Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (2)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: STAM (cancer-related)
Cancer genomics has enabled the exhaustive molecular characterization of tumors and exposed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) as among the most complex cancers. This complexity is paralleled by dozens of mouse models that generate histologically similar tumors but have not been systematically validated at the molecular level. Accurate models of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC are essential for biomedical progress; therefore we compared genomic and transcriptomic profiles of four separate mouse models [MUP transgenic, TAK1-knockout, carcinogen-driven diethylnitrosamine (DEN), and Stelic Animal Model (STAM)] with those of 987 HCC patients with distinct etiologies. These four models differed substantially in their mutational load, mutational signatures, affected genes and pathways, and transcriptomes. STAM tumors were most molecularly similar to human HCC, with frequent mutations in
Garrido Castro P, van Roon EHJ, Pinhanços SS, et al.The HDAC inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) exerts in vivo anti-leukaemic activity against MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and involves the RNF20/RNF40/WAC-H2B ubiquitination axis.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(2):323-331 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) represents an aggressive malignancy in infants (<1 year of age), associated with poor outcome. Current treatment intensification is not further possible, and novel therapy strategies are needed. Notably, MLL-rearranged ALL is characterised by a strongly deregulated epigenome and shows sensitivity to epigenetic perturbators. Here we demonstrate the in vivo efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) using xenograft mouse models of MLL-rearranged ALL. Panobinostat monotherapy showed strong anti-leukaemic effects, extending survival and reducing overall disease burden. Comprehensive molecular analyses in vitro showed that this anti-leukaemic activity involves depletion of H2B ubiquitination via suppression of the RNF20/RNF40/WAC E3 ligase complex; a pivotal pathway for MLL-rearranged leukaemic maintenance. Knockdown of WAC phenocopied loss of H2B ubiquitination and concomitant cell death induction. These combined data demonstrate that panobinostat cross-inhibits multiple epigenetic pathways, ultimately contributing to its highly efficacious targeting of MLL-rearranged ALL.
Mousavian Z, Nowzari-Dalini A, Stam RW, et al.Network-based expression analysis reveals key genes related to glucocorticoid resistance in infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2017; 40(1):33-45 [PubMed
] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Despite vast improvements that have been made in the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the majority of infant ALL patients (~80 %, < 1 year of age) that carry a chromosomal translocation involving the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene shows a poor response to chemotherapeutic drugs, especially glucocorticoids (GCs), which are essential components of all current treatment regimens. Although addressed in several studies, the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon have remained largely unknown. A major drawback of most previous studies is their primary focus on individual genes, thereby neglecting the putative significance of inter-gene correlations. Here, we aimed at studying GC resistance in MLL-rearranged infant ALL patients by inferring an associated module of genes using co-expression network analysis. The implications of newly identified candidate genes with associations to other well-known relevant genes from the same module, or with associations to known transcription factor or microRNA interactions, were substantiated using literature data.
METHODS: A weighted gene co-expression network was constructed to identify gene modules associated with GC resistance in MLL-rearranged infant ALL patients. Significant gene ontology (GO) terms and signaling pathways enriched in relevant modules were used to provide guidance towards which module(s) consisted of promising candidates suitable for further analysis.
RESULTS: Through gene co-expression network analysis a novel set of genes (module) related to GC-resistance was identified. The presence in this module of the S100 and ANXA genes, both well-known biomarkers for GC resistance in MLL-rearranged infant ALL, supports its validity. Subsequent gene set net correlation analyses of the novel module provided further support for its validity by showing that the S100 and ANXA genes act as 'hub' genes with potentially major regulatory roles in GC sensitivity, but having lost this role in the GC resistant phenotype. The detected module implicates new genes as being candidates for further analysis through associations with known GC resistance-related genes.
CONCLUSIONS: From our data we conclude that available systems biology approaches can be employed to detect new candidate genes that may provide further insights into drug resistance of MLL-rearranged infant ALL cases. Such approaches complement conventional gene-wise approaches by taking putative functional interactions between genes into account.
Campos-Parra AD, Padua-Bracho A, Pedroza-Torres A, et al.Comprehensive transcriptome analysis identifies pathways with therapeutic potential in locally advanced cervical cancer.
Gynecol Oncol. 2016; 143(2):406-413 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to provide genomic and transcriptomic information that may improve clinical outcomes for locally advanced cervical cancer (LACC) patients by searching for therapeutic targets or potential biomarkers through the analysis of significantly altered signaling pathways in LACC.
METHODS: Microarray-based transcriptome profiling of 89 tumor samples from women with LACC was performed. Through Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis, significantly over-expressed genes in LACC were identified; these genes were validated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in an independent cohort, and the protein expression data were obtained from the Human Protein Atlas.
RESULTS: A transcriptome analysis revealed 7530 significantly over-expressed genes in LACC samples. By KEGG analysis, we found 93 dysregulated signaling pathways, including the JAK-STAT, NOTCH and mTOR-autophagy pathways, which were significantly upregulated. We confirmed the overexpression of the relevant genes of each pathway, such as NOTCH1, JAK2, STAM1, SOS1, ADAM17, PSEN1, NCSTN, RPS6, STK11/LKB1 and MLTS8/GBL in LACC compared with normal cervical tissue epithelia.
CONCLUSIONS: Through comprehensive genomic and transcriptomic analyses, this work provides information regarding signaling pathways with promising therapeutic targets, suggesting novel target therapies to be considered in future clinical trials for LACC patients.
Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are a powerful tool for disease modeling. They are routinely generated from healthy donors and patients from multiple cell types at different developmental stages. However, reprogramming leukemias is an extremely inefficient process. Few studies generated iPSCs from primary chronic myeloid leukemias, but iPSC generation from acute myeloid or lymphoid leukemias (ALL) has not been achieved. We attempted to generate iPSCs from different subtypes of B-ALL to address the developmental impact of leukemic fusion genes. OKSM(L)-expressing mono/polycistronic-, retroviral/lentiviral/episomal-, and Sendai virus vector-based reprogramming strategies failed to render iPSCs in vitro and in vivo. Addition of transcriptomic-epigenetic reprogramming "boosters" also failed to generate iPSCs from B cell blasts and B-ALL lines, and when iPSCs emerged they lacked leukemic fusion genes, demonstrating non-leukemic myeloid origin. Conversely, MLL-AF4-overexpressing hematopoietic stem cells/B progenitors were successfully reprogrammed, indicating that B cell origin and leukemic fusion gene were not reprogramming barriers. Global transcriptome/DNA methylome profiling suggested a developmental/differentiation refractoriness of MLL-rearranged B-ALL to reprogramming into pluripotency.
Kerstjens M, Driessen EM, Willekes M, et al.MEK inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy for MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients carrying RAS mutations.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(9):14835-14846 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants is an aggressive malignancy with a poor clinical outcome, and is characterized by translocations of the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene. Previously, we identified RAS mutations in 14-24% of infant ALL patients, and showed that the presence of a RAS mutation decreased the survival chances even further. We hypothesized that targeting the RAS signaling pathway could be a therapeutic strategy for RAS-mutant infant ALL patients. Here we show that the MEK inhibitors Trametinib, Selumetinib and MEK162 severely impair primary RAS-mutant MLL-rearranged infant ALL cells in vitro. While all RAS-mutant samples were sensitive to MEK inhibitors, we found both sensitive and resistant samples among RAS-wildtype cases. We confirmed enhanced RAS pathway signaling in RAS-mutant samples, but found no apparent downstream over-activation in the wildtype samples. However, we did confirm that MEK inhibitors reduced p-ERK levels, and induced apoptosis in the RAS-mutant MLL-rearranged ALL cells. Finally, we show that MEK inhibition synergistically enhances prednisolone sensitivity, both in RAS-mutant and RAS-wildtype cells. In conclusion, MEK inhibition represents a promising therapeutic strategy for MLL-rearranged ALL patients harboring RAS mutations, while patients without RAS mutations may benefit through prednisolone sensitization.
Lau EY, Lo J, Cheng BY, et al.Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Regulate Tumor-Initiating Cell Plasticity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma through c-Met/FRA1/HEY1 Signaling.
Cell Rep. 2016; 15(6):1175-89 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Like normal stem cells, tumor-initiating cells (T-ICs) are regulated extrinsically within the tumor microenvironment. Because HCC develops primarily in the context of cirrhosis, in which there is an enrichment of activated fibroblasts, we hypothesized that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) would regulate liver T-ICs. We found that the presence of α-SMA(+) CAFs correlates with poor clinical outcome. CAF-derived HGF regulates liver T-ICs via activation of FRA1 in an Erk1,2-dependent manner. Further functional analysis identifies HEY1 as a direct downstream effector of FRA1. Using the STAM NASH-HCC mouse model, we find that HGF-induced FRA1 activation is associated with the fibrosis-dependent development of HCC. Thus, targeting the CAF-derived, HGF-mediated c-Met/FRA1/HEY1 cascade may be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HCC.
Prieto C, Stam RW, Agraz-Doblas A, et al.Activated KRAS Cooperates with MLL-AF4 to Promote Extramedullary Engraftment and Migration of Cord Blood CD34+ HSPC But Is Insufficient to Initiate Leukemia.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(8):2478-89 [PubMed
] Related Publications
The MLL-AF4 (MA4) fusion gene is the genetic hallmark of an aggressive infant pro-B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Our understanding of MA4-mediated transformation is very limited. Whole-genome sequencing studies revealed a silent mutational landscape, which contradicts the aggressive clinical outcome of this hematologic malignancy. Only RAS mutations were recurrently detected in patients and found to be associated with poorer outcome. The absence of MA4-driven B-ALL models further questions whether MA4 acts as a single oncogenic driver or requires cooperating mutations to manifest a malignant phenotype. We explored whether KRAS activation cooperates with MA4 to initiate leukemia in cord blood-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC). Clonogenic and differentiation/proliferation assays demonstrated that KRAS activation does not cooperate with MA4 to immortalize CD34(+) HSPCs. Intrabone marrow transplantation into immunodeficient mice further showed that MA4 and KRAS(G12V) alone or in combination enhanced hematopoietic repopulation without impairing myeloid-lymphoid differentiation, and that mutated KRAS did not cooperate with MA4 to initiate leukemia. However, KRAS activation enhanced extramedullary hematopoiesis of MA4-expressing cell lines and CD34(+) HSPCs that was associated with leukocytosis and central nervous system infiltration, both hallmarks of infant t(4;11)(+) B-ALL. Transcriptional profiling of MA4-expressing patients supported a cell migration gene signature underlying the mutant KRAS-mediated phenotype. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that KRAS affects the homeostasis of MA4-expressing HSPCs, suggesting that KRAS activation in MA4(+) B-ALL is important for tumor maintenance rather than initiation. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2478-89. ©2016 AACR.
Infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) accounts for 10% of childhood ALL. The genetic hallmark of most infant B-ALL is chromosomal rearrangements of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene. Despite improvement in the clinical management and survival (∼85-90%) of childhood B-ALL, the outcome of infants with MLL-rearranged (MLL-r) B-ALL remains dismal, with overall survival <35%. Among MLL-r infant B-ALL, t(4;11)+ patients harboring the fusion MLL-AF4 (MA4) display a particularly poor prognosis and a pro-B/mixed phenotype. Studies in monozygotic twins and archived blood spots have provided compelling evidence of a single cell of prenatal origin as the target for MA4 fusion, explaining the brief leukemia latency. Despite its aggressiveness and short latency, current progress on its etiology, pathogenesis, and cellular origin is limited as evidenced by the lack of mouse/human models recapitulating the disease phenotype/latency. We propose this is because infant cancer is from an etiologic and pathogenesis standpoint distinct from adult cancer and should be seen as a developmental disease. This is supported by whole-genome sequencing studies suggesting that opposite to the view of cancer as a "multiple-and-sequential-hit" model, t(4;11) alone might be sufficient to spawn leukemia. The stable genome of these patients suggests that, in infant developmental cancer, one "big-hit" might be sufficient for overt disease and supports a key contribution of epigenetics and a prenatal cell of origin during a critical developmental window of stem cell vulnerability in the leukemia pathogenesis. Here, we revisit the biology of t(4;11)+ infant B-ALL with an emphasis on its origin, genetics, and disease models.
Stumpel DJ, Schneider P, Pieters R, Stam RWThe potential of clofarabine in MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Eur J Cancer. 2015; 51(14):2008-21 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in infants is the most difficult-to-treat type of childhood ALL, displaying a chemotherapy-resistant phenotype, and unique histone modifications, gene expression signatures and DNA methylation patterns. MLL-rearranged infant ALL responds remarkably well to nucleoside analogue drugs in vitro, such as cytarabine and cladribine, and to the demethylating agents decitabine and zebularine as measured by cytotoxicity assays. These observations led to the inclusion of cytarabine into the treatment regimens currently used for infants with ALL. However, survival chances for infants with MLL-rearranged ALL do still not exceed 30-40%. Here we explored the in vitro potential of the novel nucleoside analogue clofarabine for MLL-rearranged infant ALL. Therefore we used both cell line models as well as primary patient cells. Compared with other nucleoside analogues, clofarabine effectively targeted primary MLL-rearranged infant ALL cells at the lowest concentrations, with median LC50 values of ∼25 nM. Interestingly, clofarabine displayed synergistic cytotoxic effects in combination with cytarabine. Furthermore, at concentrations of 5-10nM clofarabine induced demethylation of the promoter region of the tumour suppressor gene FHIT (Fragile Histidine Triad), a gene typically hypermethylated in MLL-rearranged ALL. Demethylation of the FHIT promoter region was accompanied by subtle re-expression of this gene both at the mRNA and protein level. We conclude that clofarabine is an interesting candidate for further studies in MLL-rearranged ALL in infants.
INTRODUCTION: MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants (<1 year) is characterized by high relapse rates and a dismal prognosis. To facilitate the discovery of novel therapeutic targets, we here searched for genes directly influenced by the repression of various MLL fusions.
METHODS: For this, we performed gene expression profiling after siRNA-mediated repression of MLL-AF4, MLL-ENL, and AF4-MLL in MLL-rearranged ALL cell line models. The obtained results were compared with various already established gene signatures including those consisting of known MLL-AF4 target genes, or those associated with primary MLL-rearranged infant ALL samples.
RESULTS: Genes that were down-regulated in response to the repression of MLL-AF4 and MLL-ENL appeared characteristically expressed in primary MLL-rearranged infant ALL samples, and often represented known MLL-AF4 targets genes. Genes that were up-regulated in response to the repression of MLL-AF4 and MLL-ENL often represented genes typically silenced by promoter hypermethylation in MLL-rearranged infant ALL. Genes that were affected in response to the repression of AF4-MLL showed significant enrichment in gene expression profiles associated with AF4-MLL expressing t(4;11)+ infant ALL patient samples.
CONCLUSION: We conclude that the here identified genes readily responsive to the loss of MLL fusion expression potentially represent attractive therapeutic targets and may provide additional insights in MLL-rearranged acute leukemias.
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has emerged as a common cause of chronic liver disease and virus-independent hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. To reveal the molecular mechanism underlying hepatocarcinogenesis from NASH, microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles were analyzed in STAM mice, a NASH-HCC animal model. MicroRNA expression was also examined in 42 clinical samples of HCC tissue. Histopathological images of the liver of STAM mice at the ages of 6, 8, 12, and 18 weeks showed findings compatible with fatty liver, NASH, liver cirrhosis (LC), and HCC, respectively. Expression of miR-122 in non-tumor LC at the age of 18 weeks was significantly lower than that in LC at the age of 12 weeks. Expression of miR-122 was further decreased in HCCs relative to non-tumor LC at the age of 18 weeks. Expression of miR-122 was also decreased in clinical samples of liver tissue showing macrovesicular steatosis and HCC, being consistent with the findings in the NASH model mice. DNA methylation analysis revealed that silencing of miR-122 was not mediated by DNA hypermethylation of the promoter region. These results suggest that silencing of miR-122 is an early event during hepatocarcinogenesis from NASH, and that miR-122 could be a novel molecular marker for evaluating the risk of HCC in patients with NASH.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants (< 1 year-of-age) is characterized by a high incidence of MLL rearrangements. Recently, direct targets of the MLL fusion protein have been identified. However, functional validation of the identified targets remained unacknowledged. In this study, we identify CDK6 as a direct target of the MLL fusion protein and an important player in the proliferation advantage of MLL-rearranged leukemia. CDK6 mRNA was significantly higher expressed in MLL-rearranged infant ALL patients compared with MLL wild-type ALL patients (P < 0.001). Decrease of MLL-AF4 and MLL-ENL fusion mRNA expression by siRNAs resulted in downregulation of CDK6, affirming a direct relationship between the presence of the MLL fusion and CDK6 expression. Knockdown of CDK6 itself significantly inhibited proliferation in the MLL-AF4-positive cell line SEM, whereas knockdown of the highly homologous gene CDK4 had virtually no effect on the cell cycle. Furthermore, we show in vitro sensitivity of MLL-rearranged leukemia cell lines to the CDK4/6-inhibitor PD0332991, inducing a remarkable G 1 arrest, and downregulation of its downstream targets pRB1 and EZH2. We therefore conclude that CDK6 is indeed a direct target of MLL fusion proteins, playing an important role in the proliferation advantage of MLL-rearranged ALL cells.
Spijkers-Hagelstein JA, Schneider P, Pinhanços SM, et al.Glucocorticoid sensitisation in Mixed Lineage Leukaemia-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukaemia by the pan-BCL-2 family inhibitors gossypol and AT-101.
Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50(9):1665-74 [PubMed
] Related Publications
AIM OF THE STUDY: Resistance to glucocorticoids (GCs) remains a major problem in the treatment of infants with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) carrying Mixed Lineage Leukaemia (MLL) translocations. Despite intensive research, the mechanism(s) underlying GC resistance remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggested an important role for the pro-survival BCL-2 family member MCL1 in GC resistance in MLL-rearranged ALL.
METHODS: We exposed GC-resistant MLL-rearranged SEMK2 cells to potent MCL1-inhibiting agents, including gossypol, AT-101, rapamycin, SU9516 and obatoclax (GX15-070) and determined GC sensitisation using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Using Western blotting we analysed the protein expression of most BCL-2 family members in MLL-rearranged SEMK2 cells after treatment with potent MCL-1 inhibiting agents.
RESULTS: Only gossypol and its synthetic analogue AT-101 induced GC sensitivity in MLL-rearranged ALL cells. Remarkably, the GC-sensitising effects of gossypol and AT-101 appeared not to be mediated by down-regulation MCL1 or other anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members, but rather involved up-regulation of multiple pro-apoptotic BCL-2 family members, in particular that of BIM and BID.
CONCLUDING REMARKS: In conclusion, gossypol and AT-101 induce GC sensitivity in MLL-rearranged ALL cells, most likely mediated by the activation of BID and BIM without the necessity to down-regulate anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members like MCL1. Hence, co-administration of either gossypol or AT-101 during GC treatment of GC-resistant MLL-rearranged ALL patients may overcome GC resistance and improve prognosis in this high-risk childhood leukaemia.
Spijkers-Hagelstein JA, Pinhanços SS, Schneider P, et al.Chemical genomic screening identifies LY294002 as a modulator of glucocorticoid resistance in MLL-rearranged infant ALL.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(4):761-9 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Successful treatment results for MLL-rearranged Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) in infants remain difficult to achieve. Significantly contributing to therapy failure is poor response to glucocorticoids (GCs), like prednisone. Thus, overcoming resistance to these drugs may be a crucial step towards improving prognosis. We defined a gene signature that accurately discriminates between prednisolone-resistant and prednisolone-sensitive MLL-rearranged infant ALL patient samples. In the current study, we applied Connectivity Map analysis to perform an in silico screening for agents capable of reversing the prednisolone-resistance profile and induce sensitivity. These analyses revealed that LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, would potentially fulfill this task. Subsequent validation experiments demonstrated that indeed LY294002, and other known PI3K inhibitors, markedly sensitized otherwise resistant MLL-rearranged ALL cells to prednisolone in vitro. Using quantitative RT-PCR analyses, we validated the modulating effects of the PI3K inhibitors on the expression of the genes present in our prednisolone-resistance profile. Interestingly, prednisolone-sensitizing actions may be mediated by inhibition of FCGR1B. Moreover, only high-level expression of FCGR1B showed to be predictive for a poor prognosis and shRNA-mediated knock-down of FCGR1B led to in vitro prednisolone sensitization. Thus, implementing FDA-approved PI3K inhibitors in current treatments may potentially improve the GC response and prognosis in patients with MLL-rearranged ALL.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants represents an aggressive malignancy associated with a high incidence (approx. 80%) of translocations involving the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) gene. Attempts to mimic Mixed Lineage Leukemia fusion driven leukemogenesis in mice raised the question whether these fusion proteins require secondary hits. RAS mutations are suggested as candidates. Earlier results on the incidence of RAS mutations in Mixed Lineage Leukemia-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia are inconclusive. Therefore, we studied frequencies and relation with clinical parameters of RAS mutations in a large cohort of infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Using conventional sequencing analysis, we screened neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog gene (NRAS), v-Ki-ras Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog gene (KRAS), and v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 gene (BRAF) for mutations in a large cohort (n=109) of infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients and studied the mutations in relation to several clinical parameters, and in relation to Homeobox gene A9 expression and the presence of ALL1 fused gene 4-Mixed Lineage Leukemia (AF4-MLL). Mutations were detected in approximately 14% of all cases, with a higher frequency of approximately 24% in t(4;11)-positive patients (P=0.04). Furthermore, we identified RAS mutations as an independent predictor (P=0.019) for poor outcome in Mixed Lineage Leukemia-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with a hazard ratio of 3.194 (95% confidence interval (CI):1.211-8.429). Also, RAS-mutated infants have higher white blood cell counts at diagnosis (P=0.013), and are more resistant to glucocorticoids in vitro (P<0.05). Finally, we demonstrate that RAS mutations, and not the lack of Homeobox gene A9 expression nor the expression of AF4-MLL are associated with poor outcome in t(4;11)-rearranged infants. We conclude that the presence of RAS mutations in Mixed Lineage Leukemia-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia is an independent predictor for a poor outcome. Therefore, future risk-stratification based on abnormal RAS-pathway activation and RAS-pathway inhibition could be beneficial in RAS-mutated infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.
Spijkers-Hagelstein JA, Mimoso Pinhanços S, Schneider P, et al.Src kinase-induced phosphorylation of annexin A2 mediates glucocorticoid resistance in MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2013; 27(5):1063-71 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (<1 year of age) are frequently resistant to glucocorticoids, like prednisone and dexamethasone. As poor glucocorticoid responses are strongly associated with therapy failure, overcoming glucocorticoid resistance may be a crucial step towards improving prognosis. Unfortunately, the mechanisms underlying glucocorticoid resistance in MLL-rearranged ALL largely remain obscure. We here defined a gene signature that accurately discriminates between prednisolone-resistant and prednisolone-sensitive MLL-rearranged infant ALL patient samples, demonstrating that, among other genes, high-level ANXA2 is associated with prednisolone resistance in this type of leukemia. Further investigation demonstrated that the underlying factor of this association was the presence of Src kinase-induced phosphorylation (activation) of annexin A2, a process requiring the adapter protein p11 (encoded by human S100A10). shRNA-mediated knockdown of either ANXA2, FYN, LCK or S100A10, all led to inhibition of annexin A2 phosphorylation and resulted in marked sensitization to prednisolone. Likewise, exposure of prednisolone-resistant MLL-rearranged ALL cells to different Src kinase inhibitors exerting high specificity towards FYN and/or LCK had similar effects. In conclusion, we here present a novel mechanism of prednisolone resistance in MLL-rearranged leukemias, and propose that inhibition of annexin A2 phosphorylation embodies a therapeutic strategy for overcoming resistance to glucocorticoids in this highly aggressive type of leukemia.
Coenen EA, Driessen EM, Zwaan CM, et al.CBL mutations do not frequently occur in paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2012; 159(5):577-84 [PubMed
] Related Publications
RAS-pathway mutations, causing a proliferative advantage, occur in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and MLL-rearranged leukaemia. Recently, mutations in the Casitas B lineage lymphoma (CBL) gene were reported to be involved in RAS-pathway activation in various myeloid malignancies, but their role in paediatric AML is still unknown. We performed mutation analysis of 283 newly diagnosed and 33 relapsed paediatric AML cases. Only two mutant cases (0·7%) were identified in the newly diagnosed paediatric AML samples, of which one was MLL-rearranged. Both mutant cases showed CBL mRNA expression in the range of the non-mutated cases. Phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) was not correlated with CBL protein expression (n = 11). In conclusion, we report a very low CBL mutation frequency in paediatric AML, which, together with the lack of difference in protein and mRNA expression, illustrates the limited role of CBL in paediatric AML.
Stumpel DJ, Schneider P, van Roon EH, et al.Absence of global hypomethylation in promoter hypermethylated Mixed Lineage Leukaemia-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
Eur J Cancer. 2013; 49(1):175-84 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mixed Lineage Leukaemia (MLL)-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in infants represents a highly aggressive type of leukaemia that is often characterised by severe promoter CpG island hypermethylation. Consequently, MLL-rearranged ALL cells respond well to demethylating cytosine analogue drugs. In human cancer cells, enhanced promoter methylation is typically accompanied by global loss of methylation in non-promoter regions of the genome. In turn, global hypomethylation usually leads to genomic instability, which may have contributed to cancer development.
DESIGN AND METHODS: Here we examined global methylation densities in MLL-rearranged infant ALL (n=45) samples in comparison with germline MLL infant ALL (n=11), non-infant B-cell precursor ALL (n=11) and normal paediatric bone marrow (n=9) samples. For this we performed high-resolution bisulfite pyrosequencing to determine methylation levels at the repetitive elements LINE-1, Alu and satellite α (SAT-α). As an additional measure of global methylation levels we used the LUminometric Methylation Assay (LUMA).
RESULTS: We found that MLL-rearranged infant ALL is not characterised by global hypomethylation, despite its characteristic promoter CpG hypermethylation patterns. Instead we observed a moderate trend towards global hypermethylation and demonstrated that these methylated non-promoter sequences are responsive to demethylating agents.
CONCLUSIONS: MLL-rearranged infant ALL cells are characterised by an overall methylated genomic state, and both promoter and non-promoter methylation responds to demethylating agents, which may further explain the remarkable sensitivity of these cells for the methylation-inhibiting therapeutics.
Yu J, Liang QY, Wang J, et al.Zinc-finger protein 331, a novel putative tumor suppressor, suppresses growth and invasiveness of gastric cancer.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(3):307-17 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Zinc-finger protein 331 (ZNF331), a Kruppel-associated box zinc-finger protein gene, was identified as a putative tumor suppressor in our previous study. However, the role of ZNF331 in tumorigenesis remains elusive. We aimed to clarify its epigenetic regulation and biological functions in gastric cancer. ZNF331 was silenced or downregulated in 71% (12/17) gastric cancer cell lines. A significant downregulation was also detected in paired gastric tumors compared with adjacent non-cancer tissues. In contrast, ZNF331 was readily expressed in various normal adult tissues. The downregulation of ZNF331 was closely linked to the promoter hypermethylation as evidenced by methylation-specific PCR, bisulfite genomic sequencing and reexpression by demethylation agent treatment. DNA sequencing showed no genetic mutation/deletion of ZNF331 in gastric cancer cell lines. Ectopic expression of ZNF331 in the silenced cancer cell lines MKN28 and HCT116 significantly reduced colony formation and cell viability, induced cell cycle arrests and repressed cell migration and invasive ability. Concordantly, knockdown of ZNF331 increased cell viability and colony formation ability of gastric cancer cell line MKN45. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry-based comparative proteomic approach were applied to analyze the molecular basis of the biological functions of ZNF331. In all, 10 downstream targets of ZNF331 were identified to be associated with regulation of cell growth and metastasis. The tumor-suppressive effect of ZNF331 is mediated at least by downregulation of genes involved in cell growth promotion (DSTN, EIF5A, GARS, DDX5, STAM, UQCRFS1 and SET) and migration/invasion (DSTN and ACTR3), and upregulation of genome-stability gene (SSBP1) and cellular senescence gene (PNPT1). A novel target of ZNF331 (DSTN) was functionally validated. Overexpression of DSTN in BGC-823 cells increased colony formation and migration ability. In conclusion, our results suggest that ZNF331 possesses important functions for the suppression of gastric carcinogenesis as a novel functional tumor-suppressor gene.
Kandimalla R, van Tilborg AA, Kompier LC, et al.Genome-wide analysis of CpG island methylation in bladder cancer identified TBX2, TBX3, GATA2, and ZIC4 as pTa-specific prognostic markers.
Eur Urol. 2012; 61(6):1245-56 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation markers could serve as useful biomarkers, both as markers for progression and for urine-based diagnostic assays.
OBJECTIVE: Identify bladder cancer (BCa)-specific methylated DNA sequences for predicting pTa-specific progression and detecting BCa in voided urine.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Genome-wide methylation analysis was performed on 44 bladder tumours using the Agilent 244K Human CpG Island Microarray (Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Validation was done using a custom Illumina 384-plex assay (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) in a retrospective group of 77 independent tumours. Markers for progression were identified in pTa (n = 24) tumours and validated retrospectively in an independent series of 41 pTa tumours by the SNaPshot method (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA).
MEASUREMENTS: The percentage of methylation in tumour and urine samples was used to identify markers for detection and related to the end point of progression to muscle-invasive disease with Kaplan-Meier models and multivariate analysis.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In the validation set, methylation of the T-box 2 (TBX2), T-box 3 (TBX3), GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2), and Zic family member 4 (ZIC4) genes was associated with progression to muscle-invasive disease in pTa tumours (p = 0.003). Methylation of TBX2 alone showed a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 80%, a positive predictive value of 78%, and a negative predictive value of 100%, with an area under the curve of 0.96 (p<0.0001) for predicting progression. Multivariate analysis showed that methylation of TBX3 and GATA2 are independent predictors of progression when compared to clinicopathologic variables (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively). The predictive accuracy improved by 23% by adding methylation of TBX2, TBX3, and GATA2 to the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer risk scores. We further identified and validated 110 CpG islands (CGIs) that are differentially methylated between tumour cells and control urine. The limitation of this study is the small number of patients analysed for testing and validating the prognostic markers.
CONCLUSIONS: We have identified four methylation markers that predict progression in pTa tumours, thereby allowing stratification of patients for personalised follow-up. In addition, we identified CGIs that will enable detection of bladder tumours in voided urine.
Spijkers-Hagelstein JA, Schneider P, Hulleman E, et al.Elevated S100A8/S100A9 expression causes glucocorticoid resistance in MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2012; 26(6):1255-65 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants is characterized by a poor clinical outcome and resistance to glucocorticoids (for example, prednisone and dexamethasone). As both the response to prednisolone in vitro and prednisone in vivo are predictive for clinical outcome, understanding and overcoming glucocorticoid resistance remains an essential step towards improving prognosis. Prednisolone-induced apoptosis depends on glucocorticoid-evoked Ca(2+) fluxes from the endoplasmic reticulum towards the mitochondria. Here, we demonstrate that in MLL-rearranged infant ALL, over-expression of S100A8 and S100A9 is associated with failure to induce free-cytosolic Ca(2+) and prednisolone resistance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that enforced expression of S100A8/S100A9 in prednisolone-sensitive MLL-rearranged ALL cells, rapidly leads to prednisolone resistance as a result of S100A8/S100A9 mediated suppression of prednisolone-induced free-cytosolic Ca(2+) levels. In addition, the Src kinase inhibitor PP2 markedly sensitized MLL-rearranged ALL cells otherwise resistant to prednisolone, via downregulation of S100A8 and S100A9, which allowed prednisolone-induced Ca(2+) fluxes to reach the mitochondria and trigger apoptosis. On the basis of this novel mechanism of prednisolone resistance, we propose that developing more specific S100A8/S100A9 inhibitors may well be beneficial for prednisolone-resistant MLL-rearranged infant ALL patients.
Gene expression profiling was performed on 97 cases of infant ALL from Children's Oncology Group Trial P9407. Statistical modeling of an outcome predictor revealed 3 genes highly predictive of event-free survival (EFS), beyond age and MLL status: FLT3, IRX2, and TACC2. Low FLT3 expression was found in a group of infants with excellent outcome (n = 11; 5-year EFS of 100%), whereas differential expression of IRX2 and TACC2 partitioned the remaining infants into 2 groups with significantly different survivals (5-year EFS of 16% vs 64%; P < .001). When infants with MLL-AFF1 were analyzed separately, a 7-gene classifier was developed that split them into 2 distinct groups with significantly different outcomes (5-year EFS of 20% vs 65%; P < .001). In this classifier, elevated expression of NEGR1 was associated with better EFS, whereas IRX2, EPS8, and TPD52 expression were correlated with worse outcome. This classifier also predicted EFS in an independent infant ALL cohort from the Interfant-99 trial. When evaluating expression profiles as a continuous variable relative to patient age, we further identified striking differences in profiles in infants less than or equal to 90 days of age and those more than 90 days of age. These age-related patterns suggest different mechanisms of leukemogenesis and may underlie the differential outcomes historically seen in these age groups.
Stumpel DJ, Schneider P, Seslija L, et al.Connectivity mapping identifies HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of t(4;11)-positive infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Leukemia. 2012; 26(4):682-92 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an aggressive type of leukemia characterized by a unique gene-expression profile. We uncovered that the activation of particular (proto-onco)genes is mediated by promoter hypomethylation. In search for therapeutic agents capable of targeting these potential cancer-promoting genes, we applied connectivity mapping on a gene expression signature based on the genes most significantly hypomethylated in t(4;11)-positive infant ALL as compared with healthy bone marrows. This analysis revealed histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors as suitable candidates to reverse the unfavorable gene signature. We show that HDAC inhibitors effectively induce leukemic cell death in t(4;11)-positive primary infant ALL cells, accompanied by downregulation of MYC, SET, RUNX1, RAN as well as the MLL-AF4 fusion product. Furthermore, DNA methylation was restored after HDAC inhibitor exposure. Our data underlines the essential role for epigenetic de-regulation in MLL-rearranged ALL. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that connectivity mapping can indirectly be applied on DNA methylation patterns, providing a rationale for HDAC inhibition in t(4;11)-positive leukemias. Given the presented potential of HDAC inhibitors to target important proto-oncogenes including the leukemia-specific MLL fusion in vitro, these agents should urgently be tested in in vivo models and subsequent clinical trials.
Jayanthan A, Incoronato A, Singh A, et al.Cytotoxicity, drug combinability, and biological correlates of ABT-737 against acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells with MLL rearrangement.
Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011; 56(3):353-60 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: ABT-737 is a BH3 mimetic small-molecule inhibitor that binds with high affinity to Bcl-2 to induce apoptosis in malignant cells and has shown promise as an effective anti-leukemic agent in pediatric preclinical tests. This study focuses on the effects of ABT-737 on leukemia cells with MLL rearrangement and identifies some of the biological correlates of its activity.
PROCEDURE: Cells were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of ABT-737 alone or in combination with other agents. After 4 days in culture, cell growth inhibition was measured by Alamar blue assay. The expression and activation of potential intracellular targets of ABT-737 activity were determined by Western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Significant Bcl-2 expression was detected in all infant leukemia cells investigated. ABT-737 induced cell death in all cell lines studied although the IC(50) values differed somewhat between cell lines. Western blot analysis identified the effects of ABT-737 on survival and apoptosis-regulatory proteins PARP, caspase-8, and cytochrome-c. Drug combination studies indicated synergy with distinct anti-neoplastic agents, including the multi-tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. This effective drug synergy appears to be mediated by the combined inhibition of Bcl-2 and intracellular signaling pathways.
CONCLUSIONS: We describe the in vitro studies to demonstrate the activity and drug combinability of ABT-737 against MLL rearranged leukemia cells. In addition, identification of the molecular changes that occur in the presence of ABT-737 provides information regarding effective target validation and target modulation analyses in future clinical trials.
Stumpel DJ, Schotte D, Lange-Turenhout EA, et al.Hypermethylation of specific microRNA genes in MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia: major matters at a micro scale.
Leukemia. 2011; 25(3):429-39 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants (<1 year) is the most aggressive type of childhood leukemia. To develop more suitable treatment strategies, a firm understanding of the biology underlying this disease is of utmost importance. MLL-rearranged ALL displays a unique gene expression profile, partly explained by erroneous histone modifications. We recently showed that t(4;11)-positive infant ALL is also characterized by pronounced promoter CpG hypermethylation. In this study, we investigated whether this widespread hypermethylation also affected microRNA (miRNA) expression. We identified 11 miRNAs that were downregulated in t(4;11)-positive infant ALL as a consequence of CpG hypermethylation. Seven of these miRNAs were re-activated after exposure to the de-methylating agent Zebularine. Interestingly, five of these miRNAs are associated either with MLL or MLL fusions, and for miR-152 we found both MLL and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) as potential targeted genes. Finally, a high degree of methylation of the miR-152 CpG island was strongly correlated with a poor clinical outcome. Our data suggests that inhibitors of methylation have a potential beyond re-expression of hypermethylated protein-coding genes in t(4;11)-positive infant ALL. In this study, we provide additional evidence that they should be tested for their efficacy in MLL-rearranged infant ALL in in vivo models.
Schotte D, Lange-Turenhout EA, Stumpel DJ, et al.Expression of miR-196b is not exclusively MLL-driven but is especially linked to activation of HOXA genes in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica. 2010; 95(10):1675-82 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of microRNA may contribute to hematopoietic malignancies. MicroRNA-196b (miR-196b) is highly expressed in MLL-rearranged leukemia and has been shown to be activated by MLL and MLL-fusion genes.
DESIGN AND METHODS: In order to determine whether high expression of miR-196b is restricted to MLL-rearranged leukemia, we used quantitative stem-loop reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to measure the expression of this microRNA in 72 selected cases of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia i.e. MLL-rearranged and non-MLL-rearranged precursor B-cell and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias. We also determined the expression of HOXA-genes flanking miR-196 by microarray and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, we used CpG island-arrays to explore the DNA methylation status of miR-196b and HOXA.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that high expression of miR-196b is not unique to MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia but also occurs in patients with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients carrying CALM-AF10, SET-NUP214 and inversion of chromosome 7. Like MLL-rearrangements, these abnormalities have been functionally linked with up-regulation of HOXA. In correspondence, miR-196b expression in these patients correlated strongly with the levels of HOXA family genes (Spearman's correlation coefficient ≥ 0.7; P≤0.005). Since miR-196b is encoded on the HOXA cluster, these data suggest co-activation of miR-196b and HOXA genes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Up-regulation of miR-196b coincides with reduced DNA methylation at CpG islands in the promoter regions of miR-196b and the entire HOXA cluster in MLL-rearranged cases compared to in cases of non-MLL precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and normal bone marrow (P<0.05), suggesting an epigenetic origin for miR-196b over-expression. Although patients with MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia are highly resistant to prednisolone and L-asparaginase, this resistance was not attributed to miR-196b expression.
CONCLUSIONS: High expression of miR-196b is not exclusively MLL-driven but can also be found in other types of leukemia with aberrant activation of HOXA genes. Since miR-196b has been shown by others to exert oncogenic activity in bone marrow progenitor cells, the findings of the present study imply a potential role for miR-196b in the underlying biology of all HOXA-activated leukemias.
Stam RW, Schneider P, Hagelstein JA, et al.Gene expression profiling-based dissection of MLL translocated and MLL germline acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants.
Blood. 2010; 115(14):2835-44 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in infants (< 1 year) is characterized by a poor prognosis and a high incidence of MLL translocations. Several studies demonstrated the unique gene expression profile associated with MLL-rearranged ALL, but generally small cohorts were analyzed as uniform patient groups regardless of the type of MLL translocation, whereas the analysis of translocation-negative infant ALL remained unacknowledged. Here we generated and analyzed primary infant ALL expression profiles (n = 73) typified by translocations t(4;11), t(11;19), and t(9;11), or the absence of MLL translocations. Our data show that MLL germline infant ALL specifies a gene expression pattern that is different from both MLL-rearranged infant ALL and pediatric precursor B-ALL. Moreover, we demonstrate that, apart from a fundamental signature shared by all MLL-rearranged infant ALL samples, each type of MLL translocation is associated with a translocation-specific gene expression signature. Finally, we show the existence of 2 distinct subgroups among t(4;11)-positive infant ALL cases characterized by the absence or presence of HOXA expression, and that patients lacking HOXA expression are at extreme high risk of disease relapse. These gene expression profiles should provide important novel insights in the complex biology of MLL-rearranged infant ALL and boost our progress in finding novel therapeutic solutions.
Stam RW, Den Boer ML, Schneider P, et al.Association of high-level MCL-1 expression with in vitro and in vivo prednisone resistance in MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Blood. 2010; 115(5):1018-25 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MLL-rearranged acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) represents an unfavorable type of leukemia that often is highly resistant to glucocorticoids such as prednisone and dexamethasone. Because response to prednisone largely determines clinical outcome of pediatric patients with ALL, overcoming resistance to this drug may be an important step toward improving prognosis. Here, we show how gene expression profiling identifies high-level MCL-1 expression to be associated with prednisolone resistance in MLL-rearranged infant ALL, as well as in more favorable types of childhood ALL. To validate this observation, we determined MCL-1 expression with quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in a cohort of MLL-rearranged infant ALL and pediatric noninfant ALL samples and confirmed that high-level MCL-1 expression is associated with prednisolone resistance in vitro. In addition, MCL-1 expression appeared to be significantly higher in MLL-rearranged infant patients who showed a poor response to prednisone in vivo compared with prednisone good responders. Finally, down-regulation of MCL-1 in prednisolone-resistant MLL-rearranged leukemia cells by RNA interference, to some extent, led to prednisolone sensitization. Collectively, our findings suggest a potential role for MCL-1 in glucocorticoid resistance in MLL-rearranged infant ALL, but at the same time strongly imply that high-level MCL-1 expression is not the sole mechanism providing resistance to these drugs.
Stumpel DJ, Schneider P, van Roon EH, et al.Specific promoter methylation identifies different subgroups of MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia, influences clinical outcome, and provides therapeutic options.
Blood. 2009; 114(27):5490-8 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MLL-rearranged infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains the most aggressive type of childhood leukemia, displaying a unique gene expression profile. Here we hypothesized that this characteristic gene expression signature may have been established by potentially reversible epigenetic modifications. To test this hypothesis, we used differential methylation hybridization to explore the DNA methylation patterns underlying MLL-rearranged ALL in infants. The obtained results were correlated with gene expression data to confirm gene silencing as a result of promoter hypermethylation. Distinct promoter CpG island methylation patterns separated different genetic subtypes of MLL-rearranged ALL in infants. MLL translocations t(4;11) and t(11;19) characterized extensively hypermethylated leukemias, whereas t(9;11)-positive infant ALL and infant ALL carrying wild-type MLL genes epigenetically resembled normal bone marrow. Furthermore, the degree of promoter hypermethylation among infant ALL patients carrying t(4;11) or t(11;19) appeared to influence relapse-free survival, with patients displaying accentuated methylation being at high relapse risk. Finally, we show that the demethylating agent zebularine reverses aberrant DNA methylation and effectively induces apoptosis in MLL-rearranged ALL cells. Collectively these data suggest that aberrant DNA methylation occurs in the majority of MLL-rearranged infant ALL cases and guides clinical outcome. Therefore, inhibition of aberrant DNA methylation may be an important novel therapeutic strategy for MLL-rearranged ALL in infants.