BUB3

Gene Summary

Gene:BUB3; BUB3, mitotic checkpoint protein
Aliases: BUB3L, hBUB3
Location:10q26.13
Summary:This gene encodes a protein involved in spindle checkpoint function. The encoded protein contains four WD repeat domains and has sequence similarity with the yeast BUB3 protein. Alternate transcriptional splice variants, encoding different isoforms, have been characterized. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:mitotic checkpoint protein BUB3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Mad2 Proteins
  • Proteins
  • World Health Organization
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cancer DNA
  • Protein Kinases
  • Mitosis
  • Up-Regulation
  • Transcriptome
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • RTPCR
  • Apoptosis
  • Glioblastoma
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Survival Rate
  • Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
  • Treatment Failure
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Brain Tumours
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chromosome 10
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Chromosomes, Human
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Genes, cdc
  • Microtubule-Associated Proteins
  • Aneuploidy
  • Microtubules
  • Tubulin
  • Gene Expression
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Brain Tumours
  • Spindle Apparatus
  • Breast Cancer
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: BUB3 (cancer-related)

Rosa EA, Lia EN, Macedo SB, Amorim RF
In situ carcinoma developed over oral lichen planus: a case report with analysis of BUB3, p16, p53, Ki67 and SOX4 expression.
J Appl Oral Sci. 2015 Jul-Aug; 23(4):442-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Oral lichen planus (OLP) represents a common mucocutaneous disease. Various authors have suggested that OLP has malignant potential; however, the mechanisms involved in malignant transformation have not yet been elucidated. A 79-year-old man presented a white lesion for five months in the buccal mucosa diagnosed as OLP. After two months using 0.05% clobetasol ointment for treatment, the lesion became ulcerated. A new biopsy of the same lesion was performed, and histological analysis showed an in situ oral carcinoma (ISOC). An immunohistochemistry panel was performed, and p16 expression was negative in OLP, however, it showed weak cytoplasmic staining in ISOC. There was strong nuclear BUB3 staining in both OLP and ISOC areas. p53 showed less intense nuclear staining in both regions. Ki67 was negative in OLP area, but showed nuclear staining in the ISOC. SOX4 was negative in both studied areas. BUB3 expression, first reported in this case, and the p16 expression may suggest some influence of these genes on pathogenesis or malignant potential of OLP.

Giovinazzi S, Sirleto P, Aksenova V, et al.
Usp7 protects genomic stability by regulating Bub3.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(11):3728-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
USP7 (Ubiquitin Specific processing Protease-7) is a deubiquitinase which, over the past decade emerged as a critical regulator of cellular processes. Deregulation of USP7 activity has been linked to cancer, making USP7 inhibition an appealing anti-cancer strategy. The identification of novel USP7 substrates and additional USP7-dependent cellular activities will broaden our knowledge towards potential clinical application of USP7 inhibitors. Results presented in this study uncover a novel and pivotal function of USP7 in the maintenance of genomic stability. Upon USP7 depletion we observed prolonged mitosis and mitotic abnormalities including micronuclei accumulation, lagging chromosomes and karyotype instability. Inhibition of USP7 with small molecule inhibitors stabilizes cyclin B and causes mitotic abnormalities. Our results suggest that these USP7-dependent effects are mediated by decreased levels of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) component Bub3, which we characterized as an interacting partner and substrate of USP7. In silico analysis across the NCI-60 panels of cell lines supports our results where lower levels of USP7 strongly correlate with genomic instability. In conclusion, we identified a novel role of USP7 as regulator of the SAC component Bub3 and genomic stability.

Singh CK, George J, Nihal M, et al.
Novel downstream molecular targets of SIRT1 in melanoma: a quantitative proteomics approach.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(7):1987-99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Melanoma is one of the most lethal forms of skin cancer and its incidence is continuing to rise in the United States. Therefore, novel mechanism and target-based strategies are needed for the management of this disease. SIRT1, a NAD(+)-dependent class III histone deacetylase, has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes and pathological conditions. We recently demonstrated that SIRT1 is upregulated in melanoma and its inhibition by a small-molecule, tenovin-1, inhibits cell proliferation and clonogenic survival of melanoma cells, possibly via activating p53. Here, we employed a gel free quantitative proteomics approach to identify the downstream effectors and targets of SIRT1 in melanoma. The human malignant melanoma, G361 cells were treated with tenovin-1 followed by protein extraction, in liquid trypsin digestion, and peptide analyses using nanoLC-MS/MS. A total of 1091 proteins were identified, of which 20 proteins showed significant differential expression with 95% confidence interval. These proteins were subjected to gene ontology and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to obtain the information regarding their biological and molecular functions. Real-Time qRT-PCR validation showed that five of these (PSAP, MYO1B, MOCOS, HIS1H4A and BUB3) were differentially expressed at mRNA levels. Based on their important role in cell cycle regulation, we selected to focus on BUB family proteins (BUB3, as well as BUB1 and BUBR1) for subsequent validation. The qRT-PCR and immunoblot analyses showed that tenovin-1 inhibition of SIRT1 resulted in a downregulation of BUB3, BUB1 and BUBR1 in multiple melanoma cell lines. Since tenovin-1 is an inhibitor of both SIRT1 and SIRT2, we employed lentivirus mediated silencing of SIRT1 and SIRT2 in G361 cells to determine if the observed effects on BUB family proteins are due to SIRT1- or SIRT2- inhibition. We found that only SIRT1 inhibition resulted in a decrease in BUB3, BUB1 and BUBR1. Our study identified the mitotic checkpoint regulator BUB family proteins as novel downstream targets of SIRT1. However, further validation is needed in appropriate models to confirm our findings and expand on our observations.

Wang P, Wang Y, Yan H, et al.
Genetic variation in the major mitotic checkpoint genes and risk of breast cancer: a multigenic study on cancer susceptibility.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6701-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
The mitotic checkpoint system is a mechanism essential for maintaining genomic stability and defects which have been linked to cancer development. We conducted this hospital-based case-control study to investigate whether genetic variants in three major spindle checkpoint genes (BUB3, MAD2L1, and BUB1) had any bearing on an individual risk of breast cancer (BC). A total of 462 incident BC patients and 529 cancer-free controls were enrolled in this study. Results showed that neither variants in BUB3 nor variants in MAD2L1 caused any significant effect on the risk of BC. However, the variant rs12623473 in BUB1 was significantly associated with increased BC risk with the odds ratio (OR) of 1.30 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.64) under the allelic model. The estimated population attributable risk of one copy of the risk allele for developing BC was 10.3 %. The bioinformatics analysis suggested that this variant may regulate the transcriptional ability of BUB1.

Xie C, Powell C, Yao M, et al.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C: a potential cancer biomarker.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 47:113-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes 2C (UBE2C) is an integral component of the ubiquitin proteasome system. UBE2C consists of a conserved core domain containing the catalytic Cys residue and an N-terminal extension. The core domain is required for ubiquitin adduct formation by interacting with the ubiquitin-fold domain in the E1 enzyme, and contributes to the E3 enzyme binding. UBE2C N-terminal extension regulates E3 enzyme activity as a part of an intrinsic inhibitory mechanism. UBE2C is required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins and securin, which are essential for spindle assembly checkpoint and mitotic exit. The UBE2C mRNA and/or protein levels are aberrantly increased in many cancer types with poor clinical outcomes. Accumulation of UBE2C stimulates cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. UBE2C transgenic mice are prone to develop spontaneous tumors and carcinogen-induced tumor with evidence of chromosome aneuploidy.

Jiang Y, Li X, Yang W, et al.
PKM2 regulates chromosome segregation and mitosis progression of tumor cells.
Mol Cell. 2014; 53(1):75-87 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor-specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is instrumental in both aerobic glycolysis and gene transcription. PKM2 regulates G1-S phase transition by controlling cyclin D1 expression. However, it is not known whether PKM2 directly controls cell-cycle progression. We show here that PKM2, but not PKM1, binds to the spindle checkpoint protein Bub3 during mitosis and phosphorylates Bub3 at Y207. This phosphorylation is required for Bub3-Bub1 complex recruitment to kinetochores, where it interacts with Blinkin and is essential for correct kinetochore-microtubule attachment, mitotic/spindle-assembly checkpoint, accurate chromosome segregation, cell survival and proliferation, and active EGF receptor-induced brain tumorigenesis. In addition, the level of Bub3 Y207 phosphorylation correlated with histone H3-S10 phosphorylation in human glioblastoma specimens and with glioblastoma prognosis. These findings highlight the role of PKM2 as a protein kinase controlling the fidelity of chromosome segregation, cell-cycle progression, and tumorigenesis.

de Voer RM, Geurts van Kessel A, Weren RD, et al.
Germline mutations in the spindle assembly checkpoint genes BUB1 and BUB3 are risk factors for colorectal cancer.
Gastroenterology. 2013; 145(3):544-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The spindle assembly checkpoint controls proper chromosome segregation during mitosis and prevents aneuploidy-an important feature of cancer cells. We performed genome-wide and targeted copy number and mutation analyses of germline DNA from 208 patients with familial or early-onset (40 years of age or younger) colorectal cancer; we identified haploinsufficiency or heterozygous mutations in the spindle assembly checkpoint genes BUB1 and BUB3 in 2.9% of them. Besides colorectal cancer, these patients had variegated aneuploidies in multiple tissues and variable dysmorphic features. These results indicate that mutations in BUB1 and BUB3 cause mosaic variegated aneuploidy and increase the risk of colorectal cancer at a young age.

Morales AG, Pezuk JA, Brassesco MS, et al.
BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition decreases proliferation and colony formation, and enhances radiation sensitivity in pediatric glioblastoma cells.
Childs Nerv Syst. 2013; 29(12):2241-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a very aggressive and lethal brain tumor with poor prognosis. Despite new treatment strategies, patients' median survival is still lower than 1 year in most cases. The expression of the BUB gene family has demonstrated to be altered in a variety of solid tumors, pointing to a role as putative therapeutic target. The purpose of this study was to determine BUB1, BUB3, and BUBR1 gene expression profiles in glioblastoma and to analyze the effects of BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition combined or not with Temozolomide and radiation in the pediatric SF188 GBM cell line.
METHODS: For gene expression analysis, 8 cell lines and 18 tumor samples were used. The effect of BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition was evaluated using siRNA. Apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle kinetics, micronuclei formation, and clonogenic capacity were analyzed after BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition. Additionally, combinatorial effects of gene inhibition and radiation or Temozolomide (TMZ) treatment were evaluated through proliferation and clonogenic capacity assays.
RESULTS: We report the upregulation of BUB1 and BUBR1 expression and the downregulation of BUB3 in GBM samples and cell lines when compared to white matter samples (p < 0.05). Decreased cell proliferation and colony formation after BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition were observed, along with increased micronuclei formation. Combinations with TMZ also caused cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis. Moreover, our results demonstrate that BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition sensitized SF188 cells to γ-irradiation as shown by decreased growth and abrogation of colony formation capacity.
CONCLUSION: BUB1 and BUBR1 inhibition decreases proliferation and shows radiosensitizing effects on pediatric GBM cells, which could improve treatment strategies for this devastating tumor. Collectively, these findings highlight the potentials of BUB1 and BUBR1 as putative therapeutic targets for glioblastoma treatment.

Bava FA, Eliscovich C, Ferreira PG, et al.
CPEB1 coordinates alternative 3'-UTR formation with translational regulation.
Nature. 2013; 495(7439):121-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
More than half of mammalian genes generate multiple messenger RNA isoforms that differ in their 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) and therefore in regulatory sequences, often associated with cell proliferation and cancer; however, the mechanisms coordinating alternative 3'-UTR processing for specific mRNA populations remain poorly defined. Here we report that the cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1), an RNA-binding protein that regulates mRNA translation, also controls alternative 3'-UTR processing. CPEB1 shuttles to the nucleus, where it co-localizes with splicing factors and mediates shortening of hundreds of mRNA 3' UTRs, thereby modulating their translation efficiency in the cytoplasm. CPEB1-mediated 3'-UTR shortening correlates with cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. CPEB1 binding to pre-mRNAs not only directs the use of alternative polyadenylation sites, but also changes alternative splicing by preventing U2AF65 recruitment. Our results reveal a novel function of CPEB1 in mediating alternative 3'-UTR processing, which is coordinated with regulation of mRNA translation, through its dual nuclear and cytoplasmic functions.

Iacobucci I, Iraci N, Messina M, et al.
IKAROS deletions dictate a unique gene expression signature in patients with adult B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e40934 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deletions of IKAROS (IKZF1) frequently occur in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) but the mechanisms by which they influence pathogenesis are unclear. To address this issue, a cohort of 144 adult B-ALL patients (106 BCR-ABL1-positive and 38 B-ALL negative for known molecular rearrangements) was screened for IKZF1 deletions by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays; a sub-cohort of these patients (44%) was then analyzed for gene expression profiling.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total or partial deletions of IKZF1 were more frequent in BCR-ABL1-positive than in BCR-ABL1-negative B-ALL cases (75% vs 58%, respectively, p = 0.04). Comparison of the gene expression signatures of patients carrying IKZF1 deletion vs those without showed a unique signature featured by down-regulation of B-cell lineage and DNA repair genes and up-regulation of genes involved in cell cycle, JAK-STAT signalling and stem cell self-renewal. Through chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays we corroborated these findings both in vivo and in vitro, showing that Ikaros deleted isoforms lacked the ability to directly regulate a large group of the genes in the signature, such as IGLL1, BLK, EBF1, MSH2, BUB3, ETV6, YES1, CDKN1A (p21), CDKN2C (p18) and MCL1.
CONCLUSIONS: Here we identified and validated for the first time molecular pathways specifically controlled by IKZF1, shedding light into IKZF1 role in B-ALL pathogenesis.

Xu M, Takanashi M, Oikawa K, et al.
Identification of a novel role of Septin 10 in paclitaxel-resistance in cancers through a functional genomics screen.
Cancer Sci. 2012; 103(4):821-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Paclitaxel (also known as taxol) is a member of the taxane class of anticancer agents, which has a well-known mechanism that blocks cell mitosis and kills tumor cells, that is often used in clinics to treat cancer. However, some carcinomas such as breast, ovarian and non-small-cell lung cancers are often resistant to paclitaxel treatment. In this study, we used a lentiviral siRNA library against the entire human genomes to identify genes associated with sensitivity to paclitaxel. We isolated two paclitaxel-resistant clones carrying the siRNA specific to septin 10 (SEPT10) and to budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3. The relation of budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles 3 to paclitaxel sensitivity has already been established, but that of SEPT10 remains unknown. Interestingly, overexpression of SEPT10 increased cells' sensitivity to paclitaxel; we also found that SEPT10 is an important regulator for microtubule stability. Furthermore, we found that paclitaxel-resistant tumors had decreased expression of SEPT10. Thus, SEPT10 may be a novel candidate molecule that acts as a good indicator of paclitaxel-resistant carcinomas.

Yan H, Zhu S, Song C, et al.
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates mitotic checkpoint protein levels in human breast cancer cells.
Cell Signal. 2012; 24(4):961-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aberrant expression of mitotic checkpoint genes compromises mitotic checkpoint, leads to chromosome instability and tumorigenesis. However, the cell signals that control mitotic checkpoint gene expression have not been reported so far. In the present study we show that, in human breast cancer cells, chemical inhibition of Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), but not Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β), abrogates the mitotic arrest induced by nocodazole. Protein expression analysis reveals that inhibition of BMP signaling dramatically down regulates protein levels of mitotic checkpoint components BUB3, Hec1, TTK and MAD2, but inhibition of TGF-β has relatively minor effect on the expression of these proteins. Activation of BMP signaling specifically up regulates BUB3, and activation of Activin A signaling globally down regulates these proteins level. Furthermore, overexpressing MAD2, TTK, BUB3 or Hec1 significantly rescues the mitotic arrest defect caused by BMP inhibition. Our results demonstrated for the first time that TGF-β family cytokines are cellular signals regulating mitotic checkpoint and perturbations in intrinsic BMP signaling could lead to suppression of mitotic checkpoint signaling by downregulating key checkpoint proteins. The results suggest a possible mechanism by which dysregulation of TGF-β signaling causes mitotic checkpoint defects and drives tumorigenesis. The finding also provides a potential and more specific strategy for cancer prevention by targeting BMP and mitotic checkpoint connection.

Bie L, Zhao G, Cheng P, et al.
The accuracy of survival time prediction for patients with glioma is improved by measuring mitotic spindle checkpoint gene expression.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25631 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Identification of gene expression changes that improve prediction of survival time across all glioma grades would be clinically useful. Four Affymetrix GeneChip datasets from the literature, containing data from 771 glioma samples representing all WHO grades and eight normal brain samples, were used in an ANOVA model to screen for transcript changes that correlated with grade. Observations were confirmed and extended using qPCR assays on RNA derived from 38 additional glioma samples and eight normal samples for which survival data were available. RNA levels of eight major mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) genes (BUB1, BUB1B, BUB3, CENPE, MAD1L1, MAD2L1, CDC20, TTK) significantly correlated with glioma grade and six also significantly correlated with survival time. In particular, the level of BUB1B expression was highly correlated with survival time (p<0.0001), and significantly outperformed all other measured parameters, including two standards; WHO grade and MIB-1 (Ki-67) labeling index. Measurement of the expression levels of a small set of SAC genes may complement histological grade and other clinical parameters for predicting survival time.

Wolanin K, Magalska A, Kusio-Kobialka M, et al.
Expression of oncogenic kinase Bcr-Abl impairs mitotic checkpoint and promotes aberrant divisions and resistance to microtubule-targeting agents.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2010; 9(5):1328-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent findings showed that BRCA1, in addition to its role in DNA damage response, acts as an upstream regulator of genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint regulation, thus protecting against promotion of aberrant divisions and aneuploidy. Moreover, there is also an indication that the BRCA1 protein is downregulated in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients. We have investigated a possible functional relationship between BRCA1 and mitotic checkpoint competence in cells with the same genetic background expressing different levels of Bcr-Abl, an oncogene responsible for CML. Herein, we show that Bcr-Abl strongly downregulates the BRCA1 protein level, which is partially reversed on treatment with imatinib, an inhibitor of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase. Bcr-Abl leads to decreased expression of genes involved in the mitotic checkpoint activation--Mad2, Bub1, Bub3, and BubR1, resulting in mitosis perturbances, weakened mitotic checkpoint function, and mitotic slippage after nocodazole treatment. Furthermore, high Bcr-Abl-expressing cells showed also postmitotic checkpoint dysfunctions and inability to effectively arrest in the 4NG1 phase of the cell cycle, which was associated with limited p21 induction. These observations had significant biological consequences, as we found a high level of improper divisions, chromosomal missegregation, and generation of polyploid cells on mitotic checkpoint prolonged activation. Additionally, Bcr-Abl-expressing cells showed resistance to death activated by spindle defects, reversed by imatinib. Our study presents new facts and supports the hypothesis concerning the mutator nature of Bcr-Abl itself. The functional interaction between Bcr-Abl and mitosis dysfunctions, due to compromised mitotic checkpoints, may have important implications for the generation of aneuploidy and CML progression.

Turner N, Lambros MB, Horlings HM, et al.
Integrative molecular profiling of triple negative breast cancers identifies amplicon drivers and potential therapeutic targets.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(14):2013-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs) have a relatively poor prognosis and cannot be effectively treated with current targeted therapies. We searched for genes that have the potential to be therapeutic targets by identifying genes consistently overexpressed when amplified. Fifty-six TNBCs were subjected to high-resolution microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), of which 24 were subjected to genome-wide gene expression analysis. TNBCs were genetically heterogeneous; no individual focal amplification was present at high frequency, although 78.6% of TNBCs harboured at least one focal amplification. Integration of aCGH and expression data revealed 40 genes significantly overexpressed when amplified, including the known oncogenes and potential therapeutic targets, FGFR2 (10q26.3), BUB3 (10q26.3), RAB20 (13q34), PKN1 (19p13.12) and NOTCH3 (19p13.12). We identified two TNBC cell lines with FGFR2 amplification, which both had constitutive activation of FGFR2. Amplified cell lines were highly sensitive to FGFR inhibitor PD173074, and to RNAi silencing of FGFR2. Treatment with PD173074 induced apoptosis resulting partly from inhibition of PI3K-AKT signalling. Independent validation using publicly available aCGH data sets revealed FGFR2 gene was amplified in 4% (6/165) of TNBC, but not in other subtypes (0/214, P=0.0065). Our analysis demonstrates that TNBCs are heterogeneous tumours with amplifications of FGFR2 in a subgroup of tumours.

Caprini E, Cristofoletti C, Arcelli D, et al.
Identification of key regions and genes important in the pathogenesis of sezary syndrome by combining genomic and expression microarrays.
Cancer Res. 2009; 69(21):8438-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, we used single nucleotide polymorphism and comparative genomic hybridization array to study DNA copy number changes and loss of heterozygosity for 28 patients affected by Sézary syndrome (SS), a rare form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Our data identified, further confirming previous studies, recurrent losses of 17p13.2-p11.2 and 10p12.1-q26.3 occurring in 71% and 68% of cases, respectively; common gains were detected for 17p11.2-q25.3 (64%) and chromosome 8/8q (50%). Moreover, we identified novel genomic lesions recurring in >30% of tumors: loss of 9q13-q21.33 and gain of 10p15.3-10p12.2. Individual chromosomal aberrations did not show a significant correlation with prognosis; however, when more than three recurrent chromosomal alterations (gain or loss) were considered, a statistical association was observed using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Integrating mapping and transcriptional data, we were able to identify a total of 113 deregulated transcripts in aberrant chromosomal regions that included cancer-related genes such as members of the NF-kappaB pathway (BAG4, BTRC, NKIRAS2, PSMD3, and TRAF2) that might explain its constitutive activation in CTCL. Matching this list of genes with those discriminating patients with different survival times, we identify several common candidates that might exert critical roles in SS, such as BUB3 and PIP5K1B. Altogether, our study confirms and maps more precisely the regions of gain and loss and, combined to transcriptional profiles, suggests a novel set of genes of potential interest in SS.

Pinto M, Vieira J, Ribeiro FR, et al.
Overexpression of the mitotic checkpoint genes BUB1 and BUBR1 is associated with genomic complexity in clear cell kidney carcinomas.
Cell Oncol. 2008; 30(5):389-95 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A defective mitotic checkpoint has been proposed to contribute to chromosomal instability (CIN). We have previously shown that expression changes of the mitotic arrest deficiency (MAD) gene family plays a role in renal cell cancer (RCC) characterized by numerical chromosomal changes, namely papillary and chromophobe carcinomas, but nothing is known about the expression of mitotic checkpoint genes in the clear cell histotype (ccRCC).
METHODS: We analyzed the mRNA expression levels of the major mitotic checkpoint genes of the budding uninhibited by benzimidazole family (BUB1, BUBR1, BUB3) and of the MAD gene family (MAD1, MAD2L1, MAD2L2) by real-time quantitative PCR in 39 ccRCC and in 36 normal kidney tissue samples. We have additionally analyzed these tumors by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) in order to evaluate the relationship between mitotic checkpoint defects and the pattern of chromosome changes in this subset of RCC.
RESULTS: BUB1, BUBR1, MAD1 and MAD2L1 showed significant expression differences in tumor tissue compared to controls (BUB1, BUBR1 and MAD2L1 were overexpressed, whereas MAD1 was underexpressed). Overexpression of BUB1 and BUBR1 was significantly correlated with the number of genomic copy number changes (p<0.001 for both genes) and with Furhman grade of the tumors (p=0.006 and p=0.005, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that BUB1 and BUBR1 overexpression plays a role in cytogenetic and morphologic progression of ccRCC.

Morandi E, Severini C, Quercioli D, et al.
Gene expression time-series analysis of camptothecin effects in U87-MG and DBTRG-05 glioblastoma cell lines.
Mol Cancer. 2008; 7:66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The clinical efficacy of camptothecin (CPT), a drug specifically targeting topoisomerase I (TopoI), is under evaluation for the treatment of malignant gliomas. Due to the high unresponsiveness of these tumours to chemotherapy, it would be very important to study the signalling network that drives camptothecin outcome in this type of cancer cells. To address this issue, we had previously compared the expression profile of human U87-MG glioblastoma cells with that of a CPT-resistant counterpart, giving evidence that the development of a robust inflammatory response was the main transcriptional effect associated with CPT resistance. Here we report time-related changes and cell line specific patterns of gene expression after CPT treatment by using two p53 wild-type glioblastoma cell lines, U87-MG and DBTRG-05, with different sensitivities to TopoI inhibition.
RESULTS: First, we demonstrated that CPT treatment brings the two cell lines to completely different outcomes: accelerated senescence in U87-MG and apoptosis in DBTRG-05 cells. Then, to understand the different susceptibility to CPT, we used oligo-microarray to identify the genes whose expression was regulated during a time-course treatment, ranging from 2 h to 72 h. The statistical analysis of microarray data by MAANOVA (MicroArray ANalysis Of VAriance) showed much less modulated genes in apoptotic DBTRG-05 cells (155) with respect to the senescent U87-MG cells (3168), where the number of down-regulated genes largely exceeded that of the up-regulated ones (80% vs. 20%). Despite this great difference, the two data-sets showed a large overlapping (60% circa) mainly due to the expression of early stress responsive genes. The use of High-Throughput GoMINER and EASE tools, for functional analysis of significantly enriched GO terms, highlighted common cellular processes and showed that U87-MG and DBTRG-05 cells shared many GO terms, which are related to the down-regulation of cell cycle and mitosis and to the up-regulation of cell growth inhibition and DNA damage.Furthermore, the down-regulation of MYC and DP1 genes, which act as key transcription factors in cell growth control, together with the inhibition of BUB1, BUB3 and MAD2 mRNAs, which are known to be involved in the spindle checkpoint pathway, were specifically associated with the execution of senescence in U87-MG cells and addressed as critical factors that could drive the choice between different CPT-inducible effectors programs. In U87-MG cells we also found inflammation response and IL1-beta induction, as late transcriptional effects of Topo I treatment but these changes were only partially involved in the senescence development, as shown by IL1-beta gene silencing.
CONCLUSION: By comparing the transcription profile of two glioblastoma cell lines treated with camptothecin, we were able to identify the common cellular pathways activated upon Topo I inhibition. Moreover, our results helped in identifying some key genes whose expression seemed to be associated with the execution of senescence or apoptosis in U87-MG and DBTRG-05 cells, respectively.

Wada N, Yoshida A, Miyagi Y, et al.
Overexpression of the mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint genes hBUB1, hBUBR1 and hMAD2 in thyroid carcinomas with aggressive nature.
Anticancer Res. 2008 Jan-Feb; 28(1A):139-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint (MSAC) genes are responsible for preventing chromosome missegregation. MSAC gene expressions have been reported to be associated with tumor cell proliferation or unfavorable cancer behavior. The present study was conducted to preliminary investigate the MSAC gene expressions in thyroid neoplasms.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression levels of MSAC genes (hBUB1, hBUBR1, hBUB3 and hMAD2) were evaluated in 9 follicular thyroid adenomas (FAs), 9 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs), 21 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 5 anaplastic (undifferentiated) thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) and 3 adjacent normal thyroid tissues (NTs) by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. These gene expressions were compared between undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) and differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTCs) and between advanced DTCs and non-advanced DTCs. DTCs included PTCs and FTCs. Advanced DTCs were defined as carcinoma with aggressive nature such as extrathyroid extension, distant metastasis, recurrence or death from the disease.
RESULTS: MSAC gene expressions varied in different thyroid tumors and fell in the order of ATC, DTC (PTC and FTC), FA and NT Carcinomas had higher expression compared to adenoma or normal tissue. hBUB1, hBUBR1 and hMAD2 expressions in ATCs were significantly higher than those in DTCs (p<0.005). hBUBR1 and hMAD2 expressions in advanced DTCs were significantly higher than those in non-advanced DTCs (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: The MSAC genes were overexpressed in thyroid carcinomas with aggressive nature. Further studies are required to clarify the relationship between the MSAC gene expressions and thyroid cancer behavior.

Greene LM, Campiani G, Lawler M, et al.
BubR1 is required for a sustained mitotic spindle checkpoint arrest in human cancer cells treated with tubulin-targeting pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines.
Mol Pharmacol. 2008; 73(2):419-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Intrinsic or acquired resistance to chemotherapy is a major clinical problem that has evoked the need to develop innovative approaches to predict and ultimately reverse drug resistance. A prolonged G(2)M arrest has been associated with apoptotic resistance to various microtubule-targeting agents (MTAs). In this study, we describe the functional significance of the mitotic spindle checkpoint proteins, BubR1 and Bub3, in maintaining a mitotic arrest after microtubule disruption by nocodazole and a novel series of MTAs, the pyrrolo-1,5-benzoxazepines (PBOXs), in human cancer cells. Cells expressing high levels of BubR1 and Bub3 (K562, MDA-MB-231, and HeLa) display a prolonged G(2)M arrest after exposure to MTAs. On the other hand, cells with low endogenous levels of mitotic spindle checkpoint proteins (SK-BR-3 and HL-60) transiently arrest in mitosis and undergo increased apoptosis. The phosphorylation of BubR1 correlated with PBOX-induced G(2)M arrest in four cell lines tested, indicating an active mitotic spindle checkpoint. Gene silencing of BubR1 by small interfering RNA interference reduced PBOX-induced G(2)M arrest without enhancing apoptotic efficacy. Further analysis demonstrated that PBOX-treated BubR1-depleted cells were both mononucleated and multinucleated with a polyploid DNA content, suggesting a requirement for BubR1 in cytokinesis. Taken together, these results suggest that BubR1 contributes to the mitotic checkpoint induced by the PBOXs.

Pinto M, Soares MJ, Cerveira N, et al.
Expression changes of the MAD mitotic checkpoint gene family in renal cell carcinomas characterized by numerical chromosome changes.
Virchows Arch. 2007; 450(4):379-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas are characterized by multiple trisomies and monosomies, respectively, but the molecular mechanisms behind the acquisition of these numerical chromosome changes are unknown. To evaluate the role of mitotic checkpoint defects for the karyotypic patterns characteristic of these two renal cell cancer subtypes, we analyzed the messenger RNA expression levels of the major mitotic checkpoint genes of the budding uninhibited by benzimidazole family (BUB1, BUBR1, BUB3) and of the mitotic arrest deficiency family (MAD1, MAD2L1, MAD2L2) by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 30 renal cell cancer samples (11 chromophobe and 19 papillary) and 36 normal kidney tissue samples. MAD1, MAD2L1, and MAD2L2 showed significant expression differences in tumor tissue compared to controls. Chromophobe tumors presented underexpression of MAD1, and MAD2L2, whereas papillary tumors showed overexpression of MAD2L1. The expression level of the BUB gene family did not differ significantly from that of normal kidney. We conclude that expression changes in mitotic arrest deficiency genes (MAD1, MAD2L1, and MAD2L2) play a role in renal carcinogenesis characterized by multiple numerical chromosome abnormalities.

Vaclavicek A, Bermejo JL, Wappenschmidt B, et al.
Genetic variation in the major mitotic checkpoint genes does not affect familial breast cancer risk.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007; 106(2):205-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
Aneuploidy, an aberrant number of chromosomes, is a very common characteristic of many types of cancers, including tumors of the breast. There is increasing evidence that defects in the spindle assembly checkpoint, which controls correct chromosome segregation between two daughter cells, might contribute to tumorigenesis. In the present study we examined the effect of promoter and coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six major spindle checkpoint genes (BUB1B, BUB3, CENPE, MAD2L1, MAD2L2, TTK) on familial breast cancer (BC) risk. A case-control study was carried out with a total of nine SNPs using 441 German, familial BC cases and 552 controls matched by age, ethnicity and geographical region. Neither the individual SNPs in the studied genes nor the haplotypes in the BUB1B, CENPE and TTK genes caused any significant effect on the risk of BC. We used the multifactor-dimensionality reduction method in order to identify gene-gene interactions among the six mitotic checkpoint genes, but no association was detected. Therefore, our results indicate that the investigated SNPs in the mitotic checkpoint genes do not affect the risk of familial BC.

Crosby ME, Jacobberger J, Gupta D, et al.
E2F4 regulates a stable G2 arrest response to genotoxic stress in prostate carcinoma.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(13):1897-909 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The retinoblastoma (pRB) family proteins regulate the E2F transcription factors; their complexes regulate critical transitions through the cell cycle. The function of these pRB family/E2F complexes, which includes p130/E2F4, in response to genotoxic agents, is not well understood. We investigated the role of E2F4 in the genotoxic stress response. Following radiation treatment, E2F4 colocalized with p130 in the nucleus during a radiation-induced stable G(2)-phase arrest. Arrested cells had significantly decreased expression of Cyclins A2 and B1 and decreased phosphorylation of mitotic protein monoclonal-2 (MPM-2) mitotic proteins. Small interference RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of E2F4 sensitized cells to subsequent irradiation, resulting in enhanced cellular DNA damage and cell death, as determined by caspase activation and decreased clonogenic cell survival. Downstream E2F4 targets potentially involved in the progression from G(2) into M phase were identified by oligonucleotide microarray expression profiling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation localized E2F4 at promoter regions of the Bub3 and Pttg1 mitotic genes following irradiation, which were among the downregulated genes identified by the microarray. These data suggest that in response to radiation, E2F4 becomes active in the nucleus, enforces a stable G(2) arrest by target gene repression, and thus provides increased cell survival ability by minimizing propagation of cells that have irreparable DNA damage.

Glinsky GV
Genomic models of metastatic cancer: functional analysis of death-from-cancer signature genes reveals aneuploid, anoikis-resistant, metastasis-enabling phenotype with altered cell cycle control and activated Polycomb Group (PcG) protein chromatin silencing pathway.
Cell Cycle. 2006; 5(11):1208-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
A recent discovery of death-from-cancer signature genes identifies potential markers predicting the high likelihood of treatment failure in cancer patients. This knowledge provides the opportunity to analyze in functional terms the therapy-resistant and metastasis-enabling phenotypes of cancer cells. Here we summarize the current data regarding the biological functions of genes comprising a death-from-cancer signature. This analysis predicts that cancer cells manifesting a stem cell-like expression profile of a death-from-cancer signature would exhibit the following features: a concomitantly increased expression of certain members of inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family (Survivin and XIAP); activation of mitotic spindle check point proteins (BUB1, BUB3, KNTC2, Mad2, PLK1, PLK4, STK6/Aurora A); and elevated levels of certain cell cycle control/marker proteins (CCNB1, CCNB2, CCND1, CCNA2, CDC2, CDC25, Ki67, USP22). Consequently, these cancer cells would acquire metastasis-enabling anoikis-resistance aneuploid phenotype with aberrant cell cycle control. A functionally complementary role of multiple cooperating oncogenic pathways and the essential role of Polycomb Group (PcG) protein chromatin silencing pathway in emergence of the stem cell cancer phenotype is highlighted.

Yuan B, Xu Y, Woo JH, et al.
Increased expression of mitotic checkpoint genes in breast cancer cells with chromosomal instability.
Clin Cancer Res. 2006; 12(2):405-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Most breast cancers have chromosomal instability that seems related to defective mitotic spindle checkpoints. Because the molecular basis of this defect is unknown, we evaluated breast cancer cell lines and tissues for possible defects involving the major mitotic checkpoint genes responsible for maintaining chromosomal stability.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed sequences and expression levels (RNA and protein) of eight major spindle checkpoint genes (MAD1L1, MAD2L1, MAD2L2, BUB1, BUB1B, BUB3, CDC20, and TTK) in a panel of 12 breast cancer cell lines, most with established genetic instability and defective spindle damage checkpoint response. mRNA levels of these genes were also measured in primary tumor samples, and immunohistochemical staining was used to evaluate BUB1B protein levels in a panel of 270 additional cases of breast cancer.
RESULTS: No functionally significant sequence variations were found for any of the eight genes in the breast cancer cell lines with chromosomal instability. More surprisingly, the mRNA and protein levels for these checkpoint genes are significantly higher in the genetically unstable breast cancer cell lines and in high-grade primary breast cancer tissues than in the stable (and checkpoint proficient) MCF-10A and normal mammary epithelial cells, or in normal breast tissues. In fact, overexpression of the BUB1B protein is a marker that recognizes nearly 80% of breast cancers in paraffin-embedded tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: Defective mitotic spindle checkpoints in breast cancer are most likely not caused by low expression or mutations of these eight checkpoint genes. High levels of these particular transcripts could represent a cellular compensation for defects in other molecular components of the mitotic spindle damage checkpoint, and increased expression of these genes might be markers of breast cancers with chromosomal instability.

Cleator S, Tsimelzon A, Ashworth A, et al.
Gene expression patterns for doxorubicin (Adriamycin) and cyclophosphamide (cytoxan) (AC) response and resistance.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2006; 95(3):229-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: Doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (Adriamycin/cytoxan, AC) is a standard chemotherapy regimen for breast cancer, but de novo resistance is frequent. We hypothesized that gene expression profiles predictive of AC response may be different from our previously published patterns with docetaxel.
METHODS: Core biopsies from 40 patients were obtained before treatment with AC (6 cycles, 60/600 mg/m2q3 weeks), and clinical responses recorded after treatment. Gene expression patterns were analyzed using Affymetrix U133A chips which comprise approximately 22,200 genes.
RESULTS: Clinical complete responses (cCR) were observed in 22, partial responses in 7, stable disease in 11 patients. Differential expression between sensitive cCR and resistant tumors with a low false discovery rate (< 5%) was obtained. Of these 253 differentially expressed genes, pathways up-regulated in sensitive tumors included cell cycle (BUB3, CDKN1B), survival (BCL2, BAG1, BIRC1, STK39), stress response (CYP2B6, MAPK14), and estrogen-related pathways (ER, IRS1). Resistant tumors expressed gene promoting transcription (GTF3C1, ILF3), differentiation (ST14, CTNNBIP1), signal transduction (EIF1AX, EIF4EBP1), and amino acid metabolism (SRM, PLOD1, PLOD3). With leave-one-out cross validation, 67% of the samples were correctly classified, with a permutation p-value of 0.4. The previously published 92-gene molecular portrait for docetaxel sensitivity could not discriminate AC sensitivity and resistance.
CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study supports that molecular profiles for AC response are likely to exist, with unique expression patterns for individual chemotherapy regimens. Larger validation studies are necessary to define and refine patterns for different agents.

Efferth T
Mechanistic perspectives for 1,2,4-trioxanes in anti-cancer therapy.
Drug Resist Updat. 2005 Feb-Apr; 8(1-2):85-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
In addition to their well-known anti-malarial activity, artemisinin and its derivatives (1,2,4-trioxanes) possess potent activity against tumor cells in the nano- to micromolar range. Candidate genes that may contribute to the sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to artemisinins were identified by pharmacogenomic and molecular pharmacological approaches. Target validation was performed using cell lines transfected with candidate genes or corresponding knockout cells. These genes are from classes with different biological function; for example, regulation of proliferation (BUB3, cyclins, CDC25A), angiogenesis (vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, angiostatin, thrombospondin-1) or apoptosis (BCL-2, BAX). Artesunate triggers apoptosis both by p53-dependent and -independent pathways. Anti-oxidant stress genes (thioredoxin, catalase, gamma-glutamyl-cysteine synthetase, glutathione S-transferases) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor confer resistance to artesunate. Cell lines over-expressing genes that confer resistance to established anti-tumor drugs (MDR1, MRP1, BCRP, dihydrofolate reductase, ribonucleotide reductase) were not cross-resistant to artesunate, indicating that this drug has a different target and is not subject to multidrug resistance. The Plasmodium translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) represents a known target protein of artemisinin and its derivatives in the malaria parasite. The microarray-based mRNA expression of human TCTP correlated with sensitivity to artesunate in tumor cells, suggesting that human TCTP contributes to response of tumor cells to the drug. The multi-factorial nature of cellular response to artemisinin and its derivatives may be beneficial to treat otherwise drug-resistant tumors and may explain why resistance development has not been observed in either cancer or malaria.

Moggs JG, Murphy TC, Lim FL, et al.
Anti-proliferative effect of estrogen in breast cancer cells that re-express ERalpha is mediated by aberrant regulation of cell cycle genes.
J Mol Endocrinol. 2005; 34(2):535-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast carcinomas do not respond to hormone therapy, making their effective treatment very difficult. The re-expression of ERalpha in ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells has been used as a model system, in which hormone-dependent responses can be restored. Paradoxically, in contrast to the mitogenic activity of 17beta-estradiol (E2) in ER-positive breast cancer cells, E2 suppresses proliferation in ER-negative breast cancer cells in which ERalpha has been re-expressed. We have used global gene expression profiling to investigate the mechanism by which E2 suppresses proliferation in MDA-MB-231 cells that express ERalpha through adenoviral infection. We show that a number of genes known to promote cell proliferation and survival are repressed by E2 in these cells. These include genes encoding the anti-apoptosis factor SURVIVIN, positive cell cycle regulators (CDC2, CYCLIN B1, CYCLIN B2, CYCLIN G1, CHK1, BUB3, STK6, SKB1, CSE1 L) and chromosome replication proteins (MCM2, MCM3, FEN1, RRM2, TOP2A, RFC1). In parallel, E2-induced the expression of the negative cell cycle regulators KIP2 and QUIESCIN Q6, and the tumour-suppressor genes E-CADHERIN and NBL1. Strikingly, the expression of several of these genes is regulated in the opposite direction by E2 compared with their regulation in ER-positive MCF-7 cells. Together, these data suggest a mechanism for the E2-dependent suppression of proliferation in ER-negative breast cancer cells into which ERalpha has been reintroduced.

Mendoza S, David H, Gaylord GM, Miller CW
Allelic loss at 10q26 in osteosarcoma in the region of the BUB3 and FGFR2 genes.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2005; 158(2):142-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Loss of heterozygosity at 10q26 was mapped using microsatellite markers in 20 osteosarcomas. A four-megabase region centered on marker D10S587 was affected by allelic loss in 60 percent of osteosarcomas. The most frequently lost marker was D10S1723. Around 15 known genes are found in this region. The gene immediately adjacent to D10S1723 encodes BUB3, an element of the spindle assembly mitotic checkpoint. Loss of BUB3 function could contribute to chromosomal instability. The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) gene is located 2 Mb from the BUB3 gene and has the potential for a role in cancer. Inherited mutations of the FGFR2 gene result in skeletal dysplasias. FGFR2 alterations have also been implicated in gastric cancer. Human genome project data were used to design primers for amplifying FGFR2 in 18 genomic segments and BUB3 in 7 genomic segments. In each case, the segments encompassed coding exons and flanking intron sequences. The primers were used to search for mutations by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Several shifted bands were detected in the BUB3 exon 3 fragment. Sequencing resolved the BUB3 exon 3 fragment shifts into polymorphisms in intron 2. No mutations of BUB3 or FGFR2 were detected. It remains possible that BUB3 or FGFR2 hemizygosity alone contributes to osteosarcoma, or that one of the genes is cryptically inactivated by a higher-order modification or mutation outside the coding region. There may also be a yet undiscovered tumor suppressor gene in this region.

Yim EK, Lee KH, Bae JS, et al.
Proteomic analysis of antiproliferative effects by treatment of 5-fluorouracil in cervical cancer cells.
DNA Cell Biol. 2004; 23(11):769-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
The global effects of 5-fluorouracil (FU) on cervical carcinoma cells were analyzed using an efficient proteomic method. More than 50 proteins showed a significant change in 5-FU-treated cervical carcinoma cells compared to control cells. Among them, 34 proteins have been identified by employing two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS using peptide mass fingerprinting. In results, 22 proteins were upregulated (CIDE-B [cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector B], caspase-3, caspase-8, Apo-1/CD95 (Fas), etc.) and 12 proteins were downregulated (mitotic checkpoint protein BUB3, myc proto-oncogene protein [c-myc], src substrate cortactin, transforming protein p21A, etc.) by 5-FU treatment in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells as determined by spot volume (P <0.05). Our experiments showed that 5-FU engaged the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway involving cytosolic cytochrome c release and subsequent activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 as well as the membrane death receptor (DR)-mediated apoptotic pathway involving activation of caspase-8 with an Apo-1/CD95 (Fas)-dependent fashion. In addition, we could observe reduction of HPV-18 E6/E7 gene expression and activation of p53, pRb, and p21waf1 proteins by 5-FU treatment in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells. In conclusion, we suggest that 5-FU suppresses the growth of cervical cancer cells not only by antiproliferative effect but also antiviral regulation. Our findings may offer new insights into the mechanism of anticancer effect affected by 5-FU treatment in cervical cancer cells and its mode of action.

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