Gene Summary

Gene:AGTR2; angiotensin II receptor type 2
Aliases: AT2, ATGR2, MRX88
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the G-protein coupled receptor 1 family, and functions as a receptor for angiotensin II. It is an intergral membrane protein that is highly expressed in fetus, but scantily in adult tissues, except brain, adrenal medulla, and atretic ovary. This receptor has been shown to mediate programmed cell death and this apoptotic function may play an important role in developmental biology and pathophysiology. Mutations in this gene are been associated with X-linked cognitive disability. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2010]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:type-2 angiotensin II receptor
Source:NCBIAccessed: 29 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 29 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 29 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: AGTR2 (cancer-related)

Vanderriele PE, Caroccia B, Seccia TM, et al.
The angiotensin type 2 receptor in the human adrenocortical zona glomerulosa and in aldosterone-producing adenoma: low expression and no functional role.
Clin Sci (Lond). 2018; 132(6):627-640 [PubMed] Related Publications
The angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 receptor (AT2R) and the angiotensin-(1-7) (Ang-(1-7)) receptor (MasR) play a cardiovascular protective role by counter-regulating Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated effects, but whether this involves blunting of adrenocortical hormone secretion is unknown. We investigated the presence of AT1R, AT2R, and MasR in aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), a condition featuring hyperaldosteronism, and in APA-adjacent tissue. The effect of Compound 21 (C21), an AT2R agonist, on CYP11B1 (cortisol synthase) and CYP11B2 (aldosterone synthase) gene expression in NCI-H295R and HAC15 cell lines, and in APA and APA-adjacent tissue, was also assessed using the AT1R antagonist irbesartan to ascertain the specificity of C21 effect. We found that the AT1R, AT2R, and MasR were expressed in APA and APA-adjacent tissue, albeit heterogeneously. The gene expression of AT1R and AT2R was lower, and that of the MasR higher in APAs than in APA-adjacent tissue. In steroid-producing NCI-H295R and HAC15 cell lines, and in APA and APA-adjacent tissue, C21 was ineffective at nanomolar concentrations, but increased CYP11B1 and CYP11B2 gene expression at micromolar concentrations through AT1R, as this effect was blunted by irbesartan. The scant expression of the AT2R, along with the lack of any effect of C21 at low concentrations on CYP11B2, do not support the contention that the protective arm of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blunts aldosterone synthase in the normal adrenal cortex and primary aldosteronism.

Zhou B, Flodby P, Luo J, et al.
Claudin-18-mediated YAP activity regulates lung stem and progenitor cell homeostasis and tumorigenesis.
J Clin Invest. 2018; 128(3):970-984 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Claudins, the integral tight junction (TJ) proteins that regulate paracellular permeability and cell polarity, are frequently dysregulated in cancer; however, their role in neoplastic progression is unclear. Here, we demonstrated that knockout of Cldn18, a claudin family member highly expressed in lung alveolar epithelium, leads to lung enlargement, parenchymal expansion, increased abundance and proliferation of known distal lung progenitors, the alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells, activation of Yes-associated protein (YAP), increased organ size, and tumorigenesis in mice. Inhibition of YAP decreased proliferation and colony-forming efficiency (CFE) of Cldn18-/- AT2 cells and prevented increased lung size, while CLDN18 overexpression decreased YAP nuclear localization, cell proliferation, CFE, and YAP transcriptional activity. CLDN18 and YAP interacted and colocalized at cell-cell contacts, while loss of CLDN18 decreased YAP interaction with Hippo kinases p-LATS1/2. Additionally, Cldn18-/- mice had increased propensity to develop lung adenocarcinomas (LuAd) with age, and human LuAd showed stage-dependent reduction of CLDN18.1. These results establish CLDN18 as a regulator of YAP activity that serves to restrict organ size, progenitor cell proliferation, and tumorigenesis, and suggest a mechanism whereby TJ disruption may promote progenitor proliferation to enhance repair following injury.

Chisholm J, Gareau AJ, Byun S, et al.
Effect of Compound 21, a Selective Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Agonist, in a Murine Xenograft Model of Dupuytren Disease.
Plast Reconstr Surg. 2017; 140(5):686e-696e [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although surgical excision and intralesional collagenase injection are mainstays in Dupuytren disease treatment, no effective medical therapy exists for recurrent disease. Compound 21, a selective agonist of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor, has been shown to protect against fibrosis in models of myocardial infarction and stroke. The authors investigated the potential use of compound 21 in the treatment of Dupuytren disease.
METHODS: Human dermal fibroblasts were treated in vitro with compound 21 and assessed for viability using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, migration by means of scratch assay, and profibrotic gene transcription by means of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Compound 21 effects in vivo were assessed using a xenograft model. Dupuytren disease cord specimens from patients undergoing open partial fasciectomy were divided into two segments. Segments were implanted under the dorsal skin of nude mouse pairs. Beginning on day 5, one mouse from each pair received daily intraperitoneal injections of compound 21 (10 μg/kg/day), and the other received vehicle. On day 10, segments were explanted and submitted for immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Human dermal fibroblasts treated with compound 21 displayed decreased migration and decreased gene expression of connective tissue growth factor, fibroblast specific protein-1, transforming growth factor-β1, Smad3, and Smad4. Dupuytren disease segments from compound 21-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin and Ki67 staining, with increased density of CD31 staining vessels.
CONCLUSIONS: Compound 21 significantly decreases expression of profibrotic genes and decreases myofibroblast proliferation as indicated by reduced Ki67 and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression. These findings support compound 21 as a potential novel treatment modality for Dupuytren disease.

Domińska K, Kowalski A, Ochędalski T, Rębas E
Effects of testosterone and 17β‑estradiol on angiotensin‑induced changes in tyrosine kinase activity in the androgen‑independent human prostate cancer cell line, DU145.
Int J Mol Med. 2017; 40(5):1573-1581 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiotensin II (AngII), the main peptide of the renin‑angiotensin system (RAS), is involved in the proliferation of different types of cells, normal and pathological as well. The protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play an important role in the growth, differentiation and apoptosis of cells. AngII action depends on the hormonal milieu of the cell, and on sex steroid influence. Angiotensin 1‑7 (Ang1‑7), metabolite of AngII, shows opposite action to AngII in cells. The present study aimed to examine the influence of 17β‑estradiol and testosterone on AngII and Ang1‑7 action on PTK activity in androgen‑independent humane prostate cancer cell line DU145. Cell cultures of human prostate cancer DU145 cells were used as a source of PTKs. Cultures were exposed to different concentrations of AngII (5x10‑11 to 5x10‑9 M). The incubation with hormones lasted 15 min to limit the genomic effects of steroids. In the phosphorylation reaction, we used γ32P‑ATP as a donor of phosphate and a synthetic peptide, Poly(Glu, Tyr) (4:1), as a substrate. The specific activities of PTKs were defined as pmol of 32P incorporated into 1 mg of exogenous Poly(Glu, Tyr) per minute (pmol/mg/min). Our findings suggest that testosterone and 17β‑estradiol may change the effects of angiotensins in a rapid non‑genomic way, probably via membrane‑located receptors. The most significant change was caused by testosterone, whose effect was most significant on changes caused by Ang1‑7. AngII‑induced changes in phosphorylation appeared to be insensitive to the presence of testosterone, but were modified by 17β‑estradiol.

Pei N, Mao Y, Wan P, et al.
Angiotensin II type 2 receptor promotes apoptosis and inhibits angiogenesis in bladder cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2017; 36(1):77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bladder cancer (BCa) is the ninth most common form of cancer in the world. There is a continuing need not only for improving the accuracy of diagnostic markers but also for the development of new treatment strategies. Recent studies have shown that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which include the angiotensin type 1 (AT1R), type 2(AT2R), and Mas receptors, play an important role in tumorigenesis and may guide us in meeting those needs.
RESULTS: In this study, we first observed that AT1R and Mas expression levels were significantly upregulated in BCa specimens while AT2R was significantly downregulated. Viral vector mediated overexpression of AT2R induced apoptosis and dramatically suppressed BCa cell proliferation in vitro, suggesting a therapeutic effect. Investigation into the mechanism revealed that the overexpression of AT2R increases the expression levels of caspase-3, caspase-8, and p38 and decreases the expression level of pErk. AT2R overexpression also leads to upregulation of 2 apoptosis-related genes (BCL2A1, TNFSF25) and downregulation of 8 apoptosis-related genes (CASP 6, CASP 9, DFFA, IGF1R, PYCARD, TNF, TNFRSF21, TNFSF10, NAIP) in transduced EJ cells as determined by PCR Array analysis. In vivo, we observed that AT2R overexpression caused significant reduction in xenograft tumors sizes by downregulation VEGF and induction of apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, the data suggest that AT1R, AT2R or Mas could be used as a diagnostic marker of BCa and AT2R is a promising novel target gene for BCa gene therapy.

Bozgeyik I, Yumrutas O, Bozgeyik E
MTUS1, a gene encoding angiotensin-II type 2 (AT2) receptor-interacting proteins, in health and disease, with special emphasis on its role in carcinogenesis.
Gene. 2017; 626:54-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of tumor suppressor activity is a frequent event in the formation and progression of tumors and has been listed as an important hallmark of cancers. Microtubule-Associated Scaffold Protein 1 (MTUS1) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene which is reported to be frequently down-regulated in a variety of human cancers including pancreas, colon, bladder, head-and-neck, ovarian, breast cancers, gastric, lung cancers. It is also reported to be implicated in several types of pathologies such as cardiac hypertrophy, atherosclerosis, and SLE-like lymphoproliferative diseases. Moreover, MTUS1-encoded proteins are shown to be involved in the regulation of vital cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, DNA repair, inflammation, vascular remodeling and senescence. However, the current knowledge is very limited about the role of this gene in human cancers as well as other type diseases. Besides, there is no literature report which summarizes and criticizes the importance of MTUS1 in the cellular processes, especially in the processes of carcinogenesis. Accordingly, in this comprehensive review, we tried to shed light on the role of tumor suppressor MTUS1/ATIP in health and disease, putting special emphasis on its role in the development and progression of human cancers as well as associated molecular mechanisms and the reasons behind MTUS1/ATIP deficiency, which have been not well documented previously.

Xu ZW, Yan SX, Wu HX, et al.
The influence of TNF-α and Ang II on the proliferation, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells by regulating the expression of GRK2.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017; 79(4):747-758 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common digestive system malignancy that is associated with a poor prognosis. This study researched the interaction of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and angiotensin II (Ang II) in HCC cells proliferation, migration and invasion and examined their influence on the expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) and relevant receptors.
METHODS: Cell Counting Kit-8 and Transwell assays were performed to evaluate the effects of TNF-α and Ang II on HepG2 cells proliferation, migration and invasion. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), angiotensin II type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 receptors (AT2R) on the surface of HepG2 cells. Additionally, Western blot was performed to assess the modulation of GRK2 expression by TNF-α and Ang II in HepG2 cells. Meanwhile, GRK2 siRNA-transfected HepG2 cells were used to confirm the effects of GRK2, TNF-α and Ang II on the proliferation, migration and invasion of GRK2-knockdown HCC cells. Finally, the expression of TNF-α, Ang II, TNFR1, AT1R, AT2R and GRK2 proteins in HCC, tumor-adjacent and normal liver tissues were tested by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: The data demonstrated that TNF-α and Ang II can enhance the proliferation, migration and invasion of HepG2 cells through suppressing GRK2 expression but that the two reagents combined did not have synergistic effects. Moreover,overexpression of TNFR1 and AT1R perhaps promoted the formation and progression of HCC, while high AT2R expression had the opposite effect.
CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new ideas for the prevention and treatment of HCC by researching the interaction and probable mechanism of different bioactive factors associated with HCC.

Haznedaroglu IC, Malkan UY
Local bone marrow renin-angiotensin system in the genesis of leukemia and other malignancies.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2016; 20(19):4089-4111 [PubMed] Related Publications
The existence of a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) specific to the hematopoietic bone marrow (BM) microenvironment had been proposed two decades ago. Most of the RAS molecules including ACE, ACE2, AGT, AGTR1, AGTR2, AKR1C4, AKR1D1, ANPEP, ATP6AP2, CMA1, CPA3, CTSA, CTSD, CTSG, CYP11A1, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, DPP3, EGFR, ENPEP, GPER, HSD11B1, HSD11B2, IGF2R, KLK1, LNPEP, MAS1, MME, NR3C1, NR3C2, PREP, REN, RNPEP, and THOP1 are locally present in the BM microenvironment. Local BM RAS peptides control the hematopoietic niche, myelopoiesis, erythropoiesis, thrombopoiesis and the development of other cellular lineages. Local BM RAS is important in hematopoietic stem cell biology and microenvironment. Angiotensin II regulates the proliferation, differentiation, and engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells. Activation of Mas receptor or ACE2 promotes proliferation of CD34+ cells. BM contains a progenitor that expresses renin throughout development. Angiotensin II attenuates the migration and proliferation of CD34+ Cells and promotes the adhesion of both MNCs and CD34+ cells. Renin cells in hematopoietic organs are precursor B cells. The renin cell requires RBP-J to differentiate. Mutant renin-expressing hematopoietic precursors can cause leukemia. Deletion of RBP-J in the renin-expressing progenitors enriches the precursor B-cell gene programme. Mutant cells undergo a neoplastic transformation, and mice develop a highly penetrant B-cell leukemia with multi-organ infiltration and early death. Many biological conditions during the development and function of blood cells are mediated by RAS, such as apoptosis, cellular proliferation, intracellular signaling, mobilization, angiogenesis, and fibrosis. The aim of this paper is to review recent developments regarding the actions of local BM RAS in the genesis of leukemia and other malignancies molecules.

Ishiguro S, Alhakamy NA, Uppalapati D, et al.
Combined Local Pulmonary and Systemic Delivery of AT2R Gene by Modified TAT Peptide Nanoparticles Attenuates Both Murine and Human Lung Carcinoma Xenografts in Mice.
J Pharm Sci. 2017; 106(1):385-394 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To evaluate the potential of cell-penetrating peptide-based delivery of apoptosis-inducer gene in cancer therapy, a modified HIV-1 TAT peptide (dimerized TAT peptide, dTAT) was studied. The dTAT and plasmid DNA (pDNA) complexes (dTAT-pDNA) were condensed using calcium chloride (dTAT-pDNA-Ca

Ferone G, Song JY, Sutherland KD, et al.
SOX2 Is the Determining Oncogenic Switch in Promoting Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma from Different Cells of Origin.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 30(4):519-532 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) is a devastating malignancy with no effective treatments, due to its complex genomic profile. Therefore, preclinical models mimicking its salient features are urgently needed. Here we describe mouse models bearing various combinations of genetic lesions predominantly found in human LSCC. We show that SOX2 but not FGFR1 overexpression in tracheobronchial basal cells combined with Cdkn2ab and Pten loss results in LSCC closely resembling the human counterpart. Interestingly, Sox2;Pten;Cdkn2ab mice develop LSCC with a more peripheral location when Club or Alveolar type 2 (AT2) cells are targeted. Our model highlights the essential role of SOX2 in commanding the squamous cell fate from different cells of origin and represents an invaluable tool for developing better intervention strategies.

Alhakamy NA, Ishiguro S, Uppalapati D, et al.
AT2R Gene Delivered by Condensed Polylysine Complexes Attenuates Lewis Lung Carcinoma after Intravenous Injection or Intratracheal Spray.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2016; 15(1):209-18 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transfection efficiency and toxicity concerns remain a challenge for gene therapy. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) have been broadly investigated to improve the transfection of genetic material (e.g., pDNA and siRNA). Here, a synthetic CPP (polylysine, K9 peptide) was complexed with angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) plasmid DNA (pAT2R) and complexes were condensed using calcium chloride. The resulting complexes were small (∼150 nm) and showed high levels of gene expression in vitro and in vivo. This simple nonviral formulation approach showed negligible cytotoxicity in four different human cell lines (cervix, breast, kidney, and lung cell lines) and one mouse cell line (a lung cancer cell line). In addition, this K9-pDNA-Ca(2+) complex demonstrated cancer-targeted gene delivery when administered via intravenous injection or intratracheal spray. The transfection efficiency was evaluated in Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cell lines cultured in vitro and in orthotopic cancer grafts in syngeneic mice. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that the complex effectively delivered pAT2R to the cancer cells, where it was expressed mainly in cancer cells along with bronchial epithelial cells. A single administration of these complexes markedly attenuated lung cancer growth, offering preclinical proof-of-concept for a novel nonviral gene delivery method exhibiting effective lung tumor gene therapy via either intravenous or intratracheal administration.

Tovar H, García-Herrera R, Espinal-Enríquez J, Hernández-Lemus E
Transcriptional master regulator analysis in breast cancer genetic networks.
Comput Biol Chem. 2015; 59 Pt B:67-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene regulatory networks account for the delicate mechanisms that control gene expression. Under certain circumstances, gene regulatory programs may give rise to amplification cascades. Such transcriptional cascades are events in which activation of key-responsive transcription factors called master regulators trigger a series of gene expression events. The action of transcriptional master regulators is then important for the establishment of certain programs like cell development and differentiation. However, such cascades have also been related with the onset and maintenance of cancer phenotypes. Here we present a systematic implementation of a series of algorithms aimed at the inference of a gene regulatory network and analysis of transcriptional master regulators in the context of primary breast cancer cells. Such studies were performed in a highly curated database of 880 microarray gene expression experiments on biopsy-captured tissue corresponding to primary breast cancer and healthy controls. Biological function and biochemical pathway enrichment analyses were also performed to study the role that the processes controlled - at the transcriptional level - by such master regulators may have in relation to primary breast cancer. We found that transcription factors such as AGTR2, ZNF132, TFDP3 and others are master regulators in this gene regulatory network. Sets of genes controlled by these regulators are involved in processes that are well-known hallmarks of cancer. This kind of analyses may help to understand the most upstream events in the development of phenotypes, in particular, those regarding cancer biology.

Liu Y, Li B, Wang X, et al.
Angiotensin-(1-7) Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Growth and Angiogenesis via Complex Interactions of Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor, Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor and Mas Receptor.
Mol Med. 2015; 21:626-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We recently confirmed that angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor (AT1R) was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue using a murine hepatoma model. Angiotensin(Ang)-(1-7) has been found beneficial in ameliorating lung cancer and prostate cancer. Which receptor of Ang-(1-7) is activated to mediate its effects is much speculated. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Ang-(1-7) on hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as the probable mechanisms. H22 hepatoma-bearing mice were randomly divided into five groups for treatment: mock group, low-dose Ang-(1-7), high-dose Ang-(1-7), high-dose Ang-(1-7) + A779 and high-dose Ang-(1-7) + PD123319. Ang-(1-7) treatment inhibited tumor growth time- and dose-dependently by arresting tumor proliferation and promoting tumor apoptosis as well as inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. The effects of Ang-(1-7) on tumor proliferation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration with A779 or PD123319, whereas the effects on tumor angiogenesis were completely reversed by A779 but not by PD123319. Moreover, Ang-(1-7) downregulated AT1R mRNA, upregulated mRNA levels of Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) and Mas receptor (MasR) and p38-MAPK phosphorylation and suppressed H22 cell-endothelial cell communication. Thus, Ang-(1-7) administration suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma via complex interactions of AT1R, AT2R and MasR and may provide a novel and promising approach for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Zhao T, Ding X, Chang B, et al.
MTUS1/ATIP3a down-regulation is associated with enhanced migration, invasion and poor prognosis in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:203 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Microtubule-associated tumor suppressor gene (MTUS1) has been identified as tumor suppressor gene in many malignant tumors. In this study, we investigated the role of MTUS1 in the development of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) and its functional effect on the migration and invasion of SACC.
METHODS: Archival clinical samples including 49 primary SACC were examined for MTUS1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between MTUS1 with histopathological features and survival. The expression of MTUS1/ATIP (AT2 receptor-interacting protein) isoforms was determined in SACC tissue samples and cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR assays. Then we investigated whether the migration and invasion of SACC were mediated by MTUS1/ATIP3a using in vitro cell migration and invasion assay.
RESULTS: We confirmed that the down-regulation of MTUS1 was a frequent event in SACC, and was correlated with distant metastasis and associated with reduced overall survival and disease free survival. Isoform specific quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that ATIP1, ATIP3a and ATIP3b were the major isoforms of the MTUS1 gene products in SACC, and were significant down-regulation in SACC as compared to matching normal tissues. For functional analyses, we found that SACC-LM cells (SACC cell line with higher migration and invasion ability) possessed a lower expression level of ATIP3a compared to SACC-83 cells (lower migration and invasion ability). Restoration of ATIP3a expression in SACC-LM cells induced anti-proliferative activity and inhibited the migration and invasion ability. Knockdown of ATIP3a promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion ability of SACC-83 cells. Restoration of ATIP3a inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular-regulated kinase) 1/2, the expression of Slug and Vimentin in SACC-LM cells, while knockdown of ATIP3a increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, the expression of Slug and Vimentin in SACC-83 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our studies confirm that MTUS1 plays an important role in the progression of SACC, and may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target for patients with SACC. MTUS1/ATIP3a down-regulation contributes to the proliferation, migration and the invasion abilities of SACC.

Ishiguro S, Yoshimura K, Tsunedomi R, et al.
Involvement of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) signaling in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC): a novel AT2R agonist effectively attenuates growth of PDAC grafts in mice.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2015; 16(2):307-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We have recently discovered the potential involvement of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) signaling in pancreatic cancer using AT2R deficient mice. To examine the involvement of AT2R expression in human PDAC, expressions of AT2R as well as the major angiotensin II receptor (type 1 receptor, AT1R) in human PDAC and adjacent normal tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and real time PCR using surgically dissected human PDAC specimens. In immunohistochemical analysis, relatively strong AT1R expression was detected consistently in both normal pancreas and PDAC areas, whereas moderate AT2R expression was detected in 78.5% of PDAC specimens and 100% of normal area of the pancreas. AT1R, but not AT2R, mRNA levels were significantly higher in the PDAC area than in the normal pancreas. AT2R mRNA levels showed a negative correlation trend with overall survival. In cell cultures, treatment with a novel AT2R agonist significantly attenuated both murine and human PDAC cell growth with negligible cytotoxicity in normal epithelial cells. In a mouse study, administrations of the AT2R agonist in tumor surrounding connective tissue markedly attenuated growth of only AT2R expressing PAN02 murine PDAC grafts in syngeneic mice. The AT2R agonist treatment induced apoptosis primarily in tumor cells but not in stromal cells. Taken together, our findings offer clinical and preclinical evidence for the involvement of AT2R signaling in PDAC development and pinpoint that the novel AT2R agonist could serve as an effective therapeutic for PDAC treatment.

Arrieta O, Villarreal-Garza C, Vizcaíno G, et al.
Association between AT1 and AT2 angiotensin II receptor expression with cell proliferation and angiogenesis in operable breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(7):5627-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiotensin II (ANGII) has been associated with vascular proliferation in tumor and non-tumor models through its receptors AT1 and AT2. Our objective was to determine AT1 and AT2 receptor expression in operable breast cancer and its association with tumor grade, vascular density, and cellular proliferation. Seventy-seven surgically malignant breast tumors with no distant metastasis were included, and 7 benign lesions were used as controls. AT1 and AT2 receptor expression was determined by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 68 out of the 77 malignant lesions and in the 7 benign lesions. AT1 and AT2 receptor expression was detected in 35.3 and 25 % of cases, in both RT-PCR and IHC. Tumors that express AT1 showed an increase in T3 stage (92.3 vs. 7.7 % p < 0.001), mitotic index (4 ± 1 vs 2 ± 1, p = 0.05), vascular density (15 ± 3 vs 8 ± 5, p = 0.05), and cellular proliferation (85 ± 18 vs 55 ± 10, p = 0.01) versus AT1-negative lesions. Non-differences between clinical-pathologic variables and AT2 expression were found. AT1 receptor expression was associated to enhance angiogenesis and cellular proliferation rate, but no relationship with AT2 was found. ANGII and its peptides might play a role in the development and pathophysiology of breast cancer, and this could be valuable in the in the development of targeted therapies.

Kitamura J, Uemura M, Kurozumi M, et al.
Chronic lung injury by constitutive expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase leads to focal mucous cell metaplasia and cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(2):e0117986 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an enzyme required for antibody diversification, and it causes DNA mutations and strand breaks. Constitutive AID expression in mice invariably caused lung lesions morphologically similar to human atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH), which can be a precursor of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Similar to AAH, mouse AAH-like lesion (MALL) exhibited signs of alveolar differentiation, judging from the expression of alveolar type II (AT2) cell marker surfactant protein C (SP-C). However, electron microscopy indicated that MALL, which possessed certain features of a mucous cell, is distinct from an AAH or AT2 cell. Although MALL developed in all individuals within 30 weeks after birth, lung tumors occurred in only 10%; this suggests that the vast majority of MALLs fail to grow into visible tumors. MALL expressed several recently described markers of lung alveolar regeneration such as p63, keratin 5, keratin 14, leucine-rich repeat containing G protein-coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5), and Lgr6. Increased cell death was observed in the lungs of AID transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Based on these observations, we speculate that MALL is a regenerating tissue compensating for cellular loss caused by AID cytotoxicity. AID expression in such regenerating tissue should predispose cells to malignant transformation via its mutagenic activity.

Fan L, Feng Y, Wan HY, et al.
Hypoxia induces dysregulation of local renin-angiotensin system in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cells.
Genet Mol Res. 2014; 13(4):10562-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) influences cancer biology and is frequently dysregulated in malignancy. However, regulation of tumor local RAS remains poorly understood. Hypoxia is a hallmark of solid tumors and affects nearly every major aspect of cancer biology. Previous studies have shown that hypoxia can regulate RAS expression in somatic tissues and cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of hypoxia on local RAS expression in mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells. For hypoxia treatment, LLC cells were cultured in a hypoxia incubator or treated with hypoxia-mimetic cobalt chloride. Hypoxia up-regulated angiotensin II, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R), and down-regulated ACE2 and angiotensin II type 2 receptor in LLC cells. Captopril, an ACE inhibitor, and losartan, an AT1R blocker, decreased expression of ACE and AT1R, but increased expression of ACE2 and angiotensin II type 2 receptor in LLC cells under hypoxia. Captopril and losartan also suppressed vascular endothelial growth factor-A expression in LLC cells under hypoxia. These findings suggest that hypoxia induces dysregulation of local RAS in LLC cells. The pathophysiological importance of hypoxia-induced RAS dysregulation and potentially therapeutic effects of RAS inhibitors on hypoxic tumor cells should be further examined.

Liu M, Jing D, Wang Y, et al.
Overexpression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor promotes apoptosis and impairs insulin secretion in rat insulinoma cells.
Mol Cell Biochem. 2015; 400(1-2):233-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiotensin II (Ang II), the major effector hormone of renin-angiotensin system, acts as a promoter of insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2 pathogenesis. Activation of Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R) has been examined as a potential therapeutic strategy. However, there are conflicting findings regarding the role of AT2R. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of overexpressing AT2R by viral vector transduction on the apoptosis and function of pancreatic β-islet cells. The rat insulinoma cell line, INS-1, was transduced with a recombinant adenoviral vector expressing AT2R (Ad-G-AT2R-EGFP). AT2R overexpression resulted in significantly reduced cell viability and subsequently impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) function in INS-1 cells. Down-regulated expressions of GSIS pathway components, insulin, glucose transporter 2, and glucokinase were associated with AT2R overexpression. Further analysis determined that overexpression of AT2R induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest and Ang II-independent apoptotic cell death as indicated by increased Annexin V staining. To understand the apoptosis signaling triggered by AT2R overexpression, levels of caspase proteins were measured. Overexpression of AT2R significantly induced caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3 cleavage, and decreased Bcl-2, pAkt, and pERK expression levels. AT2R-induced cell apoptosis was successfully blocked by the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Our findings suggested that AT2R overexpression triggers the apoptosis of INS-1 cells and dysfunction in insulin secretion. In conclusion, more careful design and consideration are required when applying AT2R-related therapies in treating diabetes.

Liu Y, Wang L, Wang ZJ
Analysis of the biological function of ELDF15 using an antisense recombinant expression vector.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(21):9131-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
ELDF15, homologous with AT2 receptor-interaction protein 1 (ATIP1), may play an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. We aimed to understand the biological function of ELDF15 via construction and transfection of a recombinant expression vector containing antisense ELDF15. Recombinant expression vectors were successfully constructed and transfected into K562 cells. A stable transfectant, known as pXJ41-asELDF15, stably produced antisense ELDF15. Compared with K562 and K562-zeo cells, K562- pXJ41-asELDF15 cells showed inhibition of cell proliferation. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression and protein level of ELDF15 decreased significantly in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15. Expression of hemoglobin increased in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15 by benzidine staining. increases NBT reduction activity in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15.Colony forming efficiency in two-layer soft agar was clearly inhibited as assessed by electron microscopy. These results suggest that ELDF15 plays a potential role in cell differentiation, proliferation and carcinogenesis.

Zhou L, Luo Y, Sato S, et al.
Role of two types of angiotensin II receptors in colorectal carcinoma progression.
Pathobiology. 2014; 81(4):169-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiotensin II (Ang-II) is a bioactive peptide associated closely with the progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the expression and role of 2 Ang-II receptor types in 20 cases of CRC. Ang-II type 1 receptor (AT1R) protein was localized to the plasma membrane, whereas Ang-II type 2 receptor (AT2R) protein was localized to the nuclei. AT1R expression showed a direct correlation with tumor stage and liver metastasis, whereas AT2R expression showed an inverse correlation. A knockdown study of the AT1R or AT2R with Ang-II treatment was performed to reveal their individual roles in a mouse rectal cell line CMT93, which expresses both Ang-II receptor types. AT2R knockdown showed that the AT1R was associated with tumor growth, survival, invasion and VEGF-A secretion in CMT93 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, AT1R knockdown showed that the AT2R was associated with increased VEGF-A secretion at low Ang-II concentrations, whereas high concentrations of Ang-II inhibited tumor growth, survival, invasion and VEGF-A secretion. Thus, the AT1R showed a monophasic protumoral effect, while the AT2R showed a biphasic amphitumoral effect. Our findings suggest that a high angiotensinogen condition in the liver might evoke the antitumoral role of the AT2R in CRC cells.

Namazi S, Rostami-Yalmeh J, Sahebi E, et al.
The role of captopril and losartan in prevention and regression of tamoxifen-induced resistance of breast cancer cell line MCF-7: an in vitro study.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2014; 68(5):565-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Innate and acquired tamoxifen (TAM) resistance in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer is an important problem in adjuvant endocrine therapy. The underlying mechanisms of TAM resistance is yet unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the acquisition of TAM resistance in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, and the potential role of captopril and captopril+losartan combination in the prevention and reversion of the TAM resistant phenotype. MCF-7 cells were continuously exposed to 1 μmol/L TAM to develop TAM resistant cells (TAM-R). MTT cell viability assay was used to determine the growth response of MCF-7 and TAM-R cells, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to assess angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II receptor type-1 and type-2 (AGTR1 and AGTR2) mRNA expressions. Preventive and therapeutic effects of RAS blockers - captopril and losartan - were examined on MCF-7 and TAM-R cells. Based on qRT-PCR, TAM-R cells compared to MCF-7 cells, had a mean ± SD fold increase of 319.1 ± 204.1 (P = 0.002) in production of ACE mRNA level, 2211.8 ± 777.9 (P = 0.002) in AGTR1 mRNA level, and 265.9 ± 143.9 (P = 0.037) in production of AGTR2 mRNA level. The combination of either captopril or captopril+losartan with TAM led to the prevention and even reversion of TAM resistant phenotype.

Pei N, Jie F, Luo J, et al.
Gene expression profiling associated with angiotensin II type 2 receptor-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e92253 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increased expression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) induces apoptosis in numerous tumor cell lines, with either Angiotensin II-dependent or Angiotensin II-independent regulation, but its molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we used PCR Array analysis to determine the gene and microRNA expression profiles in human prostate cancer cell lines transduced with AT2R recombinant adenovirus. Our results demonstrated that AT2R over expression leads to up-regulation of 6 apoptosis-related genes (TRAIL-R2, BAG3, BNIPI, HRK, Gadd45a, TP53BP2), 2 cytokine genes (IL6 and IL8) and 1 microRNA, and down-regulation of 1 apoptosis-related gene TNFSF10 and 2 cytokine genes (BMP6, BMP7) in transduced DU145 cells. HRK was identified as an up-regulated gene in AT2R-transduced PC-3 cells by real-time RT-PCR. Next, we utilized siRNAs to silence the up-regulated genes to further determine their roles on AT2R overexpression mediated apoptosis. The results showed downregulation of Gadd45a reduced the apoptotic effect by ∼30% in DU145 cells, downregulation of HRK reduced AT2R-mediated apoptosis by more than 50% in PC-3 cells, while downregulation of TRAIL-R2 enhanced AT2R-mediated apoptosis more than 4 times in DU145 cells. We also found that the effects on AT2R-mediated apoptosis caused by downregulation of Gadd45a, TRAIL-R2 and HRK were independent in activation of p38 MAPK, p44/42 MAPK and p53. Taken together, our results demonstrated that TRAIL-R2, Gadd45a and HRK may be novel target genes for further study of the mechanism of AT2R-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells.

Li A, Zhang C, Gao S, et al.
TIP30 loss enhances cytoplasmic and nuclear EGFR signaling and promotes lung adenocarcinogenesis in mice.
Oncogene. 2013; 32(18):2273-81, 2281e.1-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung adenocarcinoma, the most common type of human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently overexpresses epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the mechanisms underlying EGFR overexpression are not completely understood. Recent studies have identified that decreased expression of TIP30 (30kDa HIV-1 Tat interacting protein) is associated with the metastasis of human NSCLCs, but a causative relationship between TIP30 deficiency and NSCLC development remains unclear. We show here that Tip30 deletion leads to spontaneous development of lung adenomas and adenocarcinomas in mice. Lung tumor development was preceded by aberrant expansion of bronchioalveolar stem/progenitor and alveolar type II (AT2) cells, and also increased expression of EGFR and its downstream signaling factors in the lung of Tip30(-/-) mice. Moreover, TIP30 knockdown in human lung adenocarcinoma cells resulted in prolonged EGFR activity in early endosomes, delayed EGFR degradation, increased EGFR nuclear localization, leading to upregulated pAKT and pERK1/2 expression. Importantly, in human lung adenocarcinomas, low TIP30 expression correlates with prolonged patient overall and post-progression survival times. Together, these results suggest that TIP30 functions as a tumor suppressor to inhibit EGFR cytoplasmic and nuclear signaling and suppress adenocarcinogenesis in the lung, and highlight the potential of therapeutic strategies aiming at inhibiting EGFR signaling for patients with low TIP30-expression lung adenocarcinoma.

Wang Y, Pringle KG, Chen YX, et al.
Regulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in BeWo and HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cell lines.
Placenta. 2012; 33(8):634-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is implicated in placentation. We determined which RAS pathways are present in two trophoblast cell lines (HTR-8/SVneo and BeWo cells) and the effects of cAMP, which stimulates renal renin.
STUDY DESIGN: The effect of cAMP on RAS gene expression and on prorenin and angiotensin peptides in HTR-8/SVneo and BeWo cells were investigated.
RESULTS: In HTR-8/SVneo cells, prorenin mRNA (REN) and protein, (pro)renin receptor (ATP6AP2) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AGTR1) were stimulated by cAMP (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). HTR-8/SVneo cells also expressed angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin converting enzyme 1 (ACE1), but did not express AGTR2 or ACE2 nor the Ang 1-7 receptor (MAS1). BeWo cells did not express REN, and REN was not inducible by cAMP, but cAMP increased ACE2 and MAS1 (both P < 0.05) and decreased AGT (P < 0.05). BeWo cells expressed AGT, ACE1, ACE2 and MAS1 but not ATP6AP2, AGTR1 nor AGTR2. There was net destruction of Ang II in media from HTR-8/SVneo and BeWo incubations and net production of Ang 1-7 by BeWo and untreated HTR-8/SVneo cells.
CONCLUSION: HTR-8/SVneo cells express REN and produce prorenin as well as expressing other RAS genes likely to regulate Ang II/AT(1)R interactions and respond to cAMP, like renal renin-secreting cells. They are more similar to early gestation placentae and are therefore useful for studying effects of renin/ACE/Ang II/AT₁R on cell function. BeWo cells express the ACE2/Ang 1-7/Mas pathway, which is sensitive to cAMP and therefore are useful for studying the effects of ACE2/Ang 1-7/Mas on trophoblast function.

Piastowska-Ciesielska AW, Płuciennik E, Wójcik-Krowiranda K, et al.
Analysis of the expression of angiotensin II type 1 receptor and VEGF in endometrial adenocarcinoma with different clinicopathological characteristics.
Tumour Biol. 2012; 33(3):767-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
In Poland, endometrial carcinoma takes second place after breast cancer among all cancers in women and is considered the most common genital cancer. It has been repeatedly reported that angiotensin is involved in the development and invasion of some cancers including breast, ovarian, and pancreatic ones. It is suggested that angiotensin two and its receptors are actively involved in tumour biology in endometrial adenocarcinoma. In the present study, we identify a possible relationship between the expression of AT1-R, AT2-R, ERα, and VEGF and clinicopathological characteristics of primary endometrial adenocarcinoma. We determined the above components both at the mRNA (real-time RT-PCR) and protein levels (Western Blot assay). Our results indicate that in patients with grade G3 adenocarcinoma, the expression of AT1-R significantly decreased in comparison with G1 patients (p = 0.034), but the level of ERα was the highest in G2 and the lowest in G3. Moreover, the level of VEGF mRNA significantly increased between G2 and G3 (p = 0.034). We also noted a significant correlation between the expression of AT1-R and AT2-R in FIGO stage 1 (R (s) = 0.9636; p = 0.0001) and that of AT2-R and VEGF (R (s) = 0.5377; p = 0.005). In grade G1 and G2 carcinoma, a significant correlation was also found between the expression of AT1-R and AT2-R (R (s) = 0.9924; p = 0.0001; R (s) = 0.8717, p = 0.0005, respectively), but in grade G1, a negative correlation was observed between AT1-R and VEGF (R (s) = -0.8945, p = 0.0005). Further studies are required to clarify the biological function of the angiotensin receptor in regulating VEGF expression in endometrial carcinoma.

Ding X, Zhang N, Cai Y, et al.
Down-regulation of tumor suppressor MTUS1/ATIP is associated with enhanced proliferation, poor differentiation and poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Oncol. 2012; 6(1):73-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Microtubule-associated tumor suppressor gene (MTUS1, also known as mitochondrial tumor suppressor) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in several cancer types. The expression of MTUS1 gene leads to 5 known transcript variants and codes for 5 isoforms of Angiotensin II AT2 receptor interacting protein (ATIP). In this study, we first confirmed that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was a frequent event in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) and the premalignant lesion (leukoplakia). We further demonstrated that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was correlated with poor differentiation and enhanced proliferation (Ki67 proliferation index). Statistical analysis suggests that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was associated with reduced overall survival. Isoform specific quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that ATIP1, ATIP3a and ATIP3b were the major isoforms of the MTUS1 gene products in oral tongue epithelial cells. Significant down-regulations were observed for all 3 ATIP isoforms in OTSCC as compared to matching normal tissues. In vitro functional study showed that the restoration of ATIP1 expression led to G1 arrest, apoptosis and reduction of cell proliferation in OTSCC cell lines. These ATIP1-induced cellular changes were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and up-regulation of p53. Taken together, these data suggest that MTUS1 plays major roles in the progression of OTSCC, and may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target for patients with OTSCC.

Tham SM, Ng KH, Pook SH, et al.
Tumor and microenvironment modification during progression of murine orthotopic bladder cancer.
Clin Dev Immunol. 2011; 2011:865684 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to monitor changes in the expression of immune-related genes in the bladder after tumor implantation. Mice were orthotopically implanted with MB49-PSA cells (C57BL/6 mice) on day 1 and terminated on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Another mouse model (MBT-2/C3H mice) was examined at day 7. Gene expression analysis was performed using a TaqMan Low Density Mouse Immune Panel (Applied Biosystems, USA) on RNA extracted from the bladders. Selected genes were reconfirmed by real-time PCR analysis and RT-PCR on the mRNA from other animals. Immune suppressive (IL13, IL1β, PTGS2, NOS2, IL10, CTLA4, and CCL22) and immune stimulatory genes (CSF2, GZMB, IFNγ, CXCL10, TNFα, CD80, IL12a, and IL6) and AGTR2 were increased by day 7. By day 28, IL10, CCL2, CCL5, CXCL11, CTLA4, GZMB, IFNγ, CSF2, and IL6 were significantly increased. Therapeutic strategies involving TH1 induction and TH2 dampening may improve responses to immunotherapy.

Ouyang J, Wu Z, Xing J, et al.
Association of polymorphisms in angiotensin II receptor genes with aldosterone-producing adenoma.
J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2011; 31(3):301 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study examined the association of polymorphisms in angiotensin II receptor genes (AT (1) R and AT (2) R) with the risk for aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) in a Chinese Han population. Four polymorphisms including rs5182 (573T/C) in exon 4, rs5186 (1166A/C) in 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) in AT (1) R gene and rs5194 (2274G/A) in 3'-UTR, rs1403543 (1675G/A) in intron 1 in AT (2) R gene were detected in 148 APA patients and 192 normal subjects (serving as control) by using a MGB-Taqman probe. The distribution of genotypes of each locus was in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) in the APA and control groups (P>0.05). The allele A frequency at rs5194 was significantly higher in the APA group (0.49) than in the control group (0.35) (χ (2)=12.08, P=0.001). Subjects with homozygotic genotype AA and heterozygotic genotype GA were at an increased risk for APA as compared to those with GG genotype (OR=2.66, 95% CI=1.45-4.87; OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.02-2.74). Furthermore, rs5194 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at AT (2) R gene was significantly associated with APA in additive (OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.21-2.20, P=0.001), dominant (OR=1.94, 95% CI=1.23-3.06, P=0.003), and recessive model (OR=2.01, 95% CI=1.17-3.45, P=0.01). It was concluded that rs5194 polymorphism at AT (2) R gene was associated with the risk for APA, which may constitute a genetic marker of APA.

Menk M, von Haefen C, Funke-Kaiser H, et al.
Ethanol-induced downregulation of the angiotensin AT2 receptor in murine fibroblasts is mediated by PARP-1.
Alcohol. 2010; 44(6):495-506 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular mechanisms accompanying ethanol-induced cytotoxicity remain to be defined. The renin-angiotensin system with its respective receptors, the angiotensin AT1 and AT2 receptor (AT1R and AT2R), has been implicated in these processes. The AT2R seems to counteract the pro-inflammatory, pro-hypertrophic, and pro-fibrotic actions of the AT1R and is involved in cellular differentiation and tissue repair. Recently, we identified poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) as a novel negative transcriptional regulator of the AT2R. However, the complex interactions between ethanol, PARP-1, and the AT2R are largely unknown. In this in vitro study, we aimed to clarify whether acute ethanol treatment modifies AT2R promoter activity or AT2R mRNA and protein levels and whether PARP-1 is involved in ethanol-mediated regulation of the AT2R. Murine fibroblasts of the R3T3 and MEF line (murine embryonic fibroblasts) were exposed to ethanol for 24h. AT2R promoter activity, mRNA and protein levels were analyzed with and without PARP-1 inhibition and in PARP-1 knockout MEF cells. Expression of PARP-1 was analyzed over course of time, and cell viability and DNA fragmentation were measured on single-cell level by flow cytometry. Ethanol exposition induced substantial downregulation of the AT2R on promoter, mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent manner. Pharmacological inhibition or ablation of PARP-1 completely abolished this effect. Ethanol treatment did not have any effect on AT1R mRNA and protein levels in MEF cells. Further, acute ethanol treatment promoted DNA fragmentation and caused transcriptional induction of PARP-1. Our findings reveal that PARP-1 is an upstream transcriptional regulator of the AT2 receptor in the context of ethanol exposure and represses the AT2R gene in fibroblasts in vitro. Variations in expression of the potentially tissue-protective AT2R might contribute to ethanol-mediated pathology.

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