Research IndicatorsGraph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (4)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: COPS6 (cancer-related)
Wen D, Liao T, Ma B, et al.Downregulation of CSN6 attenuates papillary thyroid carcinoma progression by reducing Wnt/β-catenin signaling and sensitizes cancer cells to FH535 therapy.
Cancer Med. 2018; 7(2):285-296 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide at a rate higher than that of any other cancer. CSN6 is overexpressed in many types of cancers, and such expression is linked to oncogenic activity. However, the detailed biological functions of CSN6 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) have not been well characterized. We investigated CSN6 expression in PTC specimens and cell lines. We used short-hairpin RNA-mediated gene silencing to explore the biological effects of CSN6 depletion in PTC cells. The combined effects of CSN6 silencing and FH535 therapy were assessed in terms of cell viability. The mechanism by which CSN6 regulated β-catenin expression was also analyzed. CSN6 levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (mRNA), Western blotting, and immunochemistry (protein). The CCK-8 and migration assays and orthotopic xenograft transplantation were used to investigate the biological effects of CSN6. We assessed the combined effects of CSN6 silencing and FH535 on cell viability in vitro. We also analyzed the relationship between the CSN6 level and clinical pathological status. CSN6 was overexpressed in human PTCs, and loss of CSN6 attenuated tumor proliferation and migration both in vitro and in vivo. CSN6 stabilized β-catenin and facilitated the epidermal-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in PTC cells. CSN6 positively regulated β-catenin expression in a β-Trcp-dependent manner and triggered expression of several EMT-related genes regulated by β-catenin. CSN6 silencing sensitized PTC cells to FH535 therapy via downregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Finally, in PTC patients, the level of CSN6 was significantly (inversely) correlated with tumor size, the presence of multifocal lesions, and TNM stage. CSN6 overexpression in PTC is a strong indicator of enhanced tumor aggressiveness. CSN6 promotes PTC progression by inducing the EMT. CSN6 knockdown sensitizes PTC cells to FH535 therapy via downregulation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.
BACKGROUND: The COP9 signalosome, composed of eight subunits, is implicated in cancer genetics with its deneddylase activity to modulate cellular concentration of oncogenic proteins such as IkB and TGFβ. However, its function in the normal cell physiology remains elusive. Primarily focusing on gene expression data of the normal tissues of the head and neck, the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) database was used to identify groups of genes that were expressed synergistically with the COP9 genes, particularly with the COPS5 (CSN5), which possesses the catalytic activity of COP9.
RESULTS: Expressions of seven of the COP9 genes (COPS2, COPS3, COPS4, COPS5, COPS6, COPS7A, and COPS8) were found to be highly synergistic in the normal tissues. In contrast, the tumor tissues decreased the coordinated expression pattern of COP9 genes. Pathway analysis revealed a high coordination of the expression of the COPS5 and the other COP9 genes with mitochondria-related functional pathways, including genes encoding the respiratory chain complex.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that mRNA expression data for the matched normal tissues available in TCGA are statistically reliable, and are highly useful to assess novel associations of genes with functional pathways in normal physiology as well as in the cancer tissues. This study revealed the significant correlation between the expressions of the COP9 genes and those related to the mitochondrial activity.
Constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 signalosome (CSN) consists of a total of eight subunits (CSN1-CSN8) in mammalian cells. CSN6 may promote carcinogenesis by positively regulating v‑myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Myc) and MDM2 proto‑oncogene stability, and is regarded as a potential target for cancer therapy. Quercetin has a substantial anticancer effect on various human cancer cells. The present study investigated the effects of quercetin on HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest using an MTT assay, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. It was determined that quercetin inhibited HT‑29 cell viability in a dose‑dependent manner. Cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and nuclear collapse were observed in the 50, 100 and 200 µM quercetin groups. The exposure of HT‑29 cells to quercetin led to significant cell cycle arrest in the S‑phase. Western blot analysis revealed that quercetin reduced the protein expression levels of phosphorylated-Akt and increased CSN6 protein degradation; therefore, affecting the expression levels of Myc, p53, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2 associated X protein. The overexpression of CSN6 reduced the effect of quercetin treatment on HT‑29 cells, suggesting that quercetin‑induced apoptosis may involve the Akt‑CSN6‑Myc signaling axis in HT‑29 cells.
Cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in women. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the major cause in almost 99.7% of cervical cancer. E6 oncoprotein of HPV and E6-associated protein (E6AP) are critical in causing p53 degradation and malignancy. Understanding the E6AP regulation is critical to develop treating strategy for cervical cancer patients. The COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6) is involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. We found that both CSN6 and E6AP are overexpressed in cervical cancer. We characterized that CSN6 associated with E6AP and stabilized E6AP expression by reducing E6AP poly-ubiquitination, thereby regulating p53 activity in cell proliferation and apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that CSN6-E6AP axis can be regulated by EGF/Akt signaling. Furthermore, inhibition of CSN6-E6AP axis hinders cervical cancer growth in mice. Taken together, our results indicate that CSN6 is a positive regulator of E6AP and is important for cervical cancer development.
Biomarkers for predicting prognosis are critical to treating colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. We found that CSN6, a subunit of COP9 signalosome, is overexpressed in CRC samples and that CSN6 overexpression is correlated with poor patient survival. Mechanistic studies revealed that CSN6 is deregulated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, in which ERK2 binds directly to CSN6 Leu163/Val165 and phosphorylates CSN6 at Ser148. Furthermore, CSN6 regulated β-Trcp and stabilized β-catenin expression by blocking the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, thereby promoting CRC development. High CSN6 expression was positively correlated with ERK2 activation and β-catenin overexpression in CRC samples, and inhibiting CSN6 stability with cetuximab reduced colon cancer growth. Taken together, our study's findings indicate that the deregulation of β-catenin by ERK2-activated CSN6 is important for CRC development.
Understanding genome integrity and DNA damage response are critical to cancer treatment. In this study, we identify CSN6's biological function in regulating genome integrity. Constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1), an E3 ubiquitin ligase regulated by CSN6, is downregulated by DNA damage, but the biological consequences of this phenomenon are poorly understood. p27(Kip1) is a critical CDK inhibitor involved in cell cycle regulation, but its response to DNA damage remains unclear. Here, we report that p27(Kip1) levels are elevated after DNA damage, with concurrent reduction of COP1 levels. Mechanistic studies showed that during DNA damage response COP1's function as an E3 ligase of p27 is compromised, thereby reducing the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27(Kip1). Also, COP1 overexpression leads to downregulation of p27(Kip1), thereby promoting the expression of mitotic kinase Aurora A. Overexpression of Aurora A correlates with poor survival. These findings provide new insight into CSN6-COP1-p27(Kip1)-Aurora A axis in DNA damage repair and tumorigenesis.
The COP9 signalosome subunit 6 (CSN6), which is involved in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation, is overexpressed in many types of cancer. CSN6 is critical in causing p53 degradation and malignancy, but its target in cell cycle progression is not fully characterized. Constitutive photomorphogenic 1 (COP1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase associating with COP9 signalosome to regulate important target proteins for cell growth. p27 is a critical G1 CDK inhibitor involved in cell cycle regulation, but its upstream regulators are not fully characterized. Here, we show that the CSN6-COP1 link is regulating p27(Kip1) stability, and that COP1 is a negative regulator of p27(Kip1). Ectopic expression of CSN6 can decrease the expression of p27(Kip1), while CSN6 knockdown leads to p27(Kip1) stabilization. Mechanistic studies show that CSN6 interacts with p27(Kip1) and facilitates ubiquitin-mediated degradation of p27(Kip1). CSN6-mediated p27 degradation depends on the nuclear export of p27(Kip1), which is regulated through COP1 nuclear exporting signal. COP1 overexpression leads to the cytoplasmic distribution of p27, thereby accelerating p27 degradation. Importantly, the negative impact of COP1 on p27 stability contributes to elevating expression of genes that are suppressed through p27 mediation. Kaplan-Meier analysis of tumor samples demonstrates that high COP1 expression was associated with poor overall survival. These data suggest that tumors with CSN6/COP1 deregulation may have growth advantage by regulating p27 degradation and subsequent impact on p27 targeted genes.
Wang W, Tang M, Zhang L, et al.Clinical implications of CSN6 protein expression and correlation with mutant-type P53 protein in breast cancer.
Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2013; 43(12):1170-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 subunit 6, as one subunit of the constitutive photomorphogenesis 9, plays an important role in tumor development. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and prognostic implications of constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 subunit 6 protein in breast cancer.
METHODS: We examined mastectomy specimens from 92 invasive breast cancers and matched with 20 adjacent non-cancerous tissues using immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: The positive expressions of constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 subunit 6 protein in invasive breast cancer and adjacent non-cancerous tissue were 32.61% (30 of 92) and 10% (2 of 20), respectively. The positive expression of constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 subunit 6 protein was related to tumor size, histological type and lymph node metastasis (P = 0.015, 0.009 and 0.009, respectively). After univariate analysis, constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 subunit 6-positive expression was only found to be significantly related to mutant-type P53 expression (P < 0.001). Spearman's correlation analysis was used to demonstrate negative correlations between constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 subunit 6 and mutant-type P53 (r = -0.417). Constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 subunit 6 positive was associated with both poorer breast cancer-specific survival in 92 cases and in the lymph node-positive group (P = 0.007 and 0.024, respectively). In the Cox regression test, constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 subunit 6 protein was not shown to be an independent prognostic factor for breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: Constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 subunit 6 might be a new potential biomarker for breast cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 subunit 6's involvement are still unclear.
The constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 signalosome (COP9 or CSN) is an evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complex found in plants and animals. Because of the homology between the COP9 signalosome and the 19S lid complex of the proteosome, COP9 has been postulated to play a role in regulating the degradation of polyubiquitinated proteins. Many tumor suppressor and oncogene products are regulated by ubiquitination- and proteosome-mediated protein degradation. Therefore, it is conceivable that COP9 plays a significant role in cancer, regulating processes relevant to carcinogenesis and cancer progression (e.g., cell cycle control, signal transduction and apoptosis). In mammalian cells, it consists of eight subunits (CSN1 to CSN8). The relevance and importance of some subunits of COP9 to cancer are emerging. However, the mechanistic regulation of each subunit in cancer remains unclear. Among the CSN subunits, CSN5 and CSN6 are the only two that each contain an MPN (Mpr1p and Pad1p N-terminal) domain. The deneddylation activity of an MPN domain toward cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRL) may coordinate CRL-mediated ubiquitination activity. More recent evidence shows that CSN5 and CSN6 are implicated in ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis of important mediators in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which some CSN subunits are involved in cancer to provide a much needed perspective regarding COP9 in cancer research, hoping that these insights will lay the groundwork for cancer intervention.
The mammalian constitutive photomorphogenesis 9 (COP9) signalosome (CSN), a protein complex involved in embryonic development, is implicated in cell cycle regulation and the DNA damage response. Its role in tumor development, however, remains unclear. Here, we have shown that the COP9 subunit 6 (CSN6) gene is amplified in human breast cancer specimens, and the CSN6 protein is upregulated in human breast and thyroid tumors. CSN6 expression positively correlated with expression of murine double minute 2 (MDM2), a potent negative regulator of the p53 tumor suppressor. Expression of CSN6 appeared to prevent MDM2 autoubiquitination at lysine 364, resulting in stabilization of MDM2 and degradation of p53. Mice in which Csn6 was deleted died early in embryogenesis (E7.5). Embryos lacking both Csn6 and p53 survived to later in embryonic development (E10.5), which suggests that loss of p53 could partially rescue the effect of loss of Csn6. Mice heterozygous for Csn6 were sensitized to γ-irradiation-induced, p53-dependent apoptosis in both the thymus and the developing CNS. These mice were also less susceptible than wild-type mice to γ-irradiation-induced tumorigenesis. These results suggest that loss of CSN6 enhances p53-mediated tumor suppression in vivo and that CSN6 plays an important role in regulating DNA damage-associated apoptosis and tumorigenesis through control of the MDM2-p53 signaling pathway.
van Dekken H, Tilanus HW, Hop WC, et al.Array comparative genomic hybridization, expression array, and protein analysis of critical regions on chromosome arms 1q, 7q, and 8p in adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction.
Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2009; 189(1):37-42 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Survival rates of adenocarcinomas of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) are low, because these tumors are generally in an advanced stage by the time they are detected. Chromosomal regions 1q32, 7q21, and 8p22 display critical alterations in GEJ cancers; however, the genes underlying alterations in these genomic areas are largely unknown. To delineate overexpressed genes, we performed array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and mRNA expression analysis of 15 GEJ adenocarcinoma samples using a fine-tiling cDNA array covering chromosome segments 1q31.3~q41 (193.9-215.8 Mb: 21.9 Mb), 7q11.23~q22.1 (72.3-103.0 Mb: 30.7 Mb), and 8p23.1~p21.3 (11.1-20.7 Mb: 9.6 Mb). Based on a mRNA overexpression criterion, 11 genes were selected: ELF3 and SLC45A3 on 1q; CLDN12, CDK6, SMURF1, ARPC1B, ZKSCAN1, MCM7, and COPS6 on 7q; and FDFT1 and CTSB on 8p. The protein expression levels were subsequently determined by immunohistochemical analysis of the cancer samples. There was a significant correlation between genomic amplification, mRNA, and protein expression or overexpression for CDK6, a cell cycle regulator on 7q21.2 (92.1 Mb; P<0.01); other genes showed less stringent associations. In conclusion, using a straightforward approach we constructed a targeted gene profile for GEJ adenocarcinomas.
Gemmill RM, Lee JP, Chamovitz DA, et al.Growth suppression induced by the TRC8 hereditary kidney cancer gene is dependent upon JAB1/CSN5.
Oncogene. 2005; 24(21):3503-11 [PubMed
] Related Publications
TRC8 encodes an E3-ubiquitin ligase disrupted in a family with hereditary renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We previously reported that Drosophila Trc8 (DTrc8) overexpression inhibits growth and that human and fly proteins interact with with the COP9 signalosome (CSN) subunit JAB1/CSN5. However, further mechanistic evidence linking DTrc8 growth suppression to CSN5 was lacking. Here, we show that haploinsufficiency of CSN5, or a T100I point mutation (CSN5(3)), relieved growth suppression by DTrc8, whereas CSN5(1) (E160V) and CSN5(2) (G147D) mutations had no effect. The strength of yeast two-hybrid interactions between DTrc8 and CSN5 were in complete agreement with the observed phenotypes. DTrc8 overexpression resulted in elevated levels of CSN5 and CSN7, but had no effect on NEDD8-modified Cul-1. In contrast to CSN5, heterozygosity for CSN4null had no effect on the DTrc8 phenotype. We also looked for genetic interactions between DTrc8 and other MPN domain proteins in the CSN and 26S proteasome lid. CSN6 haploinsufficiency restored growth, whereas reduction of proteasome subunits RPN8 or RPN11 had no effect. DTrc8 expression increased the level of digitonin-extractable CSN complex, consistent with elevated levels of CSN5 and 7. Our genetic results confirm that DTrc8-induced growth suppression is CSN5 (and CSN6) dependent. While there was no obvious influence on CSN deneddylation activity, the increase in CSN subunits and holocomplex suggests that TRC8 modulates signalosome levels or compartmentalization.
Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) are critical in ubiquitinating Myc, while COP9 signalosome (CSN) controls neddylation of Cullin in CRL. The mechanistic link between Cullin neddylation and Myc ubiquitination/degradation is unclear. Here we show that Myc is a target of the CSN subunit 6 (CSN6)-Cullin signalling axis and that CSN6 is a positive regulator of Myc. CSN6 enhanced neddylation of Cullin-1 and facilitated autoubiquitination/degradation of Fbxw7, a component of CRL involved in Myc ubiquitination, thereby stabilizing Myc. Csn6 haplo-insufficiency decreased Cullin-1 neddylation but increased Fbxw7 stability to compromise Myc stability and activity in an Eμ-Myc mouse model, resulting in decelerated lymphomagenesis. We found that CSN6 overexpression, which leads to aberrant expression of Myc target genes, is frequent in human cancers. Together, these results define a mechanism for the regulation of Myc stability through the CSN-Cullin-Fbxw7 axis and provide insights into the correlation of CSN6 overexpression with Myc stabilization/activation during tumorigenesis.