Gene Summary

Gene:SOX4; SRY-box 4
Aliases: EVI16
Summary:This intronless gene encodes a member of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in the regulation of embryonic development and in the determination of the cell fate. The encoded protein may act as a transcriptional regulator after forming a protein complex with other proteins, such as syndecan binding protein (syntenin). The protein may function in the apoptosis pathway leading to cell death as well as to tumorigenesis and may mediate downstream effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) in bone development. The solution structure has been resolved for the HMG-box of a similar mouse protein. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:transcription factor SOX-4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (55)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • TGFB1
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • SOXC Transcription Factors
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • MicroRNAs
  • Chromosome 6
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Pinealoma
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Down-Regulation
  • Lung Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Urothelium
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • High Mobility Group Proteins
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Signal Transduction
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Apoptosis
  • Messenger RNA
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Transfection
  • Promoter Regions
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • gamma Catenin
  • Breast Cancer
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Movement
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Gene Expression
  • Young Adult
  • beta Catenin
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: SOX4 (cancer-related)

Yuan X, Wang S, Liu M, et al.
Histological and Pathological Assessment of miR-204 and SOX4 Levels in Gastric Cancer Patients.
Biomed Res Int. 2017; 2017:6894675 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and the efficient therapeutic methods are limited. Further study of the exact molecular mechanism of gastric cancer to develop novel targeted therapies is necessary and urgent. We herein systematically examined that miR-204 suppressed both proliferation and metastasis of gastric cancer AGS cells. miR-204 directly targeted SOX4. In clinical tissue research, we determined that miR-204 was expressed much lower and SOX4 expressed much higher in gastric cancer tissues compared with normal gastric tissues. Associated analysis with clinicopathological parameters in gastric cancer patients showed miR-204 was associated with no lymph node metastasis and early tumor stages whereas SOX4 was associated with lymph node metastasis and advanced tumor stages. In addition, miR-204 and SOX4 were negatively correlated in tissues from gastric cancer patients. Our findings examined the important role of miR-204 and SOX4 played in gastric cancer, and they could be used as candidate therapeutic targets for gastric cancer therapy.

Jiao C, Song Z, Chen J, et al.
lncRNA-UCA1 enhances cell proliferation through functioning as a ceRNA of Sox4 in esophageal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(5):2960-2966 [PubMed] Related Publications
Esophageal cancer (EC) is one of the most common gastrointestinal cancers, which leads to the sixth ranking of cancer-related death. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play pivotal roles in many biological processes. lncRNA human urothelial carcinoma associated 1 (UCA1) is significantly upregulated and functions as an important oncogene in many types of human cancers. However, the role of UCA1 in EC and its underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that UCA1 was significantly upregulated in EC tissues and associated with poor prognosis. Overexpression of UCA1 promoted the proliferation of EC cells, while silence of UCA1 inhibited EC cells growth. Furthermore, we found that Sox4 was a direct target gene of UCA1. UCA1 regulated Sox4 expression through functioning as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA). UCA1 directly interacted with miR-204 and decreased the binding of miR-204 to Sox4 3'UTR, which suppressed the degradation of Sox4 mRNA by miR-204. This study provides the first evidence that UCA1 promotes cell proliferation through Sox4 in EC, suggesting that UCA1 and Sox4 may be potential therapeutic targets for EC.

Zou J, Xu Y
MicroRNA-140 Inhibits Cell Proliferation in Gastric Cancer Cell Line HGC-27 by Suppressing SOX4.
Med Sci Monit. 2016; 22:2243-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND Gastric cancer is a malignant tumor with a high morbidity and mortality. MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression, influencing the progression of gastric cancer. This study aimed to reveal the role of microRNA-140 (miR-140) in gastric cancer cell proliferation and its potential mechanisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS Gastric cancer tissues and cell lines BGC-823, SGC-7901, and HGC-27 were used to analyze miR-140 levels compared to normal tissues and cell line GES-1. In HGC-27 cells transfected with miR-140 mimic, we performed MTT, colony formation assay, and cell cycle assay by flow cytometry. SOX4, a predicted target of miR-140, was mutated to verify its regulation by miR-140, and was overexpressed to analyze its function in cell proliferation. Doxorubicin treatment was performed to investigate the effect of miR-140 on drug resistance. RESULTS miR-140 was down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, with the lowest expression level in HGC-27. miR-140 overexpression inhibited HGC-27 cell viability and colony formation and resulted in G0/G1 arrest. miR-140 suppressed SOX4 expression via binding to the 3' untranslated region, while the mutant SOX4 could not be regulated. Overexpressing SOX4 led to promoted cell viability, colony formation, and cell cycle progress. miR-140 overexpression also improved the anti-viability effects of doxorubicin, suggesting its potential in reducing the drug resistance of gastric cells. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that miR-140 directly inhibits SOX4, which might be one of its mechanisms in suppressing gastric cancer cell proliferation. This study provides a promising therapeutic strategy for treating gastric cancer and facilitates microRNA research in various diseases.

Kooi IE, Mol BM, Massink MP, et al.
A Meta-Analysis of Retinoblastoma Copy Numbers Refines the List of Possible Driver Genes Involved in Tumor Progression.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(4):e0153323 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: While RB1 loss initiates retinoblastoma development, additional somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) can drive tumor progression. Although SCNAs have been identified with good concordance between studies at a cytoband resolution, accurate identification of single genes for all recurrent SCNAs is still challenging. This study presents a comprehensive meta-analysis of genome-wide SCNAs integrated with gene expression profiling data, narrowing down the list of plausible retinoblastoma driver genes.
METHODS: We performed SCNA profiling of 45 primary retinoblastoma samples and eight retinoblastoma cell lines by high-resolution microarrays. We combined our data with genomic, clinical and histopathological data of ten published genome-wide SCNA studies, which strongly enhanced the power of our analyses (N = 310).
RESULTS: Comprehensive recurrence analysis of SCNAs in all studies integrated with gene expression data allowed us to reduce candidate gene lists for 1q, 2p, 6p, 7q and 13q to a limited gene set. Besides the well-established driver genes RB1 (13q-loss) and MYCN (2p-gain) we identified CRB1 and NEK7 (1q-gain), SOX4 (6p-gain) and NUP205 (7q-gain) as novel retinoblastoma driver candidates. Depending on the sample subset and algorithms used, alternative candidates were identified including MIR181 (1q-gain) and DEK (6p gain). Remarkably, our study showed that copy number gains rarely exceeded change of one copy, even in pure tumor samples with 100% homozygosity at the RB1 locus (N = 34), which is indicative for intra-tumor heterogeneity. In addition, profound between-tumor variability was observed that was associated with age at diagnosis and differentiation grades.
INTERPRETATION: Since focal alterations at commonly altered chromosome regions were rare except for 2p24.3 (MYCN), further functional validation of the oncogenic potential of the described candidate genes is now required. For further investigations, our study provides a refined and revised set of candidate retinoblastoma driver genes.

Dasgupta T, Antony J, Braithwaite AW, Horsfield JA
HDAC8 Inhibition Blocks SMC3 Deacetylation and Delays Cell Cycle Progression without Affecting Cohesin-dependent Transcription in MCF7 Cancer Cells.
J Biol Chem. 2016; 291(24):12761-70 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
Cohesin, a multi-subunit protein complex involved in chromosome organization, is frequently mutated or aberrantly expressed in cancer. Multiple functions of cohesin, including cell division and gene expression, highlight its potential as a novel therapeutic target. The SMC3 subunit of cohesin is acetylated (ac) during S phase to establish cohesion between replicated chromosomes. Following anaphase, ac-SMC3 is deacetylated by HDAC8. Reversal of SMC3 acetylation is imperative for recycling cohesin so that it can be reloaded in interphase for both non-mitotic and mitotic functions. We blocked deacetylation of ac-SMC3 using an HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI-34051 in MCF7 breast cancer cells, and examined the effects on transcription of cohesin-dependent genes that respond to estrogen. HDAC8 inhibition led to accumulation of ac-SMC3 as expected, but surprisingly, had no influence on the transcription of estrogen-responsive genes that are altered by siRNA targeting of RAD21 or SMC3. Knockdown of RAD21 altered estrogen receptor α (ER) recruitment at SOX4 and IL20, and affected transcription of these genes, while HDAC8 inhibition did not. Rather, inhibition of HDAC8 delayed cell cycle progression, suppressed proliferation and induced apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. We conclude that HDAC8 inhibition does not change the estrogen-specific transcriptional role of cohesin in MCF7 cells, but instead, compromises cell cycle progression and cell survival. Our results argue that candidate inhibitors of cohesin function may differ in their effects depending on the cellular genotype and should be thoroughly tested for predicted effects on cohesin's mechanistic roles.

Roisman A, Huamán Garaicoa F, Metrebian F, et al.
SOXC and MiR17-92 gene expression profiling defines two subgroups with different clinical outcome in mantle cell lymphoma.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(6):531-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a heterogeneous B-cell lymphoid malignancy where most patients follow an aggressive clinical course whereas others are associated with an indolent performance. SOX4, SOX11, and SOX12 belong to SOXC family of transcription factors involved in embryonic neurogenesis and tissue remodeling. Among them, SOX11 has been found aberrantly expressed in most aggressive MCL patients, being considered a reliable biomarker in the pathology. Several studies have revealed that microRNAs (miRs) from the miR-17-92 cluster are among the most deregulated miRNAs in human cancers, still little is known about this cluster in MCL. In this study we screened the transcriptional profiles of 70 MCL patients for SOXC cluster and miR17, miR18a, miR19b and miR92a, from the miR-17-92 cluster. Gene expression analysis showed higher SOX11 and SOX12 levels compared to SOX4 (P ≤ 0.0026). Moreover we found a negative correlation between the expression of SOX11 and SOX4 (P < 0.0001). miR17-92 cluster analysis showed that miR19b and miR92a exhibited higher levels than miR17 and miR18a (P < 0.0001). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering revealed two subgroups with significant differences in relation to aggressive MCL features, such as blastoid morphological variant (P = 0.0412), nodal presentation (P = 0.0492), CD5(+) (P = 0.0004) and shorter overall survival (P < 0.0001). Together, our findings show for the first time an association between the differential expression profiles of SOXC and miR17-92 clusters in MCL and also relate them to different clinical subtypes of the disease adding new biological information that may contribute to a better understanding of this pathology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Inoue H, Takahashi H, Hashimura M, et al.
Cooperation of Sox4 with β-catenin/p300 complex in transcriptional regulation of the Slug gene during divergent sarcomatous differentiation in uterine carcinosarcoma.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16:53 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Uterine carcinosarcoma (UCS) represents a true example of cancer associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which exhibits cancer stem cell (CSC)-like traits. Both Sox and β-catenin signal transductions play key roles in the regulation of EMT/CSC properties, but little is known about their involvement in UCS tumorigenesis. Herein, we focused on the functional roles of the Sox/β-catenin pathway in UCSs.
METHODS: EMT/CSC tests and transfection experiments were carried out using three endometrial carcinoma (Em Ca) cell lines. Immunohistochemical investigation was also applied for a total of 32 UCSs.
RESULTS: Em Ca cells cultured in STK2, a serum-free medium for mesenchymal stem cells, underwent changes in morphology toward an EMT appearance through downregulation of E-cadherin, along with upregulation of Slug, known as a target gene of β-catenin. The cells also showed CSC properties with an increase in the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 1(high) activity population and spheroid formation, as well as upregulation of Sox4, Sox7, and Sox9. Of these Sox factors, overexpression of Sox4 dramatically led to transactivation of the Slug promoter, and the effects were further enhanced by cotransfection of Sox7 or Sox9. Sox4 was also able to promote β-catenin-mediated transcription of the Slug gene through formation of transcriptional complexes with β-catenin and p300, independent of TCF4 status. In clinical samples, both nuclear β-catenin and Slug scores were significantly higher in the sarcomatous elements as compared to carcinomatous components in UCSs, and were positively correlated with Sox4, Sox7, and Sox9 scores.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggested that Sox4, as well as Sox7 and Sox9, may contribute to regulation of EMT/CSC properties to promote development of sarcomatous components in UCSs through transcriptional regulation of the Slug gene by cooperating with the β-catenin/p300 signal pathway.

Wang CY, Hua L, Sun J, et al.
MiR-211 inhibits cell proliferation and invasion of gastric cancer by down-regulating SOX4.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(11):14013-20 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have shown that the dysregulation of miRNAs are frequently associated with cancer progression. Deregulation of miR-211 has been observed in various types of human cancers. However, its biological function in gastric cancer (GC) is still unknown.
METHODS: The expression of miR-211 in GC was detected by using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The miR-211 mimics and inhibitor were designed and transfected into BGC-823 cells. Then, we explore the probable biological function of miR-211 in gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro. A luciferase reporter assay and western blot were performed to confirm the target gene of miR-211.
RESULTS: MiR-211 was significantly down-regulated in GC. Over-expression of miR-211 inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion in vitro, conversely, down-regulated expression of miR-211 promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation and invasion. In addition, the sex-determining region Y-related high mobility group box 4 (SOX4) is identified as a target of miR-211 in GC cells, and SOX4 expression levels was inversely correlated with miR-211. Furthermore, knockdown of Sox4 inhibited the proliferation and invasion in GC cells.
CONCLUSION: miR-211 could inhibit GC cell proliferation and invasion partially by down-regulating SOX4. MiR-211 might be a potential therapeutic target for GC treatment in the future.

Zhang F, Luo Y, Shao Z, et al.
MicroRNA-187, a downstream effector of TGFβ pathway, suppresses Smad-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 373(2):203-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Constitutive overactivation of TGFβ signaling is a common event in human cancer progression and acts as a major inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). In pre-metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, however, this cascade is tightly controlled and the underlying mechanism in TGFβ stimulated hyperactivation of downstream Smad pathway remains elusive. In this study, expression of miR-187 was downregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) compared with adjacent normal tissues. miR-187 could suppress the formation of aggressive phenotype in CRC and inactivate Smad pathway, thus preventing EMT. TGFβ stimulation significantly suppressed the expression of miR-187, and overexpressed miR-187 counteracted the influence of TGFβ on cell phenotype and downstream pathway. Furthermore, we found that miR-187 directly suppressed the expression of SOX4, NT5E and PTK6, which were identified as essential upstream effectors of Smad pathway. Together with the fact that high SOX4 or NT5E levels were associated with poor prognosis, we also demonstrated that downregulation of miR-187 was closely related to tumor metastasis and poor prognosis in CRC. These findings revealed a plausible mechanism for sustained TGFβ activation in cancer progression and might have suggested a novel miR-187-based clinical intervention target for patients with advanced CRC.

Wang B, Li Y, Tan F, Xiao Z
Increased expression of SOX4 is associated with colorectal cancer progression.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9131-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Sex-determining region Y-related high-mobility group box 4 (SOX4) has been proven to serve as a critical role in cancer progression. However, the pathological role of SOX4 in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of SOX4 in CRC. In this study, we investigated the expression of SOX4 in CRC tissues by immunohistochemistry, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and Western blot. We also evaluated the effect of SOX4 on cell proliferation and invasion by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and transwell assay. The SOX4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression were markedly higher in CRC tissues compared with adjacent normal mucosa tissues. Inhibition of SOX4 could suppress CRC cell proliferation, and invasion in vitro. Our findings indicate that targeting SOX4 might provide a new therapeutic modality for the treatment of CRC patients.

Shen H, Blijlevens M, Yang N, et al.
Sox4 Expression Confers Bladder Cancer Stem Cell Properties and Predicts for Poor Patient Outcome.
Int J Biol Sci. 2015; 11(12):1363-75 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
Genetic and epigenetic alterations have been identified as to contribute directly or indirectly to the generation of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (TCC-UB). We have previously found that amplification of chromosome 6p22 is significantly associated with the muscle-invasive rather than superficial TCC-UB. Here, we demonstrated that Sox4, one of the candidate oncogenes located within the chromosome 6p22 amplicon, confers bladder cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. Down-regulation of Sox4 led to the inhibition of cell migration, colony formation as well as mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Interestingly, knockdown of Sox4 also reduced the sphere formation, enriched cell population with high levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH (high)) and tumor formation potential. Using gene expression profiling, we further identified novel Sox4 target genes. Last, immunohistochemistry analysis of human bladder tumor tissue microarrays (TMAs) indicated that high Sox4 expression was correlated with advanced cancer stages and poor survival rate. In summary, our data show that Sox4 is an important regulator of the bladder CSC properties and it may serve as a biomarker of the aggressive phenotype in bladder cancer.

Song G, Shi L, Guo Y, et al.
A novel PAD4/SOX4/PU.1 signaling pathway is involved in the committed differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells into granulocytic cells.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(3):3144-57 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment yields cure rates > 80% through proteasomal degradation of the PML-RARα fusion protein that typically promotes acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). However, recent evidence indicates that ATRA can also promote differentiation of leukemia cells that are PML-RARα negative, such as HL-60 cells. Here, gene expression profiling of HL-60 cells was used to investigate the alternative mechanism of impaired differentiation in APL. The expression of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PADI4), encoding PAD4, a protein that post-translationally converts arginine into citrulline, was restored during ATRA-induced differentiation. We further identified that hypermethylation in the PADI4 promoter was associated with its transcriptional repression in HL-60 and NB4 (PML-RARα positive) cells. Functionally, PAD4 translocated into the nucleus upon ATRA exposure and promoted ATRA-mediated differentiation. Mechanistic studies using RNAi knockdown or electroporation-mediated delivery of PADI4, along with chromatin immunoprecipitation, helped identify PU.1 as an indirect target and SOX4 as a direct target of PAD4 regulation. Indeed, PAD4 regulates SOX4-mediated PU.1 expression, and thereby the differentiation process, in a SOX4-dependent manner. Taken together, our results highlight an association between PAD4 and DNA hypermethylation in APL and demonstrate that targeting PAD4 or regulating its downstream effectors may be a promising strategy to control differentiation in the clinic.

Hasegawa S, Nagano H, Konno M, et al.
A crucial epithelial to mesenchymal transition regulator, Sox4/Ezh2 axis is closely related to the clinical outcome in pancreatic cancer patients.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(1):145-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis because of its high invasiveness and recurrence, and these properties closely link to the phenomenon of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Recently, it has been reported that Sox4 is indispensable for EMT in vitro and in vivo and regulates various master regulators of EMT including Zeb, Twist and Snail. Moreover, Sox4 induces the transcription of Ezh2 which is the histone methyltransferase, and reprograms the cancer epigenome to promote EMT and metastasis. Therefore, the present study evaluated the importance of Sox4, Ezh2 and miR-335, which regulate Sox4 expression epigenetically, in clinical samples with pancreatic cancer. This retrospective analysis included data from 36 consecutive patients who underwent complete surgical resection for pancreatic cancer and did not undergo any preoperative therapies. We assessed the clinical significance of Sox4/Ezh2 axis and miR-335 expression, using immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR with laser captured microdissection (LCM). The Sox4 positive patients had significantly worse prognosis as for disease-free survival (DFS) (P=0.0154) and the Ezh2-positive patients had significantly worse prognosis as for overall survival (OS) (P=0.0347). The miR-335 expression was inversely correlated with Sox4 expression in the identical clinical specimens, but it was not related to the prognosis. Sox4/Ezh2 axis was closely associated with the prognosis in pancreatic cancer patients.

Sun R, Jiang B, Qi H, et al.
SOX4 contributes to the progression of cervical cancer and the resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug through ABCG2.
Cell Death Dis. 2015; 6:e1990 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
SOX4, a member of the SOX (sex-determining region Y-related HMG box) transcription factor family, has been reported to be abnormally expressed in a wide variety of cancers, and to exert a pleiotropic function. However, its function in progression of cervical cancer (CC) remains unknown. In this study, we found that SOX4 was highly expressed in CC cells and tissues, and overexpression of SOX4 in CC CaSki cells enhanced tumor clone formation and cell proliferation, and accelerated cell cycle progress. Meanwhile, downregulation of SOX4 by shRNA in CaSki cells inhibited cell proliferation, and slowed cell cycle progress, indicating that SOX4 contributes to the development of CC. In addition, SOX4 overexpression by gene transfer reduced the sensitivity of CaSki cells in response to the chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin, and SOX4 downregulation by RNA interference increased the sensitivity of CaSki cells in response to cisplatin. Moreover, SOX4 overexpression upregulated multiple drug resistant gene ABCG2, and SOX4 downregulation inhibited ABCG2 expression. Taken together, these results suggested that SOX4 functions to modulate cancer proliferation by regulation of cell cycle, and inhibit cancer cell sensitivity to therapeutic drug via upregulation of ABCG2. Thus, SOX4 may be a target for CC chemotherapy.

Li P, Hu Y, Yi J, et al.
Identification of potential biomarkers to differentially diagnose solid pseudopapillary tumors and pancreatic malignancies via a gene regulatory network.
J Transl Med. 2015; 13:361 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPN) are pancreatic tumors with low malignant potential and good prognosis. However, differential diagnosis between SPN and pancreatic malignancies including pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PanNET) and ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is difficult. This study tried to identify candidate biomarkers for the distinction between SPN and the two malignant pancreatic tumors by examining the gene regulatory network of SPN.
METHODS: The gene regulatory network for SPN was constructed by a co-expression model. Genes that have been reported to be correlated with SPN were used as the clues to hunt more SPN-related genes in the network according to a shortest path approach. By means of the K-nearest neighbor algorithm (KNN) classifier evaluated by the jackknife test, sets of genes to distinguish SPN and malignant pancreatic tumors were determined.
RESULTS: We took a new strategy to identify candidate biomarkers for differentiating SPN from the two malignant pancreatic tumors PanNET and PDAC by analyzing shortest paths among SPN-related genes in the gene regulatory network. 43 new SPN-relevant genes were discovered, among which, we found hsa-miR-194 and hsa-miR-7 along with 7 transcription factors (TFs) such as SOX11, SMAD3 and SOX4 etc. could correctly differentiate SPN from PanNET, while hsa-miR-204 and 4 TFs such as SOX9, TCF7 and PPARD etc. were demonstrated as the potential markers for SPN versus PDAC. 14 genes were demonstrated to serve as the candidate biomarkers for distinguishing SPN from PanNET and PDAC when considering them as malignant pancreatic tumors together.
CONCLUSION: This study provides new candidate genes related to SPN and the potential biomarkers to differentiate SPN from PanNET and PDAC, which may help to diagnose patients with SPN in clinical setting. Furthermore, candidate biomarkers such as SOX11 and hsa-miR-204 which could cause cell proliferation but inhibit invasion or metastasis may be of importance in understanding the molecular mechanism of pancreatic oncogenesis and could be possible therapeutic targets for malignant pancreatic tumors.

Yoon TM, Kim SA, Cho WS, et al.
SOX4 expression is associated with treatment failure and chemoradioresistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:888 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: In humans, sex-determining region-Y (SRY) related high-mobility-group box 4 (SOX4) is linked to development and tumorigenesis. SOX4 is over-expressed in several cancers and has prognostic significance. This study evaluated whether SOX4 affects oncogenic behavior and chemoradiotherapy response in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells, and documented the relationship between its expression and prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
METHODS: We used small interfering RNA in HNSCC cells to evaluate the effect of SOX4 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, chemoradiation-induced apoptosis, invasion, and migration. SOX4 expression in OSCC tissues was investigated by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: SOX4 knockdown (KO) decreased cell proliferation and induced apoptosis by activating caspases-3 and -7, and poly-ADP ribose polymerase and suppressing X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in HNSCC cells; it also enhanced radiation/cisplatin-induced apoptosis; and suppressed tumor cell invasion and migration. Immunostaining showed SOX4 protein was significantly increased in OSCC tissues compared with adjacent normal mucosa. SOX4 expression was observed in 51.8 % of 85 OSCC tissues, and was significantly correlated with treatment failure (P = 0.032) and shorter overall survival (P = 0.036) in patients with OSCC.
CONCLUSIONS: SOX4 may contribute to oncogenic phenotypes of HNSCC cells by promoting cell survival and causing chemoradioresistance. It could be a potential prognostic marker for OSCC.

Yin JJ, Liang B, Zhan XR
MicroRNA-204 inhibits cell proliferation in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia by down-regulating SOX4.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(8):9189-95 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small non-coding RNAs that play important roles in the pathogenesis of human diseases by negatively regulating gene expression. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of miR-204 on cell proliferation migration and invasion in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL).
METHOD: miR-204 expression was determined in bone marrow samples from 32 leukemia patients and 32 healthy controls by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The effect of miR-204 on cell proliferation was evaluated by CCK8 assay, cell migration and invasion were evaluated by transwell migration and invasion assays, In addition, the regulation of SOX4 by miR-204 was evaluated by luciferase reporter assay and western blot.
RESULTS: our results revealed that miR-204 was low expressed in T-ALL. Cell proliferation assay showed that the cell proliferation ability was inhibited by miR-204 mimics. Moreover, migration and invasion assay suggested that overexpression of miR-204 could significantly suppressed the migration and invasion ability of T-ALL cells. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-204 directly bound to the 3' untranslated region of SOX4, and western blot suggested that miR-204 inhibited the expression of SOX4 at the protein levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicated that miR-204 negatively regulates SOX4 and inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of T-ALL cell lines. Thus, miR-204 might represent a potential therapeutic target for T-ALL intervention.

Rosa EA, Lia EN, Macedo SB, Amorim RF
In situ carcinoma developed over oral lichen planus: a case report with analysis of BUB3, p16, p53, Ki67 and SOX4 expression.
J Appl Oral Sci. 2015 Jul-Aug; 23(4):442-7 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
Oral lichen planus (OLP) represents a common mucocutaneous disease. Various authors have suggested that OLP has malignant potential; however, the mechanisms involved in malignant transformation have not yet been elucidated. A 79-year-old man presented a white lesion for five months in the buccal mucosa diagnosed as OLP. After two months using 0.05% clobetasol ointment for treatment, the lesion became ulcerated. A new biopsy of the same lesion was performed, and histological analysis showed an in situ oral carcinoma (ISOC). An immunohistochemistry panel was performed, and p16 expression was negative in OLP, however, it showed weak cytoplasmic staining in ISOC. There was strong nuclear BUB3 staining in both OLP and ISOC areas. p53 showed less intense nuclear staining in both regions. Ki67 was negative in OLP area, but showed nuclear staining in the ISOC. SOX4 was negative in both studied areas. BUB3 expression, first reported in this case, and the p16 expression may suggest some influence of these genes on pathogenesis or malignant potential of OLP.

Hanieh H
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor-microRNA-212/132 axis in human breast cancer suppresses metastasis by targeting SOX4.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:172 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs that pave a new avenue for understanding immune responses and cancer progression. Although the miRNAs are involved in breast cancer development, their axis with the transcription factors that show therapeutic potential in breast cancer is largely unknown. Previous studies showed anti-metastatic roles of agonist-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) in various breast cancer cell lines. Recently, we demonstrated that agonist-activated Ahr induced a highly conserved miRNA cluster, named miR-212/132, in murine cellular immune compartment. Therefore, current study was performed to examine if this miRNA cluster mediates the anti-metastatic properties of Ahr agonists.
METHODS: The expression of miR-212/132 cluster and coding genes were examined by real-time PCR, and the protein levels were detected by western blot. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and 3,3'-diindolylmethane (DIM) were used to activate Ahr in MDA-MB-231 and T47D breast cancer cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to identify the binding site(s) for Ahr on miR-212/132 promoter. For prediction of potentially target gene of the miRNA cluster, bioinformatics analysis was carried out, and to test targeting, luciferase activity was quantified. Besides, biological effects of Ahr-miR-212/132 axis were examined in vitro by cell migration, expansion and invasion, and examined in vivo by orthotopic model of spontaneous metastasis.
RESULTS: The miR-212/132 cluster was transcriptionally activated in MDA-MB-231 and T47D cells by TCDD and DIM, and this activation was regulated by Ahr. A reciprocal correlation was identified between Ahr agonists-induced miR-212/132 and the pro-metastatic SRY-related HMG-box4 (SOX4), and a new specific binding sites for miR-212/132 were identified on the untranslated region (3'UTR) of SOX4. Interestingly, miR-212/132 over-expression showed direct anti-migration, anti-expansion and anti-invasion properties, and an inhibition of the miRNA cluster mitigated the anti-invasive properties of TCDD and DIM. Further in vivo studies demonstrated that the Ahr-miR-212/132-SOX4 module was induced by Ahr activation.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, the findings provide the first evidences of the synergistic anti-metastatic properties of miR-212/132 cluster through suppression of SOX4. Also, current study suggest a new miRNA-based mechanism elucidating the anti-metastatic properties of Ahr agonists, suggesting possibility of using miR-212/132 to control metastasis in breast cancer patients.

Mehta A, Mann M, Zhao JL, et al.
The microRNA-212/132 cluster regulates B cell development by targeting Sox4.
J Exp Med. 2015; 212(10):1679-92 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
MicroRNAs have emerged as key regulators of B cell fate decisions and immune function. Deregulation of several microRNAs in B cells leads to the development of autoimmune disease and cancer in mice. We demonstrate that the microRNA-212/132 cluster (miR-212/132) is induced in B cells in response to B cell receptor signaling. Enforced expression of miR-132 results in a block in early B cell development at the prepro-B cell to pro-B cell transition and induces apoptosis in primary bone marrow B cells. Importantly, loss of miR-212/132 results in accelerated B cell recovery after antibody-mediated B cell depletion. We find that Sox4 is a target of miR-132 in B cells. Co-expression of SOX4 with miR-132 rescues the defect in B cell development from overexpression of miR-132 alone, thus suggesting that miR-132 may regulate B lymphopoiesis through Sox4. In addition, we show that the expression of miR-132 can inhibit cancer development in cells that are prone to B cell cancers, such as B cells expressing the c-Myc oncogene. We have thus uncovered miR-132 as a novel contributor to B cell development.

Liu Y, Li Y, Liu J, et al.
MicroRNA-132 inhibits cell growth and metastasis in osteosarcoma cell lines possibly by targeting Sox4.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(5):1672-84 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
Increasing evidence has confirmed that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) can contribute to the progression and metastasis of human tumors. Previous studies have shown that dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) can contribute to the progression and metastasis of human tumors. However, the precise mechanisms of miR‑132 in osteosarcoma have not been well clarified. Real-time PCR was performed to detect the expression of miR‑132 in osteosarcoma cell lines. miR-132 mimic, miR‑132 inhibitor and negative control were transfected into osteosarcoma cells and the effects of miR‑132 on the cell growth and metastasis were investigated. Furthermore, protein level of Sox4 was measured by western blotting. Luciferase assays were performed to validate Sox4 as miR‑132 target in osteosarcoma cells. We found that miR‑132 was downregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines. Introduction of miR‑132 significantly inhibited proliferation, arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells. Besides, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of osteosarcoma cells was suppressed by overexpressing miR‑132. However, downregulation of miR‑132 promoted cell growth and metastasis in osteosarcoma cells. Bioinformatics analysis predicted that Sox4 was a potential target gene of miR‑132. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR‑132 could directly target Sox4. Moreover, the low level of miR‑132 was associated with increased expression of Sox4 in osteosarcoma cells. Sox4 inhibition suppressed cell malignant behaviors. Overexpression of Sox4 in osteosarcoma cells transfected with miR‑132 mimic partially reversed the inhibitory effect of miR‑132. In conclusion, miR‑132 inhibited cell growth and metastasis in osteosarcoma cells by downregulation of Sox4, and knockdown of Sox4 was essential for the miR-132-inhibited cell growth and metastasis in osteosarcoma cells.

Wu D, Pan H, Zhou Y, et al.
Upregulation of microRNA-204 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion in human renal cell carcinoma cells by downregulating SOX4.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(5):7059-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-204 (miR-204) has been reported to be frequently downregulated in various types of cancer, including renal, brain, ovary, hematological and colon cancer. The present study, investigated the effects of miR‑204 on renal cell carcinoma. Following transfection of miR‑204, an MTT assay, cell migration assay, cell invasion assay, western blot analysis and luciferase assay were performed in renal cell carcinoma cell lines. It was demonstrated that miR‑204 inhibits cell proliferation, migration and invasion in 786‑O and A498 cells. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that miR‑204 directly targets SOX4 in renal cell carcinoma. These results suggested that miR-204 may have value as a marker for the early detection of tumor metastasis and a therapeutic target preventing the invasion of renal cell carcinoma.

Jin Y, Zhao M, Xie Q, et al.
MicroRNA-338-3p functions as tumor suppressor in breast cancer by targeting SOX4.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(4):1594-602 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-338-3p (miR‑338-3p), a recently discovered miRNA, has been reported to be downregulated and play tumor suppressor roles in gastric cancer, ovarian cancer, colorectal carcinoma and lung cancer by targeting several genes. However, the role and potential mechanism of miR‑338-3p in breast cancer (BC) is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the roles and mechanisms of miR‑338-3p in human breast cancer. miR‑338-3p expression was determined by qRT-PCR in human BC cell lines, and clinical significantly of miR‑338-3p expression was further evaluated. Furthermore, the function of miR‑338-3p in breast cancer also was investigated by several in vitro approaches and in nude mouse models. Luciferase assay and western blot analysis were performed to validate the potential targets of miR‑338-3p after the preliminary screening by employing open access software. It was found that miR‑338-3p was significantly downregulated in both BC tissues and cell lines and the low expression of miR‑338-3p was inversely correlated with lymph node metastatic and TNM stage status (P<0.01). Function assay showed that the overexpression of miR‑338-3p in BC cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1/G0 stage, as well as suppressed tumor growth in the nude mouse model. Luciferase assay and western blot analysis identified sex-determining region Y-box 4 (SOX4) as a direct and functional target of miR‑338-3p. These findings revealed that miR‑338-3p may act as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer by targeting SOX4, suggesting miR‑338-3p as a novel strategy for breast cancer treatment.

Li L, Li Q, Chen X, et al.
SOX4 is overexpressed in diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma and confers poor prognosis.
Neuropathology. 2015; 35(6):510-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The SOX4 (sex-determining region Y-related high-mobility-group box transcription factor 4) gene plays critical roles in embryonic development and cell-fate determination. Recently, SOX4 overexpression has been found in various tumors. However, its expression status and prognostic significance in astrocytoma remain unknown. In this study, SOX4 expression in diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma (WHO grades II-IV) tissues (in comparison with pilocytic astrocytomas) was examined by immunohistochemistry, and its relevance with prognosis was analyzed. Our data showed that SOX4 was over-expressed in diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas and its expression was positively correlated with astrocytoma grade (WHO grades II-IV). Significantly, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that SOX4 nuclear overexpression (SOX4-N) was associated with poorer progression-free survival (PFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) in diffusely infiltrating astrocytoma patients (P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis further showed that nuclear SOX4-N was a significant independent negative prognostic factor for these patients.

Chou YS, Yang MH
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related factors in solid tumor and hematological malignancy.
J Chin Med Assoc. 2015; 78(8):438-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process plays pivotal roles in regulatory mechanisms of embryogenesis and wound healing physiologically, and organ fibrosis, cancer progression, and metastasis pathologically. EMT is classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary during embryonic development. EMT contributes to repair of tissue injury and fibrogenesis by re-epithelialization and regeneration of fibroblasts, respectively. The hallmarks of EMT include loss of contact inhibition, remodeling of extracellular matrix, and reorganization of cytoskeleton, along with expression of mesenchymal markers and reduction of epithelial markers. Cancer cells acquire stemness, migration and invasive capability, evade apoptosis, and initiate metastasis to distant organs. Several EMT regulators including Snail, Zeb1, Zeb2, and Twist in solid tumor and Sox4, distal-less homeobox gene 4 (DLX4), Prdm14, Bmi1, and the forkhead box family in hematological malignancy are reviewed with regard to their signaling pathways, regulatory mechanisms, and clinical interactions.

Yang M, Wang J, Wang L, et al.
Estrogen induces androgen-repressed SOX4 expression to promote progression of prostate cancer cells.
Prostate. 2015; 75(13):1363-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The sex determing region Y-box 4 (SOX4) gene is a critical developmental transcriptional factor that is overexpressed in prostate cancer (PCa). While we and others have investigated the role of SOX4 overexpression in PCa, the molecular mechanism underlying its aberrant expression remains unclear.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry were utilized to detect SOX4 expression and the correlation between estrogen receptor β (ERβ), androgen receptor (AR) and SOX4 in a cohort of 94 clinical specimens. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were used to study the transcript and protein expression levels. Immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation were performed to assess the interaction and subcellular location of ERβ and AR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and Luciferase reporter assays were performed to explore the binding and transcriptional activities of ERβ and AR to the SOX4 promoter. Cellular function was evaluated by MTS, invasion and wound healing assays.
RESULTS: SOX4 expression is up-regulated in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) tumors compared to hormone-dependent PCa (HDPC) cases. Increased expression was also observed in PCa cells after long-term androgen-deprivation treatment (ADT). In vitro data indicated that SOX4 is an AR transcriptional target and down-regulated by dihydrotestosterone (DHT) via AR. 17β-estradiol (E2) up-regulates SOX4 expression in the absence of androgen through the formation of a protein complex between ERβ and AR. Knockdown of AR or ERβ blocks the E2-induced SOX4 expression. ChIP assays confirmed that both ERβ and AR bind to the SOX4 promoter in response to E2. Functionally, silencing SOX4 significantly attenuates the proliferative effect, as well as the capacity of migration and invasion of E2 on PCa cells. Clinically, overexpression of SOX4 is significantly associated with ERβ expression in PCa. In addition, this association is still retained in CRPC patients with poor prognosis.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that SOX4 is a novel DHT-repressed AR-target gene. E2 could promote proliferation of PCa cells through the up-regulation of SOX4 under androgen-depleted environment. Our data provides a possible molecular basis for the overexpression of SOX4 in CRPC and may facilitate the detection and prevention of the emergence of CRPC.

Shang J, Zheng Y, Guo X, et al.
Hepatitis B virus replication and sex-determining region Y box 4 production are tightly controlled by a novel positive feedback mechanism.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:10066 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 10/06/2017 Related Publications
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying HBV infection and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. The sex-determining region Y box 4 (Sox4) is a transcriptional factor, which preferentially regulates the development of various organs, tissues, and cancers. But, the role of Sox4 in viral infection and pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that Sox4 is up-regulated by HBV, and revealed the mechanism by which HBV regulates Sox4 expression. First, HBV stimulates Sox4 expression through transcriptional factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1), which binds to Sox4 promoter to activate Sox4 transcriptional activity. Second, miR-335, miR-129-2 and miR-203 inhibit Sox4 expression by targeting its mRNA 3'UTR, while HBV suppresses the microRNAs expression, resulting in up-regulating Sox4 post-transcriptionally. Third, Sox4 protein is degraded by proteasome, while HBV surface protein (HBsAg) prevents Sox4 from degradation by directly interacting with the protein, thereby enhancing Sox4 production post-translationlly. More interestingly, HBV-activated Sox4 in turn facilitates HBV replication by direct binding to the viral genome via its HMG box. Thus, this study revealed a novel positive feedback mechanism by which Sox4 production and HBV replication are tightly correlated.

Xue F, Shen R, Chen X
Analysis of gene profiles in glioma cells identifies potential genes, miRNAs, and target sites of migratory cells.
Tumori. 2015 Sep-Oct; 101(5):542-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: To explore the potential molecular mechanisms involved in migratory glioma cells.
METHODS: The gene expression profiles of GSE28167, employing human malignant glioma U251MG cells cultured on strictly aligned versus randomly oriented electrospun nanofibers of polycaprolactone, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Gene differential expression analysis was carried out by the package of Gene Expression Omnibus query and limma in R language. The Gene Set Analysis Toolkit V2 was used for pathway analysis. Gene set enrichment analysis was used to screen for target sites of transcription factors, miRNA and small drug molecules.
RESULTS: Totally 586 differentially expressed genes were identified and the differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in the pathway of muscle cell TarBase, MAPK cascade, adipogenesis and epithelium TarBase. Thirty-two significant target sites of transcription factors, such as hsa_RTAAACA_V$FREAC2_01, were screened. The top 20 potential miRNAs including MIR-124A, MIR-34A and MIR-34C were screened for a constructing gene-miRNA interaction network. Small molecules that can inhibit the motility of glioma cells such as diclofenamide and valinomycin were mined. By integrating the regulatory relationships among transcription factors, miRNAs and differentially expressed genes, we found that 7 differentially expressed genes, including SOX4, ANKRD28 and CCND1, might play crucial roles in the migration of glioma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The screened migration-associated genes, significant pathways, and small molecules give us new insight for the mechanism of migratory glioma cells. Interest in such genes as potential target genes in the treatment of glioblastoma justifies functional validation studies.

Min XS, Huang P, Liu X, et al.
Bioinformatics analyses of significant prognostic risk markers for thyroid papillary carcinoma.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(10):7457-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was aimed to identify the prognostic risk markers for thyroid papillary carcinoma (TPC) by bioinformatics. The clinical data of TPC and their microRNAs (miRNAs) and genes expression profile data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Elastic net-Cox's proportional regression hazards model (EN-COX) was used to identify the prognostic associated factors. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kaplan-Meier (KM) curve were used to screen the significant prognostic risk miRNA and genes. Then, the target genes of the obtained miRNAs were predicted followed by function prediction. Finally, the significant risk genes were performed literature mining and function analysis. Total 1046 miRNAs and 20531 genes in 484 cases samples were identified after data preprocessing. From the EN-COX model, 30 prognostic risk factors were obtained. Based on the 30 risk factors, 3 miRNAs and 11 genes were identified from the ROC and KM curves. The target genes of miRNA-342 such as B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) were mainly enriched in the biological process related to cellular metabolic process and Disease Ontology terms of lymphoma. The target genes of miRNA-93 were mainly enriched in the pathway of G1 phase. Among the 11 prognostic risk genes, v-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homologue F (MAFF), SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box 4 (SOX4), and retinoic acid receptor, alpha (RARA) encoded transcription factors. Besides, RARA was enriched in four pathways. These prognostic markers such as miRNA-93, miRNA-342, RARA, MAFF, SOX4, and BCL2 may be used as targets for TPC chemoprevention.

Walter RF, Mairinger FD, Werner R, et al.
SOX4, SOX11 and PAX6 mRNA expression was identified as a (prognostic) marker for the aggressiveness of neuroendocrine tumors of the lung by using next-generation expression analysis (NanoString).
Future Oncol. 2015; 11(7):1027-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine tumors of the lung (NELC) account for 25% of all lung cancer cases and transcription factors may drive dedifferentiation of these tumors. This study was conducted to identify supportive diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.
MATERIALS & METHODS: A total of 16 TC, 13 AC, 16 large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and 15 small cell lung cancer were investigated for the mRNA expression of 11 transcription factors and related genes (MYB, MYBBP1A, OCT4, PAX6, PCDHB, RBP1, SDCBP, SOX2, SOX4, SOX11, TEAD2).
RESULTS: SOX4 (p = 0.0002), SOX11 (p < 0.0001) and PAX6 (p = 0.0002) were significant for tumor type. Elevated PAX6 and SOX11 expression correlated with poor outcome in large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas and small cell lung cancer (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0232, respectively) based on survival data of 34 patients (57%).
CONCLUSION: Aggressiveness of NELC correlated with increasing expression of transcription factors. SOX11 seems to be a highly valuable diagnostic and prognostic marker for aggressive NELC.

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