ADAM9

Gene Summary

Gene:ADAM9; ADAM metallopeptidase domain 9
Aliases: MCMP, MDC9, CORD9, Mltng
Location:8p11.22
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the ADAM (a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain) family. Members of this family are membrane-anchored proteins structurally related to snake venom disintegrins, and have been implicated in a variety of biological processes involving cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, including fertilization, muscle development, and neurogenesis. The protein encoded by this gene interacts with SH3 domain-containing proteins, binds mitotic arrest deficient 2 beta protein, and is also involved in TPA-induced ectodomain shedding of membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. Several alternatively spliced transcript variants have been identified for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 9
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ADAM9 (cancer-related)

Wang FF, Wang S, Xue WH, Cheng JL
microRNA-590 suppresses the tumorigenesis and invasiveness of non-small cell lung cancer cells by targeting ADAM9.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2016; 423(1-2):29-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
microRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small non-coding RNA molecules, are implicated in cancer growth and progression. In the present study, we examined the expression and biological roles of miR-590 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Compared to normal lung tissues, miR-590 expression was downregulated in primary NSCLCs and, to a greater extent, in corresponding brain metastases. NSCLC cell lines with high metastatic potential had significantly (P < 0.05) lower levels of miR-590 than those with low metastatic potential. Re-expression of miR-590 suppressed NSCLC cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. In contrast, inhibition of miR-590 enhanced the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 (ADAM9) was a direct target of miR-590. Delivery of miR-590 mimic was found to decrease endogenous ADAM9 expression in NSCLC cells. Enforced expression of a miRNA-resistant form of ADAM9 significantly restored the aggressive behaviors in miR-590-overexpressing NSCLC cells. Taken together, our data reveal miR-590 as a tumor suppressor in NSCLC, which is at least partially mediated through targeting of ADAM9. Restoration of miR-590 may provide a promising therapeutic strategy for NSCLC.

Micocci KC, Moritz MN, Lino RL, et al.
ADAM9 silencing inhibits breast tumor cells transmigration through blood and lymphatic endothelial cells.
Biochimie. 2016 Sep-Oct; 128-129:174-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
ADAMs are transmembrane multifunctional proteins that contain disintegrin and metalloprotease domains. ADAMs act in a diverse set of biological processes, including fertilization, inflammatory responses, myogenesis, cell migration, cell proliferation and ectodomain cleavage of membrane proteins. These proteins also have additional functions in pathological processes as cancer and metastasis development. ADAM9 is a member of ADAM protein family that is overexpressed in several types of human carcinomas. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ADAM9 in hematogenous and lymphatic tumor cell dissemination assisting the development of new therapeutic tools. The role of ADAM9 in the interaction of breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) and endothelial cells was studied through RNA silencing. ADAM9 silencing in MDA-MB-231 cells had no influence in expression of several genes related to the metastatic process such as ADAM10, ADAM12, ADAM17, cMYC, MMP9, VEGF-A, VEGF-C, osteopontin and collagen XVII. However, there was a minor decrease in ADAM15 expression but an increase in that of MMP2. Moreover, ADAM9 silencing had no effect in the adhesion of MDA-MB-231 cells to vascular (HMEC-1 and HUVEC) and lymphatic cells (HMVEC-dLyNeo) under flow condition. Nevertheless, siADAM9 in MDA-MB-231 decreased transendothelial cell migration in vitro through HUVEC, HMEC-1 and HMVEC-dLyNeo (50%, 40% and 32% respectively). These results suggest a role for ADAM9 on the extravasation step of the metastatic cascade through both blood and lymph vessels.

Liu X, Wang S, Yuan A, et al.
MicroRNA-140 represses glioma growth and metastasis by directly targeting ADAM9.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(4):2329-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma is the most frequent primary malignant tumor of the human brain. Recently, great progress has been made in the combined therapy of glioma. However, the clinical effects of these treatments and prognosis for patients with glioma remains poor. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been demonstrated to play important roles in the initiation and progression of various types of human cancers, also including glioma. The present study investigated the expression patterns of microRNA‑140 (miR-140) in glioma, and the roles of miR-140 in glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. The results showed that miR-140 was significantly downreuglated in glioma tissues and cell lines, and low expression levels of miR-140 were correlated with World Health Organization (WHO) grade and Karnofsky performance score (KPS) of glioma patients. Restoration of miR-140 obviously suppressed glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In addition, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 (ADAM9) was identified as a novel direct target gene of miR-140 in glioma. Furthermore, knockdown of ADAM9 simulated the tumor suppressor functions of miR-140, while overexpression of ADAM9 abrogated these suppressive effects induced by miR-140 in glioma cells. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the expression and clinical roles of miR-140 in glioma and suggested that miR-140 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of glioma cells, partially at least via suppressing ADAM9 expression. Therefore, miR-140 may be a novel candidate target for the development of therapeutic strategies for patients with glioma.

Chiu KL, Kuo TT, Kuok QY, et al.
ADAM9 enhances CDCP1 protein expression by suppressing miR-218 for lung tumor metastasis.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:16426 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis is the leading cause of death in cancer patients due to the difficulty of controlling this complex process. MicroRNAs (miRNA), endogenous noncoding short RNAs with important biological and pathological functions, may play a regulatory role during cancer metastasis, but this role has yet to be fully defined. We previously demonstrated that ADAM9 enhanced the expression of the pro-migratory protein CDCP1 to promote lung metastasis; however, the regulatory process remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that endogenous miR-218, which is abundant in normal lung tissue but suppressed in lung tumors, is regulated during the process of ADAM9-mediated CDCP1 expression. Suppression of miR-218 was associated with high migration ability in lung cancer cells. Direct interaction between miR-218 and the 3'-UTR of CDCP1 mRNAs was detected in luciferase-based transcription reporter assays. CDCP1 protein levels decreased as expression levels of miR-218 increased, and increased in cells treated with miR-218 antagomirs. Induction of miR-218 inhibited tumor cell mobility, anchorage-free survival, and tumor-initiating cell formation in vitro and delayed tumor metastases in mice. Our findings revealed an integrative tumor suppressor function of miR-218 in lung carcinogenesis and metastasis.

Zhang C, Zhang Y, Ding W, et al.
MiR-33a suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis by targeting ADAM9 and ROS1.
Protein Cell. 2015; 6(12):881-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that have a pivotal role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression by sequence-specifically targeting multiple mRNAs. Although miR-33a was recently reported to play an important role in lipid homeostasis, atherosclerosis, and hepatic fibrosis, the functions of miR-33a in tumor progression and metastasis are largely unknown. Here, we found that downregulated miR-33a in breast cancer tissues correlates with lymph node metastasis. MiR-33a expression is significantly lower in the highly metastatic breast cancer cell lines than the noncancerous breast epithelial cells and non-metastatic breast cancer cells. Moreover, the overexpression of miR-33a in metastatic breast cancer cells remarkably decreases cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and significantly inhibits tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo, whereas its knockdown in non-metastatic breast cancer cells significantly enhances cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and promotes tumor growth and lung metastasis in vivo. Combining bioinformatics prediction and biochemical analyses, we showed that ADAM9 and ROS1 are direct downstream targets of miR-33a. These findings identified miR-33a as a negative regulator of breast cancer cell proliferation and metastasis.

Wang CZ, Yuan P, Li Y
MiR-126 regulated breast cancer cell invasion by targeting ADAM9.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(6):6547-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Accumulating evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) deregulation is commonly observed in human malignancies and crucial to cancer metastasis. Herein, we demonstrated that miR-126 play a suppressor role in human breast cancer cells invasion through the direct repression of a disintegrin and metalloprotease 9 (ADAM9). MiR-126 expression was investigated in forty cases of breast cancer specimens by real-time PCR. Transwell assay was conducted to explore the effects of miR-126 on the invasion of human breast cancer cell lines. The impact of miR-126 overexpression on putative target ADAM9 was subsequently confirmed by Western blot analysis. Our results indicated that miR-126 expression was frequently down-regulated in breast cancer specimens compared with adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). Overexpression of miR-126 significantly reduced (P<0.05) the protein levels of ADAM9, further suppressed (P<0.05) breast cancer cell invasion in vitro. Meanwhile, knockdown of ADAM9 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) also inhibited (P<0.05) breast cancer cell invasion. Thus, our study revealed that miR-126 may act as a tumor suppressor via inhibition of cell invasion by downregulating ADAM9 in breast cancer development.

Xiong Y, Kotian S, Zeiger MA, et al.
miR-126-3p Inhibits Thyroid Cancer Cell Growth and Metastasis, and Is Associated with Aggressive Thyroid Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0130496 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that microRNAs are dysregulated in thyroid cancer and play important roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of target oncogenes and/or tumor suppressor genes.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the function of miR-126-3p in thyroid cancer cells, and as a marker of disease aggressiveness. We found that miR-126-3p expression was significantly lower in larger tumors, in tumor samples with extrathyroidal invasion, and in higher risk group thyroid cancer in 496 papillary thyroid cancer samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas study cohort. In an independent sample set, lower miR-126-3p expression was observed in follicular thyroid cancers (which have capsular and angioinvasion) as compared to follicular adenomas. Mechanistically, ectopic overexpression of miR-126-3p significantly inhibited thyroid cancer cell proliferation, in vitro (p<0.01) and in vivo (p<0.01), colony formation (p<0.01), tumor spheroid formation (p<0.05), cellular migration (p<0.05), VEGF secretion and endothelial tube formation, and lung metastasis in vivo. We found 14 predicted target genes, which were significantly altered upon miR-126-3p transfection in thyroid cancer cells, and which are involved in cancer biology. Of these 14 genes, SLC7A5 and ADAM9 were confirmed to be inhibited by miR-126-3p overexpression and to be direct targets of miR-136-3p.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that miR-126-3p has a tumor-suppressive function in thyroid cancer cells, and is associated with aggressive disease phenotype.

Martin AC, Cardoso AC, Selistre-de-Araujo HS, Cominetti MR
Recombinant disintegrin domain of human ADAM9 inhibits migration and invasion of DU145 prostate tumor cells.
Cell Adh Migr. 2015; 9(4):293-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
One of the most important features of malignant cells is their capacity to invade adjacent tissues and metastasize to distant organs. This process involves the creation, by tumor and stroma cells, of a specific microenvironment, suitable for proliferation, migration and invasion of tumor cells. The ADAM family of proteins has been involved in these processes. This work aimed to investigate the role of the recombinant disintegrin domain of the human ADAM9 (rADAM9D) on the adhesive and mobility properties of DU145 prostate tumor cells. rADAM9D was able to support DU145 cell adhesion, inhibit the migration of DU145 cells, as well as the invasion of this cell line through matrigel in vitro. Overall this work demonstrates that rADAM9D induces specific cellular migratory properties when compared with different constructs having additional domains, specially those of metalloproteinase and cysteine-rich domains. Furthermore, we showed that rADAM9D was able to inhibit cell adhesion, migration and invasion mainly through interacting with α6β1 in DU145 tumor cell line. These results may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies for prostate cancer.

Vranic S, Marchiò C, Castellano I, et al.
Immunohistochemical and molecular profiling of histologically defined apocrine carcinomas of the breast.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(9):1350-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite the marked improvement in the understanding of molecular mechanisms and classification of apocrine carcinoma, little is known about its specific molecular genetic alterations and potentially targetable biomarkers. In this study, we explored immunohistochemical and molecular genetic characteristics of 37 invasive apocrine carcinomas using immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA), and next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays. IHC revealed frequent E-cadherin expression (89%), moderate (16%) proliferation activity [Ki-67, phosphohistone H3], infrequent (~10%) expression of basal cell markers [CK5/6, CK14, p63, caveolin-1], loss of PTEN (83%), and overexpression of HER2 (32%), EGFR (41%), cyclin D1 (50%), and MUC-1 (88%). MLPA assay revealed gene copy gains of MYC, CCND1, ZNF703, CDH1, and TRAF4 in 50% or greater of the apocrine carcinomas, whereas gene copy losses frequently affected BRCA2 (75%), ADAM9 (54%), and BRCA1 (46%). HER2 gain, detected by MLPA in 38% of the cases, was in excellent concordance with HER2 results obtained by IHC/FISH (κ = 0.915, P < .001). TOP2A gain was observed in one case, while five cases (21%) exhibited TOP2A loss. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: HER2-positive and HER2-negative (P = .03 and .04, respectively). NGS assay revealed mutations of the TP53 (2 of 7, 29%), BRAF/KRAS (2 of 7, 29%), and PI3KCA/PTEN genes (7 of 7, 100%). We conclude that morphologically defined apocrine carcinomas exhibit complex molecular genetic alterations that are consistent with the "luminal-complex" phenotype. Some of the identified molecular targets are promising biomarkers; however, functional studies are needed to prove these observations.

Wan D, Shen S, Fu S, et al.
miR-203 suppresses the proliferation and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting oncogene ADAM9 and oncogenic long non-coding RNA HULC.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2016; 16(4):414-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been integrated into tumorigenic programs by regulating genes at post-transcriptional level. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are novel targets for miRNAs. Here, we reported that miR-203 down-regulation was closely linked to advanced clinical features and poor overall survival (OS) of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. We also confirmed that miR-203 and oncogene ADAM9 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9)/oncogenic long non-coding RNA HULC (highly up-regulated in liver cancer) were inversely expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues or cell lines. More intriguingly, up-regulation of miR-203 diminished the expression of ADAM9 and HULC in HCC cancer cells. Over-expression of miR-203 could markedly inhibit cell proliferation, invasion and induce cell apoptosis. Furthermore, we identified that miR-203 modulated ADAM9 and HULC in a novel post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism. Over-expression of HULC partly rescued the miR-203-mediated antitumor effects. These results suggested that miR-203 played tumor suppressive roles by downregulating ADAM9 and HULC and indicated its potential application in cancer treatment.

Chang L, Gong F, Cui Y
RNAi-mediated A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 gene silencing inhibits the tumor growth of non-small lung cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(1):1197-204 [PubMed] Related Publications
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 9 (ADAM9) is a type I transmembrane protein that has been associated with cancer development and metastasis in various types of cancer. However, little is known about its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether downregulation of ADAM9 affects cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion in NSCLC. Thus, a recombinant lentiviral small hairpin RNA expression vector carrying ADAM9 was constructed and infected into the human NSCLC cell line A549. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion in vitro and tumor growth in vivo were determined following downregulation of ADAM9 by RNA interference-mediated ADAM9 gene silencing. It was found that downregulation of ADAM9 expression using an RNA silencing approach in A549 tumor cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, induced cell apoptosis in vitro, as well as suppressed in vivo tumor growth in an experimental mouse model of lung metastasis. These data indicate that ADAM9 is potentially an important new therapeutic target for the prevention of tumor growth in NSCLC.

Sarkar S, Zemp FJ, Senger D, et al.
ADAM-9 is a novel mediator of tenascin-C-stimulated invasiveness of brain tumor-initiating cells.
Neuro Oncol. 2015; 17(8):1095-105 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tenascin-C (TNC), an extracellular matrix protein overexpressed in malignant gliomas, stimulates invasion of conventional glioma cell lines (U251, U87). However, there is a dearth of such information on glioma stemlike cells. Here, we have addressed whether and how TNC may regulate the invasiveness of brain tumor-initiating cells (BTICs) that give rise to glioma progenies.
METHODS: Transwell inserts coated with extracellular matrix proteins were used to determine the role of TNC in BTIC invasion. Microarray analysis, lentiviral constructs, RNA interference-mediated knockdown, and activity assay ascertained the role of proteases in TNC-stimulated BTIC invasion in culture. Involvement of proteases was validated using orthotopic brain xenografts in mice.
RESULTS: TNC stimulated BTIC invasiveness in a metalloproteinase-dependent manner. A global gene expression screen identified the metalloproteinase ADAM-9 as a potential regulator of TNC-stimulated BTIC invasiveness, and this was corroborated by an increase of ADAM-9 protein in 4 glioma patient-derived BTIC lines. Notably, RNA interference to ADAM-9, as well as inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 (c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase), attenuated TNC-stimulated ADAM-9 expression, proteolytic activity, and BTIC invasiveness. The relevance of ADAM-9 to tumor invasiveness was validated using resected human glioblastoma specimens and orthotopic xenografts where elevation of ADAM-9 and TNC expression was prominent at the invasive front of the tumor.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has identified TNC as a promoter of the invasiveness of BTICs through a mechanism involving ADAM-9 proteolysis via the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase pathway.

Liu R, Gu J, Jiang P, et al.
DNMT1-microRNA126 epigenetic circuit contributes to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma growth via ADAM9-EGFR-AKT signaling.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(4):854-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: MicroRNAs (miRNA) are involved in and are controlled by epigenetic regulation, and thereby form a reciprocal regulatory circuit. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based miRNA profiling, this study aimed to discover esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC)-specific miRNAs and miRNA-related epigenetic modulations.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: NGS-based miRNA profiles were generated for four pairs of ESCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues. In situ hybridization was used to assess miRNA expression and its correlation with prognosis. miRNA-related DNA methylations were identified using bisulfite genomic sequencing, and the role of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) was investigated using RNA interference. miRNA targets were screened by mRNA sequencing, and functional validation was performed in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: NGS-based miRNA profiling identified 78 differentially expressed miRNAs in ESCC. Among them, microRNA126-3p (miR-126) was significantly downregulated, and its downregulation correlated with poor ESCC prognosis. Downregulation of miR-126 was due to promoter hypermethylation of its host gene, Egfl7. DNMT1 was aberrantly upregulated in ESCC and responsible for the hypermethylation of Egfl7. Intriguingly, DNMT1 was suppressed by overexpression of miR-126, indicating the existence of a regulatory feedback circuit. ADAM9 was identified as a key target of miR-126. Ectopic expression of miR-126 or silencing of ADAM9 reduced ESCC cell proliferation and migration by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor-AKT signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that miR-126 is a potential prognostic indicator for ESCC and suggest that a novel "DNMT1-miR-126 epigenetic circuit" is involved in ESCC progression. Consequently, miR-126-based epigenetic modulations may provide a basic rationale for new approaches to antitumor therapeutics.

Kim JM, Jeung HC, Rha SY, et al.
The effect of disintegrin-metalloproteinase ADAM9 in gastric cancer progression.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(12):3074-85 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Advanced gastric cancer is one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal malignancies, and ADAM (A disintegrin and metalloproteinase)-9 is a cell-surface membrane glycoprotein with oncogenic properties that is overexpressed in several cancers. Herein, we investigated the biologic mechanism of ADAM9 in the progression, proliferation, and invasion of gastric cancer. First, we detected ADAM's expression, processing, and protease activity in gastric cancer cells. Protease activity was moderately correlated with ADAM9 protein expression, but was better related to a processed smaller molecular weight (84 kDa) form of ADAM9. Knockdown of ADAM9 or specifically targeted monoclonal antibody (RAV-18) suppressed cancer cell proliferation and invasion in high ADAM9-expressing cells, not in low ADAM9-expressing cells. RAV-18 showed in vivo antitumor activity in a gastric cancer xenograft model. Hypoxia (1% oxygen) induced ADAM9 expression and functional activity in low ADAM9-expressing gastric cancer cells that was inhibited by siRNA knockdown or RAV-18 antibody to levels in normoxic cells. Overall, our studies show that ADAM9 plays an important role in gastric cancer proliferation and invasion, and that while expressed in some gastric cancer cells at high levels that are responsive to functional inhibition and antitumor activity of a catalytic site-directed antibody, other gastric cancer cells have low levels of expression and only when exposed to hypoxia do ADAM9 levels increase and the cells become responsive to ADAM9 antibody inhibition. Therefore, our findings suggest that ADAM9 could be an effective therapeutic target for advanced gastric cancer.

Jiang L, He A, Zhang Q, Tao C
miR-126 inhibits cell growth, invasion, and migration of osteosarcoma cells by downregulating ADAM-9.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):12645-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma (OS) has become one of the most common primary malignant tumors in the children and adolescents with a poor prognosis mainly due to high metastasis. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 9 (ADAM-9) plays a role in tumorigenesis, invasion, and metastasis in several tumors. miR-126 has been reported to be downregulated in OS tumor. However, the involvement of ADAM-9 in the pathology of OS and the relationship between miR-126 and ADAM-9 in OS cells remain unclear. In this study, using quantitative reverse-transcribed PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis on 37 pairs of OS tumors and matched adjacent normal bone tissues, we found that ADAM-9 is significantly upregulated, while miR-126 is downregulated in human OS tumors. Association analysis revealed that upregulation of ADAM-9 and downregulation of miR-126 are significantly involved in advanced clinical stage development and distant metastasis. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-126 could directly target ADAM-9 3' untranslated region (UTR) and inhibit its expression in U2OS and MG-63 cells. Functional experiments revealed that downregulating ADAM-9 by miR-126 inhibited cellular growth, invasion, and migration in U2OS and MG-63 cells. In rescue experiments, restored ADAM-9 expression attenuated miR-126-mediated suppression, while knockdown of ADAM-9 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) represented similar results with miR-126-mediated tumor suppression in U2OS cells. Taken together, our data indicated that miR-126 inhibits cell growth, invasion, and migration of OS cells by downregulating ADAM-9.

Lin CY, Chen HJ, Huang CC, et al.
ADAM9 promotes lung cancer metastases to brain by a plasminogen activator-based pathway.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(18):5229-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
The transmembrane cell adhesion protein ADAM9 has been implicated in cancer cell migration and lung cancer metastasis to the brain, but the underpinning mechanisms are unclear and clinical support has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate that ADAM9 enhances the ability of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) to cleave and stimulate the function of the promigratory protein CDCP1 to promote lung metastasis. Blocking this mechanism of cancer cell migration prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice and cooperated with dexamethasone and dasatinib (a dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor) treatment to enhance cytotoxic treatment. In clinical specimens, high levels of ADAM9 and CDCP1 correlated with poor prognosis and high risk of mortality in patients with lung cancer. Moreover, ADAM9 levels in brain metastases derived from lung tumors were relatively higher than the levels observed in primary lung tumors. Our results show how ADAM9 regulates lung cancer metastasis to the brain by facilitating the tPA-mediated cleavage of CDCP1, with potential implications to target this network as a strategy to prevent or treat brain metastatic disease.

Jia AY, Castillo-Martin M, Bonal DM, et al.
MicroRNA-126 inhibits invasion in bladder cancer via regulation of ADAM9.
Br J Cancer. 2014; 110(12):2945-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The miRNA deregulation is commonly observed in human malignancies, where they act as tumour suppressors or oncogenes. Despite the association of several miRNAs with bladder cancer, little is known about the miRNAs that contribute to bladder cancer progression from non-muscle invasive (NMI) to muscle-invasive (MI) disease.
METHODS: We first profiled the expression of miRNAs and mRNAs in a cohort of urothelial carcinomas and further characterised the role of miR-126 in invasion, as it emerged as the most downregulated miRNA between MI and NMI tumours.
RESULTS: We found that restoration of miR-126 levels attenuated the invasive potential of bladder cancer cells. Mechanistically, we identified the role of miR-126 in invasion through its ability to target ADAM9. Notably, a significant inverse correlation between miR-126 and ADAM9 expression was observed, where ADAM9 was upregulated in MI bladder cancer cells. While knockdown of ADAM9 attenuated the invasiveness of cells with low miR-126 levels, experimental upregulation of ADAM9 recapitulated the invasive phenotype. Furthermore, ADAM9 expression assessed by immunohistochemistry significantly correlated with poor prognosis in patients with urothelial carcinoma.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study we describe the role of miR-126 in bladder cancer progression, identifying miR-126 and ADAM9 as potential clinical biomarkers of disease aggressiveness.

Sher YP, Wang LJ, Chuang LL, et al.
ADAM9 up-regulates N-cadherin via miR-218 suppression in lung adenocarcinoma cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e94065 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and brain metastasis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in lung cancer. CDH2 (N-cadherin, a mesenchymal marker of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition) and ADAM9 (a type I transmembrane protein) are related to lung cancer brain metastasis; however, it is unclear how they interact to mediate this metastasis. Because microRNAs regulate many biological functions and disease processes (e.g., cancer) by down-regulating their target genes, microRNA microarrays were used to identify ADAM9-regulated miRNAs that target CDH2 in aggressive lung cancer cells. Luciferase assays and western blot analysis showed that CDH2 is a target gene of miR-218. MiR-218 was generated from pri-mir-218-1, which is located in SLIT2, in non-invasive lung adenocarcinoma cells, whereas its expression was inhibited in aggressive lung adenocarcinoma. The down-regulation of ADAM9 up-regulated SLIT2 and miR-218, thus down-regulating CDH2 expression. This study revealed that ADAM9 activates CDH2 through the release of miR-218 inhibition on CDH2 in lung adenocarcinoma.

Yang WB, Chen PH, Hsu T, et al.
Sp1-mediated microRNA-182 expression regulates lung cancer progression.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(3):740-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our recent study indicated that overexpression of Sp1 enhances the proliferation of lung cancer cells, while represses metastasis. In this study, we found that the transcriptional activity of FOXO3 was increased, but its protein levels decreased following Sp1 expression. Sp1 increased expression of miR-182, which was then recruited to the 3'-untranslated region of FOXO3 mRNA to silence its translational activity. Knockdown of miR-182 inhibited lung cancer cells growth, but enhanced the invasive and migratory abilities of these cells through increased N-cadherin expression. Repression of FOXO3 expression in the miR-182 knockdown cells partially reversed this effect, suggesting that miR-182 promotes cancer cell growth and inhibits cancer metastatic activity by regulating the expression of FOXO3. The expression of several cancer metastasis-related genes such as ADAM9, CDH9 and CD44 was increased following miR-182 knockdown. In conclusion, in the early stages of lung cancer progression, Sp1 stimulates miR-182 expression, which in turn decreases FOXO3 expression. This stimulates proliferation and tumor growth. In the late stages, Sp1 and miR-182 decline, thus increasing FOXO3 expression, which leads to lung metastasis.

Webber J, Stone TC, Katilius E, et al.
Proteomics analysis of cancer exosomes using a novel modified aptamer-based array (SOMAscan™) platform.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014; 13(4):1050-64 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have used a novel affinity-based proteomics technology to examine the protein signature of small secreted extracellular vesicles called exosomes. The technology uses a new class of protein binding reagents called SOMAmers® (slow off-rate modified aptamers) and allows the simultaneous precise measurement of over 1000 proteins. Exosomes were highly purified from the Du145 prostate cancer cell line, by pooling selected fractions from a continuous sucrose gradient (within the density range of 1.1 to 1.2 g/ml), and examined under standard conditions or with additional detergent treatment by the SOMAscan™ array (version 3.0). Lysates of Du145 cells were also prepared, and the profiles were compared. Housekeeping proteins such as cyclophilin-A, LDH, and Hsp70 were present in exosomes, and we identified almost 100 proteins that were enriched in exosomes relative to cells. These included proteins of known association with cancer exosomes such as MFG-E8, integrins, and MET, and also those less widely reported as exosomally associated, such as ROR1 and ITIH4. Several proteins with no previously known exosomal association were confirmed as exosomally expressed in experiments using individual SOMAmer® reagents or antibodies in micro-plate assays. Western blotting confirmed the SOMAscan™-identified enrichment of exosomal NOTCH-3, L1CAM, RAC1, and ADAM9. In conclusion, we describe here over 300 proteins of hitherto unknown association with prostate cancer exosomes and suggest that the SOMAmer®-based assay technology is an effective proteomics platform for exosome-associated biomarker discovery in diverse clinical settings.

Ebrahimi F, Gopalan V, Smith RA, Lam AK
miR-126 in human cancers: clinical roles and current perspectives.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2014; 96(1):98-107 [PubMed] Related Publications
miR-126 has been implicated in the processes of inflammation and angiogenesis. Through these processes, miR-126 is implicated in cancer biology, but its role there has not been well reviewed. The aim of this review is to examine the molecular mechanisms and clinicopathological significance of miR-126 in human cancers. miR-126 was shown to have roles in cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, genital tracts, breast, thyroid, lung and some other cancers. Its expression was suppressed in most of the cancers studied. The molecular mechanisms that are known to cause aberrant expression of miR-126 include alterations in gene sequence, epigenetic modification and alteration of dicer abundance. miR-126 can inhibit progression of some cancers via negative control of proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell survival. In some instances, however, miR-126 supports cancer progression via promotion of blood vessel formation. Downregulation of miR-126 induces cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion via targeting specific oncogenes. Also, reduced levels of miR-126 are a significant predictor of poor survival of patients in many cancers. In addition, miR-126 can alter a multitude of cellular mechanisms in cancer pathogenesis via suppressing gene translation of numerous validated targets such as PI3K, KRAS, EGFL7, CRK, ADAM9, HOXA9, IRS-1, SOX-2, SLC7A5 and VEGF. To conclude, miR-126 is commonly down-regulated in cancer, most likely due to its ability to inhibit cancer cell growth, adhesion, migration, and invasion through suppressing a range of important gene targets. Understanding these mechanisms by which miR-126 is involved with cancer pathogenesis will be useful in the development of therapeutic targets for the management of patients with cancer.

Shen Z, Kauttu T, Cao J, et al.
Macrophage coculture enhanced invasion of gastric cancer cells via TGF-β and BMP pathways.
Scand J Gastroenterol. 2013; 48(4):466-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily plays an important role in regulating gastric cancer progression. As previously demonstrated, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) promoted the invasion of gastric cancer cells in Matrigel. However, the role of TGF-β superfamily signaling between TAMs and gastric cancer remains unclear.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three-dimensional dynamic migration imaging system was used to detect gastric cancer invasion rate cocultured with macrophages in Matrigel before or after TGF-β receptor 1 or bone morphogenic protein (BMP) receptor 1A and 1B inhibition; real-time RT-PCR was used to quantitatively investigate gene expression (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, BMP4, and BMP7, ADAM9, MMP9, TIMP3, VEGF-A, and VEGF-C).
RESULTS: TGF-β1, TGF-β2, BMP4, and BMP7 expressions were increased significantly in macrophages grown with cancer cells as compared to macrophages grown alone. The invasion rate and invasion-related genes expressions of both AGS and Hs-746T gastric cancer cell lines were upregulated by macrophages, although the expression profile was different. Invasion rate and invasion-related genes' expressions of AGS cells cocultured with macrophages were downregulated significantly after TGF-βR1 and BMPR1 inhibition.
CONCLUSIONS: Macrophages associated with tumor might promote gastric cancer cells invasion though enhancing TGF-β/BMPs signal pathway. Inhibiting TGF-β/BMPs signal between TAMs and gastric cancer cells might provide a new therapeutic method of gastric cancer.

Felli N, Felicetti F, Lustri AM, et al.
miR-126&126* restored expressions play a tumor suppressor role by directly regulating ADAM9 and MMP7 in melanoma.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e56824 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The abnormal expression of several microRNAs has a causal role in tumorigenesis with either antineoplastic or oncogenic functions. Here we demonstrated that miR-126 and miR-126* play a tumor suppressor role in human melanoma through the direct or indirect repression of several key oncogenic molecules. The expression levels of miR-126&126* were elevated in normal melanocytes and primary melanoma cell lines, whereas they markedly declined in metastatic cells. Indeed, the restored expression of miR-126&126* in two advanced melanoma cell lines was accompanied by a significant reduction of proliferation, invasion and chemotaxis in vitro as well as of growth and dissemination in vivo. In accordance, the reverse functional effects were obtained by knocking down miR-126&126* by transfecting antisense LNA oligonucleotides in melanoma cells. Looking for the effectors of these antineoplastic functions, we identified ADAM9 and MMP7, two metalloproteases playing a pivotal role in melanoma progression, as direct targets of miR-126&126*. In addition, as ADAM9 and MMP7 share a role in the proteolytic cleavage of the HB-EGF precursor, we looked for the effectiveness of this regulatory pathway in melanoma, confirming the decrease of HB-EGF activation as a consequence of miR-126&126*-dependent downmodulation of ADAM9 and MMP7. Finally, gene profile analyses showed that miR-126&126* reexpression was sufficient to inactivate other key signaling pathways involved in the oncogenic transformation, as PI3K/AKT and MAPK, and to restore melanogenesis, as indicated by KIT/MITF/TYR induction. In view of this miR-126&126* wide-ranging action, we believe that the replacement of these microRNAs might be considered a promising therapeutic approach.

Vincent-Chong VK, Anwar A, Karen-Ng LP, et al.
Genome wide analysis of chromosomal alterations in oral squamous cell carcinomas revealed over expression of MGAM and ADAM9.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e54705 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), mortality and morbidity rates have not improved over the past decade. A major drawback in diagnosis and treatment of OSCC is the lack of knowledge relating to how genetic instability in oral cancer genomes affects oral carcinogenesis. Hence, the key aim of this study was to identify copy number alterations (CNAs) that may be cancer associated in OSCC using high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). To our knowledge this is the first study to use ultra-high density aCGH microarrays to profile a large number of OSCC genomes (n = 46). The most frequently amplified CNAs were located on chromosome 11q11(52%), 2p22.3(52%), 1q21.3-q22(54%), 6p21.32(59%), 20p13(61%), 7q34(52% and 72%),8p11.23-p11.22(80%), 8q11.1-q24.4(54%), 9q13-q34.3(54%), 11q23.3-q25(57%); 14q21.3-q31.1(54%); 14q31.3-q32.33(57%), 20p13-p12.3(54%) and 20q11.21-q13.33(52%). The most frequently deleted chromosome region was located on 3q26.1 (54%). In order to verify the CNAs from aCGH using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), the three top most amplified regions and their associated genes, namely ADAM5P (8p11.23-p11.22), MGAM (7q34) and SIRPB1 (20p13.1), were selected in this study. The ADAM5P locus was found to be amplified in 39 samples and deleted in one; MGAM (24 amplifications and 3 deletions); and SIRPB1 (12 amplifications, others undetermined). On the basis of putative cancer-related annotations, two genes, namely ADAM metallopeptidase domain 9 (ADAM9) and maltase-glucoamylase alpha-glucosidase (MGAM), that mapped to CNA regions were selected for further evaluation of their mRNA expression using reverse transcriptase qPCR. The over-expression of MGAM was confirmed with a 6.6 fold increase in expression at the mRNA level whereas the fold change in ADAM9 demonstrated a 1.6 fold increase. This study has identified significant regions in the OSCC genome that were amplified and resulted in consequent over-expression of the MGAM and ADAM9 genes that may be utilized as biological markers for OSCC.

Liu CM, Hsieh CL, He YC, et al.
In vivo targeting of ADAM9 gene expression using lentivirus-delivered shRNA suppresses prostate cancer growth by regulating REG4 dependent cell cycle progression.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53795 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells respond to stress by activating a variety of survival signaling pathways. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 9 is upregulated during cancer progression and hormone therapy, functioning in part through an increase in reactive oxygen species. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidence that therapeutic targeting of ADAM9 gene expression by lentivirus-delivered small hairpin RNA (shRNA) significantly inhibited proliferation of human prostate cancer cell lines and blocked tumor growth in a murine model of prostate cancer bone metastasis. Cell cycle studies confirmed an increase in the G1-phase and decrease in the S-phase population of cancer cells under starvation stress conditions, which correlated with elevated intracellular superoxide levels. Microarray data showed significantly decreased levels of regenerating islet-derived family member 4 (REG4) expression in prostate cancer cells with knockdown of ADAM9 gene expression. This REG4 downregulation also resulted in induction of expression of p21(Cip1/WAF1), which negatively regulates cyclin D1 and blocks the G1/S transition. Our data reveal a novel molecular mechanism of ADAM9 in the regulation of prostate cancer cell proliferation, and suggests a combined modality of ADAM9 shRNA gene therapy and cytotoxic agents for hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancer.

Shen Z, Kauttu T, Seppänen H, et al.
Both macrophages and hypoxia play critical role in regulating invasion of gastric cancer in vitro.
Acta Oncol. 2013; 52(4):852-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: As previously demonstrated, tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) infiltration is associated with some cancers invasion and metastasis. However, the role of TAMs in the gastric cancer remains unclear.
METHODS: Three- dimensional dynamic migration imaging system and real time RT-PCR were used to quantitatively investigate the effect of macrophages on the cancer cell mobility and gene expression related to cancer invasion and metastasis, including ADAM8, ADAM9, MMP9, TIMP3, VEGF-A and IL8 genes, in AGS, HGC-27, Hs-746T and NCI-N87 gastric cancer cell lines under normal or hypoxic conditions.
RESULTS: Under normal conditions, the cancer cell invasion rate was increased significantly and all six gene expressions were upregulated in all four cancer cell lines by macrophages. Under hypoxia the changes in the cancer cell invasion rate induced by macrophages was negatively correlated to the TIMP3 expression. In non- metastatic cell line AGS, the increase in migration rate induced by macrophages was further elevated under hypoxia with increased ADAM8 and ADAM9 expression and decreased MMP9 and TIMP3 expressions. Under hypoxia, the induction by macrophages for IL-8 expression was increased significantly in distant metastatic cell lines NCI-N87 and HS-746T, VEGF-A was increased in HGC-27 cell line.
CONCLUSIONS: Both macrophages and hypoxia play an indispensable role in regulating the invasion of gastric cancer cells in vitro; ADAMs, MMP9 and TIMP3 might be involved in TAM induced invasive power of gastric cancer cells.

Shinozuka E, Miyashita M, Mizuguchi Y, et al.
SnoN/SKIL modulates proliferation through control of hsa-miR-720 transcription in esophageal cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013; 430(1):101-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is now evident that changes in microRNA are involved in cancer progression, but the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of miRNAs remain unknown. Ski-related novel gene (SnoN/SKIL), a transcription co-factor, acts as a potential key regulator within a complex network of p53 transcriptional repressors. SnoN has pro- and anti-oncogenic functions in the regulation of cell proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, and differentiation. We characterized the roles of SnoN in miRNA transcriptional regulation and its effects on cell proliferation using esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells. Silencing of SnoN altered a set of miRNA expression profiles in TE-1cells, and the expression levels of miR-720, miR-1274A, and miR-1274B were modulated by SnoN. The expression of these miRNAs resulted in changes to the target protein p63 and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain 9 (ADAM9). Furthermore, silencing of SnoN significantly upregulated cell proliferation in TE-1 cells, indicating a potential anti-oncogenic function. These results support our observation that cancer tissues have lower expression levels of SnoN, miR-720, and miR-1274A compared to adjacent normal tissues from ESCC patients. These data demonstrate a novel mechanism of miRNA regulation, leading to changes in cell proliferation.

Hamada S, Satoh K, Miura S, et al.
miR-197 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer cells by targeting p120 catenin.
J Cell Physiol. 2013; 228(6):1255-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Invasive ductal adenocarcinoma (IDA) of the pancreas manifests poor prognosis due to the early invasion and distant metastasis. In contrast, intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma or carcinoma (IPMA or IPMC) reveals better clinical outcomes. Various molecular mechanisms contribute to these differences but entire picture is still unclear. Recent researches emphasized the important role of miRNA in biological processes including cancer invasion and metastasis. We previously described that miR-126 is down-regulated in IDA compared with IPMA or IPMC, and miR-126 regulates the expression of invasion related molecule disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 9 (ADAM9). Assessing the difference of miRNA expression profiles of IDA, IPMA, and IPMC, we newly identified miR-197 as an up-regulated miRNA specifically in IDA. Expression of miR-197 in pancreatic cancer cells resulted in the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) along with the down-regulation of p120 catenin which is a putative target of miR-197. Direct interaction between miR-197 and p120 catenin mRNA sequence was confirmed by 3'UTR assay, and knockdown of p120 catenin recapitulated EMT induction in pancreatic cancer cells. In situ hybridization of miR-197 and immunohistochemistry of p120 catenin showed mutually exclusive patterns suggesting pivotal role of miR-197 in the regulation of p120 catenin. This miR-197/p120 catenin axis could be a novel therapeutic target.

Kohn KW, Zeeberg BR, Reinhold WC, et al.
Gene expression profiles of the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines define molecular interaction networks governing cell migration processes.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(5):e35716 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although there is extensive information on gene expression and molecular interactions in various cell types, integrating those data in a functionally coherent manner remains challenging. This study explores the premise that genes whose expression at the mRNA level is correlated over diverse cell lines are likely to function together in a network of molecular interactions. We previously derived expression-correlated gene clusters from the database of the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines and associated each cluster with function categories of the Gene Ontology (GO) database. From a cluster rich in genes associated with GO categories related to cell migration, we extracted 15 genes that were highly cross-correlated; prominent among them were RRAS, AXL, ADAM9, FN14, and integrin-beta1. We then used those 15 genes as bait to identify other correlated genes in the NCI-60 database. A survey of current literature disclosed, not only that many of the expression-correlated genes engaged in molecular interactions related to migration, invasion, and metastasis, but that highly cross-correlated subsets of those genes engaged in specific cell migration processes. We assembled this information in molecular interaction maps (MIMs) that depict networks governing 3 cell migration processes: degradation of extracellular matrix, production of transient focal complexes at the leading edge of the cell, and retraction of the rear part of the cell. Also depicted are interactions controlling the release and effects of calcium ions, which may regulate migration in a spaciotemporal manner in the cell. The MIMs and associated text comprise a detailed and integrated summary of what is currently known or surmised about the role of the expression cross-correlated genes in molecular networks governing those processes.

Kornegoor R, Moelans CB, Verschuur-Maes AH, et al.
Oncogene amplification in male breast cancer: analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 135(1):49-58 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gene amplification is an important mechanism for oncogene activation, a crucial step in carcinogenesis. Compared to female breast cancer, little is known on the genetic makeup of male breast cancer, because large series are lacking. Copy number changes of 21 breast cancer related genes were studied in 110 male breast cancers using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A ratio of >1.3 was regarded indicative for gene copy number gain and a ratio >2.0 for gene amplification. Data were correlated with clinicopathological features, prognosis and 17 genes were compared with a group of female breast cancers. Gene copy number gain of CCND1, TRAF4, CDC6 and MTDH was seen in >40 % of the male breast cancer cases, with also frequent amplification. The number of genes with copy number gain and several single genes were associated with high grade, but only CCND1 amplification was an independent predictor of adverse survival in Cox regression (p = 0.015; hazard ratio 3.0). In unsupervised hierarchical clustering a distinctive group of male breast cancer with poor prognosis (p = 0.009; hazard ratio 3.4) was identified, characterized by frequent CCND1, MTDH, CDC6, ADAM9, TRAF4 and MYC copy number gain. Compared to female breast cancers, EGFR (p = 0.005) and CCND1 (p = 0.041) copy number gain was more often seen in male breast cancer, while copy number gain of EMSY (p = 0.004) and CPD (p = 0.001) and amplification in general was less frequent. In conclusion, several female breast cancer genes also seem to be important in male breast carcinogenesis. However, there are also clear differences in copy number changes between male and female breast cancers, pointing toward differences in carcinogenesis between male and female breast cancer and emphasizing the importance of identifying biomarkers and therapeutic agents based on research in male breast cancer. In addition CCND1 amplification seems to be an independent prognosticator in male breast cancer.

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