Gene Summary

Gene:BMP2; bone morphogenetic protein 2
Aliases: BDA2, BMP2A
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFB) superfamily. The encoded protein acts as a disulfide-linked homodimer and induces bone and cartilage formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:bone morphogenetic protein 2
Source:NCBIAccessed: 20 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 20 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptors, Type I
  • Apoptosis
  • Osteoblasts
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • siRNA
  • Tumor Markers
  • Chromosome 20
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Western Blotting
  • Staging
  • Promoter Regions
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • DNA Methylation
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • beta Catenin
  • Breast Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Osteosarcoma
  • Messenger RNA
  • Cultured Cells
  • Lung Cancer
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Bone Morphogenetic Proteins
  • Bone Cancer
  • Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit
  • Protein Conformation
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • src-Family Kinases
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2
Tag cloud generated 20 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BMP2 (cancer-related)

Liao A, Wang W, Sun D, et al.
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 mediates epithelial-mesenchymal transition via AKT and ERK signaling pathways in gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(4):2773-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although deregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) signaling has been linked to various types of cancers, the relationships between abnormal activation of these signaling pathways and tumorigenesis are not clear in gastric cancer. We hypothesized that BMP2 might be involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process of gastric cancer. Here, BMPR-II activation and inhibition in gastric cancer cell line AGS were induced with exogenous BMP2 and with BMPR-II small interfering RNA (siRNA), respectively. BMPR-II downstream signal molecules AKT, ERK phosphorylation, and EMT biomarkers (vimentin, snail, N-cadherin, and E-cadherin) were tested using the Western blot. In the present study, our results showed that BMP2 can induce AKT and ERK phosphorylation in a dose-dependent method, and endogenous BMPR-II can be inhibited completely by BMPR-II siRNA in AGS. Notably BMP2 alone treatment can induce the up-regulation of vimentin, snail, and N-cadherin in AGS cells, besides, the down-regulation of E-cadherin also occurred. On the contrary, BMPR-II siRNA significantly prohibited BMP2-induced AKT and ERK phosphorylation, at the same time, EMT biomarkers changes were not observed. On the other hand, BMPR-II knockdown could significantly affect AGS wound closure and the migration ability (p < 0.001) compared to control siRNA and BMP2 alone. In conclusion, this study suggested that EMT process can be triggered by the BMP2/BMPR axis in gastric cancer and then involved in the tumor cell migration, invasion, and metastasis via the activation of PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathways. Our study lays a new foundation for the treatment of gastric cancer through antagonizing BMP2 system.

Wang L, Park P, La Marca F, et al.
BMP-2 inhibits tumor-initiating ability in human renal cancer stem cells and induces bone formation.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2015; 141(6):1013-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: We have previously shown that BMP-2 induces bone formation and inhibits tumorigenicity of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in a human osteosarcoma OS99-1 cell line. In this study, we sought to determine whether BMP-2 can similarly induce bone formation and inhibit the tumorigenicity of renal CSCs identified based on aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell lines and primary tumors.
METHODS: Using a xenograft model in which cells from human RCC cell lines ACHN, Caki-2, and primary tumors were grown in NOD/SCID mice, renal CSCs were identified as a subset of ALDH(br) cells. The ALDH(br) cells possessed a greater colony-forming efficiency, higher proliferative output, increased expression of stem cell marker genes Oct3/4A, Nanog, renal embryonic marker Pax-2, and greater tumorigenicity compared to cells with low ALDH activity (ALDH(lo) cells), generating new tumors with as few as 25 cells in mice.
RESULTS: In vitro, BMP-2 was found to inhibit the ALDH(br) cell growth, down-regulate the expression of embryonic stem cell markers, and up-regulate the transcription of osteogenic markers. In vivo, all animals receiving a low number of ALDH(br) cells (5 × 10(3)) from ACHN, Caki-2, and primary tumor xenografts treated with 30 µg BMP-2 per animal showed limited tumor growth with significant bone formation, while untreated cells developed large tumor masses without bone formation.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that BMP-2 inhibits the tumor-initiating ability of renal CSCs and induces osseous bone formation. BMP-2 may therefore provide a beneficial strategy for human RCC treatment by targeting the CSC-enriched population.

Schminke B, Vom Orde F, Gruber R, et al.
The pathology of bone tissue during peri-implantitis.
J Dent Res. 2015; 94(2):354-61 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
Dental implants are one of the most frequently used treatment options for tooth replacement. Approximately 30% of patients with dental implants develop peri-implantitis, which is an oral inflammatory disease that leads to loss of the supporting tissues, predominately the bone. For the development of future therapeutic strategies, it is essential to understand the molecular pathophysiology of human dental peri-implant infections. Here, we describe the gene and protein expression patterns of peri-implantitis bone tissue compared with healthy peri-implant bone tissue. Furthermore, cells from the osteoblastic lineage derived from peri-implantitis samples were immortalized and characterized. We applied microarray, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and Western blot analyses. The levels of typical bone matrix molecules, including SPP1, BGLAP, and COL9A1, in patients with peri-implantitis were reduced, while the inflammation marker interleukin 8 (IL8) was highly expressed. RUNX2, one of the transcription factors of mature osteoblasts, was also decreased in peri-implantitis. Finally, the human telomerase reverse transcriptase immortalized cell line from peri-implantitis exhibited a more fibro-osteoblastic character than did the healthy control.

Cong Y, Li CJ, Zhao JN, et al.
Associations of polymorphisms in the bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene with risk and prognosis of osteosarcoma in a Chinese population.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(3):2059-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is the most common type of bone cancer in adolescence. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) plays important roles in the development of bone and cartilage and in inhibiting the tumorigenicity of cancer stem cells in human osteosarcoma cell line. The aim of this study was to examine whether polymorphisms in the BMP2 gene are associated with osteosarcoma risk and prognosis in Chinese population. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the BMP2 gene were genotyped in a case-control study, including 203 osteosarcoma patients and 406 cancer-free controls. We found that rs3178250 TT genotype was associated with significant increased osteosarcoma risk (age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.06, 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 1.23-3.45) compared with CC genotype. Subjects carrying the AA genotype of rs1005464 had significant decreased cancer risk (age-adjusted OR = 0.44, 95% CI of 0.23-0.85) compared with those carrying the GG genotype. Haplotype analysis also showed that carriers of the G-T-T-G and A-T-T-G haplotypes (rs235764-rs3178250-rs235768-rs1005464) had significant increased risks of osteosarcoma (age-adjusted OR = 1.85, 95% CI of 1.28-2.66 and age-adjusted OR = 1.51, 95% CI of 1.06-2.16) compared with the G-C-T-A haplotype carriers. Besides, rs1005464 was an independent prognostic factor for osteosarcoma patients (GA vs. GG: age-adjusted hazard radio (HR) = 0.60, 95% CI of 0.36-0.99). Our data suggest that genetic mutations in the BMP2 gene are associated with osteosarcoma risk and prognosis in a Chinese population.

Liu Y, Li P, Liu K, et al.
Timely inhibition of Notch signaling by DAPT promotes cardiac differentiation of murine pluripotent stem cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(10):e109588 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2016 Related Publications
The Notch signaling pathway plays versatile roles during heart development. However, there is contradictory evidence that Notch pathway either facilitates or impairs cardiomyogenesis in vitro. In this study, we developed iPSCs by reprogramming of murine fibroblasts with GFP expression governed by Oct4 promoter, and identified an effective strategy to enhance cardiac differentiation through timely modulation of Notch signaling. The Notch inhibitor DAPT (N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-l-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester) alone drove the iPSCs to a neuronal fate. After mesoderm induction of embryoid bodies initiated by ascorbic acid (AA), the subsequent treatment of DAPT accelerated the generation of spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes. The timed synergy of AA and DAPT yielded an optimal efficiency of cardiac differentiation. Mechanistic studies showed that Notch pathway plays a biphasic role in cardiomyogenesis. It favors the early-stage cardiac differentiation, but exerts negative effects on the late-stage differentiation. Therefore, DAPT administration at the late stage enforced the inhibition of endogenous Notch activity, thereby enhancing cardiomyogenesis. In parallel, DAPT dramatically augmented the expression of Wnt3a, Wnt11, BMP2, and BMP4. In conclusion, our results highlight a practicable approach to generate cardiomyocytes from iPSCs based on the stage-specific biphasic roles of Notch signaling in cardiomyogenesis.

Tan X, Chen M
MYLK and MYL9 expression in non-small cell lung cancer identified by bioinformatics analysis of public expression data.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(12):12189-200 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene expression microarrays are widely used to investigate molecular targets in cancers, including lung cancer. In this study, we analyzed online non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) microarray databases, to screen the key genes and pathways related to NSCLC by bioinformatics analyses. And then, the expression levels of two selected genes in the down-regulated co-pathways, myosin light chain kinase (MYLK) and myosin regulatory light chain 9 (MYL9), were determined in tumor, paired paraneoplastic, and normal lung tissues. First, gene set enrichment analysis and meta-analysis were conducted to identify key genes and pathways that contribute to NSCLC carcinogenesis. Second, using the total RNA and protein extracted from lung cancer tissues (n = 240), adjacent non-cancer tissues (n = 240), and normal lung tissues (n = 300), we examined the MYLK and MYL9 expression levels by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Finally, we explored the correlations between mRNA and protein expressions of these two genes and the clinicopathological parameters of NSCLC. Fifteen up-regulated and nine down-regulated co-pathways were observed. A number of differentially expressed genes (CALM1, THBS1, CSF3, BMP2, IL6ST, MYLK, ROCK2, IL3RA, MYL9, PPP2CA, CSF2RB, CNAQ, GRIA2, IL10RA, IL10RB, IL11RA, LIFR, PLCB4, and RAC3) were identified (P < 0.01) in the down-regulated co-pathways. The expression levels of MYLK and MYL9, which act downstream of the vascular smooth muscle contraction signal pathway and focal adhesion pathway, were significantly lower in cancer tissue than those in the paraneoplastic and normal tissues (P < 0.05). Moreover, the expression levels of these two genes in stages III and IV NSCLC were significantly increased, when compared to stages I and II, and expressions levels in NSCLC with lymphatic metastasis were higher than that without lymphatic metastasis (P < 0.05). Additionally, significant lower expression levels of the two genes were found in smokers than in nonsmokers (P < 0.05). In contrast, gender, differentiated degrees, and pathohistological type appeared to have no impact on these gene expressions (P > 0.05). These findings suggested that low MYLK and MYL9 expressions might be associated with the development of NSCLC. These genes may be also relevant to NSCLC metastasis. Future investigations with large sample sizes needed to verify these findings.

Yang X, Li D, Cheng S, et al.
The correlation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 with poor prognosis in glioma patients.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(11):11091-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioma is the most common type of human intracranial cancers and has poor prognosis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) plays important roles in cancer cell signalings (Vecht et al. Oncologist 19:751-9, 2014). Here, we aimed to investigate the correlation of BMP2 with patient prognosis as well as pathological indicators. Immunohistochemistry was used to test BMP2 proteins in 45 gliomas of distinct malignancy grade, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to assess prognostic significance. BMP2 protein was also detected in cell lines by Western blot. We observed that BMP2 protein was stained in 44.4% (20 out of 45) of all glioma tissues, including 32.1% of low-grade (I + II) gliomas and 52.9% of high-grade (III + IV) gliomas. Grade IV gliomas potently expressed BMP2 proteins. Western blot showed BMP2 protein expressed in cell lines NHA, A172, T98G, U87, and U251. In addition, BMP2 expression was significantly associated with WHO grade (p = 0.024). According to log-rank test and Cox regression model, BMP2 can be suggested as an independent prognostic factor, apart from WHO grade. Taken together, BMP2 is differently highly expressed in different grades of gliomas and correlated to WHO grade. BMP2 also independently indicates poor prognosis in old glioma patients, which is indicative of an effectively therapeutic target.

de la Croix Ndong J, Stevens DM, Vignaux G, et al.
Combined MEK inhibition and BMP2 treatment promotes osteoblast differentiation and bone healing in Nf1Osx -/- mice.
J Bone Miner Res. 2015; 30(1):55-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is an autosomal dominant disease with an incidence of 1/3000, caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, which encodes the RAS/GTPase-activating protein neurofibromin. Non-bone union after fracture (pseudarthrosis) in children with NF1 remains a challenging orthopedic condition to treat. Recent progress in understanding the biology of neurofibromin suggested that NF1 pseudarthrosis stems primarily from defects in the bone mesenchymal lineage and hypersensitivity of hematopoietic cells to TGFβ. However, clinically relevant pharmacological approaches to augment bone union in these patients remain limited. In this study, we report the generation of a novel conditional mutant mouse line used to model NF1 pseudoarthrosis, in which Nf1 can be ablated in an inducible fashion in osteoprogenitors of postnatal mice, thus circumventing the dwarfism associated with previous mouse models where Nf1 is ablated in embryonic mesenchymal cell lineages. An ex vivo-based cell culture approach based on the use of Nf1(flox/flox) bone marrow stromal cells showed that loss of Nf1 impairs osteoprogenitor cell differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner, independent of developmental growth plate-derived or paracrine/hormonal influences. In addition, in vitro gene expression and differentiation assays indicated that chronic ERK activation in Nf1-deficient osteoprogenitors blunts the pro-osteogenic property of BMP2, based on the observation that only combination treatment with BMP2 and MEK inhibition promoted the differentiation of Nf1-deficient osteoprogenitors. The in vivo preclinical relevance of these findings was confirmed by the improved bone healing and callus strength observed in Nf1osx (-/-) mice receiving Trametinib (a MEK inhibitor) and BMP2 released locally at the fracture site via a novel nanoparticle and polyglycidol-based delivery method. Collectively, these results provide novel evidence for a cell-autonomous role of neurofibromin in osteoprogenitor cells and insights about a novel targeted approach for the treatment of NF1 pseudoarthrosis.

de la Croix Ndong J, Makowski AJ, Uppuganti S, et al.
Asfotase-α improves bone growth, mineralization and strength in mouse models of neurofibromatosis type-1.
Nat Med. 2014; 20(8):904-10 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Individuals with neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1) can manifest focal skeletal dysplasias that remain extremely difficult to treat. NF1 is caused by mutations in the NF1 gene, which encodes the RAS GTPase-activating protein neurofibromin. We report here that ablation of Nf1 in bone-forming cells leads to supraphysiologic accumulation of pyrophosphate (PPi), a strong inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation, and that a chronic extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent increase in expression of genes promoting PPi synthesis and extracellular transport, namely Enpp1 and Ank, causes this phenotype. Nf1 ablation also prevents bone morphogenic protein-2-induced osteoprogenitor differentiation and, consequently, expression of alkaline phosphatase and PPi breakdown, further contributing to PPi accumulation. The short stature and impaired bone mineralization and strength in mice lacking Nf1 in osteochondroprogenitors or osteoblasts can be corrected by asfotase-α enzyme therapy aimed at reducing PPi concentration. These results establish neurofibromin as an essential regulator of bone mineralization. They also suggest that altered PPi homeostasis contributes to the skeletal dysplasias associated with NF1 and that some of the NF1 skeletal conditions could be prevented pharmacologically.

Chu H, Luo H, Wang H, et al.
Silencing BMP-2 expression inhibits A549 and H460 cell proliferation and migration.
Diagn Pathol. 2014; 9:123 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is a member of the TGF-β superfamily that is closely correlated with many malignancies, particularly lung cancer. However, the effects of silenced BMP-2 on lung cancer cell proliferation and migration are not clear.
METHODS: Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR, BMP-2 mRNA expression was detected in 61 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) samples. Survival curves were generated using follow-up data. Relationships between clinical or pathological characteristics and prognosis were analyzed. Cell viability assays and transwell migration assays were used to evaluate the effects of BMP-2 silencing on cell proliferation and migration of A549 and H460 cells.
RESULTS: BMP-2 mRNA expression was higher in NSCLC tissues compared to matched adjacent normal tissues (P<0.01). High BMP-2 expression levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of lymph node metastases and tumor stage (P<0.05). There were significant differences in survival curves between groups with metastatic lymph nodes and non-metastatic lymph nodes, as well as between groups with low BMP-2 expression and groups with high BMP-2 expression. In addition, we observed decreased proliferation and migration rates of the NSCLC-derived cell lines A549 and H460 that were transfected with siBMP-2 (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: BMP-2 mRNA is overexpressed in NSCLC samples and is a risk factor for survival in patients with NSCLC. BMP-2 silencing can significantly inhibit A549 and H460 cell proliferation and migration.
VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here:

Du M, Su XM, Zhang T, Xing YJ
Aberrant promoter DNA methylation inhibits bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression and contributes to drug resistance in breast cancer.
Mol Med Rep. 2014; 10(2):1051-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is a growth factor that is involved in the development and progression of various types of cancer. However, the epigenetic regulation of the expression of BMP2 and the association between BMP2 expression and drug resistance in breast cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study reported that the expression of BMP2 was significantly decreased in primary breast cancer samples and the MCF‑7/ADR breast cancer mulitdrug resistance cell line, which was closely associated with its promoter DNA methylation status. The expression of BMP2 in MCF‑7/ADR cells markedly increased when treated with 5‑Aza‑2'‑deoxycytidine. Knockdown of BMP2 by specific small interfering RNA enhanced the chemoresistance of the MCF‑7 breast cancer cell line. These findings indicated that epigenetic silencing of BMP2 in breast cancer may be involved in breast cancer progression and drug resistance, and provided a novel prognostic marker and therapeutic strategy for breast cancer.

Yan K, Wu Q, Yan DH, et al.
Glioma cancer stem cells secrete Gremlin1 to promote their maintenance within the tumor hierarchy.
Genes Dev. 2014; 28(10):1085-100 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Glioblastomas are the most prevalent and lethal primary brain tumor and are comprised of hierarchies with self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs) at the apex. Like neural stem cells (NSCs), CSCs reside in functional niches that provide essential cues to maintain the cellular hierarchy. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) instruct NSCs to adopt an astrocyte fate and are proposed as anti-CSC therapies to induce differentiation, but, paradoxically, tumors express high levels of BMPs. Here we demonstrate that the BMP antagonist Gremlin1 is specifically expressed by CSCs as protection from endogenous BMPs. Gremlin1 colocalizes with CSCs in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Gremlin1 blocks prodifferentiation effects of BMPs, and overexpression of Gremlin1 in non-CSCs decreases their endogenous BMP signaling to promote stem-like features. Consequently, Gremlin1-overexpressing cells display increased growth and tumor formation abilities. Targeting Gremlin1 in CSCs results in impaired growth and self-renewal. Transcriptional profiling demonstrated that Gremlin1 effects were associated with inhibition of p21(WAF1/CIP1), a key CSC signaling node. This study establishes CSC-derived Gremlin1 as a driving force in maintaining glioblastoma tumor proliferation and glioblastoma hierarchies through the modulation of endogenous prodifferentiation signals.

Fotinos A, Nagarajan N, Martins AS, et al.
Bone morphogenetic protein-focused strategies to induce cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(5):2095-104 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: High bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 expression in lung carcinoma correlates with poor patient prognosis. The present study explored strategies to repress BMP signaling.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity of BMP2-knockdown, dorsomorphin derivatives, and microRNAs was tested in transformed and non-transformed lung cells. Microarray analyses of 1,145 microRNAs in A549 lung adenocarcinoma cells and two other transformed lung cell types relative to BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells were performed.
RESULTS: Reduced BMP2 synthesis inhibited A549 cell growth. The dorsomorphin derivative LDN-193189, but not DMH1 or DMH4, was strongly cytotoxic towards A549 cells, but not towards BEAS-2B cells. Microarray analysis revealed that 106 miRNAs were down-regulated and 69 miRNAs were up-regulated in the three transformed lines. Three down-regulated miRNAs, hsa-mir-34b, hsa-mir-34c-3p, and hsa-miR-486-3p, repressed a BMP2 reporter gene and were cytotoxic in A549 cells, but not towards BEAS-2B cells.
CONCLUSION: The observed cytotoxicity suggests that reducing BMP signaling is a useful line of attack for therapy of lung cancer.

Geng S, Sun B, Lu R, Wang J
Coleusin factor, a novel anticancer diterpenoid, inhibits osteosarcoma growth by inducing bone morphogenetic protein-2-dependent differentiation.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(6):1431-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Coleusin factor is a diterpenoid compound isolated from the root of a tropical plant, Coleus forskohlii. Although Coleusin factor has been reported to suppress proliferation of and induce apoptosis in several types of cancer cells, the effects of Coleusin factor on osteosarcoma and the underlying mechanism are still not fully understood. In this study, we show that Coleusin factor treatment potently inhibits the growth of osteosarcoma cells associated with G(1) cell-cycle arrest. Interestingly, apoptosis and cell death are not induced. Instead, Coleusin factor causes osteosarcoma cells to exhibit typical properties of differentiated osteoblasts, including a morphologic alteration resembling osteoblasts, the expression of osteoblast differentiation markers, elevated alkaline phosphatase activity, and increased cellular mineralization. Coleusin factor treatment significantly increases the expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), a crucial osteogenic regulator, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), one of the key transcription factors of the BMP pathway. When BMP-2 signaling is blocked, Coleusin factor fails to inhibit cell proliferation and to induce osteoblast differentiation. Thus, upregulation of BMP-2 autocrine is critical for Coleusin factor to induce osteoblast differentiation and exert its anticancer effects on osteosarcoma. Importantly, administration of Coleusin factor inhibits the growth of osteosarcoma xenografted in nude mice without systemic or immunologic toxicity. Osteosarcoma is a highly aggressive cancer marked by the loss of normal differentiation. Coleusin factor represents a new type of BMP-2 inducer that restores differentiation in osteosarcoma cells. It may provide a promising therapeutic strategy against osteosarcoma with minimal side effects.

Zhang YW, Zheng Y, Wang JZ, et al.
Integrated analysis of DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiling reveals candidate genes associated with cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(6):896-909 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
DNA methylation plays a critical role during the development of acquired chemoresistance. The aim of this study was to identify candidate DNA methylation drivers of cisplatin (DDP) resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The A549/DDP cell line was established by continuous exposure of A549 cells to increasing concentrations of DDP. Gene expression and methylation profiling were determined by high-throughput microarrays. Relationship of methylation status and DDP response was validated in primary tumor cell culture and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) samples. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and response to DDP were determined in vitro and in vivo. A total of 372 genes showed hypermethylation and downregulation in A549/DDP cells, and these genes were involved in most fundamental biological processes. Ten candidate genes (S100P, GDA, WISP2, LOXL1, TIMP4, ICAM1, CLMP, HSP8, GAS1, BMP2) were selected, and exhibited varying degrees of association with DDP resistance. Low dose combination of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza-dC) and trichostatin A (TSA) reversed drug resistance of A549/DDP cells in vitro and in vivo, along with demethylation and restoration of expression of candidate genes (GAS1, TIMP4, ICAM1 and WISP2). Forced expression of GAS1 in A549/DDP cells by gene transfection contributed to increased sensitivity to DDP, proliferation inhibition, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis enhancement, and in vivo growth retardation. Together, our study demonstrated that a panel of candidate genes downregulated by DNA methylation induced DDP resistance in NSCLC, and showed that epigenetic therapy resensitized cells to DDP.

Valenti MT, Zanatta M, Donatelli L, et al.
Ascorbic acid induces either differentiation or apoptosis in MG-63 osteosarcoma lineage.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(4):1617-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: Osteosarcoma originates from mesenchymal stem cells with impaired bone differentiation. In the present study we investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (AsA) on osteogenic differentiation and apoptosis of the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated the expression of runt-related transcription factor-2 (RUNX2) and secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) genes by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and of endogenous bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) and osteocalcin proteins by immunohistochemistry. We analyzed osteoblast maturation by phosphatase alkaline synthesis and calcium deposition, and apoptosis by (TUNEL) test and Annexin staining.
RESULTS: Our results showed that RUNX2 and SPP1 gene expression was increased in cells treated with low concentrations of AsA with respect to untreated cells. At higher concentrations, AsA induced apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells, possibly with the involvement of p21.
CONCLUSION: Our findings support the ability of AsA to induce both differentiation, by affecting the target involved in early and late phases of osteogenic maturation, and apoptosis in poorly-differentiated osteosarcoma cells.

Wolf S, Hagl B, Kappler R
Identification of BMP2 as an epigenetically silenced growth inhibitor in rhabdomyosarcoma.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(5):1727-35 [PubMed] Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma of infancy and although therapy has improved over the years, mortality is still fairly high. The establishment of new treatments has been hampered by the limited knowledge of the molecular mechanisms driving development of RMS. One characteristic of cancer cells is aberrant DNA methylation, which could lead to silencing of tumor suppressor genes. However, only a few epigenetically silenced genes have been described in RMS so far. We performed an expression profiling analysis of three RMS cell lines that were treated with the demethylating agent 5'-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza‑dC) facilitating re-expression of epigenetically silenced genes. This treatment induced the gene BMP2 (bone morphogenetic protein 2) throughout all cell lines. Detailed methylation analysis of CpG sites in the BMP2 promoter region by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR revealed that a high degree of DNA methylation is causatively associated with the suppression of BMP2 in RMS cells. Consequently, treatment of the RMS cell lines with 5-Aza-dC resulted in DNA demethylation of the BMP2 promoter, most prominently in alveolar RMS. Supplementation of recombinant human BMP2 (rhBMP2) led to a reduced viability of RMS cells. Altogether, these findings suggest that suppression of BMP2 by epigenetic silencing may play a critical role in the genesis of RMS, thereby providing a rationale for the development of a new treatment strategy for RMS.

Zhou F, Wang W, Xing Y, et al.
NF-κB target microRNAs and their target genes in TNFα-stimulated HeLa cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014; 1839(4):344-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
As a transcription factor, NF-κB was demonstrated to regulate the expressions of miRNAs. However, only a few miRNAs have been identified as its targets so far. In this study, by using ChIP-Seq, Genechip and miRNA-Seq techniques, we identified 14 NF-κB target miRNAs in TNFα-stimulated HeLa Cells, including miR-1276, miR-1286, miR-125b-1-3p, miR-219-1-3p, miR-2467-5p, miR-3200-3p, miR-449c-5p, miR-502-5p, miR-548d-5p, miR-30b-3p, miR-3620-5p, miR-340-3p, miR-4454 and miR-4485. Of these miRNAs, 8 detected miRNAs were also NF-κB target misRNAs in TNFα-stimulated HepG2 cells. We also identified 16 target genes of 6 miRNAs including miR-125b-1-3p, miR-1286, miR-502-5p, miR-1276, miR-219-1-3p and miR-30b-3p, in TNFα-stimulated HeLa cells. Target genes of miR-125b-1-3p and miR-1276 were validated in HeLa and HepG2 cells by transfecting their expression plasmids and mimics. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that two potential target genes of miR-1276, BMP2 and CASP9, were enriched in disease phenotypes. The former is enriched in osteoarthritis, and the latter is enriched in Type 2 diabetes and lung cancer, respectively. These findings suggested that this little known miRNA might play roles in these diseases via its two target genes of BMP2 and CASP9. The expression of miR-125b-1 regulated by NF-κB has been reported in diverse cell types under various stimuli, this study found that its expression was also significantly regulated by NF-κB in TNFα-stimulated HeLa and HepG2 cells. Therefore, this miRNA was proposed as a central mediator of NF-κB pathway. These findings provide new insights into the functions of NF-κB in its target miRNA-related biological processes and the mechanisms underlying the regulation of these miRNAs.

Zhao X, Qu Z, Tickner J, et al.
The role of SATB2 in skeletogenesis and human disease.
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2014; 25(1):35-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since the discovery of SATB2 (special AT-rich sequence binding protein 2) a decade ago, its pivotal roles in development and tissue regeneration have emerged, particularly in craniofacial patterning and development, palate formation, and osteoblast differentiation and maturation. As a member of the special AT-rich binding proteins family that bind to nuclear matrix-attachment regions (MAR), it also displays functional versatility in central nervous development, especially corpus callosum and pons formation, cancer development and prognosis, as well as in immune regulation. At the molecular level, Satb2 gene expression appears to be tissue and stage-specific, and is regulated by several cytokines and growth factors, such as BMP2/4/7, insulin, CNTF, and LIF via ligand receptor signaling pathways. SATB2 mainly performs a twofold role as a transcription regulator by directly binding to AT-rich sequences in MARs to modulate chromatin remodeling, or through association with other transcription factors to modulate the cis-regulation elements and thus to regulate the expression of down-stream target genes and a wide range of biological processes. This contemporary review provides an exploration of the molecular characteristics and function of SATB2; including its expression and cytokine regulation, its involvement in human disease, and its potential roles in skeletogenesis.

Slattery ML, Lundgreen A, Stern MC, et al.
The influence of genetic ancestry and ethnicity on breast cancer survival associated with genetic variation in the TGF-β-signaling pathway: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.
Cancer Causes Control. 2014; 25(3):293-307 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
The TGF-β signaling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation. We evaluated genetic variation in this pathway, its association with breast cancer survival, and survival differences by genetic ancestry and self-reported ethnicity. The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study includes participants from the 4-Corners Breast Cancer Study (n = 1,391 cases) and the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study (n = 946 cases) who have been followed for survival. We evaluated 28 genes in the TGF-β signaling pathway using a tagSNP approach. Adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) was used to test the gene and pathway significance by Native American (NA) ancestry and by self-reported ethnicity (non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Hispanic/NA). Genetic variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway was associated with overall breast cancer survival (P ARTP = 0.05), especially for women with low NA ancestry (P ARTP = 0.007) and NHW women (P ARTP = 0.006). BMP2, BMP4, RUNX1, and TGFBR3 were significantly associated with breast cancer survival overall (P ARTP = 0.04, 0.02, 0.002, and 0.04, respectively). Among women with low NA, ancestry associations were as follows: BMP4 (P ARTP = 0.007), BMP6 (P ARTP = 0.001), GDF10 (P ARTP = 0.05), RUNX1 (P ARTP = 0.002), SMAD1 (P ARTP = 0.05), and TGFBR2 (P ARTP = 0.02). A polygenic risk model showed that women with low NA ancestry and high numbers of at-risk alleles had twice the risk of dying from breast cancer as did women with high NA ancestry. Our data suggest that genetic variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway influences breast cancer survival. Associations were similar when the analyses were stratified by genetic ancestry or by self-reported ethnicity.

Pajtler KW, Weingarten C, Thor T, et al.
The KDM1A histone demethylase is a promising new target for the epigenetic therapy of medulloblastoma.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2013; 1:19 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Medulloblastoma is a leading cause of childhood cancer-related deaths. Current aggressive treatments frequently lead to cognitive and neurological disabilities in survivors. Novel targeted therapies are required to improve outcome in high-risk medulloblastoma patients and quality of life of survivors. Targeting enzymes controlling epigenetic alterations is a promising approach recently bolstered by the identification of mutations in histone demethylating enzymes in medulloblastoma sequencing efforts. Hypomethylation of lysine 4 in histone 3 (H3K4) is also associated with a dismal prognosis for medulloblastoma patients. Functional characterization of important epigenetic key regulators is urgently needed.
RESULTS: We examined the role of the H3K4 modifying enzyme, KDM1A, in medulloblastoma, an enzyme also associated with malignant progression in the closely related tumor, neuroblastoma. Re-analysis of gene expression data and immunohistochemistry of tissue microarrays of human medulloblastomas showed strong KDM1A overexpression in the majority of tumors throughout all molecular subgroups. Interestingly, KDM1A knockdown in medulloblastoma cell lines not only induced apoptosis and suppressed proliferation, but also impaired migratory capacity. Further analyses revealed bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) as a major KDM1A target gene. BMP2 is known to be involved in development and differentiation of granule neuron precursor cells (GNCPs), one potential cell of origin for medulloblastoma. Treating medulloblastoma cells with the specific KDM1A inhibitor, NCL-1, significantly inhibited growth in vitro.
CONCLUSION: We provide the first evidence that a histone demethylase is functionally involved in the regulation of the malignant phenotype of medulloblastoma cells, and lay a foundation for future evaluation of KDM1A-inihibiting therapies in combating medulloblastoma.

Sand JP, Kokorina NA, Zakharkin SO, et al.
BMP-2 expression correlates with local failure in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2014; 150(2):245-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Preclinical data show that exogenous administration of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to human oral carcinoma cell lines increases pathogenicity using a nude mouse model. The objectives of this study are to (1) describe the characteristics of baseline protein expression of BMP-2 in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and (2) determine if BMP-2 expression level correlates with worse oncologic outcomes.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of previously harvested patient samples.
SETTING: Academic medical center.
SUBJECTS: In total, 149 patients with oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx HNSCC treated between January 1, 1997, and December 31, 2004.
METHODS: A tissue microarray of HNSCC was assembled and immunohistochemistry for BMP-2 performed. Staining was quantified using a standardized scoring system. Specimens were dichotomized into high or low expression level. Statistical analyses using log-rank, Wilcoxon, and Fisher exact test were performed for associations between BMP-2 protein level and clinicopathologic features and patient survival.
RESULTS: BMP-2 expression at any level was noted in 146 of 149 (98%) of samples. Tumors with high BMP-2 expression had higher rates of local failure compared with low-expressing tumors (17.3% vs 6.3%; P = .04). There was no significant association for BMP-2 expression level with tumor location, T stage, N stage, overall survival, regional failure, or distant failure.
CONCLUSION: Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas with high baseline BMP-2 protein level are associated with higher rates of local recurrence. These data have important implications for using rhBMP-2 in tissue engineering reconstructive approaches in the setting of cancer-related defects.

Hsu YT, Gu F, Huang YW, et al.
Promoter hypomethylation of EpCAM-regulated bone morphogenetic protein gene family in recurrent endometrial cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(22):6272-85 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
PURPOSE: Epigenetic regulation by promoter methylation plays a key role in tumorigenesis. Our goal was to investigate whether altered DNA methylation signatures associated with oncogenic signaling delineate biomarkers predictive of endometrial cancer recurrence.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Methyl-CpG-capture sequencing was used for global screening of aberrant DNA methylation in our endometrial cancer cohort, followed by validation in an independent The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort. Bioinformatics as well as functional analyses in vitro, using RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown, were performed to examine regulatory mechanisms of candidate gene expression and contribution to aggressive phenotype, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
RESULTS: We identified 2,302 hypermethylated loci in endometrial tumors compared with control samples. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) family genes, including BMP1, 2, 3, 4, and 7, were among the frequently hypermethylated loci. Interestingly, BMP2, 3, 4, and 7 were less methylated in primary tumors with subsequent recurrence and in patients with shorter disease-free interval compared with nonrecurrent tumors, which was validated and associated with poor survival in the TCGA cohort (BMP4, P = 0.009; BMP7, P = 0.007). Stimulation of endometrial cancer cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF) induced EMT and transcriptional activation of these genes, which was mediated by the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM). EGF signaling was implicated in maintaining the promoters of candidate BMP genes in an active chromatin configuration and thus subject to transcriptional activation.
CONCLUSIONS: Hypomethylation signatures of candidate BMP genes associated with EpCAM-mediated expression present putative biomarkers predictive of poor survival in endometrial cancer.

Lewis TC, Prywes R
Serum regulation of Id1 expression by a BMP pathway and BMP responsive element.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1829(10):1147-59 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Immediate early genes (IEGs) are expressed upon re-entry of quiescent cells into the cell cycle following serum stimulation. These genes are involved in growth control and differentiation and hence their expression is tightly controlled. Many IEGs are regulated through Serum Response Elements (SREs) in their promoters, which bind Serum Response Factor (SRF). However, many other IEGs do not have SREs in their promoters and their serum regulation is poorly understood. We have identified SRF-independent IEGs in SRF-depleted fibroblasts. One of these, Id1, was examined more closely. We mapped a serum responsive element in the Id1 promoter and find that it is identical to a BMP responsive element (BRE). The Id1 BRE is necessary and sufficient for the serum regulation of Id1. Inhibition of the BMP pathway by siRNA depletion of Smad 4, treatment with the BMP antagonist noggin, or the BMP receptor inhibitor dorsomorphin blocked serum induction of Id1. Further, BMP2 is sufficient to induce Id1 expression. Given reports that SRC inhibitors can block Id1 expression, we tested the SRC inhibitor, AZD0530, and found that it inhibits the serum activation of Id1. Surprisingly, this inhibition is independent of SRC or its family members. Rather, we show that AZD0530 directly inhibits the BMP type I receptors. Serum induction of the Id1 related gene Id3 also required the BMP pathway. Given these and other findings we conclude that the Id family of IEGs is regulated by BMPs in serum through similar BREs. This represents a second pathway for serum regulation of IEGs.

Huo L, Liu K, Pei J, et al.
Fluoride promotes viability and differentiation of osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells via BMP/Smads signaling pathway.
Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013; 155(1):142-9 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
The BMP/Smad signaling pathway plays an important role in the viability and differentiation of osteoblast; however, it is not clear whether this pathway is involved in the fluoride-induced osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we investigated the role of BMP/Smad signaling pathway in fluoride-induced osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells differentiation. Cells were exposed to fluoride of different concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mM), and cell proliferation was determined using WST assays. The expression of osteoblast marker genes such as osteocalcin (BGP) and bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP) were detected by qRT-PCR. We found that fluoride enhanced the proliferation of Saos-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner and 0.2 mM of fluoride resulted in a higher expression of osteoblast marker genes. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis showed that the promotion effects of 0.2 mM of fluoride on Saos-2 cells differentiation were associated with the activation of the BMP/Smad pathway. Expression of phosphorylated Smad1/5(p-Smad1/5) was higher in cells exposed to 0.2 mM of fluoride. Plasmid expression vectors encoding the short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting Smad4 gene were used to block the BMP/Smad pathway, which resulted in a significantly reduced expression of BGP and BALP as well as their corresponding mRNA. The mRNA levels after transfection remained low even in the presence of fluoride. The present results reveal that BMP/Smad signaling pathway was altered during the period of osteogenesis, and that the activities of p-Smad1/5 were required for Saos-2 cells viability and differentiation induced by fluoride.

Wang L, Park P, La Marca F, et al.
Bone formation induced by BMP-2 in human osteosarcoma cells.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(4):1095-102 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
Our previous studies demonstrated that BMP-2 inhibits the tumorigenicity of cancer stem cells identified as cells with high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH(br) cells) from the human osteosarcoma cell line OS99-1. We further investigated whether BMP-2 is capable of inducing bone formation in OS99-1 cells. Flow cytometry sorting was used to isolate tumorigenic ALDH(br) and non-tumorigenic ALDH(lo) cells. qRT-PCR was used to quantify the gene expression. A xenograft model was used to verify the bone formation in vivo. There was significantly higher mRNA expression of BMPR1B and BMPR2 in ALDH(lo) cells compared with that in ALDH(br) cells and the BMPR1B expression in ALDH(lo) cells was ~8-fold higher compared to that in ALDHbr cells. BMP-2 was also found to induce higher transcription of osteogenic markers Runx-2, Osterix (Osx), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and collagen type I in ALDH(lo) cells compared to ALDH(br) cells, which were mediated by the canonical Smad signaling pathway. In vivo, BMP-2 was identified to induce bone formation in both ALDH(br) and ALDH(lo) cells. All animals receiving 1 x 10()4 ALDH(lo) cells treated with 30 µg of BMP-2 per animal showed bone formation within 1-2 weeks after injection in mice. Bone formation induced by BMP-2 in ALDH(lo) cells showed significantly more bone mineral content compared to that in ALDH(br) cells. BMP-2 induces bone formation in heterogeneous osteosarcoma cells and BMP-2 may have a promising therapeutic role for treating human osteosarcoma by inducing differentiation along an osteogenic pathway.

Yang X, Yang ZJ, Liu FX, et al.
Inhibition of mTOR and HIF pathways diminishes chondro-osteogenesis and cell proliferation in chondroblastoma.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(5):3111-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Chondroblastoma (CBL) is a benign bone tumor occurring mostly in teenagers. Despite this, CBL can recur and metastasize after curettage, which may impede normal epiphysis. In search of a novel targeted therapy for CBL, we aimed at BMP-2, a factor critical for chondro-osteogenesis and chondrocyte proliferation. Two pathways upstream of BMP-2, the mTOR and HIF, were targeted with rapamycin (Rapa) and FM19G11 (FM), respectively. Using immunohistochemistry, we found BMP-2 was highly expressed in CBL tissues. CBL cells explanted and confirmed with higher BMP-2 level than normal cartilage. Protumorigenic effect of Rapa and FM on CBL cells were transduced via BMP-2. Combination of Rapa and FM conferred stronger inhibition of cell proliferation than either monotherapy and inhibited levels of chondro-osteogenic markers (Sox9, aggrecan, and type II collagen). To minimize the adverse effect of Rapa, we performed screening in essential amino acids and found leucine deprivation-sensitized CBL cells to Rapa. Combination treatment of low dose Rapa, FM, and leucine deprivation conferred compatible inhibitory effects on CBL cell proliferation, chondro-osteogenic potential, and tumorigenic capacity. We conclude that targeting BMP-2 using mTOR/HIF inhibition could potently curb the disease. Addition of low-leucine diet could lower the dose of rapamycin in chase for less toxicity.

Tian G, Zhang G, Tan YH
Calcitonin gene-related peptide stimulates BMP-2 expression and the differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells in vitro.
Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2013; 34(11):1467-74 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2016 Related Publications
AIM: To investigate whether bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) expression was involved in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-induced osteogenesis in human osteoblast-like cells in vitro.
METHODS: MG-63 osteogenic human osteosarcoma cells were treated with CGRP (10-8 mol/L) for 48 h. Cell cycle phases were determined using flow cytometry assay. The protein levels of BMP-2, ALP, Osteocalcin, ColIa1, CREB, and pCREB were measured with Western blotting, while the mRNA level of BMP-2 was measured with qR-T PCR. The expression of ALP in MG-63 cells was also studied using immunofluorescence staining. The level of cAMP was measured with ELISA assay.
RESULTS: CGRP treatment significantly stimulated proliferation of MG-63 cells, and increased the expression of BMP-2 and the osteogenic proteins ALP, Osteocalcin and ColIa1. Pretreatment with the BMP signaling inhibitor Noggin (100 ng/mL) did not affect CGRP-stimulated proliferation and BMP-2 expression, but abolished the CGRP-induced increases of the osteogenic proteins ALP, Osteocalcin and ColIa1. Furthermore, CGRP treatment markedly increased cAMP level in MG-63 cells, whereas pretreatment with the cAMP pathway inhibitor H89 (5 μmol/L) abolished the CGRP-induced increases of cAMP level and BMP-2 expression.
CONCLUSION: In MG-63 cells, the BMP pathway is involved in CGRP-induced osteogenic differentiation but not in proliferation, whereas the cAMP/pCREB pathway is involved in the expression of BMP-2.

Khan W, Abduljaleel Z, Alanazi M, Elrobh M
Evidence of colorectal cancer risk associated variant Lys25Ser in the proximity of human bone morphogenetic protein 2.
Gene. 2013; 522(1):75-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most prevalent cancer and fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally. It has been shown that the nsSNP variants play an important role in diseases, however it remained unclear how these variants are associated with the disease. Recently, several CRC risk associated SNPs have been discovered, however rs961253 (Lys25Arg at 20p12.3) located in the proximity of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) and fermitin family homolog 1 Fermt1 genes have been reported to be highly associated with the CRC risk. Here we provide evidence for the first time in silico biological functional and structural implications of non-synonymous (nsSNPs) CRC disease-associated variant Lys25Arg via molecular dynamic (MD) simulation. Protein structural analysis was performed with a particular variant allele (A/C, Lys25Arg) and compared with the predicted native protein structure. Our results showed that this nsSNP will cause changes in the protein structure and as a result is associated with the disease. In addition to the native and mutant 3D structures of CRC associated risk allele protein domain (CRAPD), they were also analyzed using solvent accessibility models for further protein stability confirmation. Taken together, this study confirmed that this variant has functional effect and structural impact on the CRAPD and may play an important role in CRC disease progression; hence it could be a reasonable approach for studying the effect of other deleterious variants in future studies.

Topić I, Ikić M, Ivčević S, et al.
Bone morphogenetic proteins regulate differentiation of human promyelocytic leukemia cells.
Leuk Res. 2013; 37(6):705-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in suppression of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-mediated differentiation of leukemic promyelocytes. In NB4 and HL60 cell lines, BMPs reduced the percentage of differentiated cells, and suppressed PU.1 and C/EBPε gene expression induced by ATRA. BMP and ATRA synergized in the induction of ID genes, causing suppression of differentiation. In primary acute promyelocytic leukemia bone-marrow samples, positive correlation of PML/RARα and negative of RARα with the expression of BMP-4, BMP-6 and ID genes were found. We concluded that BMPs may have oncogenic properties and mediate ATRA resistance by a mechanism that involves ID genes.

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