36%, GRB10 ICR in 23%, PEG3 DMR in 21%, MEST ICR in 19%, H19 ICR in 18%, KvDMR in 8% and SNRPN/SNURF ICR in 4%. Variation in methylation was significantly greater in breast tissue from cancer patients compared with that in healthy individuals and benign breast disease. Aberrant methylation of three or more sites was significantly associated with negative estrogen-alpha (Fisher's exact test, p = 0.02) and progesterone-A (p = 0.02) receptor status. Aberrant events and increased variation in imprinted gene DNA methylation, therefore, seem to be frequent in invasive breast cancer and are associated with negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status, without loss of monoallelic expression.

Bhatia S
Genetic variation as a modifier of association between therapeutic exposure and subsequent malignant neoplasms in cancer survivors.
Cancer. 2015; 121(5):648-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs) are associated with significant morbidity and are a major cause of premature mortality among cancer survivors. Several large studies have demonstrated a strong association between the radiation and/or chemotherapy used to treat primary cancer and the risk of developing SMNs. However, for any given therapeutic exposure, the risk of developing an SMN varies between individuals. Genomic variation can potentially modify the association between therapeutic exposures and SMN risk and may explain the observed interindividual variability. In this review, the author provides a brief overview of the current knowledge regarding the role of genomic variation in the development of therapy-related SMNs and discusses the methodological challenges in undertaking an endeavor to develop a deeper understanding of the molecular underpinnings of therapy-related SMNs, such as an appropriate study design, the identification of an adequately sized study population together with a reliable plan for collecting and maintaining high-quality DNA, clinical validation of the phenotype, and the selection of an appropriate approach or platform for genotyping. Understanding the factors that can modify the risk of treatment-related SMNs is critical to developing targeted intervention strategies and optimizing risk-based health care for cancer survivors.

Mirabella F, Murison A, Aronson LI, et al.
A novel functional role for MMSET in RNA processing based on the link between the REIIBP isoform and its interaction with the SMN complex.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(6):e99493 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The chromosomal translocation t(4;14) deregulates MMSET (WHSC1/NSD2) expression and is a poor prognostic factor in multiple myeloma (MM). MMSET encodes two major protein isoforms. We have characterized the role of the shorter isoform (REIIBP) in myeloma cells and identified a clear and novel interaction of REIIBP with members of the SMN (survival of motor neuron) complex that directly affects the assembly of the spliceosomal ribonucleic particles. Using RNA-seq we show that REIIBP influences the RNA splicing pattern of the cell. This new discovery provides novel insights into the understanding of MM pathology, and potential new leads for therapeutic targeting.

Cho S, Moon H, Loh TJ, et al.
PSF contacts exon 7 of SMN2 pre-mRNA to promote exon 7 inclusion.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(6):517-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease and a leading cause of infant mortality. Deletions or mutations of SMN1 cause SMA, a gene that encodes a SMN protein. SMN is important for the assembly of Sm proteins onto UsnRNA to UsnRNP. SMN has also been suggested to direct axonal transport of β-actin mRNA in neurons. Humans contain a second SMN gene called SMN2 thus SMA patients produce some SMN but not with sufficient levels. The majority of SMN2 mRNA does not include exon 7. Here we show that increased expression of PSF promotes inclusion of exon 7 in the SMN2 whereas reduced expression of PSF promotes exon 7 skipping. In addition, we present evidence showing that PSF interacts with the GAAGGA enhancer in exon 7. We also demonstrate that a mutation in this enhancer abolishes the effects of PSF on exon 7 splicing. Furthermore we show that the RNA target sequences of PSF and tra2β in exon 7 are partially overlapped. These results lead us to conclude that PSF interacts with an enhancer in exon 7 to promote exon 7 splicing of SMN2 pre-mRNA.

Erben P, Schwaab J, Metzgeroth G, et al.
The KIT D816V expressed allele burden for diagnosis and disease monitoring of systemic mastocytosis.
Ann Hematol. 2014; 93(1):81-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The activating KIT D816V mutation plays a central role in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and targeted treatment of systemic mastocytosis (SM). For improved and reliable identification of KIT D816V, we have developed an allele-specific quantitative real-time PCR (RQ-PCR) with an enhanced sensitivity of 0.01-0.1 %, which was superior to denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (0.5-1 %) or conventional sequencing (10-20 %). Overall, KIT D816 mutations were identified in 146/147 (99 %) of patients (D816V, n = 142; D816H, n = 2; D816Y, n = 2) with SM, including indolent SM (ISM, n = 63, 43 %), smoldering SM (n = 8, 5 %), SM with associated hematological non-mast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD, n = 16, 11 %), and aggressive SM/mast cell leukemia ± AHNMD (ASM/MCL, n = 60, 41 %). If positive in BM, the KIT D816V mutation was found in PB of all patients with advanced SM (SM-AHNMD, ASM, and MCL) and in 46 % (23/50) of patients with ISM. There was a strong correlation between the KIT D816V expressed allele burden (KIT D816V EAB) with results obtained from DNA by genomic allele-specific PCR and also with disease activity (e.g., serum tryptase level), disease subtype (e.g., indolent vs. advanced SM) and survival. In terms of monitoring of residual disease, qualitative and quantitative assessment of KIT D816V and KIT D816V EAB was successfully used for sequential analysis after chemotherapy or allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We therefore conclude that RQ-PCR assays for KIT D816V are useful complimentary tools for diagnosis, disease monitoring, and evaluation of prognosis in patients with SM.

Gramatges MM, Liu Q, Yasui Y, et al.
Telomere content and risk of second malignant neoplasm in survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.
Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20(4):904-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Shorter constitutional telomere length has been associated with increased cancer incidence. Furthermore, telomere shortening is observed in response to intensive chemotherapy and/or ionizing radiation exposure. We aimed to determine whether less telomere content was associated with treatment-related second malignant neoplasms (SMN) in childhood cancer survivors.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using a nested case-control design, 147 cancer survivors with breast cancer, thyroid cancer, or sarcoma developing after treatment for childhood cancer (cases) were matched (1:1) with childhood cancer survivors without a SMN (controls). Cases and controls were matched by primary cancer diagnosis, years since diagnosis, age at the time of sample collection, years of follow-up from childhood cancer diagnosis, exposure to specific chemotherapy agents, and to specific radiation fields. We performed conditional logistic regression using telomere content as a continuous variable to estimate ORs with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for development of SMN. ORs were also estimated for specific SMN types, i.e., breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and sarcoma.
RESULTS: There was an inverse relationship between telomere content and SMN, with an adjusted OR of 0.3 per unit change in telomere length to single-copy gene ratio (95% CI, 0.09-1.02; P = 0.05). Patients with thyroid cancer SMN were less likely to have more telomere content (OR, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.00-0.55; P = 0.01), but statistically significant associations could not be demonstrated for breast cancer or sarcoma.
CONCLUSIONS: A relation between less telomere content and treatment-related thyroid cancer was observed, suggesting that shorter telomeres may contribute to certain SMNs in childhood cancer survivors.

Wang SL, Wang FF, Chen SL, et al.
Expression, localization and clinical application of exogenous Smith proteins D1 in gene transfected HEp-2 cells.
Int J Rheum Dis. 2013; 16(3):303-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To establish an improved substrate for an indirect immunofluorescence test (IIF) to detect anti-Sm antibody.
METHODS: Full-length Smith protein D1(Sm-D1) complementary DNA was obtained from human larynx carcinoma cell line HEp-2 by reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and cloned into the mammalian expression vector pEGFP-C1. The recombinant plasmid pEGFP-Sm-D1 was transfected into HEp-2 cells. The expression, localization and antigenicity of fusion proteins of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in transfected cells were confirmed by means of immunoblotting (IBT), confocal fluorescence microscopy and IIF analysis. Transfected HEp-2 cells were analyzed with reference serum and compared with untransfected HEp-2 cells by IIF.
RESULTS: Stable expression of the Sm-D1-GFP was maintained for more than ten generations. This Sm-D1-GFP showed the antigenicity of Sm-D1 with a characteristic phenotype in IIF.Six of 12 serum specimens from systemic lupus erythematosus contained both 29/28 and 13.5 kDa proteins and showed characteristic immunofluorescent patterns. The same phenomenon appeared in 3/6 serum samples which contained 29/28 kDa proteins only. Sera from 10 healthy donors did not react with HEp-Sm-D1 or HEp-2 at 1:80 attenuant degrees. No alteration in expression, localization and morphology was observed when HEp-Sm-D1 or HEp-2 interacted with the reference sera which could react with Ro/SSA, La/SSB, β2GP1, centromere, histone, and Scl-70 antibodies in routine IIF tests.
CONCLUSION: As a new kind of substrate of IIF, HEp-Sm-D1 can be used to detect anti-Sm antibodies. Transfected HEp-2 cells keep the immunofluorescent property of HEp-2 cells in immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody (IFANA) test and could potentially be used as substrate for routine IFANA detection.

Schwaab J, Schnittger S, Sotlar K, et al.
Comprehensive mutational profiling in advanced systemic mastocytosis.
Blood. 2013; 122(14):2460-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
To explore mechanisms contributing to the clinical heterogeneity of systemic mastocytosis (SM) and to suboptimal responses to diverse therapies, we analyzed 39 KIT D816V mutated patients with indolent SM (n = 10), smoldering SM (n = 2), SM with associated clonal hematologic nonmast cell lineage disorder (SM-AHNMD, n = 5), and aggressive SM (n = 15) or mast cell leukemia (n = 7) with (n = 18) or without (n = 4) AHNMD for additional molecular aberrations. We applied next-generation sequencing to investigate ASXL1, CBL, IDH1/2, JAK2, KRAS, MLL-PTD, NPM1, NRAS, TP53, SRSF2, SF3B1, SETBP1, U2AF1 at mutational hotspot regions, and analyzed complete coding regions of EZH2, ETV6, RUNX1, and TET2. We identified additional molecular aberrations in 24/27 (89%) patients with advanced SM (SM-AHNMD, 5/5; aggressive SM/mast cell leukemia, 19/22) whereas only 3/12 (25%) indolent SM/smoldering SM patients carried one additional mutation each (U2AF1, SETBP1, CBL) (P < .001). Most frequently affected genes were TET2, SRSF2, ASXL1, CBL, and RUNX1. In advanced SM, 21/27 patients (78%) carried ≥3 mutations, and 11/27 patients (41%) exhibited ≥5 mutations. Overall survival was significantly shorter in patients with additional aberrations as compared to those with KIT D816V only (P = .019). We conclude that biology and prognosis in SM are related to the pattern of mutated genes that are acquired during disease evolution.

Travis LB, Demark Wahnefried W, Allan JM, et al.
Aetiology, genetics and prevention of secondary neoplasms in adult cancer survivors.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2013; 10(5):289-301 [PubMed] Related Publications
Second and higher-order malignancies now comprise about 18% of all incident cancers in the USA, superseding first primary cancers of the breast, lung, and prostate. The occurrence of second malignant neoplasms (SMN) is influenced by a myriad of factors, including the late effects of cancer therapy, shared aetiological factors with the primary cancer (such as tobacco use, excessive alcohol intake, and obesity), genetic predisposition, environmental determinants, host effects, and combinations of factors, including gene-environment interactions. The influence of these factors on SMN in survivors of adult-onset cancer is reviewed here. We also discuss how modifiable behavioural and lifestyle factors may contribute to SMN, and how these factors can be managed. Cancer survivorship provides an opportune time for oncologists and other health-care providers to counsel patients with regard to health promotion, not only to reduce SMN risk, but to minimize co-morbidities. In particular, the importance of smoking cessation, weight control, physical activity, and other factors consonant with adoption of a healthy lifestyle should be consistently emphasized to cancer survivors. Clinicians can also play a critical role by endorsing genetic counselling for selected patients and making referrals to dieticians, exercise trainers, and others to assist with lifestyle change interventions.

Barault L, Ellsworth RE, Harris HR, et al.
Leukocyte DNA as surrogate for the evaluation of imprinted Loci methylation in mammary tissue DNA.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55896 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
There is growing interest in identifying surrogate tissues to identify epimutations in cancer patients since primary target tissues are often difficult to obtain. Methylation patterns at imprinted loci are established during gametogenesis and post fertilization and their alterations have been associated with elevated risk of cancer. Methylation at several imprinted differentially methylated regions (GRB10 ICR, H19 ICR, KvDMR, SNRPN/SNURF ICR, IGF2 DMR0, and IGF2 DMR2) were analyzed in DNA from leukocytes and mammary tissue (normal, benign diseases, or malignant tumors) from 87 women with and without breast cancer (average age of cancer patients: 53; range: 31-77). Correlations between genomic variants and DNA methylation at the studied loci could not be assessed, making it impossible to exclude such effects. Methylation levels observed in leukocyte and mammary tissue DNA were close to the 50% expected for monoallellic methylation. While no correlation was observed between leukocyte and mammary tissue DNA methylation for most of the analyzed imprinted genes, Spearman's correlations were statistically significant for IGF2 DMR0 and IGF2 DMR2, although absolute methylation levels differed. Leukocyte DNA methylation levels of selected imprinted genes may therefore serve as surrogate markers of DNA methylation in cancer tissue.

Quidville V, Alsafadi S, Goubar A, et al.
Targeting the deregulated spliceosome core machinery in cancer cells triggers mTOR blockade and autophagy.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(7):2247-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
The spliceosome is a large ribonucleoprotein complex that guides pre-mRNA splicing in eukaryotic cells. Here, we determine whether the spliceosome could constitute an attractive therapeutic target in cancer. Analysis of gene expression arrays from lung, breast, and ovarian cancers datasets revealed that several genes encoding components of the core spliceosome composed of a heteroheptameric Sm complex were overexpressed in malignant disease as compared with benign lesions and could also define a subset of highly aggressive breast cancers. siRNA-mediated depletion of SmE (SNRPE) or SmD1 (SNRPD1) led to a marked reduction of cell viability in breast, lung, and melanoma cancer cell lines, whereas it had little effect on the survival of the nonmalignant MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. SNRPE or SNRPD1 depletion did not lead to apoptotic cell death but autophagy, another form of cell death. Indeed, induction of autophagy was revealed by cytoplasmic accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and by an increase in both LC3 (MAP1LC3A) protein conversion and the amount of acidic autophagic vacuoles. Knockdown of SNRPE dramatically decreased mTOR mRNA and protein levels and was accompanied by a deregulation of the mTOR pathway, which, in part, explains the SNRPE-dependent induction of autophagy. These findings provide a rational to develop new therapeutic agents targeting spliceosome core components in oncology.

Weng MT, Lee JH, Wei SC, et al.
Evolutionarily conserved protein ERH controls CENP-E mRNA splicing and is required for the survival of KRAS mutant cancer cells.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(52):E3659-67 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancers with Ras mutations represent a major therapeutic problem. Recent RNAi screens have uncovered multiple nononcogene addiction pathways that are necessary for the survival of Ras mutant cells. Here, we identify the evolutionarily conserved gene enhancer of rudimentary homolog (ERH), in which depletion causes greater toxicity in cancer cells with mutations in the small GTPase KRAS compared with KRAS WT cells. ERH interacts with the spliceosome protein SNRPD3 and is required for the mRNA splicing of the mitotic motor protein CENP-E. Loss of ERH leads to loss of CENP-E and consequently, chromosome congression defects. Gene expression profiling indicates that ERH is required for the expression of multiple cell cycle genes, and the gene expression signature resulting from ERH down-regulation inversely correlates with KRAS signatures. Clinically, tumor ERH expression is inversely associated with survival of colorectal cancer patients whose tumors harbor KRAS mutations. Together, these findings identify a role of ERH in mRNA splicing and mitosis, and they provide evidence that KRAS mutant cancer cells are dependent on ERH for their survival.

Ichikawa M, Arai Y, Haruta M, et al.
Meiosis error and subsequent genetic and epigenetic alterations invoke the malignant transformation of germ cell tumor.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(3):274-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are thought to arise from primordial germ cells (PGCs) that undergo epigenetic reprogramming. To explore the mechanisms of GCT formation, we analyzed single-nucleotide polymorphism array comparative genomic hybridization patterns and the methylation status of 15 tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of two imprinted genes, H19 and SNRPN, in 28 children with GCTs. Three GCTs with 25-26 segmental uniparental disomies (UPDs), heterozygous centromeric regions, and a highly methylated SNRPN DMR may have occurred through meiosis I error. Three other GCTs with whole UPD and homozygous centromeric regions of all chromosomes may have occurred through endoreduplication of a haploid set in an ovum or testis. The other 22 GCTs had heterozygous centromeric regions of all chromosomes and no or a small number of segmental or whole UPDs and may have developed from premeiotic PGCs before imprint erasure or a reestablishment of imprinting. Gain and amplification of 3p24-p22 and 20q13-q13, and loss and UPD of 1p36-p35, 4q21-q21, 5q11-q13, and 6q26-qter were found in five or more tumors. 1p36-p35 loss was frequent, and found in 19 tumors; RUNX3 residing at 1p36 was methylated in the promoter regions of 16 tumors. Two yolk sac tumors with many segmental UPDs or whole UPD of all chromosomes had gain of 20q13-q13 and loss of 1p36-p35, and seven or eight methylated TSGs. These genetic and epigenetic alterations may have caused malignant transformation because they were rarely found in teratomas with segmental or whole UPDs.

Roessler J, Ammerpohl O, Gutwein J, et al.
Quantitative cross-validation and content analysis of the 450k DNA methylation array from Illumina, Inc.
BMC Res Notes. 2012; 5:210 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The newly released 450k DNA methylation array from Illumina, Inc. offers the possibility to analyze more than 480,000 individual CpG sites in a user friendly standardized format. In this study the relationship between the β-values provided by the Illumina, Inc. array for each individual CpG dinucleotide and the quantitative methylation levels obtained by pyrosequencing were analyzed. In addition, the representation of microRNA genes and imprinted loci on the Illumina, Inc. array was assessed in detail. Genomic DNA from 4 human breast cancer cell lines (IPH-926, HCC1937, MDA-MB-134, PMC42) and 18 human breast cancer specimens as well as 4 normal mammary epithelial fractions was analyzed on 450k DNA methylation arrays. The β-values for 692 individual CpG sites from 62 different genes were cross-validated using conventional quantitative pyrosequencing.
FINDINGS: The newly released 450k methylation array from Illumina, Inc. shows a high concordance with quantitative pyrosequencing if identical CpG sites are analyzed in cell lines (Spearman r = 0.88, p ≪ 0.0001), which is somewhat reduced in primary tumor specimens (Spearman r = 0.86, p ≪ 0.0001). 80.7% of the CpG sites show an absolute difference in methylation level of less than 15 percentage points. If different CpG sites in the same CpG islands are targeted the concordance is lower (r = 0.83 in cell lines and r = 0.7 in primary tumors). The number of CpG sites representing microRNA genes and imprinted loci is very heterogeneous (range: 1 - 70 CpG sites for microRNAs and 1 - 288 for imprinted loci).
CONCLUSIONS: The newly released 450k methylation array from Illumina, Inc. provides a genome-wide quantitative representation of DNA methylation aberrations in a convenient format. Overall, the congruence with pyrosequencing data is very good. However, for individual loci one should be careful to translate the β-values directly into percent methylation levels.

Liu J, Liu J, Wei M, et al.
Genetic variants in the microRNA machinery gene GEMIN4 are associated with risk of prostate cancer: a case-control study of the Chinese Han population.
DNA Cell Biol. 2012; 31(7):1296-302 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms located in the microRNA biogenesis pathway could alter the risk for developing prostate cancer. The present study was intended to identify common genetic variants responsible for prostate cancer susceptibility in the GEMIN4 gene. The high-resolution melting method was used to genotype seven polymorphisms (rs7813, rs4968104, rs3744741, rs2740348, rs1062923, rs910925, and rs910924) in the GEMIN4 gene in 300 prostate cancer patients and 244 matched controls. The encouraging discovery in this study was in the rs2740348. Patients carrying the variant heterozygote GC genotype in the rs2740348 were at a 36% decreased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.42, 0.99). Similarly, this variant allele carrier showed significant risk for prostate cancer (OR = 0.64). In addition, subjects carrying the homozygote TT genotype in the rs7813 had a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.07, 6.28). Two common haplotypes were found to be associated with decreased risk of prostate cancer. In the subgroup analysis, higher risk of more severity of prostate cancer (clinical stage III and IV) was observed in individuals with the rs7813 TT genotype (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.02, 7.64), while lower risk of more severity of prostate cancer was observed in individuals with the rs3744741 T allele (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.50, 0.96). Overall, our study provides substantial support for the association between the GEMIN4 gene and the risk of prostate cancer.

Caraballo-Miralles V, Cardona-Rossinyol A, Garcera A, et al.
SMN deficiency attenuates migration of U87MG astroglioma cells through the activation of RhoA.
Mol Cell Neurosci. 2012; 49(3):282-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects alpha motoneurons in the spinal cord caused by homozygous deletion or specific mutations in the survival motoneuron-1 (SMN1) gene. Cell migration is critical at many stages of nervous system development; to investigate the role of SMN in cell migration, U87MG astroglioma cells were transduced with shSMN lentivectors and about 60% reduction in SMN expression was achieved. In a monolayer wound-healing assay, U87MG SMN-depleted cells exhibit reduced cell migration. In these cells, RhoA was activated and phosphorylated levels of myosin regulatory light chain (MLC), a substrate of the Rho kinase (ROCK), were found increased. The decrease in cell motility was related to activation of RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling pathway as treatment with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 abrogated both the motility defects and MLC phosphorylation in SMN-depleted cells. As cell migration is regulated by continuous remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, the actin distribution was studied in SMN-depleted cells. A shift from filamentous to monomeric (globular) actin, involving the disappearance of stress fibers, was observed. In addition, profilin I, an actin-sequestering protein showed an increased expression in SMN-depleted cells. SMN is known to physically interact with profilin, reducing its actin-sequestering activity. The present results suggest that in SMN-depleted cells, the increase in profilin I expression and the reduction in SMN inhibitory action on profilin could lead to reduced filamentous actin polymerization, thus decreasing cell motility. We propose that the alterations reported here in migratory activity in SMN-depleted cells, related to abnormal activation of RhoA/ROCK pathway and increased profilin I expression could have a role in developing nervous system by impairing normal neuron and glial cell migration and thus contributing to disease pathogenesis in SMA.

Herrmann A, Haake A, Ammerpohl O, et al.
Pipeline for large-scale microdroplet bisulfite PCR-based sequencing allows the tracking of hepitype evolution in tumors.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(7):e21332 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cytosine methylation provides an epigenetic level of cellular plasticity that is important for development, differentiation and cancerogenesis. We adopted microdroplet PCR to bisulfite treated target DNA in combination with second generation sequencing to simultaneously assess DNA sequence and methylation. We show measurement of methylation status in a wide range of target sequences (total 34 kb) with an average coverage of 95% (median 100%) and good correlation to the opposite strand (rho = 0.96) and to pyrosequencing (rho = 0.87). Data from lymphoma and colorectal cancer samples for SNRPN (imprinted gene), FGF6 (demethylated in the cancer samples) and HS3ST2 (methylated in the cancer samples) serve as a proof of principle showing the integration of SNP data and phased DNA-methylation information into "hepitypes" and thus the analysis of DNA methylation phylogeny in the somatic evolution of cancer.

Krastev DB, Slabicki M, Paszkowski-Rogacz M, et al.
A systematic RNAi synthetic interaction screen reveals a link between p53 and snoRNP assembly.
Nat Cell Biol. 2011; 13(7):809-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
TP53 (tumour protein 53) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer and its role during cellular transformation has been studied extensively. However, the homeostatic functions of p53 are less well understood. Here, we explore the molecular dependency network of TP53 through an RNAi-mediated synthetic interaction screen employing two HCT116 isogenic cell lines and a genome-scale endoribonuclease-prepared short interfering RNA library. We identify a variety of TP53 synthetic interactions unmasking the complex connections of p53 to cellular physiology and growth control. Molecular dissection of the TP53 synthetic interaction with UNRIP indicates an enhanced dependency of TP53-negative cells on small nucleolar ribonucleoprotein (snoRNP) assembly. This dependency is mediated by the snoRNP chaperone gene NOLC1 (also known as NOPP140), which we identify as a physiological p53 target gene. This unanticipated function of TP53 in snoRNP assembly highlights the potential of RNAi-mediated synthetic interaction screens to dissect molecular pathways of tumour suppressor genes.

Lee SH, Appleby V, Jeyapalan JN, et al.
Variable methylation of the imprinted gene, SNRPN, supports a relationship between intracranial germ cell tumours and neural stem cells.
J Neurooncol. 2011; 101(3):419-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Germ cell tumours (GCTs) are a diverse group of neoplasms all of which are generally believed to arise from germ cell progenitors (PGCs). Even those that form in the nervous system are likewise believed to be PGC-derived, despite being found a great distance from the normal location of germ cells. The primary evidence in favour of this model for the origins of intracranial GCTs is that they share molecular features with other GCTs. Those features include shared gene expression and a lack of methylation of imprinted genes, including SNRPN. Contrary to this model, we have proposed that endogenous neural stem cells of the brain are a more likely origin for these tumours. We show here that the lack of methylation of SNRPN that has previously been taken to indicate an origin for GCTs from PGCs is also seen in neural stem cells of mice and humans. We believe that, in the light of these and other recent observations, endogenous neural precursors of the brain are a more plausible origin for intracranial GCTs than are misplaced PGCs.

Becker H, Marcucci G, Maharry K, et al.
Mutations of the Wilms tumor 1 gene (WT1) in older patients with primary cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study.
Blood. 2010; 116(5):788-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously reported the adverse prognostic impact of Wilms tumor 1 gene (WT1) mutations in younger adult cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML). Here, we investigated 243 older (> or = 60 years) primary CN-AML patients. WT1 mutated (WT1mut) patients (7%) had FLT3-ITD more frequently (P < .001), lower hemoglobin (P = .01), higher white blood cell count (P = .03) and percentage blood blasts (P = .03), and a shorter overall survival (P = .08) than WT1 wild-type (WT1wt) patients. Comparing older and younger WT1mut patients, they had similar pretreatment characteristics and outcome. By contrast, among WT1wt CN-AML, younger patients had a significantly better outcome. A WT1 mutation-associated gene-expression signature, reported here for the first time, included CD96, a leukemia stem cell-specific marker, and genes involved in gene regulation (eg, MLL, PML, and SNRPN) and in proliferative and metabolic processes (eg, INSR, IRS2, and PRKAA1), supporting the role of mutated WT1 in deregulating multiple homeostatic processes. Our results indicate that WT1mut CN-AML represents a distinct entity with poor treatment response across age groups. This study has been registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00900224.

Tefferi A, Levine RL, Lim KH, et al.
Frequent TET2 mutations in systemic mastocytosis: clinical, KITD816V and FIP1L1-PDGFRA correlates.
Leukemia. 2009; 23(5):900-4 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
TET2 (TET oncogene family member 2) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene located at chromosome 4q24, and was recently reported to be mutated in approximately 14% of patients with JAK2V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasms. We used high-throughput DNA sequence analysis to screen for TET2 mutations in bone marrow-derived DNA from 48 patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM), including 42 who met the 2008 WHO (World Health Organization) diagnostic criteria for SM and 6 with FIP1L1-PDGFRA. Twelve (29%) SM, but no FIP1L1-PDGFRA patients, had TET2 mutations. A total of 17 mutations (13 frameshift, 2 nonsense and 2 missense) were documented in 2 (15%) of 13 indolent SM patients, 2 (40%) of 5 aggressive SM, and 8 (35%) of 23 SM associated with a clonal non-mast cell-lineage hematopoietic disease (P=0.52). KITD816V was detected by PCR sequencing in 50 or 20% of patients with or without TET2 mutation (P=0.05), respectively. Multivariable analysis showed a significant association between the presence of TET2 mutation and monocytosis (P=0.0003) or female sex (P=0.05). The association with monocytosis was also observed in non-indolent SM (n=29), in which the presence of mutant TET2 did not affect survival (P=0.98). We conclude that TET2 mutations are frequent in SM, segregate with KITD816V and influence phenotype without necessarily altering prognosis.

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