Gene Summary

Gene:SOX18; SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 18
Aliases: HLTS, HLTRS
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of the cell fate. The encoded protein may act as a transcriptional regulator after forming a protein complex with other proteins. This protein plays a role in hair, blood vessel, and lymphatic vessel development. Mutations in this gene have been associated with recessive and dominant forms of hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor SOX-18
Source:NCBIAccessed: 20 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (26)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 20 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Cancer DNA
  • Tumor Markers
  • Chromosome 20
  • CpG Islands
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Lung Cancer
  • Homologous Transplantat
  • Transcription Factors
  • Lymphatic Vessels
  • Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases
  • tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Leiomyosarcoma
  • Cell Cycle
  • Xenopus Proteins
  • Angiogenesis
  • SOXF Transcription Factors
  • Breast Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Uterine Cancer
  • DNA Methylation
  • Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • sox17a protein, Xenopus
  • High Mobility Group Proteins
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • SOX18 protein, human
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Gene Dosage
  • MicroRNAs
  • Embryo, Mammalian
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Mutation
  • Ductal Breast Carcinoma
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Genome, Human
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D
Tag cloud generated 20 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SOX18 (cancer-related)

Jethon A, Pula B, Olbromski M, et al.
Prognostic significance of SOX18 expression in non-small cell lung cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 46(1):123-32 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of SOX18 transcription factor in blood and lymphatic vessel development, as well as in wound healing processes. SOX18 expression has been noted in cancer cells of various tumours, including lung cancer. However, the exact role of SOX18 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remains to be determined. The present study, therefore, assessed its expression in 198 cases of NSCLC, consisting of 94 adenocarcinomas (AC), 89 squamous cell carcinomas (SQC) and 15 large cell carcinomas (LCC). The analysis utilized immunohistochemistry (IHC) and, in 42 cases, molecular methods. SOX18 expression was also determined in NSCLC cell lines (NCI-H1703, NCI-H522 and A549) and in normal lung fibroblasts (IMR-90). SOX18 was found to be expressed in nuclei, as well as in the cytoplasm of cancer cells, in the majority of studied cases. SOX18 mRNA expression was significantly lower in NSCLC than in non-malignant lung tissue (p<0.0001). However, SOX18 protein expression levels were higher in NSCLC tissues (p<0.005) and in the examined lung cancer cell lines. No SOX18 expression was noted in the IMR-90 cell line. In paraffin sections, a positive correlation between the Ki-67 antigen and nuclear SOX18 expression (r=0.17, p<0.05) was noted. In univariate survival analysis, cytoplasmic SOX18 expression correlated with poor patient outcome in the whole study and in AC cohorts (both p<0.05). Based on these results, SOX18 may be involved in the progression of NSCLC.

Pula B, Olbromski M, Wojnar A, et al.
Impact of SOX18 expression in cancer cells and vessels on the outcome of invasive ductal breast carcinoma.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2013; 36(6):469-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: SOX18 is a transcription factor known to be involved in hair follicle, blood and lymphatic vessel development, as well as wound healing processes (together with SOX7 and SOX17). In addition, it has been reported that SOX18 may affect the growth of cancer cells in vitro. Until now, the exact role of SOX18 expression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) has remained unknown.
METHODS: In this study, we have investigated SOX18 expression in cancer cells and endothelial cells in 122 IDC samples using immunohistochemistry (IHC). SOX18 expression was also determined using real-time PCR and Western blotting in a series of breast cancer-derived cell lines (i.e., MCF-7, BT-474, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, BO2).
RESULTS: Using IHC, we observed SOX18 nuclear expression in cancer cells, as well as in blood and lymphatic vessels of the IDC samples tested. SOX18 expression in the IDC samples correlated with a higher malignancy grade (Grade 2 and Grade 3 versus Grade 1; p = 0.02 and p = 0.009, respectively) and VEGF-D expression (r = 0.27, p = 0.007). SOX18 expression was also associated with HER2 positivity (p = 0.02). A significantly higher SOX18 expression was found in the HER2-positive cell line BT-474, and a significantly lower expression in the triple negative cell lines MDA-MB-231 and BO2. Laser capture microdissection of IDC samples revealed significantly higher mRNA SOX7, SOX17 and SOX18 expression levels in the vessels as compared to the cancer cells (p = 0.02 and p = 0.0002, p < 0.0001, respectively). SOX18 positive intratumoral and peritumoral microvessel counts (MVC) were associated with higher malignancy grades (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02, respectively). Moreover, peritumoral SOX18 positive MVC were found to act as an independent marker for a poor prognosis (p = 0.04).
CONCLUSION: SOX18 expression may serve as a marker for a poor prognosis in IDC.

Bidkhori G, Narimani Z, Hosseini Ashtiani S, et al.
Reconstruction of an integrated genome-scale co-expression network reveals key modules involved in lung adenocarcinoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e67552 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our goal of this study was to reconstruct a "genome-scale co-expression network" and find important modules in lung adenocarcinoma so that we could identify the genes involved in lung adenocarcinoma. We integrated gene mutation, GWAS, CGH, array-CGH and SNP array data in order to identify important genes and loci in genome-scale. Afterwards, on the basis of the identified genes a co-expression network was reconstructed from the co-expression data. The reconstructed network was named "genome-scale co-expression network". As the next step, 23 key modules were disclosed through clustering. In this study a number of genes have been identified for the first time to be implicated in lung adenocarcinoma by analyzing the modules. The genes EGFR, PIK3CA, TAF15, XIAP, VAPB, Appl1, Rab5a, ARF4, CLPTM1L, SP4, ZNF124, LPP, FOXP1, SOX18, MSX2, NFE2L2, SMARCC1, TRA2B, CBX3, PRPF6, ATP6V1C1, MYBBP1A, MACF1, GRM2, TBXA2R, PRKAR2A, PTK2, PGF and MYO10 are among the genes that belong to modules 1 and 22. All these genes, being implicated in at least one of the phenomena, namely cell survival, proliferation and metastasis, have an over-expression pattern similar to that of EGFR. In few modules, the genes such as CCNA2 (Cyclin A2), CCNB2 (Cyclin B2), CDK1, CDK5, CDC27, CDCA5, CDCA8, ASPM, BUB1, KIF15, KIF2C, NEK2, NUSAP1, PRC1, SMC4, SYCE2, TFDP1, CDC42 and ARHGEF9 are present that play a crucial role in cell cycle progression. In addition to the mentioned genes, there are some other genes (i.e. DLGAP5, BIRC5, PSMD2, Src, TTK, SENP2, PSMD2, DOK2, FUS and etc.) in the modules.

Raish M, Khurshid M, Ansari MA, et al.
Analysis of molecular cytogenetic alterations in uterine leiomyosarcoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2012; 138(7):1173-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify novel genes following genomic DNA copy number changes using a genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) analysis in uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS).
METHODS: Genomic DNA copy number changes were analyzed in 15 cases of ULMS from St Mary's Hospital of the Catholic University of Korea. The paraffin-fixed tissue samples were micro-dissected under microscope, and DNA was extracted. Array-based CGH and genomic polymerase chain reaction were carried out with statistical analyses such as hierarchical clustering and Gene Ontology.
RESULTS: All of 15 cases of ULMS showed specific gains and losses. The percentage of average gains and losses were 8.4 and 16.6 %, respectively. The analysis limit of average gains and losses was 40 %. The regions of high level of gain were 1q23.3, 7p14.2, 7q34, 7q35, 7q36.3, 13q34, and 16p13.3. And the regions of homozygous loss were 2q21.1, 2q22.1, 2p23.2, 12q23.3, 4q21.22, 4q34.3, 11q24.2, 12q23.3, 13q13.1, 13q21.33, and 14q24.3. In ULMS samples, recurrent regions of gain were 1p36.33, 1p36.32, 5q35.3, 7q36.3, and 8q24.3 and recurrent regions of loss were 1p31.1-p31.3, 1p32.1-p32.3, 2p12, 2p13.3, 2p14, 2p16.2-p16.3, 2q12.1-q12.3, 2q21.1-q21.2, 2q22.2-q22.3, 2q34, 2q36.1-q36.3, 5q21.3, 5q23.3, 5q31.1, 6p11.2, 6p12.1, 10q11.23, 10q21.2-q21.3, 10q23.2, 10q23.31, 10q25.1-q25.2, 10q25.3, 10q26.13, 10q26.2-q26.3, 11p11.2, 11p11.12, 11p12, 11p13, 11p15.4, 11q23.1-q23.2, 11q23.3, 13q14.12, 13q14.13-13q14.2, 13q14.2, 13q14.2, 13q14.3, 13q21.33, 13q22.1-q22.3, 14q24.2, 14q24.3, 14q31.1, 14q32.33, 15q11.2-q13, 15q14, 16q22.3, 16q23.1, 16q23.2, 16q24.1, 20p12.1, and 21q22.3. Representative frequently gained BAC clones encoded genes were HDAC9, CRR9, SOX18, PTPRN2, SKI, SOLH, and KIAA1199. The genes encoded by frequently lost BAC clones were LOC150516 and AMY2A. A subset of cellular processes from each gene were clustered by Gene Ontology database.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study using array-CGH analyses sought a deeper elucidation of the specific genomic alterations related to ULMS. The high resolution of array-CGH combined with human genome database would give a chance at identifying relevant target genes.

Newman B, Lose F, Kedda MA, et al.
Possible genetic predisposition to lymphedema after breast cancer.
Lymphat Res Biol. 2012; 10(1):2-13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Known risk factors for secondary lymphedema only partially explain who develops lymphedema following cancer, suggesting that inherited genetic susceptibility may influence risk. Moreover, identification of molecular signatures could facilitate lymphedema risk prediction prior to surgery or lead to effective drug therapies for prevention or treatment. Recent advances in the molecular biology underlying development of the lymphatic system and related congenital disorders implicate a number of potential candidate genes to explore in relation to secondary lymphedema.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We undertook a nested case-control study, with participants who had developed lymphedema after surgical intervention within the first 18 months of their breast cancer diagnosis serving as cases (n=22) and those without lymphedema serving as controls (n=98), identified from a prospective, population-based, cohort study in Queensland, Australia. TagSNPs that covered all known genetic variation in the genes SOX18, VEGFC, VEGFD, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, RORC, FOXC2, LYVE1, ADM, and PROX1 were selected for genotyping. Multiple SNPs within three receptor genes, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, and RORC, were associated with lymphedema defined by statistical significance (p<0.05) or extreme risk estimates (OR <0.5 or >2.0).
CONCLUSIONS: These provocative, albeit preliminary, findings regarding possible genetic predisposition to secondary lymphedema following breast cancer treatment warrant further attention for potential replication using larger datasets.

Azhikina T, Kozlova A, Skvortsov T, Sverdlov E
Heterogeneity and degree of TIMP4, GATA4, SOX18, and EGFL7 gene promoter methylation in non-small cell lung cancer and surrounding tissues.
Cancer Genet. 2011; 204(9):492-500 [PubMed] Related Publications
We used methylation-sensitive high resolution melting analysis to assess methylation of CpG islands within the promoters of the TIMP4, GATA4, SOX18, and EGFL7 genes in samples of non-small cell lung cancer and surrounding apparently normal tissue and noncancerous lung tissues. We found that the promoter methylation was heterogeneous in both tumor and surrounding normal tissue. This is in contrast to healthy lung tissue, where the promoters were normally either non- or hypomethylated, and the heterogeneity of methylation was low. An increased heterogeneity of methylation in the normal tissues surrounding the tumor may suggest an early start of epigenetic processes preceding genetic and morphologic changes and can be used as a biomarker of early cancerization events. This analysis is an easy and sensitive tool for studying epigenetic heterogeneity and could be used in clinical practice.

Fang X, Yoon JG, Li L, et al.
The SOX2 response program in glioblastoma multiforme: an integrated ChIP-seq, expression microarray, and microRNA analysis.
BMC Genomics. 2011; 12:11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: SOX2 is a key gene implicated in maintaining the stemness of embryonic and adult stem cells. SOX2 appears to re-activate in several human cancers including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), however, the detailed response program of SOX2 in GBM has not yet been defined.
RESULTS: We show that knockdown of the SOX2 gene in LN229 GBM cells reduces cell proliferation and colony formation. We then comprehensively characterize the SOX2 response program by an integrated analysis using several advanced genomic technologies including ChIP-seq, microarray profiling, and microRNA sequencing. Using ChIP-seq technology, we identified 4883 SOX2 binding regions in the GBM cancer genome. SOX2 binding regions contain the consensus sequence wwTGnwTw that occurred 3931 instances in 2312 SOX2 binding regions. Microarray analysis identified 489 genes whose expression altered in response to SOX2 knockdown. Interesting findings include that SOX2 regulates the expression of SOX family proteins SOX1 and SOX18, and that SOX2 down regulates BEX1 (brain expressed X-linked 1) and BEX2 (brain expressed X-linked 2), two genes with tumor suppressor activity in GBM. Using next generation sequencing, we identified 105 precursor microRNAs (corresponding to 95 mature miRNAs) regulated by SOX2, including down regulation of miR-143, -145, -253-5p and miR-452. We also show that miR-145 and SOX2 form a double negative feedback loop in GBM cells, potentially creating a bistable system in GBM cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We present an integrated dataset of ChIP-seq, expression microarrays and microRNA sequencing representing the SOX2 response program in LN229 GBM cells. The insights gained from our integrated analysis further our understanding of the potential actions of SOX2 in carcinogenesis and serves as a useful resource for the research community.

Guilmain W, Colin S, Legrand E, et al.
CD9P-1 expression correlates with the metastatic status of lung cancer, and a truncated form of CD9P-1, GS-168AT2, inhibits in vivo tumour growth.
Br J Cancer. 2011; 104(3):496-504 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Loss of CD9 expression has been correlated with a higher motility and metastatic potential of tumour cells originating from different organs. However, the mechanism underlying this loss is not yet understood.
METHODS: We produced a truncated form of partner 1 of CD9 (CD9P-1), GS-168AT2, and developed a new monoclonal antibody directed towards the latter. We measured the expression of CD9 and CD9P-1 in human lung tumours (hLTs), and monitored the level of CD9 in NCI-H460, in vitro and in vivo, in the presence and absence of GS-168AT2.
RESULTS: Loss of CD9 is inversely related to the expression of CD9P-1, which correlates with the metastatic status of hLT (n=55). In vitro, GS-168AT2 is rapidly internalised and degraded at both the membrane and cytoplasm of NCI-H460, and this correlates with the association of GS-168AT2 with both CD9 and CD81. Intraperitoneal injections of GS-168AT2 in NCI-H460-xenografted Nude mice led to drastic inhibition of tumour growth, as well as to the downregulation of CD9, but not of CD81, in the tumour core.
CONCLUSION: These findings show for the first time that CD9P-1 expression positively correlates with the metastatic status of hLT, and that the upregulation of CD9P-1 expression could be one of the mechanisms underlying the loss of CD9 in solid tumours. Our study also reveals that, under certain conditions, loss of CD9 could be a tumour growth-limiting phenomenon rather than a tumour growth-promoting one.

Harris ML, Baxter LL, Loftus SK, Pavan WJ
Sox proteins in melanocyte development and melanoma.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2010; 23(4):496-513 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Over 10 years have passed since the first Sox gene was implicated in melanocyte development. Since then, we have discovered that SOX5, SOX9, SOX10 and SOX18 all participate as transcription factors that affect key melanocytic genes in both regulatory and modulatory fashions. Both SOX9 and SOX10 play major roles in the establishment and normal function of the melanocyte; SOX10 has been shown to heavily influence melanocyte development and SOX9 has been implicated in melanogenesis in the adult. Despite these advances, the precise cellular and molecular details of how these SOX proteins are regulated and interact during all stages of the melanocyte life cycle remain unknown. Improper regulation of SOX9 or SOX10 is also associated with cancerous transformation, and thus understanding the normal function of SOX proteins in the melanocyte will be key to revealing how these proteins contribute to melanoma.

Young N, Hahn CN, Poh A, et al.
Effect of disrupted SOX18 transcription factor function on tumor growth, vascularization, and endothelial development.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006; 98(15):1060-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The growth of solid tumors depends on establishing blood supply; thus, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis has been a long-term goal in cancer therapy. The SOX18 transcription factor is a key regulator of murine and human blood vessel formation.
METHODS: We established allograft melanoma tumors in wild-type mice, Sox18-null mice, and mice expressing a dominant-negative form of Sox18 (Sox18RaOp) (n = 4 per group) and measured tumor growth and microvessel density by immunohistochemical analysis with antibodies to the endothelial marker CD31 and the pericyte marker NG2. We also assessed the affects of disrupted SOX18 function on MCF-7 human breast cancer and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation by measuring BrdU incorporation and by MTS assay, cell migration using Boyden chamber assay, and capillary tube formation in vitro. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: Allograft tumors in Sox18-null and Sox18RaOp mice grew more slowly than those in wild-type mice (tumor volume at day 14, Sox18 null, mean = 486 mm3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 345 mm3 to 627 mm3, P = .004; Sox18RaOp, mean = 233 mm3, 95% CI = 73 mm3 to 119 mm3, P<.001; versus wild-type, mean = 817 mm3, 95% CI = 643 mm3 to 1001 mm3) and had fewer CD31- and NG2-expressing vessels. Expression of dominant-negative Sox18 reduced the proliferation of MCF-7 cells (BrdU incorporation: MCF-7(Ra) = 20%, 95% CI = 15% to 25% versus MCF-7 = 41%, 95% CI = 35% to 45%; P = .013) and HUVECs (optical density at 490 nm, empty vector, mean = 0.46 versus SOX18 mean = 0.29; difference = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.14 to 0.19; P = .001) compared with control subjects. Overexpression of wild-type SOX18 promoted capillary tube formation of HUVECs in vitro, whereas expression of dominant-negative SOX18 impaired tube formation of HUVECs and the migration of MCF-7 cells via the disruption of the actin cytoskeleton.
CONCLUSIONS: SOX18 is a potential target for antiangiogenic therapy of human cancers.

Wang QK
Update on the molecular genetics of vascular anomalies.
Lymphat Res Biol. 2005; 3(4):226-33 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic factors play a critical role in the pathogenesis of vascular anomalies. Significant advances have been made in recent years in identifying the genetic and molecular determinants of a variety of vascular anomalies using a molecular genetic approach. Several genes for vascular anomalies have been identified. These genes include AGGF1 for Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, RASA1 for capillary malformations, KRIT1, MGC4607, PDCD10 for cerebral cavernous malformations, glomulin for glomuvenous malformations, TIE2 for multiple cutaneous and mucosal venous malformations, VEGFR-3, FOXC2, NEMO, SOX18 for lymphedema or related syndromes, ENG, ACVRLK1, MADH4 for HHT or related syndromes, NDP for Coats' disease, Notch3 for CADASIL, and PTEN for Proteus Syndrome. These findings have made genetic testing possible in some clinical cases, and may lead to the development of therapeutic strategies for vascular anomalies. Furthermore, these studies have identified critical genes involved in vascular morphogenesis, and provided fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.

Cho YL, Bae S, Koo MS, et al.
Array comparative genomic hybridization analysis of uterine leiomyosarcoma.
Gynecol Oncol. 2005; 99(3):545-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Using a genome-wide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), DNA copy number changes in uterine leiomyosarcoma were analyzed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed 4 cases of uterine leiomyoma and 7 cases of uterine leiomyosarcoma. The paraffin-fixed tissue samples were microdissected under microscope and DNA was extracted. Array-based CGH and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were carried out with Genome database (Gene Ontology).
RESULTS: Uterine leiomyoma showed no genetic alterations, while all of 7 cases of uterine leiomyosarcoma showed specific gains and losses. The percentage of average gains and losses were 4.86% and 15.1%, respectively. The regions of high level of gain were 7q36.3, 7q33-q35, 12q13-12q15, and 12q23.3. And the regions of homozygous loss were 1p21.1, 2p22.2, 6p11.2, 9p21.1, 9p21.3, 9p22.1, 14q32.33, and 14q32.33 qter. There were no recurrent regions of gain, but recurrent regions of loss were 1p21.1-p21.2, 1p22.3-p31.1, 9p21.2-p22.2, 10q25-q25.2, 11q24.2-q25, 13q12-q12.13, 14q31.1-q31.3, 14q32.32-q32.33, 15q11-q12, 15q13-q14, 18q12.1-q12.2, 18q22.1-q22.3, 20p12.1, and 21q22.12-q22.13. In the high level of gain regions, BAC clones encoded HMGIC, SAS, MDM2, TIM1 genes. Frequently gained BAC clone-encoded genes were TIM1, PDGFR-beta, REC Q4, VAV2, FGF4, KLK2, PNUTL1, GDNF, FLG, EXT1, WISP1, HER-2, and SOX18. The genes encoded by frequently lost BAC clones were LEU1, ERCC5, THBS1, DCC, MBD2, SCCA1, FVT1, CYB5, and ETS2/E2. A subset of cellular processes from each gene was clustered by Gene Ontology database.
CONCLUSION: Using array-CGH, chromosomal aberrations related to uterine leiomyosarcoma were identified. The high resolution of array-CGH combined with human genome database would give a chance to find out possible target genes present in the gained or lost clones.

Dammann R, Strunnikova M, Schagdarsurengin U, et al.
CpG island methylation and expression of tumour-associated genes in lung carcinoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2005; 41(8):1223-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, microarray analysis was used to identify tumour-related genes that were down regulated in lung carcinoma. The promoter sequences of the identified genes were analysed for methylation patterns. In lung cancer cell lines, CpG island methylation was frequently detected for TIMP4 (64%), SOX18 (73%), EGF-like domain 7 (56%), CD105 (71%), SEMA2 (55%), RASSF1A (71%), p16 (56%) SLIT2 (100%) and TIMP3 (29%). Methylation was however rarely observed in cell lines for SLIT3 (18%) and DLC1 (18%). In primary lung tumours, methylation of TIMP4 (94%), SOX18 (100%), EGF-like domain 7 (100%), CD105 (69%), SEMA2 (93%), DLC1 (61%), RASSF1A (44%), p16 (47%), SLIT2 (100%) and TIMP3 (13%) was also detected. Methylation of several CpG islands was frequently found in normal lung tissue of cancer patients and this may have been attributed to epigenetic field defect and/or infiltrating tumour cells. Interestingly, inactivation of RASSF1A and p16 correlated well with an extended smoking habit (P=0.02), and exposure to asbestos (P=0.017) or squamous cell carcinoma (P=0.011), respectively. These results have identified genes whose aberrant promoter methylation could play a crucial role in the malignancy of lung carcinoma.

Saitoh T, Katoh M
Expression of human SOX18 in normal tissues and tumors.
Int J Mol Med. 2002; 10(3):339-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
SOX proteins are a family of transcription factors with high-mobility-group DNA-binding domain (HMG box) homologous to SRY, which play key roles in embryogenesis. Xenopus Sox17alpha, Sox17beta, Sox3 and mouse Sox7 are reported to be negative regulators of the WNT-beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway. SOX7, SOX17, and SOX18 constitute a subfamily among the SOX gene family. Here, expression of SOX18 mRNA was investigated using Northern blot analysis, RNA dot blot analysis, and cDNA-PCR. SOX18 mRNA was significantly highly expressed in ventricles and inter-ventricular septum of adult heart among various normal human tissues. SOX18 mRNA was relatively highly expressed in stomach and jejunum in the gastrointestinal tract. SOX18 mRNA was relatively highly expressed in TMK1 and MKN45 among 7 gastric cancer cell lines. SOX18 mRNA was expressed in all out of 7 pancreatic cancer cell lines, and was relatively highly expressed in PANC-1, Hs700T, Hs766T and MIA PaCa-2. Expression level of SOX18 mRNA in MCF-7 cells (breast cancer) was not affected by beta-estradiol. SOX18 mRNA was expressed in all out of 5 embryonal tumor cell lines, and was relatively highly expressed in NT2 with the potential to differentiate into neuronal cells. Expression level of SOX18 mRNA in NT2 cells was down-regulated by all-trans retinoic acid. This is the first report on comprehensive expression analyses of SOX18 mRNA in normal human tissues and tumors.

Katoh M
Expression of human SOX7 in normal tissues and tumors.
Int J Mol Med. 2002; 9(4):363-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
SOX transcription factors with high-mobility-group DNA-binding domain (HMG box) play key roles in embryogenesis. Some members of the SOX family are negative regulators of the WNT-beta-catenin-TCF signaling pathway. We have previously cloned and characterized human SOX17, constituting a subfamily with SOX7 and SOX18. Another group mapped SOX7 gene to human chromosome 8p22, and reported almost ubiquitous expression of 5.0-kb SOX7 mRNA in human normal tissues. Here, expression of SOX7 mRNA was investigated by using SOX7 specific probe, which hybridized to 3.8-kb human SOX7 mRNA, but not to 5.0-kb mRNA. SOX7 mRNA was relatively highly expressed in adult lung, trachea, lymph node, placenta, fetal lung, and heart. In adult heart, SOX7 mRNA was more highly expressed in ventricules, inter-ventricular septum and apex than in atriums. SOX7 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3, PSN-1, Hs766T, and in 4 cases out of 8 cases of primary gastric cancer. SOX7 mRNA was relatively highly expressed in a gastric cancer cell line MKN45, esophageal cancer cell lines TE2, TE3, TE4, TE5, TE7, TE8, TE11, TE12, and TE13. On the other hand, SOX7 mRNA was significantly down-regulated in 7 out of 18 cases of primary colorectal tumors, in 4 out of 9 cases of primary breast cancer, in 4 out of 14 cases of primary kidney tumors, and also in some cases of primary lung and prostate cancer. SOX7 gene might be one of cancer-associated genes on human chromosome 8p22.

Katoh M
Molecular cloning and characterization of human SOX17.
Int J Mol Med. 2002; 9(2):153-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
SOX proteins are a family of transcription factors with high-mobility-group DNA-binding domain (HMG box) homologous to SRY, which are implicated in embryogenesis. Xenopus Sox17 alpha, Sox17 beta, and Sox3 are reported to negatively modulate the WNT - beta-catenin - TCF signaling pathway. Here, human SOX17 gene fragments were identified in human genome draft sequences by using bioinformatics, and SOX17 cDNAs were isolated by using cDNA-PCR. Human SOX17 was found to encode a 414-amino-acid protein with a HMG box, which was homologous to SOX18 and SOX7. SOX17 gene, consisting of 2 exons, was located in human chromosome 8q12-q13 region. SOX17 mRNAs of 2.5- and 2.2-kb in size were detected in adult heart, lung, spleen, testis, ovary, placenta, fetal lung, and kidney. In normal gastrointestinal tract, SOX17 mRNA was preferentially expressed in esophagus, stomach and small intestine than in colon and rectum. SOX17 mRNA was almost undetectable in human cancer cell lines HL-60, HeLa S3, K-562, MOLT-4, Raji, SW480, A549, G-361, and also in 66 cases of human primary tumors derived from various tissues, except one case of primary cervical cancer. This is the first report on molecular cloning and characterization of human SOX17.

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