MTUS1

Gene Summary

Gene:MTUS1; microtubule associated scaffold protein 1
Aliases: ATBP, ATIP, ICIS, MP44, ATIP3, MTSG1
Location:8p22
Summary:This gene encodes a protein which contains a C-terminal domain able to interact with the angiotension II (AT2) receptor and a large coiled-coil region allowing dimerization. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. One of the transcript variants has been shown to encode a mitochondrial protein that acts as a tumor suppressor and partcipates in AT2 signaling pathways. Other variants may encode nuclear or transmembrane proteins but it has not been determined whether they also participate in AT2 signaling pathways. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Up-Regulation
  • RTPCR
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Base Sequence
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Exons
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Protein Isoforms
  • MTUS1
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Loss of Heterozygosity
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Chromosome Mapping
  • Transcriptome
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Colonic Neoplasms
  • Cell Cycle
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Dosage
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Carcinoma
  • ras Proteins
  • Gene Expression
  • Signal Transducing Adaptor Proteins
  • Breast Cancer
  • rab GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Chromosome 8
  • Staging
  • Apoptosis
  • MicroRNAs
  • Xenograft Models
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Gene Expression Profiling
Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MTUS1 (cancer-related)

Kara M, Kaplan M, Bozgeyik I, et al.
MTUS1 tumor suppressor and its miRNA regulators in fibroadenoma and breast cancer.
Gene. 2016; 587(2):173-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is major public health problem predominantly effects female population. Current therapeutic approaches to deal with breast cancer are still lack of effectiveness. Thus, identifying/developing novel strategies to fight against breast cancer is very important. The frequent deletions at 8p21.3-22 chromosomal location nearby D8S254 marker enabled the discovery of a novel tumor suppressor gene, MTUS1. Subsequently, MTUS1 was demonstrated to be less expressed in a variety cancer types including breast cancer. Also, it is obvious that gene expression is widely regulated by miRNAs. Here, we aimed to report differential expression of MTUS1 and its regulatory miRNAs in breast cancer and fibroadenoma tissues. Dynamic analysis of MTUS1 expression levels and its miRNAs regulators were attained by Fluidigm 96×96 Dynamic Array Expression chips and reactions were performed in Fluidigm BioMark™ HD System qPCR. Consequently, MTUS1 mRNA levels were significantly diminished in breast cancer tissues and elevated in fibroadenoma tissues. Also, among MTUS1 targeting miRNAs, miR-183-5p was identified to be overexpressed in breast cancer and down-regulated in fibroadenoma tissues. Also, expression levels of MTUS1 and miR-183-5p were well correlated with clinical parameters. In particular, MTUS1 expression was found to be diminished and miR-183-5p expression was elevated with the advancing stage. In conclusion, as a potential therapeutic target, miR-183-5p can be a chief regulator of MTUS1 and MTUS1-miR-183-5p axis may have significant influence in the pathology of breast cancer.

Mahjabeen I, Kayani MA
Loss of Mitochondrial Tumor Suppressor Genes Expression Is Associated with Unfavorable Clinical Outcome in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Data from Retrospective Study.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(1):e0146948 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mitochondrial genes play important roles in cellular energy metabolism, free radical generation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of these genes have long been suspected to contribute to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased proliferation and progression of cancer. A family of orthologues of yeast silent information regulator 3 (SIRT3), 4 (SIRT4) and mitochondrial tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1) are important mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes which play an important role in the progression of multiple cancers. However, their role in the development of oxidative stress, enhanced proliferation and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has not yet been studied. In this study we aimed to test the association between reduced mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes' activities and enhancement in tissue oxidative stress and cell proliferation in HNSCC cases. The expression of mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes (SIRT3, SIRT4 and MTUS1), mitochondrial DNA repair gene (OGG1-2a) and a proliferation marker (Ki-67) was studied in a study cohort of 120 HNSCC patients and controls with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR (qPCR) in order to determine the potential prognostic significance of these genes. A statistically significant downregulation of SIRT3 (p<0.001), SIRT4 (p<0.0001), MTUS1 (p<0.002) and OGG1 (p<0.0001) was observed in HNSCC compared to control samples. Ki-67 was also overexpressed (p<0.0001) in HNSCC versus control samples. Additionally, to explore gene-gene relationship, we observed a positive spearmen correlation between SIRT3 versus SIRT4 (r = 0.523***, p<0.0001), SIRT3 versus MTUS1 (r = 0.273***, p<0.001), SIRT3 versus OGG1-2a (r = 0.213*, p<0.03), SIRT4 versus OGG1 (r = 0.338***, p<0.0001) and MTUS1 versus OGG1-2a (r = 0.215*, p<0.03) in HNSCC cases. A negative spearman correlation was observed between OGG1 versus Ki-67 (r = -0.224**, p<0.01) and OGG1-2a versus Ki-67 (r = -0.224**, p<0.01) in HNSCC cases. Here we report that the deregulation of mitochondrial tumor suppressor genes (SIRT3, SIRT4 and MTUS1) in relation to decreased expression of mitochondrial DNA repair gene OGG1-2a and increased proliferation (measured by proliferation marker Ki-67) may be considered important factors in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Ozcan O, Kara M, Yumrutas O, et al.
MTUS1 and its targeting miRNAs in colorectal carcinoma: significant associations.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(5):6637-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulated microRNA (miRNA) expression has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC). Thus, determining miRNA targets of genes that play critical role in the malignant transformation is very important. Here, expression levels of tumor suppressor microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1 (MTUS1) and its regulatory miRNAs were reported. Predicted and validated targets of MTUS1 gene was determined by a computational approach. Expressions of MTUS1 and miRNAs were determined by using 96.96 Dynamic Array™ integrated fluidic circuit (Fluidigm). As a result, MTUS1 levels were found to be diminished in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples of CRC patients compared to controls. Also, several of MTUS1 targeting miRNAs were found to be upregulated in CRC samples (miR-373-3p, 183-5p, 142-5p, 200c-3p, 19a-3p, -20a-5p, -181a-5p, -184, -181d-5p, -372-3p, 27b-3p, 98-5p, -let-7i-5p, -let-7d-5p, -let-7g-5p, -let-7b-5p, and -let-7c-5p). Of these miRNAs, miR-135b-5p, -373-3p, 183-5p, 142-5p, 200c-3p, 19a-3p showed marked expression levels. In contrast, expression levels of let-7a-5p, 7e-5p, 7f-5p, hsa-miR-125a-5p, and 125b-5p were found to be downregulated in CRC tissues. Accordingly, some of the overexpressed miRNAs especially the miR-135b-5p, -373-3p, 183-5p, 142-5p, 200c-3p, and 19a-3p may play key roles in CRC pathophysiology through MTUS1. In contrast, let-7a-5p, 7e-5p, 7f-5p, miR-125a-5p, and 125b-5p may play important roles in CRC carcinogenesis independent from the MTUS1. In conclusion, MTUS1 targeting miRNAs may play key roles in the development of CRC by downregulating tumor suppressor MTUS1.

Dai X, Liu Z, Zhang S
Over-expression of EPS15 is a favorable prognostic factor in breast cancer.
Mol Biosyst. 2015; 11(11):2978-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a crucial player in terminating growth factor signaling, EPS15 plays important roles in many malignancies including breast cancer. To explore the potential association of EPS15 with the clinical outcome of breast cancer, we conducted gene expression survival analysis using six independent datasets, checked its expression quantitative loci and their associated genes, and explored the networking of these genes with EPS15. Our results show that over-expression of EPS15 is significantly associated with a favorable clinical outcome of breast cancer, especially in tumors harbouring a positive estrogen receptor status. 21 unique SNPs were found to be associated with EPS15 expression. Among the neighboring genes of these SNPs, five (MTUS1, DOCK5, MSRA, SLIT3 and SKAP1) are genetically connected with EPS15 and its physical partners. These genes including EPS15 also show significant concurrent expressions, and four exhibit distinct relevance regarding patient survival. High expressions of EPS15 and MSRA show a distinct combinatorial favorable survival, suggesting the clinical relevance of their co-activation. In summary, over-expression of EPS15 is a potential favorable prognostic marker in breast cancer, which can be used clinically alone or together with other genes such as MSRA to avail therapeutic decision-making.

Zhao T, Ding X, Chang B, et al.
MTUS1/ATIP3a down-regulation is associated with enhanced migration, invasion and poor prognosis in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:203 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Microtubule-associated tumor suppressor gene (MTUS1) has been identified as tumor suppressor gene in many malignant tumors. In this study, we investigated the role of MTUS1 in the development of salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma (SACC) and its functional effect on the migration and invasion of SACC.
METHODS: Archival clinical samples including 49 primary SACC were examined for MTUS1 expression by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between MTUS1 with histopathological features and survival. The expression of MTUS1/ATIP (AT2 receptor-interacting protein) isoforms was determined in SACC tissue samples and cell lines using quantitative RT-PCR assays. Then we investigated whether the migration and invasion of SACC were mediated by MTUS1/ATIP3a using in vitro cell migration and invasion assay.
RESULTS: We confirmed that the down-regulation of MTUS1 was a frequent event in SACC, and was correlated with distant metastasis and associated with reduced overall survival and disease free survival. Isoform specific quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that ATIP1, ATIP3a and ATIP3b were the major isoforms of the MTUS1 gene products in SACC, and were significant down-regulation in SACC as compared to matching normal tissues. For functional analyses, we found that SACC-LM cells (SACC cell line with higher migration and invasion ability) possessed a lower expression level of ATIP3a compared to SACC-83 cells (lower migration and invasion ability). Restoration of ATIP3a expression in SACC-LM cells induced anti-proliferative activity and inhibited the migration and invasion ability. Knockdown of ATIP3a promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion ability of SACC-83 cells. Restoration of ATIP3a inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular-regulated kinase) 1/2, the expression of Slug and Vimentin in SACC-LM cells, while knockdown of ATIP3a increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, the expression of Slug and Vimentin in SACC-83 cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our studies confirm that MTUS1 plays an important role in the progression of SACC, and may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target for patients with SACC. MTUS1/ATIP3a down-regulation contributes to the proliferation, migration and the invasion abilities of SACC.

Kou Y, Zhao Y, Bao C, Wang Q
Comparison of Gene Expression Profile Between Tumor Tissue and Adjacent Non-tumor Tissue in Patients with Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).
Cell Biochem Biophys. 2015; 72(2):571-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are defined as spindle cell and/or epithelioid tumors originated from interstitial Cajal cells or precursors in the digestive tract. This study was conducted to identify genes differing in expression between the gastric tumors and the adjacent non-cancerous mucosas in patients with primary gastric GIST. The gene expression profile was determined by using oligonucleotide-based DNA microarrays and further validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was performed to predict signaling pathways involved in gastric GIST. Our data showed that the expression levels of 957 genes (RAB39B, member RAS oncogene family; VCAN, versican; etc.) were higher and that of 526 genes (CXCL14, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 14; MTUS1, microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1; etc.) were lower in the gastric tumor tissues as compared with normal gastric tissues. Results from KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were enriched into 16 signaling transduction pathways, including Hedeghog and Wnt signaling pathways. Our study may provide basis for identification of novel biomarkers associated with primary gastric GIST pathogenesis and for exploration of underlying mechanisms involved in this gastric sarcoma.

Liu Y, Wang L, Wang ZJ
Analysis of the biological function of ELDF15 using an antisense recombinant expression vector.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2014; 15(21):9131-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
ELDF15, homologous with AT2 receptor-interaction protein 1 (ATIP1), may play an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation, and carcinogenesis. We aimed to understand the biological function of ELDF15 via construction and transfection of a recombinant expression vector containing antisense ELDF15. Recombinant expression vectors were successfully constructed and transfected into K562 cells. A stable transfectant, known as pXJ41-asELDF15, stably produced antisense ELDF15. Compared with K562 and K562-zeo cells, K562- pXJ41-asELDF15 cells showed inhibition of cell proliferation. RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression and protein level of ELDF15 decreased significantly in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15. Expression of hemoglobin increased in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15 by benzidine staining. increases NBT reduction activity in K562 cells transfected with pXJ41-asELDF15.Colony forming efficiency in two-layer soft agar was clearly inhibited as assessed by electron microscopy. These results suggest that ELDF15 plays a potential role in cell differentiation, proliferation and carcinogenesis.

Yuan P, Liu D, Deng M, et al.
Identification of differently expressed genes with specific SNP Loci for breast cancer by the integration of SNP and gene expression profiling analyses.
Pathol Oncol Res. 2015; 21(2):469-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims to explore the relationship between gene polymorphism and breast cancer, and to screen DEGs (differentially expressed genes) with SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) related to breast cancer. The SNPs of 17 patients and the preprocessed SNP profiling GSE 32258 (38 cases of normal breast cells) were combined to identify their correlation with breast cancer using chi-square test. The gene expression profiling batch8_9 (38 cases of patients and 8 cases of normal tissue) was preprocessed with limma package, and the DEGs were filtered out. Then fisher's method was applied to integrate DEGs and SNPs associated with breast cancer. With NetBox software, TRED (Transcriptional Regulatory Element Database) and UCSC (University of California Santa Cruz) database, genes-associated network and transcriptional regulatory network were constructed using cytoscape software. Further, GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG analyses were performed for genes in the networks by using siggenes. In total, 332 DEGs were identified. There were 160 breast cancer-related SNPs related to 106 genes of gene expression profiling (19 were significant DEGs). Finally, 11co-correlated DEGs were selected. In genes-associated network, 9 significant DEGs were correlated to 23 LINKER genes while, in transcriptional regulatory network, E2F1 had regulatory relationships with 7 DEGs including MTUS1, CD44, CCNB1 and CCND2. KRAS with SNP locus of rs1137282 was involved in 35 KEGG pathways. The genes of MTUS1, CD44, CCNB1, CCND2 and KRAS with specific SNP loci may be used as biomarkers for diagnosis of breast cancer. Besides, E2F1 was recognized as the transcription factor of 7 DEGs including MTUS1, CD44, CCNB1 and CCND2.

Rogler A, Hoja S, Giedl J, et al.
Loss of MTUS1/ATIP expression is associated with adverse outcome in advanced bladder carcinomas: data from a retrospective study.
BMC Cancer. 2014; 14:214 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Seventy percent of all bladder tumours tend to recur and need intensive surveillance, and a subset of tumours progress to muscle-invasive and metastatic disease. However, it is still difficult to find the adequate treatment for every individual patient as it is a very heterogeneous disease and reliable biomarkers are still missing. In our study we searched for new target genes in the critical chromosomal region 8p and investigated the potential tumour suppressor gene candidate MTUS1/ATIP in bladder cancer.
METHODS: MTUS1 was identified to be the most promising deleted target gene at 8p in aCGH analysis with 19 papillary bladder tumours. A correlation with bladder cancer was further validated using immunohistochemistry of 85 papillary and 236 advanced bladder tumours and in functional experiments. Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox-regression addressed overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) as a function of MTUS1/ATIP expression. Bivariate correlations investigated associations between MTUS1/ATIP expression, patient characteristics and histopathology. MTUS1 expression was analysed in cell lines and overexpressed in RT112, where impact on viability, proliferation and migration was measured.
RESULTS: MTUS1 protein expression was lost in almost 50% of all papillary and advanced bladder cancers. Survival, however, was only influenced in advanced carcinomas, where loss of MTUS1 was associated with adverse OS and DSS. In this cohort, there was also a significant correlation of MTUS1 expression and histological subtype: positive expression was detected in all micropapillary tumours and aberrant nuclear staining was detected in a subset of plasmocytoid urothelial carcinomas. MTUS1 was expressed in all investigated bladder cell lines and overexpression in RT112 led to significantly decreased viability.
CONCLUSIONS: MTUS1 is a tumour suppressor gene in cultured bladder cancer cells and in advanced bladder tumours. It might represent one new target gene at chromosome 8p and can be used as an independent prognostic factor for advanced bladder cancer patients. The limitation of the study is the retrospective data analysis. Thus, findings should be validated with a prospective advanced bladder tumour cohort.

Ribeiro IP, Marques F, Caramelo F, et al.
Genetic imbalances detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in a cohort of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma-the first step towards clinical personalized medicine.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(5):4687-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oral tumors are a growing health problem worldwide; thus, it is mandatory to establish genetic markers in order to improve diagnosis and early detection of tumors, control relapses and, ultimately, delineate individualized therapies. This study was the first to evaluate and discuss the clinical applicability of a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) probe panel directed to head and neck cancer. Thirty primary oral squamous cell tumors were analyzed using the P428 MLPA probe panel. We detected genetic imbalances in 26 patients and observed a consistent pattern of distribution of genetic alterations in terms of losses and gains for some chromosomes, particularly for chromosomes 3, 8, and 11. Regarding the latter, some specific genes were highlighted due to frequent losses of genetic material--RARB, FHIT, CSMD1, GATA4, and MTUS1--and others due to gains--MCCC1, MYC, WISP1, PTK2, CCND1, FGF4, FADD, and CTTN. We also verified that the gains of MYC and WISP1 genes seem to suggest higher propensity of tumors localized in the floor of the mouth. This study proved the value of this MLPA probe panel for a first-tier analysis of oral tumors. The probemix was developed to include target regions that have been already shown to be of diagnostic/prognostic relevance for oral tumors. Furthermore, this study emphasized several of those specific genetic targets, suggesting its importance to oral tumor development, to predict patients' outcomes, and also to guide the development of novel molecular therapies.

Huang Y, Ju B, Tian J, et al.
Ovarian cancer stem cell-specific gene expression profiling and targeted drug prescreening.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 31(3):1235-48 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer stem cells, with unlimited self-renewal potential and other stem cell characteristics, occur in several types of cancer, including ovarian cancer (OvC). Although CSCs can cause tumor initiation, malignant proliferation, relapse and multi-drug resistance, ways to eliminate them remain unknown. In the present study, we compared ovarian cancer stem cell (OVCSC) expression profiles in normal ovarian surface epithelium and ovarian cells from patients with advanced disease to identify key pathways and specific molecular signatures involved in OVC progression and to prescreen candidate small-molecule compounds with anti-OVCSC activity. Comparison of genome-wide expression profiles of OvC stemness groups with non-stemness controls revealed 6495, 1347 and 509 differentially expressed genes in SDC, SP1 and SP2 groups, respectively, with a cut-off of fold-change set at >1.5 and P<0.05. NAB1 and NPIPL1 were commonly upregulated whereas PROS1, GREB1, KLF9 and MTUS1 were commonly downregulated in all 3 groups. Most differentially expressed genes consistently clustered with molecular functions such as protein receptor binding, kinase activity and chemo-repellent activity. These genes regulate cellular components such as centrosome, plasma membrane receptors, and basal lamina, and may participate in biological processes such as cell cycle regulation, chemoresistance and stemness induction. Key Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways such as ECM receptor, ErbB signaling, endocytosis and adherens junction pathways were enriched. Gene co-expression extrapolation screening by the Connectivity Map revealed several small-molecule compounds (such as SC-560, disulfiram, thapsigargin, esculetin and cinchonine) with potential anti-OVCSC properties targeting OVCSC signature genes. We identified several key CSC features and specific regulation networks in OVCSCs and predicted several small molecules with potential anti-OVCSC pharmacological properties, which may aid the development of OVCSC-specific drugs.

Li X, Liu H, Yu T, et al.
Loss of MTUS1 in gastric cancer promotes tumor growth and metastasis.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(2):128-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Though the overall incidence of gastric cancer was decreasing in the developed countries in the past decades, it is still a serious threat to human health throughout the world. The molecular mechanisms underlying development of gastric cancer remains unclear. Though accumulating evidences shed a light on the implications of mitochondrial tumor suppressor (MTUS1) in carcinogenesis, the functional role of MTUS1 in regulation of proliferation and metastasis of gastric cancer cell is still poorly understood. In this study, we showed that the level of MTUS1 expression is relatively low in gastric cancer cell lines compared to normal gastric epithelial cells. By using clinical samples, we found that MTUS1 expression is downregulated in tumor tissues compared to non-cancerous counterpart, and loss of MTUS1 was associated with high incidence of lymph node metastasis and poor patient outcome. Moreover, we demonstrate that MTUS1 has a significant impact on both the proliferative and metastatic potential of gastric cancer cell line, which were further supported by using mice tumor xenograft models. The present data suggested MTUS1 as a potential tumor suppressor in gastric cancer and might lead to a better understanding of gastric carcinogenesis.

Schwarzinger M, Sagaon-Teyssier L, Cabaret O, et al.
Performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis in febrile, neutropenic patients: a multi-state model.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65776 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis expectedly depends on the timing of test results relative to the empirical administration of antifungal therapy during neutropenia, although a dynamic evaluation framework is lacking.
METHODS: We developed a multi-state model describing simultaneously the likelihood of empirical antifungal therapy and the risk of invasive aspergillosis during neutropenia. We evaluated whether the first positive test result with a biomarker is an independent predictor of invasive aspergillosis when both diagnostic information used to treat and risk factors of developing invasive aspergillosis are taken into account over time. We applied the multi-state model to a homogeneous cohort of 185 high-risk patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Patients were prospectively screened for galactomannan antigenemia twice a week for immediate treatment decision; 2,214 serum samples were collected on the same days and blindly assessed for (1->3)- β-D-glucan antigenemia and a quantitative PCR assay targeting a mitochondrial locus.
RESULTS: The usual evaluation framework of biomarker performance was unable to distinguish clinical benefits of β-glucan or PCR assays. The multi-state model evidenced that the risk of invasive aspergillosis is a complex time function of neutropenia duration and risk management. The quantitative PCR assay accelerated the early detection of invasive aspergillosis (P = .010), independently of other diagnostic information used to treat, while β-glucan assay did not (P = .53).
CONCLUSIONS: The performance of serum biomarkers for the early detection of invasive aspergillosis is better apprehended by the evaluation of time-varying predictors in a multi-state model. Our results provide strong rationale for prospective studies testing a preemptive antifungal therapy, guided by clinical, radiological, and bi-weekly blood screening with galactomannan antigenemia and a standardized quantitative PCR assay.

Molina A, Velot L, Ghouinem L, et al.
ATIP3, a novel prognostic marker of breast cancer patient survival, limits cancer cell migration and slows metastatic progression by regulating microtubule dynamics.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(9):2905-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis, a fatal complication of breast cancer, does not fully benefit from available therapies. In this study, we investigated whether ATIP3, the major product of 8p22 MTUS1 gene, may be a novel biomarker and therapeutic target for metastatic breast tumors. We show that ATIP3 is a prognostic marker for overall survival among patients with breast cancer. Notably, among metastatic tumors, low ATIP3 levels associate with decreased survival of the patients. By using a well-defined experimental mouse model of cancer metastasis, we show that ATIP3 expression delays the time-course of metastatic progression and limits the number and size of metastases in vivo. In functional studies, ATIP3 silencing increases breast cancer cell migration, whereas ATIP3 expression significantly reduces cell motility and directionality. We report here that ATIP3 is a potent microtubule-stabilizing protein whose depletion increases microtubule dynamics. Our data support the notion that by decreasing microtubule dynamics, ATIP3 controls the ability of microtubule tips to reach the cell cortex during migration, a mechanism that may account for reduced cancer cell motility and metastasis. Of interest, we identify a functional ATIP3 domain that associates with microtubules and recapitulates the effects of ATIP3 on microtubule dynamics, cell proliferation, and migration. Our study is a major step toward the development of new personalized treatments against metastatic breast tumors that have lost ATIP3 expression.

Loo LW, Tiirikainen M, Cheng I, et al.
Integrated analysis of genome-wide copy number alterations and gene expression in microsatellite stable, CpG island methylator phenotype-negative colon cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(5):450-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Microsatellite stable (MSS), CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP)-negative colorectal tumors, the most prevalent molecular subtype of colorectal cancer, are associated with extensive copy number alteration (CNA) events and aneuploidy. We report on the identification of characteristic recurrent CNA (with frequency >25%) events and associated gene expression profiles for a total of 40 paired tumor and adjacent normal colon tissues using genome-wide microarrays. We observed recurrent CNAs, namely gains at 1q, 7p, 7q, 8p12-11, 8q, 12p13, 13q, 20p, 20q, Xp, and Xq and losses at 1p36, 1p31, 1p21, 4p15-12, 4q12-35, 5q21-22, 6q26, 8p, 14q, 15q11-12, 17p, 18p, 18q, 21q21-22, and 22q. Within these genomic regions we identified 356 genes with significant differential expression (P < 0.0001 and ±1.5-fold change) in the tumor compared to adjacent normal tissue. Gene ontology and pathway analyses indicated that many of these genes were involved in functional mechanisms that regulate cell cycle, cell death, and metabolism. An amplicon present in >70% of the tumor samples at 20q11-20q13 contained several cancer-related genes (AHCY, POFUT1, RPN2, TH1L, and PRPF6) that were upregulated and demonstrated a significant linear correlation (P < 0.05) for gene dosage and gene expression. Copy number loss at 8p, a CNA associated with adenocarcinoma and poor prognosis, was observed in >50% of the tumor samples and demonstrated a significant linear correlation for gene dosage and gene expression for two potential tumor suppressor genes, MTUS1 (8p22) and PPP2CB (8p12). The results from our integration analysis illustrate the complex relationship between genomic alterations and gene expression in colon cancer.

Ding X, Zhang N, Cai Y, et al.
Down-regulation of tumor suppressor MTUS1/ATIP is associated with enhanced proliferation, poor differentiation and poor prognosis in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
Mol Oncol. 2012; 6(1):73-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Microtubule-associated tumor suppressor gene (MTUS1, also known as mitochondrial tumor suppressor) is a recently identified tumor suppressor gene that has been implicated in several cancer types. The expression of MTUS1 gene leads to 5 known transcript variants and codes for 5 isoforms of Angiotensin II AT2 receptor interacting protein (ATIP). In this study, we first confirmed that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was a frequent event in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) and the premalignant lesion (leukoplakia). We further demonstrated that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was correlated with poor differentiation and enhanced proliferation (Ki67 proliferation index). Statistical analysis suggests that the down-regulation of MTUS1/ATIP was associated with reduced overall survival. Isoform specific quantitative RT-PCR assays revealed that ATIP1, ATIP3a and ATIP3b were the major isoforms of the MTUS1 gene products in oral tongue epithelial cells. Significant down-regulations were observed for all 3 ATIP isoforms in OTSCC as compared to matching normal tissues. In vitro functional study showed that the restoration of ATIP1 expression led to G1 arrest, apoptosis and reduction of cell proliferation in OTSCC cell lines. These ATIP1-induced cellular changes were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and up-regulation of p53. Taken together, these data suggest that MTUS1 plays major roles in the progression of OTSCC, and may serve as a biomarker or therapeutic target for patients with OTSCC.

Melcher R, Hartmann E, Zopf W, et al.
LOH and copy neutral LOH (cnLOH) act as alternative mechanism in sporadic colorectal cancers with chromosomal and microsatellite instability.
Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(4):636-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tumor suppressor genes are often located in frequently deleted chromosomal regions of colorectal cancers (CRCs). In contrast to microsatellite stable (MSS) tumors, only few loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies were performed in microsatellite instable (MSI) tumors, because MSI carcinomas are generally considered to be chromosomally stable and classical LOH studies are not feasible due to MSI. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array technique enables LOH studies also in MSI CRC. The aim of our study was to analyse tissue from MSI and MSS CRC for the existence of (frequently) deleted chromosomal regions and tumor suppressor genes located therein.
METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed tissues from 32 sporadic CRCs and their corresponding normal mucosa (16 MSS and 16 MSI tumors) by means of 50K SNP array analysis. MSS tumors displayed chromosomal instability that resulted in multiple deleted (LOH) and amplified regions and led to the identification of MTUS1 (8p22) as a candidate tumor suppressor gene in this region. Although the MSI tumors were chromosomally stable, we found several copy neutral LOHs (cnLOH) in the MSI tumors; these appear to be instrumental in the inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene hMLH1 and a gene located in chromosomal region 6pter-p22.
DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that in addition to classical LOH, cnLOH is an important mutational event in relation to the carcinogenesis of MSS and MSI tumors, causing the inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene without copy number alteration of the respective region; this is crucial for the development of MSI tumors and for some chromosomal regions in MSS tumors.

Bacolod MD, Barany F
Gene dysregulations driven by somatic copy number aberrations-biological and clinical implications in colon tumors: a paper from the 2009 William Beaumont Hospital Symposium on Molecular Pathology.
J Mol Diagn. 2010; 12(5):552-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The majority of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases have chromosomal instability, in which the tumor genome is characterized by gross chromosomal aberrations such as gains in 20q, 13q, 8q, and 7, and losses in 4, 8p, 18q, and 17p. These somatic copy number changes (gains, losses, and somatic uniparental disomies) are crucial to CRC progression as they drive genes toward cancer-promoting (oncogenic or tumor suppressive) states. Numerous studies have shown that the loss of 18q or 8p is associated with poorer clinical outcome in CRCs. Either chromosomal arm may contain a tumor suppressor gene (or genes), whose deactivation by copy loss (loss of wild-type allele, decreased expression) can be crucial to the later stages of cancer progression. Our own integrated genomic analysis (single nucleotide polymorphism array, expression array) of more than 200 CRC tumor and normal samples indicates that the overall down-regulation of genes within the 8p or 18q arm is associated with lower survival rate. Among the often down-regulated, poor prognosis-associated 8p genes is MTUS1, whose gene product (a mitotic spindle-associated protein) was recently demonstrated to have a tumor suppressive property. Within 18q is ATP5A1, which codes for the catalytic a component of mitochondrial H(+)-ATP synthase. Like SMAD4 (also in 18q), the decreased expression of ATP5A1 appears to be a marker of unfavorable clinical outcome in CRCs.

Louis SN, Chow L, Rezmann L, et al.
Expression and function of ATIP/MTUS1 in human prostate cancer cell lines.
Prostate. 2010; 70(14):1563-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated Ang II type 2 (AT(2)-) receptor-mediated inhibition of EGF-induced prostate cancer cell growth in androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and independent (PC3) prostate cancer cell lines.
METHODS: To explore the signaling pathways involved in this inhibitory effect, we examined the interaction of the AT(2)-receptor with its novel regulatory partner ATIP using real time PCR, over-expression, siRNA and [(3)H]thymidine incorporation assays.
RESULTS: The results in human prostate cancer cell lines demonstrate the presence of ATIP in both cell lines examined, and suggest that (i) the AT(2)-receptor through an interaction with ATIP mediates an anti-growth factor effect in both androgen-dependent and androgen-independent cell lines; (ii) ATIP expression decreases as the rate of cell growth and androgen-independence increase; and (iii) EGF may act on cell growth in part by reducing the content of ATIP present in the cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The results support our earlier proposal in normal cell lines that ATIP is an important component of the cellular response to AT(2)-receptor activation. The results further suggest that a critical level of ATIP is required to mediate the effect of AT(2)-receptor activation to inhibit EGF mediated increases in cell growth. They also suggest that EGF may in part induce cell growth by suppressing the level of ATIP expression.

Zuern C, Heimrich J, Kaufmann R, et al.
Down-regulation of MTUS1 in human colon tumors.
Oncol Rep. 2010; 23(1):183-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of proliferative control and failure to undergo cellular differentiation are key events during carcinogenesis. We recently identified a new potential tumor suppressor gene named MTUS1 (mitochondrial tumor suppressor 1), down-regulated in undifferentiated tumor cell lines, inhibiting tumor cell proliferation after recombinant over-expression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MTUS1 is also down-regulated in human tumor tissues, and whether reduced expression of MTUS1 enhances cellular proliferation. Expression of MTUS1 in human colon cancer tissues was compared with corresponding normal colon tissues using Western blot analysis and RT-PCR. Investigation of the DNA sequence and methylation pattern was performed using bisulfite reaction and DNA sequencing. Promotor activity was measured by promoter assays. Silencing of MTUS1 was carried out by siRNA transfection. Proliferation was measured by cell count. MTUS1 expression is significantly down-regulated in colon cancer tissues, compared to the corresponding normal tissues, on protein and mRNA level. No mutations of MTUS1 were detected in the coding sequence or the predicted promoter region in cancer tissues. No difference of CpG methylation, but an altered CpNpG methylation was found in the predicted promoter region. Functional significance of the predicted promoter region was demonstrated by promoter assays. Down-regulation of the MTUS1 expression by siRNA transfection significantly increased cellular proliferation. This study demonstrates a significant down-regulation of the MTUS1 expression in human colon cancer tissues. Since reduced expression of MTUS1 results in increased cellular proliferation, these data suggest that MTUS1 could be involved in the loss of proliferative control in human colon cancer.

Rodrigues-Ferreira S, Di Tommaso A, Dimitrov A, et al.
8p22 MTUS1 gene product ATIP3 is a novel anti-mitotic protein underexpressed in invasive breast carcinoma of poor prognosis.
PLoS One. 2009; 4(10):e7239 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that is not totally eradicated by current therapies. The classification of breast tumors into distinct molecular subtypes by gene profiling and immunodetection of surrogate markers has proven useful for tumor prognosis and prediction of effective targeted treatments. The challenge now is to identify molecular biomarkers that may be of functional relevance for personalized therapy of breast tumors with poor outcome that do not respond to available treatments. The Mitochondrial Tumor Suppressor (MTUS1) gene is an interesting candidate whose expression is reduced in colon, pancreas, ovary and oral cancers. The present study investigates the expression and functional effects of MTUS1 gene products in breast cancer.
METHODS AND FINDINGS: By means of gene array analysis, real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, we show here that MTUS1/ATIP3 is significantly down-regulated in a series of 151 infiltrating breast cancer carcinomas as compared to normal breast tissue. Low levels of ATIP3 correlate with high grade of the tumor and the occurrence of distant metastasis. ATIP3 levels are also significantly reduced in triple negative (ER- PR- HER2-) breast carcinomas, a subgroup of highly proliferative tumors with poor outcome and no available targeted therapy. Functional studies indicate that silencing ATIP3 expression by siRNA increases breast cancer cell proliferation. Conversely, restoring endogenous levels of ATIP3 expression leads to reduced cancer cell proliferation, clonogenicity, anchorage-independent growth, and reduces the incidence and size of xenografts grown in vivo. We provide evidence that ATIP3 associates with the microtubule cytoskeleton and localizes at the centrosomes, mitotic spindle and intercellular bridge during cell division. Accordingly, live cell imaging indicates that ATIP3 expression alters the progression of cell division by promoting prolonged metaphase, thereby leading to a reduced number of cells ungergoing active mitosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results identify for the first time ATIP3 as a novel microtubule-associated protein whose expression is significantly reduced in highly proliferative breast carcinomas of poor clinical outcome. ATIP3 re-expression limits tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that this protein may represent a novel useful biomarker and an interesting candidate for future targeted therapies of aggressive breast cancer.

Tchatchou S, Burwinkel B
Chromosome copy number variation and breast cancer risk.
Cytogenet Genome Res. 2008; 123(1-4):183-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer among women. It is caused by genetic and environmental factors. Whereas mutations in high-penetrance susceptibility genes have been identified in familial breast cancer and several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to be associated with both familial and sporadic breast cancer risk, the impact of genomic copy number variants (CNVs) on breast cancer risk has so far poorly been studied. An example of a CNV affecting the tumor suppressor gene MTUS1 that has been shown to be associated with familial breast cancer risk is given. Moreover, we discuss CNVs affecting detoxification genes like GSTM1 and GSTT1 whose association with breast cancer risk is controversial. Finally, the potential of array-based genome-wide CNV association studies is discussed.

Sato K, Shimode Y, Hirokawa M, et al.
Thyroid adenomatous nodule with bizarre nuclei: a case report and mutation analysis of the p53 gene.
Pathol Res Pract. 2008; 204(3):191-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present a rare case of adenomatous nodule with bizarre nuclei. The patient was incidentally found to have a nodule in the left lobe of the thyroid gland by ultrasonographic examination. Papillary thyroid carcinoma was suspected by fine needle aspiration cytology, and hemithyroidectomy was performed. The demarcated 1.5-cm nodule had a multinodular appearance with various features, including micro- and macrofollicular components, cystic degeneration, a hyalinized area, and a papillary structure. Hyperchromatic bizarre nuclei with cytoplasmic inclusions were restrictively observed in the microfollicular area. The bizarre nuclei demonstrated diffuse p53 protein immmunoreactivity, but no mutation in exons 5-9 of the p53 gene was detected. The bizarre nuclei were reactive for anti-5-methyl-2'-deoxycytidine antibody, indicating the enclosure of presumably inactive methylated DNA. The intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions (ICIs) were proven to contain vimentin and beta-catenin by immunohistochemistry. In this case, a degenerative process is involved in the formation of bizarre nuclei because of the compression by surrounding micronodules, unidentifiable mitotic figures, and a quite low proliferative activity. This case suggests that bizarre nuclei and ICIs, which might be identical to those of papillary carcinomas, can be seen in benign thyroid lesions, and overdiagnosis should be avoided regardless of immunohistochemical overexpression of p53.

Neri P, Tassone P, Shammas M, et al.
Biological pathways and in vivo antitumor activity induced by Atiprimod in myeloma.
Leukemia. 2007; 21(12):2519-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
Atiprimod (Atip) is a novel oral agent with anti-inflammatory properties. Although its in vitro activity and effects on signaling in multiple myeloma (MM) have been previously reported, here we investigated its molecular and in vivo effects in MM. Gene expression analysis of MM cells identified downregulation of genes involved in adhesion, cell-signaling, cell cycle and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways and upregulation of genes implicated in apoptosis and bone development, following Atip treatment. The pathway analysis identified integrin, TGF-beta and FGF signaling as well as Wnt/beta-catenin, IGF1 and cell-cycle regulation networks as being most modulated by Atip treatment. We further evaluated its in vivo activity in three mouse models. The subcutaneous model confirmed its in vivo activity and established its dose; the SCID-hu model using INA-6 cells, confirmed its ability to overcome the protective effects of BM milieu; and the SCID-hu model using primary MM cells reconfirmed its activity in a model closest to human disease. Finally, we observed reduced number of osteoclasts and modulation of genes related to BMP pathways. Taken together, these data demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of Atip, delineate potential molecular targets triggered by this agent, and provide a preclinical rational for its clinical evaluation in MM.

Ye H, Pungpravat N, Huang BL, et al.
Genomic assessments of the frequent loss of heterozygosity region on 8p21.3-p22 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2007; 176(2):100-6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Most human cancers are characterized by genetic instabilities. Chromosomal aberrations include segments of allelic imbalance identifiable by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at polymorphic loci, which may be used to implicate regions harboring tumor suppressor genes. Here we performed whole-genome LOH profiling on 41 human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. Several frequent LOH regions were identified on chromosomal arms 3p, 4p, 4q, 5q, 8p, 9p, 10p, 11q, and 17p. A genomic region of approximately 7 Mb located at 8p21.3 approximately p22 exhibits the most frequent LOH (87.9%), which suggests that this region harbors one or more important tumor suppressor genes. Mitochondrial tumor suppressor gene 1 (MTUS1) is a recently identified candidate tumor suppressor gene that resides in this region. Consistent downregulation in expression was observed in HNSCC for MTUS1 as measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Sequence analysis of MTUS1 gene in HNSCC revealed several important sequence variants in the exon regions of this gene. Thus, our results suggest that MTUS1 is one of the candidate tumor suppressor genes for HNSCC residing at 8p21.3 approximately p22. The identification of these candidate genes will facilitate the understanding of tumorigenesis of HNSCC.

Frank B, Bermejo JL, Hemminki K, et al.
Copy number variant in the candidate tumor suppressor gene MTUS1 and familial breast cancer risk.
Carcinogenesis. 2007; 28(7):1442-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Copy number variants (CNVs), insertions, deletions and duplications, contribute considerably to human genetic variation and disease development. A recent study has characterized 100 CNVs including a deletion in the mitochondrial tumor suppressor gene 1 (MTUS1) lacking the coding exon 4. MTUS1 maps to chromosome 8p, a region frequently deleted and associated with disease progression in human cancers, including breast cancer (BC). To investigate the effect of the MTUS1 CNV on familial BC risk, we analyzed 593 BC patients and 732 control individuals using a case-control study design. We found a significant association of the deletion variant with a decreased risk for both familial and high-risk familial BC (odds ratio (OR) = 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.37-0.90, P = 0.01 and OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.23-0.74, P = 0.003), supporting its role in human cancer. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to determine the impact of a CNV in a tumor suppressor gene on cancer risk.

Lee S, Bang S, Song K, Lee I
Differential expression in normal-adenoma-carcinoma sequence suggests complex molecular carcinogenesis in colon.
Oncol Rep. 2006; 16(4):747-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
The majority of colon cancers develop from pre-existing adenomas. We analyzed the expression profiles in the sequence of normal colon crypts, adenomas and early-stage carcinomas using microdissected cells from tubular adenomas with foci of malignant transformation. Differentially expressed genes were detected between normal-adenoma and adenoma-carcinoma, and were grouped according to the patterns of expression changes in the sequence. Down-regulated genes in the sequence included PLA2G2A, TSPAN1, PDCD4, FCGBP, AATK, EPLIN, FABP1, AGR2, MTUS1, TSC1, galectin 4 and MT1F. PLA2G2A has been shown to suppress colon tumorigenesis in mice, but the pathobiological role in humans has been controversial. Our data showed continuous down-regulation of PLA2G2A in the sequence supporting an implication in human colon cancer. Tumor suppressor and/ or proapoptotic activities have also been reported in other genes. Up-regulated genes included ribosomal proteins, IER3 and TPR. TGF-beta2 and matrix metalloproteinase 23B were up-regulated in carcinoma but not in adenoma, supporting the pathobiological roles in malignant transformation. Differentially expressed genes partly coincided with those in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of the stomach, which was published previously, suggesting a partial overlap between the adenoma-carcinoma sequences of the colon and stomach.

Di Benedetto M, Pineau P, Nouet S, et al.
Mutation analysis of the 8p22 candidate tumor suppressor gene ATIP/MTUS1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006; 252(1-2):207-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
A high frequency of allelic loss affecting chromosome 8p and a minimal region of deletion at p21-22 have been previously reported in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), suggesting that at least one tumor suppressor gene is present in this region. In this study, we assessed whether the angiotensin II AT2 receptor interacting protein (ATIP)/mitochondrial tumor suppressor gene (MTUS1), a gene newly identified at position 8p22, may be a candidate tumor suppressor gene mutated in HCC. We searched for alterations in the 17 coding exons of ATIP/MTUS1 by means of denaturating high-performance liquid chromatography and sequencing, in 51 HCC tumors and 58 cell lines for which loss of heterozygosity status was known. Five major nucleotide substitutions were identified, all located in exons used by the ATIP3 transcript which is the only ATIP transcript variant expressed in liver. These nucleotide variations result in amino-acid substitution or deletion of conserved structural motifs (nuclear localisation signal, polyproline motif, leucine zipper) and also affect exonic splicing enhancer motifs and physiological splice sites, suggesting potential deleterious effects on ATIP3 function and/or expression.

Pils D, Horak P, Gleiss A, et al.
Five genes from chromosomal band 8p22 are significantly down-regulated in ovarian carcinoma: N33 and EFA6R have a potential impact on overall survival.
Cancer. 2005; 104(11):2417-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Loss of heterozygosity on chromosomal band 8p22 is a common event in several epithelial tumors including ovarian carcinoma. So far, no clear evidence for a tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in this region has been found.
METHODS: On the basis of publicly available expression data in ovarian tissues, the authors selected the eight most noteworthy genes from 8p22 (DLC1, N33, ZDHHC2, FLJ32642, PDGFRL, MTSG1, PCM1, and EFA6R) for a detailed expression analysis in 58 primary ovarian carcinoma tissues and in 38 ovarian cancer cell lines by using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Expression data were correlated to various clinicopathologic characteristics and survival.
RESULTS: Two genes showed a significantly (P< 0.05) lower expression in grade 3 tumors compared with tumors of lower grade (N33) or compared with normal controls and tumors with lower grade (EFA6R). Expression of N33 and EFA6R seems to have an impact on survival, in particular when the combined expression of both genes was used as predictive factor (P< 0.003). In addition, N33 and EFA6R showed a complete loss of expression in several ovarian cancer cell lines. Three genes (FLJ32642, MTSG1, and PCM1) had a significantly (P< 0.001, P< 0.004, and P< 0.001) lower expression in primary ovarian carcinoma compared with controls (ovarian tissues and cysts).
CONCLUSIONS: Two to five new potential tumor suppressor or antagonizing gene candidates (N33 and EFA6R with impact on survival, and potentially FLJ32642, MTSG1, and PCM1) for ovarian carcinoma, were identified from the chromosomal band 8p22 and are promising candidates for further functional analysis in ovarian carcinoma.

Blokx WA, de Jong EM, de Wilde PC, et al.
P16 and p53 expression in (pre)malignant epidermal tumors of renal transplant recipients and immunocompetent individuals.
Mod Pathol. 2003; 16(9):869-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a prevailing factor implicated in the etiology of keratinocytic intraepidermal neoplasia (KIN) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), as evidenced by the high frequency of UV-related mutations in the p53 and p16 tumor suppressor genes. In renal transplant recipients (RTRs), immunosuppression is considered another important risk factor in the enhanced carcinogenesis in these patients. So far, effects of UV and immune status on p53 and p16 immunoexpression in SCCs and precursors have not been studied. The aims of this study were to assess (1) the relation between risk factors for carcinogenesis, sun exposure and immune status, and p16 or p53 expression, and (2) to assess differences in p16 and p53 expression between KINs and SCCs. Immunostaining for p16 and p53 was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of 23 low-grade KIN (LKIN) lesions, 28 high-grade KINs (HKINs), and 35 SCCs from 44 RTRs and 42 immunocompetent controls (ICIs). In 74/86 lesions (86%), p53 was expressed, and in 63/86 (76%) lesions, p16 expression was present. Negativity for both p16 and p53 was found in 4/86 (5%) cases, whereas combined p53/p16 staining was most prevalent (55/86 lesions, 64%). P16 staining proved independent of p53 expression (P =.8), and immune status, sun exposure, and histological diagnosis (LKIN-HKIN-SCC) had no influence on this independence. Transplantation was associated with p53 expression in SCCs (P =.02; power = 34%) caused by higher prevalence of p53-negative SCCs in RTRs than in ICIs (30% versus 0). In HKINs, p16 was more frequently positive than in LKINs (P =.003; power = 49%) and SCCs (P =.03; power = 53%). HKINs showed more frequent transepidermal p16 and p53 staining than LKIN lesions (P <.001; power >/= 99%). This study demonstrates that in KIN lesions and cutaneous SCCs, p16 expression is independent of p53 expression, and immune status, sun exposure, and histological diagnosis have no influence on this independence. Furthermore, HKIN lesions express significantly more p16 than LKINs and SCCs.

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