Gene Summary

Gene:ETS1; ETS proto-oncogene 1, transcription factor
Aliases: p54, ETS-1, EWSR2, c-ets-1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, which are defined by the presence of a conserved ETS DNA-binding domain that recognizes the core consensus DNA sequence GGAA/T in target genes. These proteins function either as transcriptional activators or repressors of numerous genes, and are involved in stem cell development, cell senescence and death, and tumorigenesis. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been described for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:protein C-ets-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (35)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 09 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Breast Cancer
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets
  • Vimentin
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Cancer DNA
  • TRPC Cation Channels
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Cell Movement
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Zinc Fingers
  • MicroRNAs
  • Messenger RNA
  • Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1
  • Promoter Regions
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Down-Regulation
  • Young Adult
  • Cervical Cancer
  • Chromosome 11
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Transcriptional Regulator ERG
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Mutation
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • Western Blotting
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Base Sequence
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • TGFA
  • Binding Sites
  • Gene Expression
Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ETS1 (cancer-related)

Janiak M, Paskal W, Rak B, et al.
TIMP4 expression is regulated by miR-200b-3p in prostate cancer cells.
APMIS. 2017; 125(2):101-105 [PubMed] Related Publications
In prostate cancer TIMP4 expression level fluctuates with tumor progression. The mechanism and factors influencing its expression remain unclear. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis on regulation of TIMP4 by microRNA-200b-3p. The levels of TIMP4 and miR-200b-3p expression were determined by real time PCR in 27 prostate carcinomas and eight benign prostatic hyperplasia samples. We found that miR-200b-3p positively correlated with TIMP4 expression in cancer samples (r = 0.46; p < 0.02). Moreover, mean miR-200b-3p level and TIMP4 expression were both higher in cancer tissues compared to benign prostatic hyperplasia samples (p > 0.05). Next, to test probable mechanisms of the regulation androgen-sensitive human prostate adenocarcinoma cells (LNCaP) were transfected with synthetic-miR-200b-3p or its synthetic antagonist. Modulation of miR-200b-3p in LNCaP cells had an impact on TIMP4 expression confirming the observation made in analyzed clinical samples. Two targets of miR-200b-3p: ZEB1 and ETS1 were investigated subsequently as potential regulators of TIMP4, however, no effect of their modulation on TIMP4 expression in LNCaP cells was found. Concluding, miR-200b-3p mediates regulation of TIMP4 expression in prostate cancer but exact mechanism needs to be investigated.

Ai J, Li W, Zeng R, et al.
Blockage of SSRP1/Ets-1/Pim-3 signalling enhances chemosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to docetaxel in vitro.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 83:1022-1031 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare cancer in most parts of the world, but is prevalent in South China area. Besides, therapeutic outcome is still unsatisfactory for patients with refractory and relapsed NPC, even though receiving a second line of docetaxel-based chemotherapy. These reasons require a better understanding of mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis, malignancy and chemoresistance. In the basis of our previous finding of SSRP1 over-expression in NPC cell lines, this study continuously discovered up-regulated Ets-1, phosphor-Ets-1 and Pim-3 in NPC tissues with immunohistochemistry assay and revealed a close correlation of these up-regulated proteins with NPC proliferation and invasion. Using gene-silencing technology followed by western blot and immunocytochemistry detections, SSRP1 was found to facilitate the translocation of phosphor-Ets-1 from cytoplasm to cell nucleus, but have marginal effect on Ets-1 expression and phosphorylation. Pim-3 was positively regulated by Ets-1. In NPC HNE-1 cells, all SSRP1, Ets-1 and Pim-3 knockdown diminished the cell proliferation, enhanced the apoptosis, as well as inhibited the autophagy, invasion and clonogenicity in the presence or absence of docetaxel at IC25. Exposure of HNE-1 cells to docetaxel (IC25) alone had modest effect on cell proliferation and autophagy, and was not as effective as docetaxel treatment after knockdown of SSRP1, Ets-1 or Pim-3 on induction of the apoptosis and on inhibition of the invasion and clonogenicity. Our data indicate that SSRP1/Ets-1/Pim-3 signalling is tightly associated with the proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, invasion and clonogenicity of NPC cells, and blockage of this signalling facilitates chemosensitivity of the cells to docetaxel.

Li W, Wang H, Zhang J, et al.
miR-199a-5p regulates β1 integrin through Ets-1 to suppress invasion in breast cancer.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(7):916-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Increasing evidence has revealed that miR-199a-5p is actively involved in tumor invasion and metastasis as well as in the decline of breast cancer tissues. In this research, overexpression of miR-199a-5p weakened motility and invasion of breast cancer cells MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Upregulation of Ets-1 increased breast cancer cell invasion, but the mechanism by which miR-199a-5p modulates activation of Ets-1 in breast cancer was not clarified. We investigated the relationship between miR-199a-5p and Ets-1 on the basis of 158 primary breast cancer case specimens, and the results showed that Ets-1 expression was inversely correlated with endogenous miR-199a-5p. Overexpression of miR-199a-5p reduced the mRNA and protein levels of Ets-1 in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, whereas anti-miR-199a-5p elevated Ets-1. siRNA-mediated Ets-1 knockdown phenocopied the inhibition invasion of miR-199a-5p in vitro. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-199a-5p directly targeted 3'-UTR of Ets-1 mRNA. This research revealed that miR-199a-5p could descend the levels of β1 integrin by targeting 3'-UTR of Ets-1 to alleviate the invasion of breast cancer via FAK/Src/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Our results provide insight into the regulation of β1 integrin through miR-199a-5p-mediated Ets-1 silence and will help in designing new therapeutic strategies to inhibit signal pathways induced by miR-199a-5p in breast cancer invasion.

Duren RP, Boudreaux SP, Conneely OM
Genome Wide Mapping of NR4A Binding Reveals Cooperativity with ETS Factors to Promote Epigenetic Activation of Distal Enhancers in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0150450 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Members of the NR4A subfamily of orphan nuclear receptors regulate cell fate decisions via both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms in a cell and tissue selective manner. NR4As play a key role in maintenance of hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis and are critical tumor suppressors of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Expression of NR4As is broadly silenced in leukemia initiating cell enriched populations from human patients relative to normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Rescue of NR4A expression in human AML cells inhibits proliferation and reprograms AML gene signatures via transcriptional mechanisms that remain to be elucidated. By intersecting an acutely regulated NR4A1 dependent transcriptional profile with genome wide NR4A binding distribution, we now identify an NR4A targetome of 685 genes that are directly regulated by NR4A1. We show that NR4As regulate gene transcription primarily through interaction with distal enhancers that are co-enriched for NR4A1 and ETS transcription factor motifs. Using a subset of NR4A activated genes, we demonstrate that the ETS factors ERG and FLI-1 are required for activation of NR4A bound enhancers and NR4A target gene induction. NR4A1 dependent recruitment of ERG and FLI-1 promotes binding of p300 histone acetyltransferase to epigenetically activate NR4A bound enhancers via acetylation at histone H3K27. These findings disclose novel epigenetic mechanisms by which NR4As and ETS factors cooperate to drive NR4A dependent gene transcription in human AML cells.

Peng C, Li Z, Niu Z, et al.
Norcantharidin Suppresses Colon Cancer Cell Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition by Inhibiting the αvβ6-ERK-Ets1 Signaling Pathway.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:20500 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Norcantharidin (NCTD) is an efficacious anti-cancer drug that has been used in China for many years, but its underlying mechanism of action is still not fully understood. In the present study, we found that NCTD could induce morphological changes in colon cancer cells, causing a transition from a spindle-shaped morphology to a typical round or oval shape, which was indicative of a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) process. Next, we investigated the mechanism by which NCTD induced the MET process. Using a transwell assay, we found that NCTD could suppress the migratory and invasive ability of colon cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, NCTD suppressed the expression of integrin αvβ6, MMP-3, and MMP-9 as well as the polymerization of F-actin, further supporting its suppressive effect on migratory and invasive ability. Furthermore, the expression of αvβ6, N-cadherin, vimentin and phosphorylated ERK was decreased, while the expression of E-cadherin was up-regulated. We verified that phosphorylated Ets1 was down-regulated substantially after treatment with NCTD. Taken together, our data demonstrated that NCTD could inhibit the EMT process of colon cancer cells by inhibiting the αvβ6-ERK-Ets1 signaling pathway. This study revealed part of the mechanism through which NCTD could reverse the EMT process in colon cancer.

Li W, Liu C, Zhao C, et al.
Downregulation of β3 integrin by miR-30a-5p modulates cell adhesion and invasion by interrupting Erk/Ets‑1 network in triple-negative breast cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(3):1155-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
Integrins are adhesion receptors involved in bidirectional signaling and are crucial for various cellular responses during normal homeostasis and pathological conditions, such as cancer progression and metastasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that blockage of β3 integrin-mediated cell- extracellular matrix interactions restrained triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) growth, and elevated β3 integrin can trigger the rewiring of Erk/Ets-1 signaling pathways, thereby enhancing cell growth and invasion. Ectopic expression of miRNA has been implicated in the deregulation of integrin expression and activity, blocking of cancer tumor development and progression, and acquisition of metastatic phenotype. miR-30a-5p expression has been implicated in the progression of breast cancer. Overexpression of miR-30a-5p suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. On the contrary, inhibition of miR-30a-5p promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of TNBC cells by suppressing the expression of ERK/Ets-1 signal. An inverse correlation was found between the mRNA expressions of miR-30a-5p and β3 integrin in TNBC samples. Furthermore, bioinformatics analysis revealed the putative miR-30 binding sites in the 3'-UTR of β3 integrin. Results of luciferase assay revealed a strong repression of luciferase activity after transfection with miR‑30a-5p and wild-type 3'-UTR of β3 integrin. In TNBC cells, miR-30a-5p promoted an epithelial phenotype and suppressed invasion by specifically targeting β3 integrin subunit to subsequently interdict the β3 integrin/Erk/Ets-1 network.

Liu L, Liu Y, Zhang T, et al.
Synthetic Bax-Anti Bcl2 combination module actuated by super artificial hTERT promoter selectively inhibits malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35:3 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The synthetic biology technology which enhances the specificity and efficacy of treatment is a novel try in biomedical therapy during recent years. A high frequency of somatic mutations was shown in the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) promoter in bladder cancer, indicating that a mutational hTERT promoter might be a tumor-specific element for bladder cancer therapy. In our study, we aimed to construct a synthetic combination module driven by a super artificial hTERT promoter and to investigate its influence on the malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer.
METHODS: The dual luciferase assay system was used to verify the driven efficiency and tumor-specificity of the artificial hTERT promoter and to confirm the relationship between ETS-1 and the driven efficiency of the artificial hTERT promoter. CCK-8 assay and MTT assay were used to test the effects of the Bax-Anti Bcl2 combination module driven by the artificial hTERT promoter on cell proliferation. Simultaneously, the cell apoptosis was detected by the caspase 3ELISA assay and the flow cytometry analysis after transfection. The results of CCK-8 assay and MTT assay were analyzed by ANOVA. The independent samples t-test was used to analyze other data.
RESULTS: We demonstrated that the artificial hTERT promoter had a higher driven efficiency which might be regulated by transcription factor ETS-1 in bladder cancer cells, compared with wild-type hTERT promoter. Meanwhile, the artificial hTERT promoter showed a strong tumor-specific effect. The cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction were observed in artificial hTERT promoter- Bax-Anti Bcl2 combination module -transfected bladder cancer 5637 and T24 cells, but not in the module -transfected normal human fibroblasts.
CONCLUSION: This module offers us a useful synthetic biology platform to inhibit the malignant phenotypes of bladder cancer in a more specific and effective way.

Kikuchi M, Yamashita K, Waraya M, et al.
Epigenetic regulation of ZEB1-RAB25/ESRP1 axis plays a critical role in phenylbutyrate treatment-resistant breast cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(2):1741-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Phenylbutyrate (PB) is a histone deacetylase antagonist that also exhibits antitumor activity. In this study, we used 7 breast cancer cell lines to identify biomarker candidates that predict PB sensitivity in breast cancer.Comprehensive gene expression profiles were compared using microarrays, and the importance of the identified genes to PB sensitivity was confirmed in gene transfection experiments. CRL and MDAMB453 cells were identified as PB-sensitive, while MDAMB231 cells were PB-resistant.RAB25 and ESRP1 were identified as key regulators of PB sensitivity, while ANKD1, ETS1, PTRF, IFI16 and KIAA1199 acted as PB resistance-related genes. Expression of these genes was dramatically altered by DNA demethylation treatments. RAB25 expression inhibited IFI16 and PTRF, while ESRP1 expression suppressed ANKRD1, ETS1, and KIAA1199. Both RAB25 and ESRP1 were suppressed by ZEB1, which was in turn regulated via epigenetic mechanisms. Thus, PB sensitivity is influenced by epigenetic expression alteration of ZEB1. The genes associated with PB sensitivity are downstream targets of ZEB1. Epigenetic regulation of ZEB1 may prove valuable as a critical biomarker for predicting resistance to breast cancer therapies.

Li BK, Guo K, Li CY, et al.
Influence of suppression of CapG gene expression by siRNA on the growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer cells.
Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(4):15769-78 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study investigated CapG gene expression in prostate cancer cell lines; in addition, we explored the effects of CapG suppression on DU145 cell growth, and the underlying mechanism with which CapG affects DU145 cell growth and invasiveness. The expression of CapG and 18 related genes in DU145 cells was analyzed by flow cytometry, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), CCK8 assay, western blot, and the trans-well assay. DU145 cells were transfected with designed small interfering RNA (siRNA). CapG expression was quantified by qPCR and western blot. DU145 cell proliferation and invasiveness was analyzed using the CCK8, flow cytometric, and trans-well assays. CapG, TMPRSS1, EGFR, ETS-1, ERBB2, AKT, Cyclin D1, P21, Bcl-2, and Bak1 gene and Bcl-2, Cyclin D1, and CapG protein expressions were significantly lower in the siRNA group compared to the negative control group (P < 0.05). The proliferation of CapG siRNA DU145 cells was lower than that of the two control groups, 48 h after transfection. The cell inhibition rate was 24.5, 35.4, and 16,5% at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The growth curve indicated that CapG siRNA DU145 cells showed a significantly slower proliferation rate (P < 0.05). The trans-well assay showed a significant decrease in the migratory and invasive capacities of DU145 cells in the siRNA group (P < 0.05). The suppression of CapG expression caused a significant decrease in the proliferation, invasiveness, and metastasis of DU145 cells. The mechanism with which CapG, with other oncogenes, influences cancer cell cycle remains to be elucidated.

Arai M, Kawachi T, Kotoku N, et al.
Furospinosulin-1, Marine Spongean Furanosesterterpene, Suppresses the Growth of Hypoxia-Adapted Cancer Cells by Binding to Transcriptional Regulators p54(nrb) and LEDGF/p75.
Chembiochem. 2016; 17(2):181-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia-adapted cancer cells in tumors contribute to the pathological progression of cancer. Cancer research has therefore focused on the identification of molecules responsible for hypoxia adaptation in cancer cells, as well as the development of new compounds with action against hypoxia-adapted cancer cells. The marine natural product furospinosulin-1 (1) has displayed hypoxia-selective growth inhibition against cultured cancer cells, and has shown in vivo anti-tumor activity, although its precise mode of action and molecular targets remain unclear. In this study, we found that 1 is selectively effective against hypoxic regions of tumors, and that it directly binds to the transcriptional regulators p54(nrb) and LEDGF/p75, which have not been previously identified as mediators of hypoxia adaptation in cancer cells.

Li Z, Lin P, Gao C, et al.
Integrin β6 acts as an unfavorable prognostic indicator and promotes cellular malignant behaviors via ERK-ETS1 pathway in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(4):5117-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the most deadly cancers and is expected to become the second leading cause of cancer death by 2030. Despite extensive efforts to improve surgical treatment, limited progress has been made. Increasing evidence indicates that integrin β6 plays a crucial role in carcinoma invasion and metastasis. However, the expression and role of β6 in PDAC remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the expression of β6 in PDAC and its potential value as a prognostic factor and therapeutic target. β6 upregulation was identified as an independent unfavorable prognostic indicator. Integrin β6 markedly promoted the proliferation and invasion of pancreatic carcinoma cells and induced ETS1 phosphorylation in an ERK-dependent manner, leading to the upregulation of matrix metalloprotease-9, which is essential for β6-mediated invasiveness of pancreatic carcinoma cells. Accordingly, small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of integrin β6 markedly suppressed xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that integrin β6 plays important roles in the progression of pancreatic carcinoma and contributes to reduced survival times, and may serve as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of PDAC.

Guan X, Yi Y, Huang Y, et al.
Revealing potential molecular targets bridging colitis and colorectal cancer based on multidimensional integration strategy.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(35):37600-12 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chronic inflammation may play a vital role in the pathogenesis of inflammation-associated tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms bridging ulcerative colitis (UC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) remain unclear. Here, we integrated multidimensional interaction resources, including gene expression profiling, protein-protein interactions (PPIs), transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation data, and virus-host interactions, to tentatively explore potential molecular targets that functionally link UC and CRC at a systematic level. In this work, by deciphering the overlapping genes, crosstalking genes and pivotal regulators of both UC- and CRC-associated functional module pairs, we revealed a variety of genes (including FOS and DUSP1, etc.), transcription factors (including SMAD3 and ETS1, etc.) and miRNAs (including miR-155 and miR-196b, etc.) that may have the potential to complete the connections between UC and CRC. Interestingly, further analyses of the virus-host interaction network demonstrated that several virus proteins (including EBNA-LP of EBV and protein E7 of HPV) frequently inter-connected to UC- and CRC-associated module pairs with their validated targets significantly enriched in both modules of the host. Together, our results suggested that multidimensional integration strategy provides a novel approach to discover potential molecular targets that bridge the connections between UC and CRC, which could also be extensively applied to studies on other inflammation-related cancers.

Zhao N, Liu Y, Chang Z, et al.
Identification of Biomarker and Co-Regulatory Motifs in Lung Adenocarcinoma Based on Differential Interactions.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(9):e0139165 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Changes in intermolecular interactions (differential interactions) may influence the progression of cancer. Specific genes and their regulatory networks may be more closely associated with cancer when taking their transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels and dynamic and static interactions into account simultaneously. In this paper, a differential interaction analysis was performed to detect lung adenocarcinoma-related genes. Furthermore, a miRNA-TF (transcription factor) synergistic regulation network was constructed to identify three kinds of co-regulated motifs, namely, triplet, crosstalk and joint. Not only were the known cancer-related miRNAs and TFs (let-7, miR-15a, miR-17, TP53, ETS1, and so on) were detected in the motifs, but also the miR-15, let-7 and miR-17 families showed a tendency to regulate the triplet, crosstalk and joint motifs, respectively. Moreover, several biological functions (i.e., cell cycle, signaling pathways and hemopoiesis) associated with the three motifs were found to be frequently targeted by the drugs for lung adenocarcinoma. Specifically, the two 4-node motifs (crosstalk and joint) based on co-expression and interaction had a closer relationship to lung adenocarcinoma, and so further research was performed on them. A 10-gene biomarker (UBC, SRC, SP1, MYC, STAT3, JUN, NR3C1, RB1, GRB2 and MAPK1) was selected from the joint motif, and a survival analysis indicated its significant association with survival. Among the ten genes, JUN, NR3C1 and GRB2 are our newly detected candidate lung adenocarcinoma-related genes. The genes, regulators and regulatory motifs detected in this work will provide potential drug targets and new strategies for individual therapy.

Dittmer J
The role of the transcription factor Ets1 in carcinoma.
Semin Cancer Biol. 2015; 35:20-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ets1 belongs to the large family of the ETS domain family of transcription factors and is involved in cancer progression. In most carcinomas, Ets1 expression is linked to poor survival. In breast cancer, Ets1 is primarily expressed in the triple-negative subtype, which is associated with unfavorable prognosis. Ets1 contributes to the acquisition of cancer cell invasiveness, to EMT (epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition), to the development of drug resistance and neo-angiogenesis. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on the functions of Ets1 in carcinoma progression and on the mechanisms that regulate Ets1 activity in cancer.

Li Y, Zhou QL, Sun W, et al.
Non-canonical NF-κB signalling and ETS1/2 cooperatively drive C250T mutant TERT promoter activation.
Nat Cell Biol. 2015; 17(10):1327-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Transcriptional reactivation of TERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase, is necessary for cancer progression in about 90% of human cancers. The recent discovery of two prevalent somatic mutations-C250T and C228T-in the TERT promoter in various cancers has provided insight into a plausible mechanism of TERT reactivation. Although the two hotspot mutations create a similar binding motif for E-twenty-six (ETS) transcription factors, we show that they are functionally distinct, in that the C250T unlike the C228T TERT promoter is driven by non-canonical NF-κB signalling. We demonstrate that binding of ETS to the mutant TERT promoter is insufficient in driving its transcription but this process requires non-canonical NF-κB signalling for stimulus responsiveness, sustained telomerase activity and hence cancer progression. Our findings highlight a previously unrecognized role of non-canonical NF-κB signalling in tumorigenesis and elucidate a fundamental mechanism for TERT reactivation in cancers, which if targeted could have immense therapeutic implications.

Li Z, Liu Z, Dong S, et al.
miR-506 Inhibits Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition and Angiogenesis in Gastric Cancer.
Am J Pathol. 2015; 185(9):2412-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies in developing countries. We examined the possible role of miR-506 in gastric cancer, investigated its associations with the clinical outcomes of gastric cancer patients, and explored its potential role in angiogenesis and the metastasis of gastric cancer cells. We found that miR-506 expression was a useful marker for stratifying patients from early to advanced clinical stages and for overall survival prediction. miR-506 overexpression inhibited the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of gastric cancer cells; however, depletion of miR-506 promoted it. In addition, miR-506 suppressed gastric cancer angiogenesis and was associated with decreased matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression. We also found that ETS1 was a miR-506 target, and it was expressed in 71.10% of gastric cancer tissue samples. Moreover, ETS1 expression was associated with matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression (P < 0.001). In conclusion, miR-506 was identified as an ETS1 targeting suppressor of metastatic invasion and angiogenesis in gastric cancer.

Li AX, Xin WQ, Ma CG
Fentanyl inhibits the invasion and migration of colorectal cancer cells via inhibiting the negative regulation of Ets-1 on BANCR.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 465(3):594-600 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown the potential anti-tumor effect of fentanyl on colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its underling mechanism is still unclear. Since studies indicates the abnormal expression of transcription factor Ets-1 and BRAF-activated lncRNA (BANCR) in CRC progress, the relationship between Ets-1 and BANCR was investigated here to illustrate the fentanyl-induced mechanism on CRC in vitro.
METHODS: The expression levels of Ets-1 and BANCR were first detected in fentanyl-treated CRC cells. The interaction between Ets-1 and BANCR promoter was verified with chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, as well as corresponding acetylation of histones. The regulation of Ets-1 on BANCR expression was confirmed through luciferase assays and RT-PCR analysis. And, cell clone formation, cell migration and invasion were observed to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of fentanyl. Ets-1 overexpression or co-overexpression with BANCR was further performed by plasmids transfection to show the regulatory role of Ets-1 in fentanyl-induced mechanism.
RESULTS: Fentanyl induced BANCR upregulation and Ets-1 downregulation in CRC cells. Further studies showed that Ets-1 negatively regulated BANCR expression via the deacetylation of histones H3 within BANCR promoter. Moreover, fentanyl induced less cell clone formation, as well as inhibited cell migration and invasion in vitro, while Ets-1 overexpression inhibited fentanyl-induced effects that could be reversed by BANCR co-overexpression.
CONCLUSION: Fentanyl showed anti-tumor like effects on CRC cells, including less cell clone formation and inhibited cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, the regulatory role of Ets-1 on BANCR influenced fentanyl-induced mechanism, indicating their potential application in the therapeutic treatment of CRC.

Cao L, Xie B, Yang X, et al.
MiR-324-5p Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Invasion by Counteracting ECM Degradation through Post-Transcriptionally Downregulating ETS1 and SP1.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0133074 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the common malignancies, which is highly metastatic and the third common cause of cancer deaths in the world. The invasion and metastasis of cancer cells is a multistep and complex process which is mainly initiated by extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. Aberrant expression of microRNA has been investigated in HCC and shown to play essential roles during HCC progression. In the present study, we found that microRNA-324-5p (miR-324-5p) was downregulated in both HCC cell lines and tissues. Ectopic miR-324-5p led to the reduction of HCC cells invasive and metastatic capacity, whereas inhibition of miR-324-5p promoted the invasion of HCC cells. Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and MMP9, the major regulators of ECM degradation, were found to be downregulated by ectopic miR-324-5p, while upregulated by miR-324-5p inhibitor. E26 transformation-specific 1 (ETS1) and Specificity protein 1 (SP1), both of which could modulate MMP2 and MMP9 expression and activity, were presented as the direct targets of and downregulated by miR-324-5p. Downregulation of ETS1 and SP1 mediated the inhibitory function of miR-324-5p on HCC migration and invasion. Our study demonstrates that miR-324-5p suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma cell invasion and might provide new clues to invasive HCC therapy.

Vu HL, Rosenbaum S, Purwin TJ, et al.
RAC1 P29S regulates PD-L1 expression in melanoma.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2015; 28(5):590-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Whole exome sequencing of cutaneous melanoma has led to the detection of P29 mutations in RAC1 in 5-9% of samples, but the role of RAC1 P29 mutations in melanoma biology remains unclear. Using reverse phase protein array analysis to examine the changes in protein/phospho-protein expression, we identified cyclin B1, PD-L1, Ets-1, and Syk as being selectively upregulated with RAC1 P29S expression and downregulated with RAC1 P29S depletion. Using the melanoma patient samples in TCGA, we found PD-L1 expression to be significantly increased in RAC1 P29S patients compared to RAC1 WT as well as other RAC1 mutants. The finding that PD-L1 is upregulated suggests that oncogenic RAC1 P29S may promote suppression of the antitumor immune response. This is a new insight into the biological function of RAC1 P29S mutations with potential clinical implications as PD-L1 is a candidate biomarker for increased benefit from treatment with anti-PD1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies.

Kotake Y, Naemura M, Murasaki C, et al.
Transcriptional Regulation of the p16 Tumor Suppressor Gene.
Anticancer Res. 2015; 35(8):4397-401 [PubMed] Related Publications
The p16 tumor suppressor gene encodes a specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6 and is found altered in a wide range of human cancers. p16 plays a pivotal role in tumor suppressor networks through inducing cellular senescence that acts as a barrier to cellular transformation by oncogenic signals. p16 protein is relatively stable and its expression is primary regulated by transcriptional control. Polycomb group (PcG) proteins associate with the p16 locus in a long non-coding RNA, ANRIL-dependent manner, leading to repression of p16 transcription. YB1, a transcription factor, also represses the p16 transcription through direct association with its promoter region. Conversely, the transcription factors Ets1/2 and histone H3K4 methyltransferase MLL1 directly bind to the p16 locus and mediate p16 induction during replicative and premature senescence. In the present review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms by which these factors regulate p16 transcription.

Phuchareon J, McCormick F, Eisele DW, Tetsu O
EGFR inhibition evokes innate drug resistance in lung cancer cells by preventing Akt activity and thus inactivating Ets-1 function.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015; 112(29):E3855-63 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About 14% of NSCLCs harbor mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Despite remarkable progress in treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), only 5% of patients achieve tumor reduction >90%. The limited primary responses are attributed partly to drug resistance inherent in the tumor cells before therapy begins. Recent reports showed that activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) is an important determinant of this innate drug resistance. In contrast, we demonstrate that EGFR inhibition promotes innate drug resistance despite blockade of RTK activity in NSCLC cells. EGFR TKIs decrease both the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Akt protein kinase pathways for a short time, after which the Ras/MAPK pathway becomes reactivated. Akt inhibition selectively blocks the transcriptional activation of Ets-1, which inhibits its target gene, dual specificity phosphatase 6 (DUSP6), a negative regulator specific for ERK1/2. As a result, ERK1/2 is activated. Furthermore, elevated c-Src stimulates Ras GTP-loading and activates Raf and MEK kinases. These observations suggest that not only ERK1/2 but also Akt activity is essential to maintain Ets-1 in an active state. Therefore, despite high levels of ERK1/2, Ets-1 target genes including DUSP6 and cyclins D1, D3, and E2 remain suppressed by Akt inhibition. Reduction of DUSP6 in combination with elevated c-Src renews activation of the Ras/MAPK pathway, which enhances cell survival by accelerating Bim protein turnover. Thus, EGFR TKIs evoke innate drug resistance by preventing Akt activity and inactivating Ets-1 function in NSCLC cells.

Zhu Z, Zhao X, Zhao L, et al.
p54(nrb)/NONO regulates lipid metabolism and breast cancer growth through SREBP-1A.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(11):1399-410 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulation of lipid metabolism is common in breast cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive and the contribution of aberrant lipid metabolism to the malignant phenotypes of breast cancer is poorly understood. Here, we show that the nuclear protein p54(nrb)/Nono is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues as compared with the adjacent normal tissues in human patients. To determine the functions of p54(nrb) in breast cancer, we performed a biochemical screen and identified SREBP-1a, a master activator for genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, as a novel interacting protein of p54(nrb). In human breast cancer tissues, the levels of p54(nrb) and SREBP-1a proteins were positively correlated with each other. Our biochemical analyses showed that the conserved Y267 residue of p54(nrb) was required for its binding to the nuclear form of SREBP-1a. Interestingly, p54(nrb) binding to nuclear SREBP-1a caused an increase of nuclear SREBP-1a protein stability. As a result, p54(nrb) stimulates SREBP-1-meidated transcription of lipogenic genes and lipid production in breast cancer cells. Moreover, both p54(nrb) and SREBP-1a were required for breast cancer cell growth in vitro, and p54(nrb) binding to nuclear SREBP-1a was also critical for breast tumor development in vivo. Together, we conclude that p54(nrb) is a novel regulator of SREBP-1a in the nucleus, and our data suggest that p54(nrb) regulation of SREBP-1a supports the increased cellular demand of lipids for breast cancer growth. Thus, the SREBP pathway may represent a novel target for treating breast cancer.

Cao P, Feng F, Dong G, et al.
Estrogen receptor α enhances the transcriptional activity of ETS-1 and promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of neuroblastoma cell in a ligand dependent manner.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:491 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is well known that estrogen receptor α (ERα) participates in the pathogenic progress of breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In neuroblastoma cells and related cancer clinical specimens, moreover, the ectopic expression of ERα has been identified. However, the detailed function of ERα in the proliferation of neuroblastoma cell is yet unclear.
METHODS: The transcriptional activity of ETS-1 (E26 transformation specific sequence 1) was measured by luciferase analysis. Western blot assays and Real-time RT-PCR were used to examine the expression of ERα, ETS-1 and its targeted genes. The protein-protein interaction between ERα and ETS-1 was determined by co-IP and GST-Pull down assays. The accumulation of ETS-1 in nuclear was detected by western blot assays, and the recruitment of ETS-1 to its targeted gene's promoter was tested by ChIP assays. Moreover, SH-SY5Y cells' proliferation, anchor-independent growth, migration and invasion were quantified using the MTT, soft agar or Trans-well assay, respectively.
RESULTS: The transcriptional activity of ETS-1 was significantly increased following estrogen treatment, and this effect was related to ligand-mediated activation of ERα. The interaction between the ERα and ETS-1 was identified, and enhancement of ERα activation would up-regulate the ETS-1 transcription factor activity via modulating its cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and the recruitment of ETS-1 to its target gene's promoter. Furthermore, treatment of estrogen increased proliferation, migration and invasion of neuroblastoma cells, whereas the antagonist of ERα reduced those effects.
CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we provided evidences that activation of ERα promoted neuroblastoma cells proliferation and up-regulated the transcriptional activity of ETS-1. By investigating the role of ERα in the ETS-1 activity regulation, we demonstrated that ERα may be a novel ETS-1 co-activator and thus a potential therapeutic target in human neuroblastoma treatment.

House CD, Wang BD, Ceniccola K, et al.
Voltage-gated Na+ Channel Activity Increases Colon Cancer Transcriptional Activity and Invasion Via Persistent MAPK Signaling.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:11541 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Functional expression of voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) has been demonstrated in multiple cancer cell types where channel activity induces invasive activity. The signaling mechanisms by which VGSCs promote oncogenesis remain poorly understood. We explored the signal transduction process critical to VGSC-mediated invasion on the basis of reports linking channel activity to gene expression changes in excitable cells. Coincidentally, many genes transcriptionally regulated by the SCN5A isoform in colon cancer have an over-representation of cis-acting sites for transcription factors phosphorylated by ERK1/2 MAPK. We hypothesized that VGSC activity promotes MAPK activation to induce transcriptional changes in invasion-related genes. Using pharmacological inhibitors/activators and siRNA-mediated gene knockdowns, we correlated channel activity with Rap1-dependent persistent MAPK activation in the SW620 human colon cancer cell line. We further demonstrated that VGSC activity induces downstream changes in invasion-related gene expression via a PKA/ERK/c-JUN/ELK-1/ETS-1 transcriptional pathway. This is the first study illustrating a molecular mechanism linking functional activity of VGSCs to transcriptional activation of invasion-related genes.

Li SC, Shi H, Khan M, et al.
Roles of miR-196a on gene regulation of neuroendocrine tumor cells.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2015; 412:131-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study aims at investigating miR-196a roles using in vitro models. miR-196a was detected in small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) and lung NETs. miR-196a target prediction analysis suggested HOXA9, HOXB7, LRP4 and RSPO2 genes for further investigation. The level of these four genes is detectable in SI-NET tissue specimens at different disease stages and serum samples of untreated and somatostatin analogs treated patients with liver metastases. A miR-196a inhibitor was used to silence its effects in NET cells. We show that the four target genes were significantly upregulated at transcriptional level in silenced NET cells. HOXA9, HOXB7, LRP4 and RSPO2 encoded proteins are also upregulated at translational level in miR-196a silenced NET cells. miR-196a downstream genes BMP4, ETS1, CTNNB1, FZD5, LRP5 and LRP6 were significantly upregulated at transcriptional level in miR-196a silenced CNDT2.5 and NCI-H727 cells. In addition, miR-196a clearly does not play a role in NET cell growth control.

Huang TT, Ping YH, Wang AM, et al.
The reciprocal regulation loop of Notch2 pathway and miR-23b in controlling gastric carcinogenesis.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(20):18012-26 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies and the third highest cause of global cancer-related death. Notch2 receptor intracellular domain (N2IC), the activated form of Notch2 receptor, enhances gastric carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors in tumorigenesis and cross-talk with Notch pathways. Herein, microRNA-23b (miR-23b) was identified as a Notch2 receptor-related miRNA and its role in gastric carcinogenesis was investigated. Levels of miR-23b in stomach adenocarcinoma samples were down-regulated, whereas those of Notch2 receptor, v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (Ets1), and E2F1 transcripts were up-regulated. Results also showed that N2IC down-regulated miR-23b expression in gastric cancer cells through up-regulating E2F1. The miR-23b inhibited gastric tumorigenesis including growth, viability, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and abilities of colony formation, migration, invasion, and tumorsphere formation. Mechanistically, miR-23b suppressed tumor progression and pluripotency gene expression and affected tumorsphere ultra-structure in gastric cancer cells via targeting Notch2 receptor or Ets1. Furthermore, miR-23b diminished the xenografted tumor growth and lung metastasis of SC-M1 gastric cancer cells through Notch2 pathway. Our results suggest that Notch2 pathway and miR-23b interplay in a reciprocal regulation loop in gastric cancer cells and this axis plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis.

Bendinelli P, Maroni P, Matteucci E, Desiderio MA
HGF and TGFβ1 differently influenced Wwox regulatory function on Twist program for mesenchymal-epithelial transition in bone metastatic versus parental breast carcinoma cells.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:112 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Much effort has been devoted to determining how metastatic cells and microenvironment reciprocally interact. However, the role of biological stimuli of microenvironment in controlling molecular events in bone metastasis from breast carcinoma for mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) is largely unknown. The purpose of the present paper was to clarify (1) the influence of hepatocyte-growth factor (HGF) and transforming growth factorβ1 (TGFβ1) on the phenotype of bone-metastatic 1833 and parental MDA-MB231 cells; (2) the hierarchic response of Twist and Snail controlled by Wwox co-factor, that might be critical for the control of 1833-adhesive properties via E-cadherin.
METHODS: We studied under HGF and TGFβ1 the gene profiles-responsible for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), versus the revertant MET phenotype-making the correspondence with 1833 morphology and the relation to HGF-dependent control of TGFβ1 signalling. In particular, the activation of Twist program and the underlying molecular mechanisms were investigated, considering the role of endogenous and exogenous Wwox with siRNAWWOX and the expression vector transfection, to clarify whether Twist affected E-cadherin transactivation through a network of transcription factors and regulators.
RESULTS: HGF and TGFβ1 oppositely affected the expression of Wwox in 1833 cells. Under HGF, endogenous Wwox decreased concomitant with Twist access to nuclei and its phosphorylation via PI3K/Akt pathway. Twist activated by HGF did not influence the gene profile through an E-box mechanism, but participated in the interplay of PPARγ/Ets1/NF-kB-transcription factors, triggering E-cadherin transactivation. Altogether, HGF conferred MET phenotype to 1833 cells, even if this was transient since followed by TGFβ1-signalling activation. TGFβ1 induced Snail in both the cell lines, with E-cadherin down-regulation only in 1833 cells because in MDA-MB231 cells E-cadherin was practically absent. Exogenous Wwox activated metastatic HIF-1, with Twist as co-factor.
CONCLUSIONS: HGF and TGFβ1 of bone-metastasis microenvironment acted co-ordinately, influencing non redundant pathways regulated by Twist program or Snail-transcription factor, with reversible MET switch. This process implicated different roles for Wwox in the various steps of the metastatic process including colonization, with microenvironmental/exogenous Wwox that activated HIF-1, important for E-cadherin expression. Interfering with the Twist program by targeting the pre-metastatic niche stimuli could be an effective anti-bone metastasis therapy.

Ma N, Chen F, Shen SL, et al.
MicroRNA-129-5p inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma cell metastasis and invasion via targeting ETS1.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015; 461(4):618-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
MiR-129-5p is deregulated in various human cancers and has been associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-129-5p involvement in the development and progression of HCC and the effects of miR-129-5p deregulation on the clinical characteristics observed in HCC patients remain poorly understood. We therefore investigated the correlation between low miR-129-5p expression and vascular invasion, intrahepatic metastasis, and poor patient survival. Ectopic restoration of miR-129-5p expression in HCC cells suppressed cellular migration and invasion and the expression of v-ets erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 1 (ETS1), while inhibition of endogenous miR-129-5p caused an increase in these parameters. We identified the ETS1 gene as a novel direct target of miR-129-5p. SiRNA-mediated ETS1 knockdown rescued the effects of anti-miR-129-5p inhibitor in HCC cell lines, while the effects of miR-129-5p overexpression were partially phenocopied in the knockdown model. In addition, miR-129-5p levels inversely correlated with those of ETS1 in HCC cells and tissues. Taken together, our findings indicate an important role for miR-129-5p in the molecular etiology of invasive HCC and suggest that miR-129-5p could have potential therapeutic applications in HCC.

Wang S, Zhao Y, Li D, et al.
Identification of biomarkers for the prognosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma with miRNA microarray data.
Int J Biol Markers. 2015; 30(2):e226-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of chemotherapy resistance and to screen biomarkers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
METHODS: MicroRNA (miRNA) expression profile data for GSE38781 were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Differentially expressed miRNAs between short-overall survival (OS) and long-OS patients were screened with the limma package in R. The function and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the miRNA target genes were further investigated. Finally, multivariate statistical analysis was performed to verify the significant miRNAs obtained in our work.
RESULTS: In total, 66 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis showed that 163 miRNA target genes were mainly enriched in heart function, cancer development and angiogenesis. Ten nodes, including TGFBR1, TGFBR2, ACVR1 and SHC1, were found to be hub nodes in the PPI network. Multivariate statistical analysis showed 8 of the most significant miRNAs could completely distinguish the 2 groups of samples. Seven target genes (i.e., RET, ETS1, RHOA, NUMB, TIAM, ITGA5 and YY1) of the 8 significant miRNAs were found to be associated with control of cell fate decisions, T-cell lymphoma invasion and angiogenesis enhancement.
CONCLUSIONS: The heart function-related pathway, cell cycle, immune system and angiogenesis may be dysregulated in patients with poorer prognosis. The significant nodes (e.g., TGFBR1, TGFBR2, ACVR1 and SHC1) in the PPI network may be potential biomarkers for predicting outcomes for patients with pancreatic cancer. The significant miRNAs and gene targets may be potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for PDAC.

Tang SW, Bilke S, Cao L, et al.
SLFN11 Is a Transcriptional Target of EWS-FLI1 and a Determinant of Drug Response in Ewing Sarcoma.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(18):4184-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: SLFN11 was identified as a critical determinant of response to DNA-targeted therapies by analyzing gene expression and drug sensitivity of NCI-60 and CCLE datasets. However, how SLFN11 is regulated in cancer cells remained unknown. Ewing sarcoma, which is characterized by the chimeric transcription factor EWS-FLI1, has notably high SLFN11 expression, leading us to investigate whether EWS-FLI1 drives SLFN11 expression and the role of SLFN11 in the drug response of Ewing sarcoma cells.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Binding sites of EWS-FLI1 on the SLFN11 promoter were analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing and promoter-luciferase reporter analyses. The relationship between SLFN11 and EWS-FLI1 were further examined in EWS-FLI1-knockdown or -overexpressing cells and in clinical tumor samples.
RESULTS: EWS-FLI1 binds near the transcription start site of SLFN11 promoter and acts as a positive regulator of SLFN11 expression in Ewing sarcoma cells. EWS-FLI1-mediated SLFN11 expression is responsible for high sensitivity of Ewing sarcoma to camptothecin and combinations of PARP inhibitors with temozolomide. Importantly, Ewing sarcoma patients with higher SLFN11 expression showed better tumor-free survival rate. The correlated expression between SLFN11 and FLI1 extends to leukemia, pediatric, colon, breast, and prostate cancers. In addition, expression of other ETS members correlates with SLFN11 in NCI-60 and CCLE datasets, and molecular experiments demonstrate that ETS1 acts as a positive regulator for SLFN11 expression in breast cancer cells.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results imply the emerging relevance of SLFN11 as an ETS transcription factor response gene and for therapeutic response to topoisomerase I inhibitors and temozolomide-PARP inhibitor combinations in ETS-activated cancers.

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