SOCS1

Gene Summary

Gene:SOCS1; suppressor of cytokine signaling 1
Aliases: JAB, CIS1, SSI1, TIP3, CISH1, SSI-1, SOCS-1
Location:16p13.13
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), also known as suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS), family. SSI family members are cytokine-inducible negative regulators of cytokine signaling. The expression of this gene can be induced by a subset of cytokines, including IL2, IL3 erythropoietin (EPO), CSF2/GM-CSF, and interferon (IFN)-gamma. The protein encoded by this gene functions downstream of cytokine receptors, and takes part in a negative feedback loop to attenuate cytokine signaling. Knockout studies in mice suggested the role of this gene as a modulator of IFN-gamma action, which is required for normal postnatal growth and survival. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:suppressor of cytokine signaling 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • DNA Methylation
  • Carrier Proteins
  • RTPCR
  • Cancer DNA
  • Precancerous Conditions
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • STAT3 Transcription Factor
  • Messenger RNA
  • Microsatellite Instability
  • Mutation
  • Epigenetics
  • Transfection
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Protein
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sputum
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Signal Transduction
  • Phosphorylation
  • Liver Cancer
  • Gene Silencing
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Tyrphostins
  • JAK2
  • MicroRNAs
  • Taiwan
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
  • Chromosome 16
  • CpG Islands
  • Transcription
  • Phenotype
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SOCS1 (cancer-related)

Jin Z, Zhou S, Zhang Y, et al.
Lycorine induces cell death in MM by suppressing Janus Kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription via inducing the expression of SOCS1.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 84:1645-1653 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the use of novel anti-myeloma agents,nearly all patients will eventually relapse or become refractory to drug treatment. New and more effective drugs for multiple myeloma (MM) are urgently needed. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is important in the proliferation of myeloma cells.Lycorine,a natural alkaloid extracted from amaryllidaceae, has shown anti-tumor effects against a variety of solid tumors. However, its effects on MM remain unclear.In this study,we found that lycorine inhibited cellular viability and induced cell death in MM cell lines and primary myeloma cells which were derived from our four MM patients. The study showed that myeloma cells' cycle was being arrested under the G0/G1 phase followed by the lycorine treatment. Further mechanism analysis demonstrated that lycorine inhibited JAK2/STAT signaling through upregulation of SOCS1 in MM cells and patient MM cells.Importantly, we found that knockdown of HDAC8 resulted in increased expression of SOCS1. Collectively, our findings suggested lycorine acted as a potent novel histone deacetylase inhibitor and inhibited JAK2/STAT signaling through upregulation of SOCS1 in MM cells.

Lei K, Du W, Lin S, et al.
3B, a novel photosensitizer, inhibits glycolysis and inflammation via miR-155-5p and breaks the JAK/STAT3/SOCS1 feedback loop in human breast cancer cells.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 82:141-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Compared to normal cells, most cancer cells produce ATP by glycolysis under aerobic conditions rather than via the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). This study is intended to determine whether 3B, a novel photosensitizer, can inhibit glycolysis and inflammation in breast cancer cells. We showed that 3B had the ability to repress glucose consumption as well as the generation of ATP, lactate and lactate dehydrogenase. 3B-PDT not only inhibited the expression of IL-1β and IL-6 but also affected the JAK-STAT3 inflammatory pathway in vitro. The present study showed that 3B featured a significant inhibitory effect on the expression of microRNA-155-5p and SOCS1 might serve as a target gene. In vivo studies revealed that 3B inhibited tumor growth and exhibited almost no side effects. Therefore, through the anti-glycolytic effect and breakage of the JAK/STAT3/SOCS1 feedback loop via miR-155-5p, 3B may potentially serve as a potential therapeutic agent against breast cancer.

Kang XC, Chen ML, Yang F, et al.
Promoter methylation and expression of SOCS-1 affect clinical outcome and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 80:23-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Abnormal DNA methylation can cause gene silencing in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. A gene that is suspected to have a crucial role in various types of cancers is the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1). Thus, this study will analyze the ramifications of SOCS-1 promoter methylation in CRC patients. This study will also test the therapeutic effects of hypomethylation as a possible CRC therapy.
METHODS: First, 97CRC patients' tumor and adjacent normal tissues were collected. Next, the methylation status of the SOCS-1 promoter region was assessed by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR); SOCS-1 protein and mRNA expression were also measured. A 48-month median follow-up period was used for the survival analysis of research participants. Lastly, to analyze the changes in cell invasion and migration in conjunction with protein and mRNA expression, the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine was applied in vitro to human CRC cells.
RESULTS: The results showed increased SOCS-1 hypermethylation in CRC samples compared to controls. Methylated SOCS-1 was associated with significant suppression of SOCS-1 expression in tumors. Additionally, SOCS-1 hypermethylation was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. The study also found a poor overall survival rate to be significantly correlated with reduced expression of SOCS-1. After 5-azacytidine treatment, reduced in vitro DNA methylation and increased SOCS-1 expression were observed, and decreased cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition biomarker expression alteration were further confirmed.
CONCLUSIONS: In colorectal cancer tissues, the rate of methylation in the SOCS-1 promoter region is high. Through promoter hypermethylation, the SOCS-1 gene was severely down-regulated in the CRC tissue samples, thereby revealing a plausible therapeutic target for CRC therapy.

Baek SH, Ko JH, Lee H, et al.
Resveratrol inhibits STAT3 signaling pathway through the induction of SOCS-1: Role in apoptosis induction and radiosensitization in head and neck tumor cells.
Phytomedicine. 2016; 23(5):566-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is persistently activated in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and can cause uncontrolled cellular proliferation and division.
HYPOTHESIS: Thus, its targeted abrogation could be an effective strategy to reduce the risk of SCCHN. Resveratrol is known for its anti-cancer efficacy in a variety of cancer models.
STUDY DESIGN: The effect resveratrol on STAT3 activation, associated protein kinases, phosphatases, cellular proliferation and apoptosis was investigated.
METHODS: We evaluated the effect of resveratrol on STAT3 signaling cascade and its regulated functional responses in SCCHN cells.
RESULTS: We found that HN3 and FaDu cells expressed strongly phosphorylated STAT3 on both tyrosine 705 and serine 727 residues as compared to other SCCHN cells. The phosphorylation was completely suppressed by resveratrol in FaDu cells, but not substantially in HN3 cells. STAT3 suppression was mediated through the inhibition of activation of upstream JAK2, but not of JAK1 and Src kinases. Treatment with the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitor pervanadate reversed the resveratrol-induced down-regulation of STAT3, thereby indicating a critical role for a PTP. We also found that resveratrol induced the expression of the SOCS-1 protein and mRNA. Further, deletion of SOCS-1 gene by siRNA suppressed the induction of SOCS-1, and reversed the inhibition of STAT3 activation. Resveratrol down-regulated various STAT3-regulated gene products, inhibited proliferation, invasion, as well as induced the cell accumulation in the sub-G1 phase and caused apoptosis. Beside, this phytoalexin also exhibited the enhancement of apoptosis when combined with ionizing radiation treatment.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that resveratrol blocks STAT3 signaling pathway through induction of SOCS-1, thus attenuating STAT3 phosphorylation and proliferation in SCCHN cells.

Zhao RC, Zhou J, He JY, et al.
Aberrant promoter methylation of SOCS-1 gene may contribute to the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
J BUON. 2016 Jan-Feb; 21(1):142-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We conducted this meta-analysis of published case-control studies aiming to evaluate the relationship between abnormal suppression of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) promoter methylation and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
METHODS: Relevant studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and China Biological Medicine (CBM) databases without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was conducted using the STATA 12.0 software. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (95% CI) to estimate the correlations.
RESULTS: Sixteen case-control studies with a total of 941 HCC patients and 114 individuals with benign liver diseases met our inclusion criteria. Our results demonstrated that the frequency of SOCS-1 promoter methylation in cancer tissues was significantly higher than in adjacent non-tumorous tissues and benign tissues (cancer tissue vs adjacent tissue: OR=3.05, 95%CI 1.62-5.77, p=0.001; cancer tissue vs benign tissue: OR=11.55, 95%CI 5.93-22.49, p=0.000). Subgroup analyses by ethnicity, detecting method and sample size also suggested that abnormal SOCS-1 promoter methylation was correlated to the risk of HCC in the majority of these subgroups.
CONCLUSION: Our findings provide empirical evidence that abnormal SOCS-1 promoter methylation may contribute to the pathogenesis of HCC. Thus, detection of SOCS-1 promoter methylation may be a valuable diagnostic biomarker for HCC.

Roth JJ, Fierst TM, Waanders AJ, et al.
Whole Chromosome 7 Gain Predicts Higher Risk of Recurrence in Pediatric Pilocytic Astrocytomas Independently From KIAA1549-BRAF Fusion Status.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2016; 75(4):306-15 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
The most frequent genetic alteration identified in pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and pilomyxoid variant is the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion, which typically results from a 2.0 Mb tandem duplication in chromosome band 7q34. Less frequent abnormalities include fusion genes,BRAF, FGFR, KRAS, and NF1 point mutations, and whole chromosome gains. To correlate genetic alterations with clinical course data, we retrospectively analyzed the tumors with pilocytic and pilomyxoid histology of a cohort of 116 pediatric patients, aged 5 months to 23 years. Gross total resection was associated with a decreased risk of recurrence (p = 0.001), supporting previous findings that complete tumor excision correlates with long-term and disease-free survival. We found no significant association between recurrence rate and the presence of the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion or BRAF mutation (p = 0.167). Interestingly, gain of whole chromosome 7 (WC7) was associated with a 4.7-fold increased risk of tumor recurrence, even after adjusting for surgical status (p = 0.025), and other genetic alterations. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we demonstrated that when WC7 gain accompanies the KIAA1549-BRAF fusion, the fusion likely arises first. This study highlights the utility of genetic studies for risk assessment of pilocytic and pilomyxoid astrocytomas, which may impact treatment selections.

Dai H, Ehrentraut S, Nagel S, et al.
Genomic Landscape of Primary Mediastinal B-Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(11):e0139663 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Primary mediastinal B-Cell lymphoma (PMBL) is a recently defined entity comprising ~2-10% non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL). Unlike most NHL subtypes, PMBL lacks recurrent gene rearrangements to serve as biomarkers or betray target genes. While druggable, late chemotherapeutic complications warrant the search for new targets and models. Well characterized tumor cell lines provide unlimited material to serve as preclinical resources for verifiable analyses directed at the discovery of new biomarkers and pathological targets using high throughput microarray technologies. The same cells may then be used to seek intelligent therapies directed at clinically validated targets. Four cell lines have emerged as potential PMBL models: FARAGE, KARPAS-1106P, MEDB-1 and U-2940. Transcriptionally, PMBL cell lines cluster near c(lassical)-HL and B-NHL examples showing they are related but separate entities. Here we document genomic alterations therein, by cytogenetics and high density oligonucleotide/SNP microarrays and parse their impact by integrated global expression profiling. PMBL cell lines were distinguished by moderate chromosome rearrangement levels undercutting cHL, while lacking oncogene translocations seen in B-NHL. In total 61 deletions were shared by two or more cell lines, together with 12 amplifications (≥4x) and 72 homozygous regions. Integrated genomic and transcriptional profiling showed deletions to be the most important class of chromosome rearrangement. Lesions were mapped to several loci associated with PMBL, e.g. 2p15 (REL/COMMD1), 9p24 (JAK2, CD274), 16p13 (SOCS1, LITAF, CIITA); plus new or tenuously associated loci: 2p16 (MSH6), 6q23 (TNFAIP3), 9p22 (CDKN2A/B), 20p12 (PTPN1). Discrete homozygous regions sometimes substituted focal deletions accompanied by gene silencing implying a role for epigenetic or mutational inactivation. Genomic amplifications increasing gene expression or gene-activating rearrangements were respectively rare or absent. Our findings highlight biallelic deletions as a major class of chromosomal lesion in PMBL cell lines, while endorsing the latter as preclinical models for hunting and testing new biomarkers and actionable targets.

Singh TD, Gupta S, Shrivastav BR, Tiwari PK
Epigenetic profiling of gallbladder cancer and gall stone diseases: Evaluation of role of tumour associated genes.
Gene. 2016; 576(2 Pt 2):743-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: As on today, the global mortality rate of gallbladder cancer is still very high. Both genetic and epigenetic alterations play pivotal roles in the development of cancer. We selected seven tumour associated genes, implicated in other cancers, to assess their methylation status in gallbladder cancer and gallstone diseases.
AIM OF STUDY: To study the promoter methylation of certain tumour associated genes in the molecular pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer and gall stone diseases.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Methylation specific PCR for seven tumour associated genes, viz., MASPIN, 14-3-3 sigma gene, THBS1, FLNC, HLTF, COX-2 and SOCS1, was performed in 50 gallbladder cancer (GBC), 30 gall stone diseases (GSD) and their respective adjacent control tissues. Semi-quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry was carried out to check the expression level. Student's t-test was carried out to compare the differences in the methylation and expression patterns between cases and control tissues.
RESULTS: We observed methylation of CpG islands in seven of the studied markers, but, the frequency of methylation was found varying among different samples. Of them, 14-33 sigma showed methylation in 45 GBC (90%; p=0.0001) and 25 GSD (86.66%; p=0.001), MASPIN in 35 GBC (70%; p=0.0008) and 18 GSD (51.43%; p=0.040), FLNC in 16 GBC (32%; p=0.0044) and 9 GSD (25.71%; p=ns), THBS1 in 26 GBC (52%; p=0.0009) and 10 GSD (28.57%; p=0.0505), HLTF in 8 GBC (16%; p=ns) and 2 GSD (5.71%; p=ns), COX2 in 10 GBC (20%; p=ns) and 6 GSD (17.14%; p=ns) and SOCS-1 in 3 GBC samples only (6%; p=ns), but not in GSD. Semi-quantitative PCR revealed down regulation in MASPIN, 14-3-3 sigma, THBS1, HLTF, COX2 and SOCS1 in advanced gallbladder cases. Immunohistochemistry further confirmed the down-regulation of SOCS1 in GBC.
CONCLUSION: The present study infers that accumulation of epigenetic alterations increases poor prognosis of GBC patients. Out of seven genes, MASPIN and THBS1 play key epigenetic role in GBC, but not in GSD. The reason for downregulation of SOCS1 only in GBC, and unaltered expression of 14-3-3 sigma protein in all the GBC and GSD tissue samples is not clear. Further investigation on the expression pattern of these genes in GBC cell lines may elucidate their likely functional role in in association with gallbladder cancer.

Tobelaim WS, Beaurivage C, Champagne A, et al.
Tumour-promoting role of SOCS1 in colorectal cancer cells.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:14301 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
The SOCS1 (Suppressor Of Cytokine Signalling 1) protein is considered a tumour suppressor. Notably, the SOCS1 gene is frequently silenced in cancer by hypermethylation of its promoter. Besides blocking inflammation, SOCS1 tumour suppressor activity involves Met receptor inhibition and enhancement of p53 tumour suppressor activity. However, the role of SOCS1 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains understudied and controversial. Here, we investigated SOCS1 relevance for CRC by querying gene expression datasets of human CRC specimens from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and by SOCS1 gain/loss-of-function analyses in murine and human colon carcinoma cells. Our results show that SOCS1 mRNA levels in tumours were more often elevated than reduced with respect to matched adjacent normal tissue of CRC specimens (n = 41). The analysis of TCGA dataset of 431 CRC patients revealed no correlation between SOCS1 expression and overall survival. Overexpression of SOCS1 in CRC cells triggered cell growth enhancement, anchorage-independent growth and resistance to death stimuli, whereas knockdown of SOCS1 reduced these oncogenic features. Moreover, SOCS1 overexpression in mouse CT26 cells increased tumourigenesis in vivo. Biochemical analyses showed that SOCS1 pro-oncogenic activity correlated with the down-modulation of STAT1 expression. Collectively, these results suggest that SOCS1 may work as an oncogene in CRC.

Lennerz JK, Hoffmann K, Bubolz AM, et al.
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 gene mutation status as a prognostic biomarker in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(30):29097-110 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) mutations are among the most frequent somatic mutations in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL), yet their prognostic relevance in cHL is unexplored. Here, we performed laser-capture microdissection of Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells from tumor samples in a cohort of 105 cHL patients. Full-length SOCS1 gene sequencing showed mutations in 61% of all cases (n = 64/105). Affected DNA-motifs and mutation pattern suggest that many of these SOCS1 mutations are the result of aberrant somatic hypermutation and we confirmed expression of mutant alleles at the RNA level. Contingency analysis showed no significant differences of patient-characteristics with HRS-cells containing mutant vs. wild-type SOCS1. By predicted mutational consequence, mutations can be separated into those with non-truncating point mutations ('minor' n = 49/64 = 77%) and those with length alteration ('major'; n = 15/64 = 23%). Subgroups did not differ in clinicopathological characteristics; however, patients with HRS-cells that contained SOCS1 major mutations suffered from early relapse and significantly shorter overall survival (P = 0.03). The SOCS1 major status retained prognostic significance in uni-(P = 0.016) and multivariate analyses (P = 0.005). Together, our data indicate that the SOCS1 mutation type qualifies as a single-gene prognostic biomarker in cHL.

Liu B, Chen S, Guan Y, Chen L
Type III Interferon Induces Distinct SOCS1 Expression Pattern that Contributes to Delayed but Prolonged Activation of Jak/STAT Signaling Pathway: Implications for Treatment Non-Response in HCV Patients.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0133800 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) has long been thought to block type I interferon signaling. However, IFN-λ, a type III IFN with limited receptor expression in hepatic cells, efficiently inhibits HCV (Hepatitis C virus) replication in vivo with potentially less side effects than IFN-α. Previous studies demonstrated that type I and type III activated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Jak/STAT) signaling pathway differently, with delayed but prolonged activation by IFN-λ stimulation compared to IFNα/β. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation is not well understood. Here, we found that there are distinct differences in SOCS1 expression patterns in Huh-7.5.1 cells following stimulation with IFN-α and IFN-λ. IFN-λ induced a faster but shorter expression of SOCS1. Furthermore, we confirmed that SOCS1 over-expression abrogates anti-HCV effect of both IFN-α and IFN-λ, leading to increased HCV RNA replication in both HCV replicon cells and JFH1 HCV culture system. In line with this, SOCS1 over-expression inhibited STAT1 phosphorylation, attenuated IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) reporter activity, and blocked IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression. Finally, we measured SOCS1 mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with or without IFN-α treatment from 48 chronic hepatitis C patients and we found the baseline SOCS1 expression levels are higher in treatment non-responders than in responders before IFN-α treatment. Taken together, SOCS1 acts as a suppressor for both type I and type III IFNs and is negatively associated with sustained virological response (SVR) to IFN-based therapy in patients with HCV. More importantly, faster but shorter induction of SOCS1 by IFN-λ may contribute to delayed but prolonged activation of IFN signaling and ISG expression kinetics by type III IFN.

Natatsuka R, Takahashi T, Serada S, et al.
Gene therapy with SOCS1 for gastric cancer induces G2/M arrest and has an antitumour effect on peritoneal carcinomatosis.
Br J Cancer. 2015; 113(3):433-42 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Suppressor of cytokine signaling1 (SOCS1) is a negative regulator of various cytokines. Recently, it was investigated as a therapeutic target in various cancers. However, the observed antitumour effects of SOCS1 cannot not be fully explained without taking inhibition of proliferation signalling into account. Our aim was to discover a new mechanism of antitumour effects of SOCS1 for gastric cancer (GC).
METHODS: We analysed the mechanism of antitumour effect of SOCS1 in vitro. In addition, we evaluated antitumour effect for GC using a xenograft peritoneal carcinomatosis mouse model in preclinical setting.
RESULTS: We confirmed that SOCS1 suppressed proliferation in four out of five GC cell lines. SOCS1 appeared to block proliferation by a new mechanism that involves cell cycle regulation at the G2/M checkpoint. We showed that SOCS1 influenced cell cycle-associated molecules through its interaction with ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein. The significant difference in therapeutic effects was noted in terms of the post-treatment weight and total photon count of the intra-abdominal tumours.
CONCLUSION: Forced expression of SOCS1 revealed a heretofore-unknown mechanism for regulating the cell cycle and may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis of GC.

Tagami-Nagata N, Serada S, Fujimoto M, et al.
Suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 induces significant preclinical antitumor effect in malignant melanoma cells.
Exp Dermatol. 2015; 24(11):864-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, responsible for the majority of skin cancer-related deaths. Metastatic melanoma is resistant to surgery, radiation or chemotherapy, and an effective therapy has not yet been established. Our study investigated the therapeutic potential of the suppressor of cytokine signalling-1 (SOCS-1), an endogenous inhibitor of the intracellular cytokine signalling pathway, for treating melanoma. Adenovirus vectors encoding the SOCS-1 gene were used to overexpress SOCS-1 in three melanoma cell lines (G361, SK-MEL5 and SK-MEL28). In G361 and SK-MEL5, overexpression of SOCS-1 significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we indicated that the antiproliferative effect of SOCS-1 correlated not only with decreased levels of the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 but also with increased levels of p53 expression and phosphorylation. These findings indicate the potential for clinical use of SOCS-1 for melanoma treatment.

Zhang X, Liu J, Zang D, et al.
Upregulation of miR-572 transcriptionally suppresses SOCS1 and p21 and contributes to human ovarian cancer progression.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(17):15180-93 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is a gynecological malignancy with high mortality rates worldwide and novel diagnostic and prognostic markers and therapeutic targets are urgently required. The suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21(KIP)) are known to regulate tumor cell proliferation. However, the mechanisms that regulate these genes have not yet been completely elucidated. In the present study, analysis of a published microarray-based high-throughput assessment (NCBI/E-MTAB-1067) and real-time PCR demonstrated that miR-572 was upregulated in human ovarian cancer tissues and cell lines. Kaplan-Meir analysis indicated that high level expression of miR-572 was associated with poorer overall survival. Ectopic miR-572 promoted ovarian cancer cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. SOCS1 and p21 were identified as direct targets of miR-572 and suppression of SOCS1 or p21 reversed the inhibiting-function of miR-572-silenced cell on proliferation and tumorigenicity in ovarian cancer cells. Additionally, the expression of miR-572 correlated inversely with the protein expression levels of SOCS1, p21 and positively with Cyclin D1 in ovarian carcinoma specimens. This study demonstrates that miR-572 post-transcriptionally regulates SOCS1 and p21 and may play an important role in ovarian cancer progression; miR-572 may represent a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancer therapy.

Liu M, Cui LH, Li CC, Zhang L
Association of APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 promoter methylation with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Eur J Cancer Prev. 2015; 24(6):470-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Studies of the relationships of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), glutathione-S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and suppressor of the cytokine signalling 1 (SOCS1) promoter region methylation with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have yielded inconsistent results. We carried out the current meta-analysis to comprehensively assess the associations between APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 promoter methylation frequency and the risk of HCC. All relevant reports were identified by searching the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, CNKI and the Chinese BioMedical Literature databases before 1 March 2014, with restriction to articles published in the Chinese and English languages. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to investigate the rates of APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 promoter methylation and the risk of HCC. Our meta-analysis identified relationships of APC (12 studies with 592 HCC tumour tissues), GSTP1 (14 studies including 646 HCC tumour tissues) and SOCS1 (11 studies with 512 HCC tumour tissues) promoter methylation with the risk of HCC. Compared with paracancerous tissues, the pooled ORs of APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 promoter region methylation in HCC cancer tissues were 5.32 (95% CI=2.96-9.56), 5.65, (95% CI=3.41-9.35) and 2.73 (95% CI=1.37-5.44), respectively. Compared with normal liver tissues as controls, the pooled ORs of APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 promoter region methylation in HCC cancer tissues were 20.43 (95% CI=5.56-75.08), 18.78 (95% CI=5.76-61.19) and 13.00 (95% CI=5.20-32.47), respectively. Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 promoter methylation was associated significantly with the risk of HCC in both Asian and White populations (all P<0.05). Our meta-analysis suggested strong associations between APC, GSTP1 and SOCS1 gene promoter methylation and the risk of HCC, suggesting these to be promising biomarkers for HCC.

Kim MH, Kim MS, Kim W, et al.
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) genes are silenced by DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation and regulate response to radiotherapy in cervical cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0123133 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family is an important negative regulator of cytokine signaling and deregulation of SOCS has been involved in many types of cancer. All cervical cancer cell lines tested showed lower expression of SOCS1, SOCS3, and SOCS5 than normal tissue or cell lines. The immunohistochemistry result for SOCS proteins in human cervical tissue also confirmed that normal tissue expressed higher level of SOCS proteins than neighboring tumor. Similar to the regulation of SOCS in other types of cancer, DNA methylation contributed to SOCS1 downregulation in CaSki, ME-180, and HeLa cells. However, the expression of SOCS3 or SOCS5 was not recovered by the inhibition of DNA methylation. Histone deacetylation may be another regulatory mechanism involved in SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression, however, SOCS5 expression was neither affected by DNA methylation nor histone deacetylation. Ectopic expression of SOCS1 or SOCS3 conferred radioresistance to HeLa cells, which implied SOCS signaling regulates the response to radiation in cervical cancer. In this study, we have shown that SOCS expression repressed by, in part, epigenetically and altered SOCS1 and SOCS3 expression could contribute to the radiosensitive phenotype in cervical cancer.

Merkel O, Hamacher F, Griessl R, et al.
Oncogenic role of miR-155 in anaplastic large cell lymphoma lacking the t(2;5) translocation.
J Pathol. 2015; 236(4):445-56 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a rare, aggressive, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that is characterized by CD30 expression and disease onset in young patients. About half of ALCL patients bear the t(2;5)(p23;q35) translocation, which results in the formation of the nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma tyrosine kinase (NPM-ALK) fusion protein (ALCL ALK(+)). However, little is known about the molecular features and tumour drivers in ALK-negative ALCL (ALCL ALK(-)), which is characterized by a worse prognosis. We found that ALCL ALK(-), in contrast to ALCL ALK(+), lymphomas display high miR-155 expression. Consistent with this, we observed an inverse correlation between miR-155 promoter methylation and miR-155 expression in ALCL. However, no direct effect of the ALK kinase on miR-155 levels was observed. Ago2 immunoprecipitation revealed miR-155 as the most abundant miRNA, and enrichment of target mRNAs C/EBPβ and SOCS1. To investigate its function, we over-expressed miR-155 in ALCL ALK(+) cell lines and demonstrated reduced levels of C/EBPβ and SOCS1. In murine engraftment models of ALCL ALK(-), we showed that anti-miR-155 mimics are able to reduce tumour growth. This goes hand-in-hand with increased levels of cleaved caspase-3 and high SOCS1 in these tumours, which leads to suppression of STAT3 signalling. Moreover, miR-155 induces IL-22 expression and suppresses the C/EBPβ target IL-8. These data suggest that miR-155 can act as a tumour driver in ALCL ALK(-) and blocking miR-155 could be therapeutically relevant. Original miRNA array data are to be found in the supplementary material (Table S1).

Yasmin R, Siraj S, Hassan A, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of inflammatory cytokines and associated genes in human malignancies.
Mediators Inflamm. 2015; 2015:201703 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Inflammation is a multifaceted defense response of immune system against infection. Chronic inflammation has been implicated as an imminent threat for major human malignancies and is directly linked to various steps involved in tumorigenesis. Inflammatory cytokines, interleukins, interferons, transforming growth factors, chemokines, and adhesion molecules have been associated with chronic inflammation. Numerous cytokines are reported to be aberrantly regulated by different epigenetic mechanisms like DNA methylation and histone modifications in tumor tissues, contributing to pathogenesis of tumor in multiple ways. Some of these cytokines also work as epigenetic regulators of other crucial genes in tumor biology, either directly or indirectly. Such regulations are reported in lung, breast, cervical, gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, prostate, and head and neck cancers. Epigenetics of inflammatory mediators in cancer is currently subject of extensive research. These investigations may help in understanding cancer biology and to develop effective therapeutic strategies. The purpose of this paper is to have a brief view of the aberrant regulation of inflammatory cytokines in human malignancies.

Kim C, Lee JH, Kim SH, et al.
Artesunate suppresses tumor growth and induces apoptosis through the modulation of multiple oncogenic cascades in a chronic myeloid leukemia xenograft mouse model.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(6):4020-35 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, is one of the most commonly used anti-malarial drugs. Also, ART possesses anticancer potential albeit through incompletely understood molecular mechanism(s). Here, the effect of ART on various protein kinases, associated gene products, cellular response, and apoptosis was investigated. The in vivo effect of ART on the growth of human CML xenograft tumors in athymic nu/nu mice was also examined. In our preliminary experiments, we first observed that phosphorylation of p38, ERK, CREB, Chk-2, STAT5, and RSK proteins were suppressed upon ART exposure. Interestingly, ART induced the expression of SOCS-1 protein and depletion of SOCS-1 using siRNA abrogated the STAT5 inhibitory effect of the drug. Also various dephosphorylations caused by ART led to the suppression of various survival gene products and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation. Moreover, ART also substantially potentiated the apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents. Finally, when administered intraperitoneally, ART inhibited p38, ERK, STAT5, and CREB activation in tumor tissues and the growth of human CML xenograft tumors in mice without exhibiting any significant adverse effects. Overall, our results suggest that ART exerts its anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects through suppression of multiple signaling cascades in CML both in vitro and in vivo.

Gui Y, Yeganeh M, Donates YC, et al.
Regulation of MET receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(46):5718-28 [PubMed] Related Publications
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is considered as a tumor suppressor protein in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Previously, we have shown that SOCS1-deficient hepatocytes displayed increased responsiveness to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) due to enhanced signaling via the MET receptor tyrosine kinase. As aberrant MET activation occurs in many tumors including HCC, here we elucidated the mechanisms of SOCS1-mediated regulation. SOCS1 attenuated HGF-induced proliferation of human and mouse HCC cell lines and their growth as tumors in NOD.scid.gamma mice. Tumors formed by SOCS1 expressing HCC cells showed significantly reduced MET expression, indicating that SOCS1 not only attenuates MET signaling but also regulates MET expression. Mechanistically, SOCS1 interacted with MET via the Src homology 2 domain and this interaction was promoted by MET tyrosine kinase activity. The SOCS1-mediated reduction in MET expression does not require the juxtamembrane Y1003 residue implicated in Cbl-mediated downmodulation. Moreover, the proteasome inhibitor MG-132, but not the inhibitors of lysosomal degradation bafilomycin and chloroquine, reversed the SOCS1-mediated reduction in MET expression, indicating that this process is distinct from Cbl-mediated downmodulation. Accordingly, SOCS1 promoted polyubiquitination of MET via K48-dependent but not K63-mediated ubiquitin chain elongation. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated downmodulation of Cbl did not abolish SOCS1-mediated reduction in MET expression in HCC cells. SOCS1-dependent ubiquitination of endogenous MET receptor occurred rapidly following HGF stimulation in HCC cells, leading to proteasomal degradation of phosphorylated MET receptor. These findings indicate that SOCS1 mediates its tumor suppressor functions, at least partly, by binding to MET and interfering with downstream signaling pathways as well as by promoting the turnover of the activated MET receptor. We propose that loss of this control mechanism due to epigenetic repression of SOCS1 could contribute to oncogenic MET signaling in HCC and other cancers, and that MET inhibitors might be useful in treating these patients.

Wang X, Chen Z
MicroRNA-19a functions as an oncogenic microRNA in non-small cell lung cancer by targeting the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 and mediating STAT3 activation.
Int J Mol Med. 2015; 35(3):839-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA‑19a (miR‑19a) has been found to be overexpressed in lung cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of miR‑19a in tumorigenesis and the development of lung cancer remain poorly understood. In the present study, we aimed to delineate the role and mechanisms of action of miR‑19a in non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). miR‑19a was found to be overexpressed in both NSCLC tumor tissues and cell lines, as shown by RT-PCR. The enforced expression of miR‑19a by transfection with miR-19a mimics significantly enhanced cell growth and viability, cell invasion and the migration of NSCLC cells, as shown by cell invasion and migration assays, and promoted the growth of xenograft tumors in a mouse xenograft tumor model. Conversely, the inhibition of miR‑19a by transfection of the cells with miR‑19a inhibitor displayed the opposite effects. More importantly, we found that miR‑19a directly interacted with the 3'‑untranslated region (3'‑UTR) of the suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) by dual‑luciferase reporter assay. miR‑19a was found to be capable of regulating the expression of SOCS1 in NSCLC cells. Thus, by modulating SOCS1 expression, miR‑19a regulated the expression of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). Taken together, our data provide a possible underlying mechanism of action of miR‑19a in the development of NSCLC and suggest that miR‑19a may be a novel and promising target for therapeutic intervention in NSCLC.

Sioud M
Engineering better immunotherapies via RNA interference.
Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014; 10(11):3165-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
The therapeutic potential of dendritic cell (DC) cancer vaccines has gained momentum in recent years. However, clinical data indicate that antitumor immune responses generally fail to translate into measurable tumor regression. This has been ascribed to a variety of tolerance mechanisms, one of which is the expression of immunosuppressive factors by DCs and T cells. With respect to cancer immunotherapies, these factors antagonise the ability to induce robust and sustained immunity required for tumor cell eradication. Gene silencing of immunosuppressive factors in either DCs or adoptive transferred T cells enhanced anti-tumor immune responses and significantly inhibited tumor growth. Therefore, engineered next generation of DC vaccines or adoptive T-cell therapy should include immunomodulatory siRNAs to release the "brakes" imposed by the immune system. Moreover, the combination of gene silencing, antigen targeting to DCs and cytoplasmic cargo delivery will improve clinical benefits.

Ayyildiz T, Dolar E, Adim SB, et al.
Lack of prognostic significance of SOCS-1 expression in colorectal adenocarcinomas.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(19):8469-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have indicated that down-regulation of the suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS-1) gene results in tumor formation and that SOCS-1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene. SOCS-1 has been also suggested to function as a tumor suppressor with colorectal cancer.
OBJECTIVES: In the present study, we aimed to determine the association of SOCS-1 expression in colorectal cancer tissues with clinicopathologic characteristics immunohistochemically and also to identify its prognostic significance.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: SOCS-1 expression was studied immunohistochemically in 67 patients diagnosed with resected colorectal carcinomas and 30 control subjects.
RESULTS: SOCS-1 expression was found in 46.3% of tumor tissues and 46.7% of the control group. Statistical analyses did not establish any significant association between SOCS-1 expression and clinicopathologic characteristics. Also, no significant association with SOCS-1 expression was found using progression-free survival and overall survival analyses (p=0.326 and p=0.360, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that SOCS-1 has no prognostic significance in colorectal cancer.

Slattery ML, Wolff RK, Lundgreen A
A pathway approach to evaluating the association between the CHIEF pathway and risk of colorectal cancer.
Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36(1):49-59 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Inflammation, hormones and energy-related factors have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and it has been proposed that convergence and interactions of these factors importantly influence CRC risk. We have previously hypothesized that genetic variation in the CHIEF (convergence of hormones, inflammation and energy-related factors) pathway would influence risk of CRC. In this paper, we utilize an Adaptive Rank Truncation Product (ARTP) statistical method to determine the overall pathway significance and then use that method to identify the key elements within the pathway associated with disease risk. Data from two population-based case-control studies of colon (n = 1555 cases and 1956 controls) and rectal (n = 754 cases and 959 controls) cancer were used. We use ARTP to estimate pathway and gene significance and polygenic scores based on ARTP findings to further estimate the risk associated with the pathway. Associations were further assessed based on tumor molecular phenotype. The CHIEF pathway was statistically significant for colon cancer (P(ARTP)= 0.03) with the most significant interferons (P(ARTP) = 0.0253), JAK/STAT/SOCS (P(ARTP) = 0.0111), telomere (P(ARTP) = 0.0399) and transforming growth factor β (P(ARTP) = 0.0043) being the most significant subpathways for colon cancer. For rectal cancer, interleukins (P(ARTP) = 0.0235) and selenoproteins (P ARTP = 0.0047) were statistically significant although the pathway overall was of borderline significance (P(ARTP) = 0.06). Interleukins (P(ARTP) = 0.0456) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (P(ARTP) = 0.0392) subpathways were uniquely significant for CpG island methylator phenotype-positive colon tumors. Increasing number of at-risk alleles was significantly associated with both colon [odds ratio (OR) = 6.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.72, 8.16] and rectal (OR = 7.82, 95% CI: 5.26, 11.62) cancer. We conclude that elements of the CHIEF pathway are important for CRC risk.

Xu Y, Wang W, Gou A, et al.
Effects of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 silencing on human melanoma cell proliferation and interferon-γ sensitivity.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(1):583-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the current study was to observe the effects of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) silencing in human melanoma cells on cell biological behavior and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) sensitivity, and to investigate the use of SOCS1 as a therapeutic target in the treatment of melanoma. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were used to verify that SOCS1 interference effectively silenced the expression of SOCS1 in the Mel526 human melanoma cell line. For IFN-γ stimulation, western blot analysis was used to observe changes in expression levels of signal transduction and transcription activator (STAT) 1 and phosphorylated STAT (pSTAT) 1. Changes in the expression levels of IFN-γ regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) were measured with RT-qPCR. Changes in the sensitivity of melanoma cells to IFN-γ were detected using an MTT assay. The cell proliferation rate was observed by cell counting and changes in the cell cycle were detected with flow cytometry. The results revealed that SOCS1 interference effectively silences SOCS1 expression in Mel526 cells. However, the S stage of the cell cycle was markedly extended. Following the inhibition of SOCS1 expression, the proliferation experiment demonstrated that the proliferation ability of Mel526 cells was decreased. Following IFN-γ stimulation, the expression levels of pSTAT and IRF-1 increased significantly compared with those in the controls. The MTT experiment showed that SOCS1 interference caused the median inhibitory concentration (IC50) of oxaliplatin in Mel526 cells to decrease significantly. In conclusion, SOCS1 interference reduced the proliferation ability of Mel526 human melanoma cells and increased their sensitivity to IFN-γ.

Su IJ, Wang LH, Hsieh WC, et al.
The emerging role of hepatitis B virus pre-S2 deletion mutant proteins in HBV tumorigenesis.
J Biomed Sci. 2014; 21:98 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can cause hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of HBV tumorigenesis, including inflammation and liver regeneration associated with cytotoxic immune injuries and transcriptional activators of mutant HBV gene products. The mutant viral oncoprotein-driven tumorigenesis is prevailed at the advanced stage or anti-HBe-positive phase of chronic HBV infection. Besides HBx, the pre-S2 (deletion) mutant protein represents a newly recognized oncoprotein that is accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and manifests as type II ground glass hepatocytes (GGH). The retention of pre-S2 mutant protein in ER can induce ER stress and initiate an ER stress-dependent VEGF/Akt/mTOR and NFκB/COX-2 signal pathway. Additionally, the pre-S2 mutant large surface protein can induce an ER stress-independent pathway to transactivate JAB-1/p27/RB/cyclin A,D pathway, leading to growth advantage of type II GGH. The pre-S2 mutant protein-induced ER stress can also cause DNA damage, centrosome overduplication, and genomic instability. In 5-10% of type II GGHs, there is co-expression of pre-S2 mutant protein and HBx antigen which exhibited enhanced oncogenic effects in transgenic mice. The mTOR signal cascade is consistently activated throughout the course of pre-S2 mutant transgenic livers and in human HCC tissues, leading to metabolic disorders and HCC tumorigenesis. Clinically, the presence of pre-S2 deletion mutants in sera frequently develop resistance to nucleoside analogues anti-virals and predict HCC development. The pre-S2 deletion mutants and type II GGHs therefore represent novel biomarkers of HBV-related HCCs. A versatile DNA array chip has been developed to detect pre-S2 mutants in serum. Overall, the presence of pre-S2 mutants in serum has implications for anti-viral treatment and can predict HCC development. Targeting at pre-S2 mutant protein-induced, ER stress-dependent, mTOR signal cascade and metabolic disorders may offer potential strategy for chemoprevention or therapy in high risk chronic HBV carriers.

He J, Ji Y, Li A, et al.
MiR-122 directly inhibits human papillomavirus E6 gene and enhances interferon signaling through blocking suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 in SiHa cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e108410 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
Human Papillomavirus (HPV) 16 infection is considered as one of the significant causes of human cervical cancer. The expression of the viral oncogenes like E6 and E7 play an important role in the development of the cancer. MiR-122 has been reported to exhibit a strong relationship with hepatitis viruses and take part in several tumor development, while the effects of miR-122 on HPV infection and the HPV viral oncogenes expression still remain unexplored. In this study, using RNAhybrid software, the potential binding sites between miR-122 and HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNAs were identified. Over and loss of miR-122 function showed that miR-122 could directly bind with HPV16 E6 mRNA and significantly inhibit its expression in SiHa cells, which was further confirmed by constructing the miR-122-E6-mu to eliminate the miR-122 binding effects with E6. The increase of the expression of type I interferon (IFN) and its classical effective molecules and the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT1) protein indicated that miR-122 might enhance type I interferon in cervical carcinoma cells, which explained the significant reduction of HPV16 E7 and E6*I mRNA expression. This might be due to the binding between miR-122 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) mRNA, which is the suppressor of interferon signaling pathway. Moreover, it was identified that the miR-122 binding position was nt359-nt375 in SOCS1 mRNA. Taken together, this study indicated that HPV16 could be effectively inhibited by miR-122 through both direct binding with E6 mRNA and promoting SOCS1-dependent IFN signaling pathway. Thus, miR-122 may serve as a new therapeutic option for inhibiting HPV infection.

Li G, Xu J, Wang Z, et al.
Low expression of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 is a poor prognostic indicator for gastric cancer patients.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(3):443-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Inflammation plays an important role in gastric cancer (GC) development and progression. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)-1 and SOCS-3 negatively regulate proinflammatory cytokine signaling; however, their prognostic significance in GC remains unknown. We evaluated the clinicopathological correlation and prognostic significance of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 in GC.
METHODS: SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 mRNA levels were analyzed in 80 paired gastric tumor and adjacent normal mucosal tissues using a microarray dataset from the Gene Expression Omnibus. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic impact of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 immunohistochemical expression on overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) in 186 consecutive GC patients who underwent curative surgery.
RESULTS: SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 mRNA expression levels were lower in gastric tumor tissues than in matched normal mucosa. OS and RFS were significantly longer in the high SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 expression groups than in their corresponding low expression groups (p < 0.05). High simultaneous SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 expression were associated with longer OS compared with low simultaneous SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 expression (68.8 vs. 22.2 months; p < 0.001). SOCS-1 [hazards ratio (HR) 0.54, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.33-0.87, p = 0.011] and SOCS-3 (HR 0.46, 95 % CI 0.26-0.80, p = 0.006) were independent prognostic factors for OS. Only SOCS-1 (HR 0.20, 95 % CI 0.11-0.38, p = 0.006) was an independent prognostic factor for RFS.
CONCLUSION: Low SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 expression are poor prognostic indicators in GC. GC patients with low SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 expression need close follow-up.

Feng M, Luo X, Gu C, Fei J
Seed targeting with tiny anti-miR-155 inhibits malignant progression of multiple myeloma cells.
J Drug Target. 2015; 23(1):59-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: miR-155 acts as a ubiquitous oncogene in major classes of human cancers and is a potential target for therapeutic intervention. However, the role of miR-155 in multiple myeloma is poorly understood.
METHODS: To explore the role of miR-155 in multiple myeloma, we assessed the influence of tiny seed-targeting anti-miR-155 (t-anti-miR-155) on multiple myeloma cell line (RPMI-8266) viability and apoptosis in vitro.
RESULTS: t-anti-miR-155 significantly inhibited multiple myeloma cell proliferation, migration, and colony formation. Additionally, t-anti-miR-155 significantly increased CD19 positive cell numbers, which are novel biomarkers for multiple myeloma and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1(SOCS1) was shown to be a target gene for miR-155 in multiple myeloma. Finally, the miR-155 signaling pathway was investigated by KEGG assay.
CONCLUSION: miR-155 in RPMI-8266 cells is a critical oncomiR in multiple myeloma and seed-targeting t-anti-miR-155 might be a novel strategy for miR-155-based therapeutics.

Slattery ML, Lundgreen A, Hines LM, et al.
Genetic variation in the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway influences breast cancer-specific mortality through interaction with cigarette smoking and use of aspirin/NSAIDs: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 147(1):145-58 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/04/2017 Related Publications
The Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling pathway is involved in immune function and cell growth; genetic variation in this pathway could influence breast cancer risk. We examined 12 genes in the JAK/STAT/SOCS signaling pathway with breast cancer risk and mortality in an admixed population of Hispanic (2,111 cases, 2,597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (1,481 cases, 1,585 controls) women. Associations were assessed by Indigenous American (IA) ancestry. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, JAK1 (three of ten SNPs) and JAK2 (4 of 11 SNPs) interacted with body mass index (BMI) among pre-menopausal women, while STAT3 (four of five SNPs) interacted significantly with BMI among post-menopausal women to alter breast cancer risk. STAT6 rs3024979 and TYK2 rs280519 altered breast cancer-specific mortality among all women. Associations with breast cancer-specific mortality differed by IA ancestry; SOCS1 rs193779, STAT3 rs1026916, and STAT4 rs11685878 associations were limited to women with low IA ancestry, and associations with JAK1 rs2780890, rs2254002, and rs310245 and STAT1 rs11887698 were observed among women with high IA ancestry. JAK2 (5 of 11 SNPs), SOCS2 (one of three SNPs), and STAT4 (2 of 20 SNPs) interacted with cigarette smoking status to alter breast cancer-specific mortality. SOCS2 (one of three SNPs) and all STAT3, STAT5A, and STAT5B SNPs significantly interacted with use of aspirin/NSAIDs to alter breast cancer-specific mortality. Genetic variation in the JAK/STAT/SOCS pathway was associated with breast cancer-specific mortality. The proportion of SNPs within a gene that significantly interacted with lifestyle factors lends support for the observed associations.

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