Gene Summary

Gene:CDC20; cell division cycle 20
Aliases: CDC20A, p55CDC, bA276H19.3
Summary:CDC20 appears to act as a regulatory protein interacting with several other proteins at multiple points in the cell cycle. It is required for two microtubule-dependent processes, nuclear movement prior to anaphase and chromosome separation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:cell division cycle protein 20 homolog
Source:NCBIAccessed: 17 August, 2015


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1990-2015)
Graph generated 17 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • ras-GRF1
  • Cdc20 Proteins
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Repressor Proteins
  • M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints
  • RNA Interference
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transfection
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome
  • Apoptosis
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes
  • Cell Cycle Checkpoints
  • Breast Cancer
  • Transcription Factors
  • Cyclin B1
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Aneuploidy
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cyclin B
  • Chromosomal Instability
  • World Health Organization
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • HeLa Cells
  • Genes, cdc
  • Messenger RNA
  • Chromosome 1
  • Mitosis
  • Transcription
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Mad2 Proteins
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • siRNA
  • Western Blotting
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Y-Box-Binding Protein 1
  • Cell Proliferation
Tag cloud generated 17 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (1)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: CDC20 (cancer-related)

Jia Z, Ai X, Sun F, et al.
Identification of new hub genes associated with bladder carcinoma via bioinformatics analysis.
Tumori. 2015 Jan-Feb; 101(1):117-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: Bladder carcinoma (BC) is one of the most common malignant cancers worldwide. Several genes related to the mechanism of BC have been studied in recent years, but the current understanding of BC is still rather limited. This study aimed to find new differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the occurrence and development of BC.
METHODS: In this work, we downloaded gene expression data from Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE27448, which included 10 GeneChips from urinary BC tissues and 5 from normal tissues. DEGs were identified by the LIMMA package in R. Then the protein-protein interactions (PPIs) networks were analyzed with the database of Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes, and gene ontology (GO) was applied to explore the underlying function of the DEGs using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery.
RESULTS: A total of 2,068 DEGs were found between BC and normal tissues. These genes were involved in 49 functional clusters. The top 10 highest degree nodes, such as POLR2F/2H (DNA directed RNA polymerase II polypeptide F/polypeptide H) and RPS14/15 (ribosomal protein S14/S15), were proven to be hub nodes in the PPIs network. ITGA7 (integrin, alpha 7), GRB14 (growth factor receptor-bound protein 14), CDC20 (cell division cycle 20) and PSMB1 (proteasome subunit, beta type, 1) were significant DEGs identified in the functional clusters.
CONCLUSIONS: Genes such as POLR2F/2H, RPS14/15, ITGA7, GRB14, CDC20 and PSMB1 were forecast to play important roles in the occurrence and progression of BC.

Avram S, Milac A, Mernea M, et al.
Structure-biological function relationship extended to mitotic arrest-deficient 2-like protein Mad2 native and mutants-new opportunity for genetic disorder control.
Int J Mol Sci. 2014; 15(11):21381-400 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Overexpression of mitotic arrest-deficient proteins Mad1 and Mad2, two components of spindle assembly checkpoint, is a risk factor for chromosomal instability (CIN) and a trigger of many genetic disorders. Mad2 transition from inactive open (O-Mad2) to active closed (C-Mad2) conformations or Mad2 binding to specific partners (cell-division cycle protein 20 (Cdc20) or Mad1) were targets of previous pharmacogenomics studies. Here, Mad2 binding to Cdc20 and the interconversion rate from open to closed Mad2 were predicted and the molecular features with a critical contribution to these processes were determined by extending the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) method to large-size proteins such as Mad2. QSAR models were built based on available published data on 23 Mad2 mutants inducing CIN-related functional changes. The most relevant descriptors identified for predicting Mad2 native and mutants action mechanism and their involvement in genetic disorders are the steric (van der Waals area and solvent accessible area and their subdivided) and energetic van der Waals energy descriptors. The reliability of our QSAR models is indicated by significant values of statistical coefficients: Cross-validated correlation q2 (0.53-0.65) and fitted correlation r2 (0.82-0.90). Moreover, based on established QSAR equations, we rationally design and analyze nine de novo Mad2 mutants as possible promoters of CIN.

Bouchet A, Sakakini N, Atifi ME, et al.
Identification of AREG and PLK1 pathway modulation as a potential key of the response of intracranial 9L tumor to microbeam radiation therapy.
Int J Cancer. 2015; 136(11):2705-16 [PubMed] Related Publications
Synchrotron microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) relies on the spatial fractionation of a synchrotron beam into parallel micron-wide beams allowing deposition of hectogray doses. MRT controls the intracranial tumor growth in rodent models while sparing normal brain tissues. Our aim was to identify the early biological processes underlying the differential effect of MRT on tumor and normal brain tissues. The expression of 28,000 transcripts was tested by microarray 6 hr after unidirectional MRT (400 Gy, 50 µm-wide microbeams, 200 µm spacing). The specific response of tumor tissues to MRT consisted in the significant transcriptomic modulation of 431 probesets (316 genes). Among them, 30 were not detected in normal brain tissues, neither before nor after MRT. Areg, Trib3 and Nppb were down-regulated, whereas all others were up-regulated. Twenty-two had similar expression profiles during the 2 weeks observed after MRT, including Ccnb1, Cdc20, Pttg1 and Plk1 related to the mitotic role of the Polo-like kinase (Plk) pathway. The up-regulation of Areg expression may indicate the emergence of survival processes in tumor cells triggered by the irradiation; while the modulation of the "mitotic role of Plk1" pathway, which relates to cytokinetic features of the tumor observed histologically after MRT, may partially explain the control of tumor growth by MRT. The identification of these tumor-specific responses permit to consider new strategies that might potentiate the antitumoral effect of MRT.

Shike M, Doane AS, Russo L, et al.
The effects of soy supplementation on gene expression in breast cancer: a randomized placebo-controlled study.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2014; 106(9) [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: There are conflicting reports on the impact of soy on breast carcinogenesis. This study examines the effects of soy supplementation on breast cancer-related genes and pathways.
METHODS: Women (n = 140) with early-stage breast cancer were randomly assigned to soy protein supplementation (n = 70) or placebo (n = 70) for 7 to 30 days, from diagnosis until surgery. Adherence was determined by plasma isoflavones: genistein and daidzein. Gene expression changes were evaluated by NanoString in pre- and posttreatment tumor tissue. Genome-wide expression analysis was performed on posttreatment tissue. Proliferation (Ki67) and apoptosis (Cas3) were assessed by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Plasma isoflavones rose in the soy group (two-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum test, P < .001) and did not change in the placebo group. In paired analysis of pre- and posttreatment samples, 21 genes (out of 202) showed altered expression (two-sided Student's t-test, P < .05). Several genes including FANCC and UGT2A1 revealed different magnitude and direction of expression changes between the two groups (two-sided Student's t-test, P < .05). A high-genistein signature consisting of 126 differentially expressed genes was identified from microarray analysis of tumors. This signature was characterized by overexpression (>2-fold) of cell cycle transcripts, including those that promote cell proliferation, such as FGFR2, E2F5, BUB1, CCNB2, MYBL2, CDK1, and CDC20 (P < .01). Soy intake did not result in statistically significant changes in Ki67 or Cas3.
CONCLUSIONS: Gene expression associated with soy intake and high plasma genistein defines a signature characterized by overexpression of FGFR2 and genes that drive cell cycle and proliferation pathways. These findings raise the concerns that in a subset of women soy could adversely affect gene expression in breast cancer.

Zhang W, Gong W, Ai H, et al.
Gene expression analysis of lung adenocarcinoma and matched adjacent non-tumor lung tissue.
Tumori. 2014 May-Jun; 100(3):338-45 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to find disease-associated genes and gene functions in lung adenocarcinoma and matched adjacent non-tumor lung tissues with DNA microarray.
METHODS: We downloaded the gene expression profile GSE32863 from the Gene Expression Omnibus database including 58 lung adenocarcinoma and 58 adjacent non-tumor lung tissue samples. Data were preprocessed and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using packages in the R computing language. The selected DEGs were further analyzed with bioinformatics methods. After the coexpression network of DEGs was constructed by STRING (Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins), we analyzed gene functions with DAVID (The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) and WebGestalt (WEB-based Gene Set Analysis Toolkit).
RESULTS: A total of 1429 genes were filtered as DEGs, including 873 downregulated genes and 556 upregulated genes, and the DEGs including CDC45, CCNB2, CDC20, MCM2, PTTG1, MCM4 and FEN1 were most significantly related to cell cycle and DNA replication.
CONCLUSION: The discovery of featured genes which were significantly related to cell cycle and DNA replication has potential for use in the clinic for the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma in the future. However, further experiments will be needed to confirm our result.

Li J, Gao JZ, Du JL, et al.
Increased CDC20 expression is associated with development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 45(4):1547-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) encodes a regulatory protein interacting with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) in the cell cycle and plays important roles in tumorigenesis and progression of multiple tumors. The present study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of CDC20 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the role of CDC20 in the progression of HCC. By bioinformatics analysis, CDC20 was found to be the major node in HCC molecular interaction networks. Quantitative PCR and western blot analyses were applied to examine CDC20 expression in 16 paired primary HCC tissues. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to examine CDC20 protein expression in 132 matched paraffin-embedded HCC tissues and to analyze the relationship between CDC20 staining and clinical characteristics. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting CDC20 was synthesized and transfected into HepG2 cells to investigate the role of CDC20 in cell growth and the cell cycle. Results show that CDC20 expression was upregulated in HCC tissues compared to adjacent non-tumor liver tissues. In the 132 matched HCC tissues, high expression levels of CDC20 were detected in 68.18% HCC samples, and overexpression of CDC20 was positively correlated with gender (P=0.013), tumor differentiation (P=0.000), TNM stage (P=0.012), P53 and Ki-67 expression (P=0.023 and P=0.007, respectively). Cells transfected with CDC20 siRNA showed a decrease in cell proliferation and increase in the number of cells in G2/M-phase. In conclusion, increased expression of CDC20 was demonstrated to be associated with the development and progression of HCC, and may be regarded as a promising therapeutic target for HCC.

Li XX, Zheng HT, Peng JJ, et al.
RNA-seq reveals determinants for irinotecan sensitivity/resistance in colorectal cancer cell lines.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(5):2729-36 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Irinotecan is a topoisomerase I inhibitor approved worldwide as a first- and second-line chemotherapy for advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer (CRC). Although irinotecan showed significant survival advantage for patients, a relatively low response rate and severe adverse effects demonstrated the urgent need for biomarkers searching to select the suitable patients who can benefit from irinotecan-based therapy and avoid the adverse effects. In present work, the irinotecan response (IC50 doses) of 20 CRC cell lines were correlated with the basal expression profiles investigated by RNA-seq to figure out genes responsible for irinotecan sensitivity/resistance. Genes negatively or positively correlated to irinotecan sensitivity were given after biocomputation, and 7 (CDC20, CTNNAL1, FZD7, CITED2, ABR, ARHGEF7, and RNMT) of them were validated in two CRC cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR, several of these 7 genes has been proposed to promote cancer cells proliferation and hence may confer CRC cells resistance to irinotecan. Our work might provide potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for irinotecan sensitivity in CRC cells.

Shiozaki A, Nako Y, Ichikawa D, et al.
Role of the Na ⁺/K ⁺/2Cl⁻ cotransporter NKCC1 in cell cycle progression in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
World J Gastroenterol. 2014; 20(22):6844-59 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the role of Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) in the regulation of genes involved in cell cycle progression and the clinicopathological significance of its expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
METHODS: An immunohistochemical analysis was performed on 68 primary tumor samples obtained from ESCC patients that underwent esophagectomy. NKCC1 expression in human ESCC cell lines was analyzed by Western blotting. Knockdown experiments were conducted using NKCC1 small interfering RNA, and the effects on cell cycle progression were analyzed. The gene expression profiles of cells were analyzed by microarray analysis.
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining showed that NKCC1 was primarily found in the cytoplasm of carcinoma cells and that its expression was related to the histological degree of differentiation of SCC. NKCC1 was highly expressed in KYSE170 cells. Depletion of NKCC1 in these cells inhibited cell proliferation via G2/M phase arrest. Microarray analysis identified 2527 genes with altered expression levels in NKCC1depleted KYSE170. Pathway analysis showed that the top-ranked canonical pathway was the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulation pathway, which involves MAD2L1, DTL, BLM, CDC20, BRCA1, and E2F5.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that the expression of NKCC1 in ESCC may affect the G2/M checkpoint and may be related to the degree of histological differentiation of SCCs. We have provided a deeper understanding of the role of NKCC1 as a mediator and/or a biomarker in ESCC.

Wan L, Tan M, Yang J, et al.
APC(Cdc20) suppresses apoptosis through targeting Bim for ubiquitination and destruction.
Dev Cell. 2014; 29(4):377-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Anaphase-promoting complex Cdc20 (APC(Cdc20)) plays pivotal roles in governing mitotic progression. By suppressing APC(Cdc20), antimitotic agents activate the spindle-assembly checkpoint and induce apoptosis after prolonged treatment, whereas depleting endogenous Cdc20 suppresses tumorigenesis in part by triggering mitotic arrest and subsequent apoptosis. However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying apoptosis induced by Cdc20 abrogation remains poorly understood. Here, we report the BH3-only proapoptotic protein Bim as an APC(Cdc20) target, such that depletion of Cdc20 sensitizes cells to apoptotic stimuli. Strikingly, Cdc20 and multiple APC-core components were identified in a small interfering RNA screen that, upon knockdown, sensitizes otherwise resistant cancer cells to chemoradiation in a Bim-dependent manner. Consistently, human adult T cell leukemia cells that acquire elevated APC(Cdc20) activity via expressing the Tax viral oncoprotein exhibit reduced Bim levels and resistance to anticancer agents. These results reveal an important role for APC(Cdc20) in governing apoptosis, strengthening the rationale for developing specific Cdc20 inhibitors as effective anticancer agents.

Bieniek J, Childress C, Swatski MD, Yang W
COX-2 inhibitors arrest prostate cancer cell cycle progression by down-regulation of kinetochore/centromere proteins.
Prostate. 2014; 74(10):999-1011 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that COX-2 inhibitors inhibit cancer cell proliferation. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive.
METHODS: Prostate cancer LNCaP, 22Rv1, and PC3 cells were cultured and treated with the COX-2 inhibitors celecoxib and CAY10404. Knockdown of COX-2 in LNCaP cells was carried out using lentiviral vector-loaded COX-2 shRNA. Cell cycle progression and cell proliferation were analyzed by flow cytometry, microscopy, cell counting, and the MTT assay. The antagonists of EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 were used to examine the effects of the PGE2 signaling. The effect of COX-2 inhibitors and COX-2 knockdown on expression of the kinetochore/centromere genes and proteins was determined by RT-PCR and immunoblotting.
RESULTS: Treatment with the COX-2 inhibitors celecoxib and CAY10404 or knockdown of COX-2 significantly inhibited prostate cancer cell proliferation. Flow-cytometric analysis and immunofluorescent staining confirmed the cell cycle arrested at the G2/M phase. Biochemical analysis showed that inhibition of COX-2 or suppression of COX-2 expression induced a dramatic down-regulation of key proteins in the kinetochore/centromere assembly, such as ZWINT, Cdc20, Ndc80, CENP-A, Bub1, and Plk1. Furthermore, the EP1 receptor antagonist SC51322, but not the EP2, EP3, and EP4 receptor antagonists, produced similar effects to the COX-2 inhibitors on cell proliferation and down-regulation of kinetochore/centromere proteins, suggesting that the effect of the COX-2 inhibition is through inactivation of the EP1 receptor signaling.
CONCLUSIONS: Our studies indicate that inhibition of COX-2 can arrest prostate cancer cell cycle progression through inactivation of the EP1 receptor signaling and down-regulation of kinetochore/centromere proteins.

Fu L, Zhang S
RASSF1A promotes apoptosis and suppresses the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells.
Int J Mol Med. 2014; 33(5):1153-60 [PubMed] Related Publications
As the most lethal gynecological malignancy, ovarian cancer has attracted much attention over the past few decades; however, the early detection of this malignancy has been largely unsuccessful. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Ras-association domain family 1, isoform A (RASSF1A) on ovarian cancer and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects. The expression of RASSF1A in different ovarian cancer cells was detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The morphology, structure, apoptosis and proliferation of differently treated SKOV-3 cells were then analyzed using a fluorescence microscope, transmission electron microscope, flow cytometer and by western blot analysis, respectively. Moreover, the GSE14407 affymetrix microarray data were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and the expression of RASSF1A was quantified by Spotfire DecisionSite software. A RASSF1A related protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was then constructed using STRING and Cytoscape software. Finally, DAVID was utilized to perform KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of the network. RASSF1A was expressed in the HO8910, HO8910PM cells and the SKOV-3 cells transfected with RASSF1A, whereas it was absent in the other SKOV-3 cells and OVCAR-3 cells. Additionally, compared with the other SKOV-3 cells, the nucleus of SKOV-3 cells transfected with RASSF1A was vacuolated, apoptosis was increased, and the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin was decreased (P<0.05), and that of p27 and caspase-3 was increased (P<0.01). Additionally, 10 genes, including serine/threonine kinase (STK)3, STK4, Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) and cell division cycle 20 (CDC20), were found to have close interactions with RASSF1A in the PPI network. Finally, a total of 8 enriched pathways, such as bladder cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and pathways in cancer were identified. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the biological functions and the underlying mechanisms of action of RASSF1A in the development of ovarian cancer. Our findings may provide a novel therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

Ding ZY, Wu HR, Zhang JM, et al.
Expression characteristics of CDC20 in gastric cancer and its correlation with poor prognosis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7(2):722-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cell division cycle 20 homolog (CDC20) expression is increased in diverse human cancers and plays a vital role in tumorigenesis and progression. However, the clinical significance of CDC20 expression in gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathologic features and prognostic significance of CDC20 in GC. The CDC20 mRNA expression was measured by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the expression of CDC20 protein in 131 clinicopathologically characterized GC cases. The relationship between CDC20 expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed by appropriate statistics. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to investigate the correlation between CDC20 expression and prognosis of GC patients. The relative mRNA expression of CDC20 were significantly higher in GC tumor tissues than in the corresponding noncancerous tissues (P<0.001). Simultaneously, CDC20 protein expression was positively correlated with tumor size (P=0.02), histological grade (P=0.037), lymph node involvement (P=0.009), and TNM stage (P=0.015). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that patients with high CDC20 expression had poor overall survival (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that high CDC20 expression was an independent predictor of overall survival. In conclusion, our data indicated that CDC20 upregulation was associated with aggressive progression and poor prognosis in GC. CDC20 was identified for the first time as an independent marker for predicting the clinical outcome of GC patients.

Sánchez-Pérez T, Medema RH, López-Rivas A
Delaying mitotic exit downregulates FLIP expression and strongly sensitizes tumor cells to TRAIL.
Oncogene. 2015; 34(5):661-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Many of the current antitumor therapeutic strategies are based on the perturbation of the cell cycle, especially during mitosis. Antimitotic drugs trigger mitotic checkpoint activation, mitotic arrest and eventually cell death. However, mitotic slippage represents a major mechanism of resistance to these treatments. In an attempt to circumvent the process of slippage, targeting mitotic exit has been proposed as a better strategy to kill tumor cells. In this study, we show that treatments that induce mitotic checkpoint activation and mitotic arrest downregulate FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP) levels and sensitize several tumor cell lines to TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, we also demonstrate that in absence of mitotic checkpoint activation, mitotic arrest induced either by Cdc20 knockdown or overexpression of nondegradable cyclin B is sufficient to induce both FLIP downregulation and sensitivity to TRAIL. In summary, our data suggest that a combination of antimitotic drugs targeting cyclin B degradation and TRAIL might prevent mitotic slippage and allow tumor cells to reach the threshold for apoptosis induction, thereby facilitating tumor suppression.

Miao S, Wu K, Zhang B, et al.
Synuclein γ compromises spindle assembly checkpoint and renders resistance to antimicrotubule drugs.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2014; 13(3):699-713 [PubMed] Related Publications
Defects in the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) have been proposed to contribute to the chromosomal instability in human cancers. One of the major mechanisms underlying antimicrotubule drug (AMD) resistance involves acquired inactivation of SAC. Synuclein γ (SNCG), previously identified as a breast cancer-specific gene, is highly expressed in malignant cancer cells but not in normal epithelium. Here, we show that SNCG is sufficient to induce resistance to AMD-caused apoptosis in breast cancer cells and cancer xenografts. SNCG binds to spindle checkpoint kinase BubR1 and inhibits its kinase activity. Specifically, the C-terminal (Gln106-Asp127) of SNCG binds to the N-terminal TPR (tetratricopeptidelike folds) motif of BubR1. SNCG-BubR1 interaction induces a structure change of BubR1, attenuates its interaction with other key checkpoint proteins of Cdc20, and thus compromises SAC function. SNCG expression in breast cancers from patients with a neoadjuvant clinical trial showed that SNCG-positive tumors are resistant to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. These data show that SNCG renders AMD resistance by inhibiting BubR1 activity and attenuating SAC function.

Minakawa Y, Kasamatsu A, Koike H, et al.
Kinesin family member 4A: a potential predictor for progression of human oral cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e85951 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Kinesin family member 4A (KIF4A), a microtubule-based motor protein, was implicated in regulation of chromosomal structure and kinetochore microtubule dynamics. Considering the functions of KIF4A, we assumed that KIF4A is involved in progression of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) via activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). However, little is known about the relevance of KIF4A in the behavior of OSCC. We investigated the KIF4A expression status and its functional mechanisms in OSCC.
METHODS: The KIF4A expression levels in seven OSCC-derived cells were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analyses. Using a KIF4A knockdown model, we assessed the expression of (SAC)-related molecules (BUB1, MAD2, CDC20, and cyclin B1), cell-cycle, and cellular proliferation. In addition to in vitro data, the clinical correlation between the KIF4A expression levels in primary OSCCs (n = 106 patients) and the clinicopathologic status by immunohistochemistry (IHC) also were evaluated.
RESULTS: KIF4A mRNA and protein were up-regulated significantly (P < 0.05) in seven OSCC-derived cells compared with human normal oral keratinocytes. In the KIF4A knockdown cells, SAC activation was observed via increased BUB1 expression on the kinetochores, appropriate kinetochore localization of MAD2, down-regulation of CDC20, up-regulation of cyclin B1, and cell-cycle arrested at G2/M phase. The results showed that cellular proliferation of KIF4A knockdown cells decreased significantly (P < 0.05) compared with control cells. IHC showed that KIF4A expression in primary OSCCs was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than in the normal oral counterparts and that KIF4A-positive OSCCs were correlated closely (P < 0.05) with tumoral size.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results proposed for the first time that KIF4A controls cellular proliferation via SAC activation. Therefore, KIF4A might be a key regulator for tumoral progression in OSCCs.

Salsi V, Ferrari S, Gorello P, et al.
NUP98 fusion oncoproteins promote aneuploidy by attenuating the mitotic spindle checkpoint.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(4):1079-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
NUP98 is a recurrent fusion partner in chromosome translocations that cause acute myelogenous leukemia. NUP98, a nucleoporin, and its interaction partner Rae1, have been implicated in the control of chromosome segregation, but their mechanistic contributions to tumorigenesis have been unclear. Here, we show that expression of NUP98 fusion oncoproteins causes mitotic spindle defects and chromosome missegregation, correlating with the capability of NUP98 fusions to cause premature securin degradation and slippage from an unsatisfied spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). NUP98 fusions, unlike wild-type NUP98, were found to physically interact with the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)(Cdc20) and to displace the BubR1 SAC component, suggesting a possible mechanistic basis for their interference with SAC function. In addition, NUP98 oncoproteins displayed a prolonged half-life in cells. We found that NUP98 stability is controlled by a PEST sequence, absent in NUP98 oncoproteins, whose deletion reproduced the aberrant SAC-interfering activity of NUP98 oncoproteins. Together, our findings suggest that NUP98 oncoproteins predispose myeloid cells to oncogenic transformation or malignant progression by promoting whole chromosome instability.

Xie C, Powell C, Yao M, et al.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2C: a potential cancer biomarker.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2014; 47:113-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
The ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes 2C (UBE2C) is an integral component of the ubiquitin proteasome system. UBE2C consists of a conserved core domain containing the catalytic Cys residue and an N-terminal extension. The core domain is required for ubiquitin adduct formation by interacting with the ubiquitin-fold domain in the E1 enzyme, and contributes to the E3 enzyme binding. UBE2C N-terminal extension regulates E3 enzyme activity as a part of an intrinsic inhibitory mechanism. UBE2C is required for the destruction of mitotic cyclins and securin, which are essential for spindle assembly checkpoint and mitotic exit. The UBE2C mRNA and/or protein levels are aberrantly increased in many cancer types with poor clinical outcomes. Accumulation of UBE2C stimulates cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. UBE2C transgenic mice are prone to develop spontaneous tumors and carcinogen-induced tumor with evidence of chromosome aneuploidy.

Cohen Y, Gutwein O, Garach-Jehoshua O, et al.
The proliferation arrest of primary tumor cells out-of-niche is associated with widespread downregulation of mitotic and transcriptional genes.
Hematology. 2014; 19(5):286-92 [PubMed] Related Publications
In recording the changes acquired in gene expression profile during culture of fresh bone marrow samples from patients with multiple myeloma or acute myeloid leukemia, the most remarkable finding in both instances was widespread downregulation of mitotic and transcriptional genes (e.g. MKI67, CCNB1, ASPM, SGOL1, DLGAP5, CENPF, BUB1, KIF23, KIF18a, KIF11, KIF14, KIF4, NUF2, KIF1, AE2FB, TOP2A, NCAPG, TTK, CDC20, and AURKB), which could account for the ensuing proliferation arrest. Many of these genes were also underexpressed in leukemic cells from the blood or myeloma cells from an extramedullary site compared with their expression in the aspirates. Taken together, our results exhibited mitotic and transcriptional gene subsets where their expression appears to be coordinated and niche dependent. In addition, the genes induced during culture specified a variety of angiogenic factors (e.g. interleukin-8 and CXCL-5) and extracellular matrix proteins (e.g. osteopontin and fibronectin) probably released by the tumor cells while generating their favored microenvironment.

Štorcelová M, Vicián M, Reis R, et al.
Expression of cell cycle regulatory factors hus1, gadd45a, rb1, cdkn2a and mre11a correlates with expression of clock gene per2 in human colorectal carcinoma tissue.
Mol Biol Rep. 2013; 40(11):6351-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Deregulated expression of clock gene per2 has previously been associated with progression of cancer. The aim of the present study was to identify genes related to per2 expression and involved in cell cycle control. Patients surgically treated for colorectal carcinoma with up-regulated and down-regulated per2 expression in cancer versus adjacent tissue were studied. Total RNA from cancer tissue of these patients was used to specify genes associated with altered per2 expression using the Human Cell Cycle RT(2) profiler PCR array system. We identified seven genes positively correlated (hus1, gadd45α, rb1, cdkn2a, cdk5rp1, mre11a, sumo1) and two genes negatively correlated (cdc20, birc5) with per2 expression. Expression of these seven genes was subsequently measured by real time PCR in all patients of the cohort. Patients were divided into three groups according to TNM classification. We observed an increase in gene expression in cancer tissue compared to adjacent tissue in the first group of patients in all genes measured. Expression of genes positively associated with per2 gene expression was dependent on tumor staging and changes were observed preferentially in cancer tissue. For genes negatively associated with per2 expression we also detected changes in expression dependent on tumor staging. Expression of cdc20 and birc5 was increasing in the proximal tissue and decreasing in the cancer tissue. These results implicate functional involvement of per2 in the process of carcinogenesis via newly uncovered genes. The relevancy of gene expression for determination of diagnosis and prognosis should be considered in relation to tumor staging.

Wang Q, Tiffen J, Bailey CG, et al.
Targeting amino acid transport in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: effects on cell cycle, cell growth, and tumor development.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013; 105(19):1463-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) uptake neutral amino acids including L-leucine into cells, stimulating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling and protein synthesis. LAT1 and LAT3 are overexpressed at different stages of prostate cancer, and they are responsible for increasing nutrients and stimulating cell growth.
METHODS: We examined LAT3 protein expression in human prostate cancer tissue microarrays. LAT function was inhibited using a leucine analog (BCH) in androgen-dependent and -independent environments, with gene expression analyzed by microarray. A PC-3 xenograft mouse model was used to study the effects of inhibiting LAT1 and LAT3 expression. Results were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U or Fisher exact tests. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: LAT3 protein was expressed at all stages of prostate cancer, with a statistically significant decrease in expression after 4-7 months of neoadjuvant hormone therapy (4-7 month mean = 1.571; 95% confidence interval = 1.155 to 1.987 vs 0 month = 2.098; 95% confidence interval = 1.962 to 2.235; P = .0187). Inhibition of LAT function led to activating transcription factor 4-mediated upregulation of amino acid transporters including ASCT1, ASCT2, and 4F2hc, all of which were also regulated via the androgen receptor. LAT inhibition suppressed M-phase cell cycle genes regulated by E2F family transcription factors including critical castration-resistant prostate cancer regulatory genes UBE2C, CDC20, and CDK1. In silico analysis of BCH-downregulated genes showed that 90.9% are statistically significantly upregulated in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Finally, LAT1 or LAT3 knockdown in xenografts inhibited tumor growth, cell cycle progression, and spontaneous metastasis in vivo.
CONCLUSION: Inhibition of LAT transporters may provide a novel therapeutic target in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, via suppression of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity and M-phase cell cycle genes.

Wu WJ, Hu KS, Wang DS, et al.
CDC20 overexpression predicts a poor prognosis for patients with colorectal cancer.
J Transl Med. 2013; 11:142 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The cell division cycle 20 homolog (CDC20) is an essential cofactor of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C). CDC20 overexpression has been detected in many types of human cancers; however, its clinical role in colorectal cancer remains unknown.
METHODS: Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to compare CDC20 expression in adjacent non-cancerous, cancerous and liver metastatic tissues as well as in colon cancer cell lines and normal colon epithelial cell lines. Additionally, the correlation of CDC20 expression with patient clinical parameters and its diagnostic value were statistically analyzed.
RESULTS: CDC20 was overexpressed in colon cancer cell lines/primary cancer tissues compared with normal colon epithelial cell lines/adjacent noncancerous tissue samples. Interestingly, CDC20 expression was further increased in metastatic liver tissues. CDC20 protein expression was significantly correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.008), N classification (P = 0.020), M classification (P = 0.013) and pathologic differentiation (P = 0.008). Patients with higher CDC20 expression had a shorter overall survival than those with lower CDC20 expression. Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that CDC20 expression was an independent prognostic factor (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: CDC20 may serve as a potential prognostic biomarker of human colorectal cancer.

Shimizu N, Nakajima NI, Tsunematsu T, et al.
Selective enhancing effect of early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) depletion on the sensitivity of doxorubicin or X-ray treatment in human cancer cells.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(24):17238-52 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chemotherapy and radiation in addition to surgery has proven useful in a number of different cancer types, but the effectiveness in normal tissue cannot be avoided in these therapies. To improve the effectiveness of these therapies selectively in cancer tissue is important for avoiding side effects. Early mitotic inhibitor 1 (Emi1) is known to have the function to inhibit anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome ubiquitin ligase complex, which ubiquitylates the cell cycle-related proteins. It recently has been shown that Emi1 knockdown prevents transition from S to G2 phase by down-regulating geminin via anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activation. At present, anticancer drugs for targeting DNA synthesis to interfere with rapidly dividing cells commonly are used. As Emi1 depletion interferes with completion of DNA synthesis in cancer cells, we thought that Emi1 knockdown might enhance the sensitivity for anticancer agents. Here, we confirmed that Emi1 siRNA induced polyploidy for preventing transition from S to G2 phase in several cancer cell lines. Then, we treated Emi1 depleted cells with doxorubicin. Interestingly, increased apoptotic cells were observed after doxorubicin treatment in Emi1 siRNA-treated cancer cells. In addition, Emi1 depletion enhanced the sensitivity of x-ray irradiation in cancer cells. Importantly, synergistic effect of Emi1 knockdown in these combination therapies was not observed in normal cells. These results suggest that Emi1 siRNA can be a useful tool for enhancing of sensitivity of cancer cells to anticancer reagents and radiation.

Hu K, Liao D, Wu W, et al.
Targeting the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)- bromodomain containing 7 (BRD7) pathway for human osteosarcoma.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(10):3088-100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor in childhood and adolescence and has a propensity for local invasion and early lung metastasis. However, the current therapies often result in chemoresistance, and a therapeutic target is not available in the clinic for osteosarcoma. Here, we report that BRD7 forms a complex with the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and is degraded by APC/C(cdh1) and APC/C(cdc20) during the cell cycle. Moreover, BRD7 is a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma, and the BRD7 mutant resistant to degradation by APC/C is more efficient than the wild-type protein at suppressing proliferation, colony formation, and tumor growth of osteosarcoma in vitro and in vivo. The combination of proTAME, an inhibitor of APC/C, with chemotherapeutic drugs efficiently targets osteosarcoma in vitro. Furthermore, there is a strong inverse correlation of protein levels between BRD7 and Cdh1 or Cdc20, and lower BRD7 expression is an indicator for poor prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma. Collectively, our results indicate that targeting the APC/C-BRD7 pathway may be a novel strategy for treating osteosarcoma.

Espinosa AM, Alfaro A, Roman-Basaure E, et al.
Mitosis is a source of potential markers for screening and survival and therapeutic targets in cervical cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55975 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The effect of preventive human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination on the reduction of the cervical cancer (CC) burden will not be known for 30 years. Therefore, it's still necessary to improve the procedures for CC screening and treatment. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize cellular targets that could be considered potential markers for screening or therapeutic targets. A pyramidal strategy was used. Initially the expression of 8,638 genes was compared between 43 HPV16-positive CCs and 12 healthy cervical epitheliums using microarrays. A total of 997 genes were deregulated, and 21 genes that showed the greatest deregulation were validated using qRT-PCR. The 6 most upregulated genes (CCNB2, CDC20, PRC1, SYCP2, NUSAP1, CDKN3) belong to the mitosis pathway. They were further explored in 29 low-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasias (CIN1) and 21 high-grade CIN (CIN2/3) to investigate whether they could differentiate CC and CIN2/3 (CIN2+) from CIN1 and controls. CCNB2, PRC1, and SYCP2 were mostly associated with CC and CDC20, NUSAP1, and CDKN3 were also associated with CIN2/3. The sensitivity and specificity of CDKN3 and NUSAP1 to detect CIN2+ was approximately 90%. The proteins encoded by all 6 genes were shown upregulated in CC by immunohistochemistry. The association of these markers with survival was investigated in 42 CC patients followed up for at least 42 months. Only CDKN3 was associated with poor survival and it was independent from clinical stage (HR = 5.9, 95%CI = 1.4-23.8, p = 0.01). CDKN3 and NUSAP1 may be potential targets for the development of screening methods. Nevertheless, further studies with larger samples are needed to define the optimal sensitivity and specificity. Inhibition of mitosis is a well-known strategy to combat cancers. Therefore, CDKN3 may be not only a screening and survival marker but a potential therapeutic target in CC. However, whether it's indispensable for tumor growth remains to be demonstrated.

Haynes BP, Viale G, Galimberti V, et al.
Expression of key oestrogen-regulated genes differs substantially across the menstrual cycle in oestrogen receptor-positive primary breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013; 138(1):157-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Plasma estradiol (E2) and progesterone vary markedly through the menstrual cycle. Data on whether these differences in hormone levels affect gene expression in oestrogen receptor-positive (ER+) tumours are inconsistent. We wished to determine whether there are substantial changes in the expression of oestrogen-regulated genes (ERGs) in ER+ breast cancer through the menstrual cycle. One hundred and seventy five paraffin-embedded ER+ breast carcinomas from premenopausal patients were analysed. Timing of the ovarian cycle was confirmed using serum progesterone levels. Patients were ascribed to one of three pre-defined menstrual cycle windows: 1 (days 27-35 + 1-6), 2 (days 7-16) and 3 (days 17-26). The RNA expression of ESR1, four ERGs (PGR, GREB1, TFF1 and PDZK1), and three proliferation genes (MKI67, TOP2A and CDC20) were compared between the windows. Gene expression of the four ERGs was 53-129 % higher in window 2 than window 1 (p = 0.0013, 0.0006, 0.022 and 0.066 for PGR, GREB1, TFF1 and PDZK1, respectively) and lower (9-41 %) in window 3 compared to window 2 (p = 0.079, 0.31, 0.031 and 0.065 for PGR, GREB1, TFF1 and PDZK1, respectively). Their average expression (AvERG) was 64 % higher in window 2 than window 1 (p < 0.0001) and 21 % lower in window 3 than window 2 (p = 0.0043). There were no significant differences between the windows for ESR1 and proliferation genes. In agreement with the gene expression data, progesterone receptor protein levels measured by immunohistochemistry (IHC) were 164 and 227 % higher in windows 2 and 3, respectively, compared to window 1 (30.7 and 37.9 % cells positive vs. 11.6 %; p = 0.0003 and 0.0004, respectively), while no difference in ER IHC score was observed. In conclusion, we observed significant differences in the expression of ERGs in ER+ breast tumours across the menstrual cycle. This variability may affect the interpretation of gene expression profiles incorporating ERGs and may be exploitable as an endogenous test of endocrine responsiveness.

Dai B, Gong A, Jing Z, et al.
Forkhead box M1 is regulated by heat shock factor 1 and promotes glioma cells survival under heat shock stress.
J Biol Chem. 2013; 288(3):1634-42 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) is a key transcription factor regulating multiple aspects of cell biology. Prior studies have shown that FoxM1 is overexpressed in a variety of human tumors, including brain tumor, and plays a critical role in cancer development and progression. In this study we found that FoxM1 was up-regulated by heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) under heat shock stress condition in multiple cell lines. Knockdown of HSF1 with HSF1 siRNA or inhibition of HSF1 with a HSF1 inhibitor abrogated heat shock-induced expression of FoxM1. Genetic deletion of HSF1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cells also abolished heat shock stress-induced FoxM1 expression. Moreover, we showed that HSF1 directly bound to FoxM1 promoter and increased FoxM1 promoter activity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that FoxM1 was required for the G(2)-M phase progression through regulating Cdc2, Cdc20, and Cdc25B under a mild heat shock stress but enhanced cell survival under lethal heat shock stress condition. Finally, in human glioblastoma specimens, FoxM1 overexpression correlated with elevated HSF1 expression. Our results indicate that FoxM1 is regulated by HSF1 and is critical for HSF1-mediated heat shock response. We demonstrated a novel mechanism of stress resistance controlled by HSF1 and a new HSF-FoxM1 connection that mediates cellular thermotolerance.

Parrillas V, Martínez-Muñoz L, Holgado BL, et al.
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 blocks mitosis in human melanoma cells.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013; 70(3):545-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypermethylation of SOCS genes is associated with many human cancers, suggesting a role as tumor suppressors. As adaptor molecules for ubiquitin ligases, SOCS proteins modulate turnover of numerous target proteins. Few SOCS targets identified so far have a direct role in cell cycle progression; the mechanism by which SOCS regulate the cell cycle thus remains largely unknown. Here we show that SOCS1 overexpression inhibits in vitro and in vivo expansion of human melanoma cells, and that SOCS1 associates specifically with Cdh1, triggering its degradation by the proteasome. Cells therefore show a G1/S transition defect, as well as a secondary blockade in mitosis and accumulation of cells in metaphase. SOCS1 expression correlated with a reduction in cyclin D/E levels and an increase in the tumor suppressor p19, as well as the CDK inhibitor p53, explaining the G1/S transition defect. As a result of Cdh1 degradation, SOCS1-expressing cells accumulated cyclin B1 and securin, as well as apparently inactive Cdc20, in mitosis. Levels of the late mitotic Cdh1 substrate Aurora A did not change. These observations comprise a hitherto unreported mechanism of SOCS1 tumor suppression, suggesting this molecule as a candidate for the design of new therapeutic strategies for human melanoma.

Yamanaka S, Campbell NR, An F, et al.
Coordinated effects of microRNA-494 induce G₂/M arrest in human cholangiocarcinoma.
Cell Cycle. 2012; 11(14):2729-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNA (miRs) have emerged as salient regulators in cancer homeostasis and, recently, as putative therapeutics. Cholangiocarcinomas (CCA) are aggressive cancers with survival usually measured in months. mRNA arrays followed by pathway analysis revealed that miR-494 is a major modulator of the cell cycle progression from gap 2 (G₂) to mitosis (M). We performed fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) as well as differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, and confirmed that miR-494 induces a significant arrest in G₂/M in CCA cells. Furthermore, we verified that miR-494 modulates the protein level of six genes involved in the G₂/M transition: Polo-like Kinase 1 (PLK1), pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1 (PTTG1), Cyclin B1 (CCNB1), cell-division cycle 2 (CDC2), cell-division cycle 20 (CDC20) and topoisomerase II α (TOP2A). Next, we identified direct binding of miR-494 to the open reading frame (ORF) and downregulation of PTTG1 and TOP2A. In summary, our findings suggest that miR-494 has a global regulatory role in cell cycle progression, exerted by concerted effects on multiple proteins involved in gap 1 (G₁) to synthesis (S), as described previously, as well as G₂ to M progression. Therefore, it appears that the simultaneous effects of a single miR species on multiple targets along the same canonical pathway is advantageous for the usage of miRs as therapeutics. In addition, our data suggest that miRs act within a narrow range. miR expression above the upper threshold does not appear to induce further effects, which is reassuring in terms of off-target effects of miR surrounding noncancerous tissue.

Chang DZ, Ma Y, Ji B, et al.
Increased CDC20 expression is associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma differentiation and progression.
J Hematol Oncol. 2012; 5:15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Cell division cycle 20 (CDC20) homolog is an anaphase-promoting complex activator that is essential for cell division, but whether its expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is significant is unknown. In this retrospective study, we determined whether aberrant CDC20 expression can be used as a biomarker in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tumorigenesis and whether its expression reflects clinical progression.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We compared CDC20 expression levels in normal, cancerous, and inflamed pancreatic tissues from stage II PDAC patients with clinical outcomes and determined CDC20 levels in seven PDAC cell lines. CDC20 was identified using a cDNA microarray database containing gene expression profiles for PDAC tissues and cell lines and chronic pancreatitis and normal pancreas tissues. Its expression was confirmed by real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). An immunohistochemical analysis of tissue microarrays from resected PDAC tumors and paired benign pancreatic tissues was done and CDC20 levels were correlated with clinical outcome.
RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were included in this study. A microarray analysis revealed 5-fold higher CDC20 expression in PDAC tissue than in chronic pancreatitis tissue. A qRT-PCR analysis confirmed a mean 20-fold higher CDC20 level in PDAC tissue than in normal pancreas and pancreatitis tissue. RNA and protein CDC20 expression was detected in several PDAC cell lines. An immunohistochemical analysis revealed higher CDC20 protein expression levels in PDAC tissue than in normal pancreas tissue, and high CDC20 expression was associated with poor differentiation (P = 0.020) and a significantly lower 5-year recurrence-free survival rate (P = 0.039); we also found a trend toward a shorter overall survival duration.
CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant CDC20 expression may play an important role in PDAC tumorigenesis and progression and may thus be useful as a marker of disease progression and prognosis and as a therapeutic target.

Dai Y, Tang Y, He F, et al.
Screening and functional analysis of differentially expressed genes in EBV-transformed lymphoblasts.
Virol J. 2012; 9:77 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Epstain-Barr virus (EBV) can transform human B lymphocytes making them immortalized and inducing tumorigenic ability in vitro, but the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of the present study is to detect and analyze differentially expressed genes in two types of host cells, normal human lymphocytes and coupled EBV-transformed lymphoblasts in vitro using gene chips, and to screen the key regulatory genes of lymphocyte transformation induced by EB virus.
METHODS: Fresh peripheral blood samples from seven healthy donors were collected. EBV was used to transform lymphocytes in vitro. Total RNA was extracted from 7 cases of the normal lymphocytes and transformed lymphoblasts respectively, marked with dihydroxyfluorane after reverse transcription, then hybridized with 4 × 44 K Agilent human whole genome microarray. LIMMA, String, Cytoscape and other softwares were used to screen and analyze differentially expressed genes. Real-time PCR was applied to verify the result of gene expression microarrays.
RESULTS: There were 1745 differentially expressed genes that had been screened, including 917 up-regulated genes and 828 down-regulated genes. According to the results of Generank, String and Cytoscape analyses, 38 genes may be key controlled genes related to EBV-transformed lymphocytes, including 22 up-regulated genes(PLK1, E2F1, AURKB, CDK2, PLCG2, CD80, PIK3R3, CDC20, CDC6, AURKA, CENPA, BUB1B, NUP37, MAD2L1, BIRC5, CDC25A, CCNB1, RPA3, HJURP, KIF2C, CDK1, CDCA8) and 16 down-regulated genes(FYN, CD3D, CD4, CD3G, ZAP70, FOS, HCK, CD247, PRKCQ, ITK, LCP2, CXCL1, CD8A, ITGB5, VAV3, CXCR4), which primarily control biological processes such as cell cycle, mitosis, cytokine-cytokine pathway, immunity response and so on.
CONCLUSIONS: Human lymphocyte transformation induced by EB virus is a complicated process, involving multiple-genes and -pathways in virus-host interactions. Global gene expression profile analysis showed that EBV may transform human B lymphocytes by promoting cell cycle and mitosis, inhibiting cell apoptosis, hindering host immune function and secretion of cytokines.

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