NONO

Gene Summary

Gene:NONO; non-POU domain containing, octamer-binding
Aliases: P54, NMT55, NRB54, MRXS34, P54NRB, PPP1R114
Location:Xq13.1
Summary:This gene encodes an RNA-binding protein which plays various roles in the nucleus, including transcriptional regulation and RNA splicing. A rearrangement between this gene and the transcription factor E3 gene has been observed in papillary renal cell carcinoma. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been described. Pseudogenes exist on Chromosomes 2 and 16. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2009]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein
Source:NCBIAccessed: 13 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (17)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 13 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • FISH
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Gene Fusion
  • Renal Cell Carcinoma
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • RTPCR
  • NONO
  • Artificial Gene Fusion
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Cell Cycle Proteins
  • Taxoids
  • Adolescents
  • Bladder Cancer
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Base Sequence
  • Octamer Transcription Factors
  • Carcinogenesis
  • Up-Regulation
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Papillary Carcinoma
  • Cell Nucleus
  • Translocation
  • Gene Rearrangement
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Young Adult
  • Chromosome X
  • Transcription Factors
  • Protein Binding
  • Transcription
  • Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins
  • X Chromosome
  • beta Catenin
  • Survival Rate
  • Signal Transduction
Tag cloud generated 13 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NONO (cancer-related)

Just PA, Letourneur F, Pouliquen C, et al.
Identification by FFPE RNA-Seq of a new recurrent inversion leading to RBM10-TFE3 fusion in renal cell carcinoma with subtle TFE3 break-apart FISH pattern.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2016; 55(6):541-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gene fusions involving TFE3 defines the "Xp11.2 translocations" subclass of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) belonging to the MiT family translocation RCC. Four recurrent TFE3 fusion partners were identified to date: PRCC, ASPSCR1, SFPQ, and NONO. Break-apart TFE3 fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections is currently the gold standard for identification of TFE3 rearrangements. Herein, we report a case of RCC with a morphological appearance of Xp11.2 translocation, and positive TFE3 immunostaining. By FISH, the spots constituting the split signal were barely spaced, suggestive of a chromosome X inversion rather than a translocation. We performed RNA-seq from FFPE material to test this hypothesis. RNA-seq suggested a fusion of RBM10 gene exon 17 (Xp11.23) with TFE3 gene exon 5 (Xp11.2). RBM10-TFE3 fusion transcript was confirmed using specific RT-PCR. Our work showed that RNA-Seq is a robust technique to detect fusion transcripts from FFPE material. A RBM10-TFE3 fusion was previously described in single case of Xp11.2 RCC. Although rare, RBM10-TFE3 fusion variant (from chromosome X paracentric inversion), therefore, appears to be a recurrent molecular event in Xp11.2 RCCs. RBM10-TFE3 fusion should be added in the list of screened fusion transcripts in targeted molecular diagnostic multiplex RT-PCR. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Arai M, Kawachi T, Kotoku N, et al.
Furospinosulin-1, Marine Spongean Furanosesterterpene, Suppresses the Growth of Hypoxia-Adapted Cancer Cells by Binding to Transcriptional Regulators p54(nrb) and LEDGF/p75.
Chembiochem. 2016; 17(2):181-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypoxia-adapted cancer cells in tumors contribute to the pathological progression of cancer. Cancer research has therefore focused on the identification of molecules responsible for hypoxia adaptation in cancer cells, as well as the development of new compounds with action against hypoxia-adapted cancer cells. The marine natural product furospinosulin-1 (1) has displayed hypoxia-selective growth inhibition against cultured cancer cells, and has shown in vivo anti-tumor activity, although its precise mode of action and molecular targets remain unclear. In this study, we found that 1 is selectively effective against hypoxic regions of tumors, and that it directly binds to the transcriptional regulators p54(nrb) and LEDGF/p75, which have not been previously identified as mediators of hypoxia adaptation in cancer cells.

Vavougios GD, Solenov EI, Hatzoglou C, et al.
Computational genomic analysis of PARK7 interactome reveals high BBS1 gene expression as a prognostic factor favoring survival in malignant pleural mesothelioma.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2015; 309(7):L677-86 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of our study was to assess the differential gene expression of Parkinson protein 7 (PARK7) interactome in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) using data mining techniques to identify novel candidate genes that may play a role in the pathogenicity of MPM. We constructed the PARK7 interactome using the ConsensusPathDB database. We then interrogated the Oncomine Cancer Microarray database using the Gordon Mesothelioma Study, for differential gene expression of the PARK7 interactome. In ConsensusPathDB, 38 protein interactors of PARK7 were identified. In the Gordon Mesothelioma Study, 34 of them were assessed out of which SUMO1, UBC3, KIAA0101, HDAC2, DAXX, RBBP4, BBS1, NONO, RBBP7, HTRA2, and STUB1 were significantly overexpressed whereas TRAF6 and MTA2 were significantly underexpressed in MPM patients (network 2). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that MPM patients with high BBS1 expression had a median overall survival of 16.5 vs. 8.7 mo of those that had low expression. For validation purposes, we performed a meta-analysis in Oncomine database in five sarcoma datasets. Eight network 2 genes (KIAA0101, HDAC2, SUMO1, RBBP4, NONO, RBBP7, HTRA2, and MTA2) were significantly differentially expressed in an array of 18 different sarcoma types. Finally, Gene Ontology annotation enrichment analysis revealed significant roles of the PARK7 interactome in NuRD, CHD, and SWI/SNF protein complexes. In conclusion, we identified 13 novel genes differentially expressed in MPM, never reported before. Among them, BBS1 emerged as a novel predictor of overall survival in MPM. Finally, we identified that PARK7 interactome is involved in novel pathways pertinent in MPM disease.

Park M, Lim JS, Lee HJ, et al.
Distinct Protein Expression Profiles of Solid-Pseudopapillary Neoplasms of the Pancreas.
J Proteome Res. 2015; 14(8):3007-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) is an uncommon pancreatic tumor with mutation in CTNNB1 and distinct clinical and pathological features. We compared the proteomic profiles of SPN to mRNA expression. Pooled SPNs and pooled non-neoplastic pancreatic tissues were examined with high-resolution mass spectrometry. We identified 329 (150 up-regulated and 179 down-regulated) differentially expressed proteins in SPN. We identified 191 proteins (58.1% of the 329 dysregulated proteins) with the same expression tendencies in SPN based on mRNA data. Many overexpressed proteins were related to signaling pathways known to be activated in SPNs. We found that several proteins involved in Wnt signaling, including DKK4 and β-catenin, and proteins that bind β-catenin, such as FUS and NONO, were up-regulated in SPNs. Molecules involved in glycolysis, including PKM2, ENO2, and HK1, were overexpressed in accordance to their mRNA levels. In summary, SPN showed (1) distinct protein expression changes that correlated with mRNA expression, (2) overexpression of Wnt signaling proteins and proteins that bind directly to β-catenin, and (3) overexpression of proteins involved in metabolism. These findings may help develop early diagnostic biomarkers and molecular targets.

Zhu Z, Zhao X, Zhao L, et al.
p54(nrb)/NONO regulates lipid metabolism and breast cancer growth through SREBP-1A.
Oncogene. 2016; 35(11):1399-410 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dysregulation of lipid metabolism is common in breast cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive and the contribution of aberrant lipid metabolism to the malignant phenotypes of breast cancer is poorly understood. Here, we show that the nuclear protein p54(nrb)/Nono is highly expressed in breast cancer tissues as compared with the adjacent normal tissues in human patients. To determine the functions of p54(nrb) in breast cancer, we performed a biochemical screen and identified SREBP-1a, a master activator for genes involved in lipid biosynthesis, as a novel interacting protein of p54(nrb). In human breast cancer tissues, the levels of p54(nrb) and SREBP-1a proteins were positively correlated with each other. Our biochemical analyses showed that the conserved Y267 residue of p54(nrb) was required for its binding to the nuclear form of SREBP-1a. Interestingly, p54(nrb) binding to nuclear SREBP-1a caused an increase of nuclear SREBP-1a protein stability. As a result, p54(nrb) stimulates SREBP-1-meidated transcription of lipogenic genes and lipid production in breast cancer cells. Moreover, both p54(nrb) and SREBP-1a were required for breast cancer cell growth in vitro, and p54(nrb) binding to nuclear SREBP-1a was also critical for breast tumor development in vivo. Together, we conclude that p54(nrb) is a novel regulator of SREBP-1a in the nucleus, and our data suggest that p54(nrb) regulation of SREBP-1a supports the increased cellular demand of lipids for breast cancer growth. Thus, the SREBP pathway may represent a novel target for treating breast cancer.

Chaoui A, Kavo A, Baral V, et al.
Subnuclear re-localization of SOX10 and p54NRB correlates with a unique neurological phenotype associated with SOX10 missense mutations.
Hum Mol Genet. 2015; 24(17):4933-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
SOX10 is a transcription factor with well-known functions in neural crest and oligodendrocyte development. Mutations in SOX10 were first associated with Waardenburg-Hirschsprung disease (WS4; deafness, pigmentation defects and intestinal aganglionosis). However, variable phenotypes that extend beyond the WS4 definition are now reported. The neurological phenotypes associated with some truncating mutations are suggested to be the result of escape from the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway; but, to date, no mechanism has been suggested for missense mutations, of which approximately 20 have now been reported, with about half of the latter shown to be redistributed to nuclear bodies of undetermined nature and function in vitro. Here, we report that p54NRB, which plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression during many cellular processes including differentiation, interacts synergistically with SOX10 to regulate several target genes. Interestingly, this paraspeckle protein, as well as two other members of the Drosophila behavior human splicing (DBHS) protein family, co-localize with SOX10 mutants in nuclear bodies, suggesting the possible paraspeckle nature of these foci or re-localization of the DBHS members to other subnuclear compartments. Remarkably, the co-transfection of wild-type and mutant SOX10 constructs led to the sequestration of wild-type protein in mutant-induced foci. In contrast to mutants presenting with additional cytoplasmic re-localization, those exclusively found in the nucleus alter synergistic activity between SOX10 and p54NRB. We propose that such a dominant negative effect may contribute to or be at the origin of the unique progressive and severe neurological phenotype observed in affected patients.

Kauffman EC, Ricketts CJ, Rais-Bahrami S, et al.
Molecular genetics and cellular features of TFE3 and TFEB fusion kidney cancers.
Nat Rev Urol. 2014; 11(8):465-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite nearly two decades passing since the discovery of gene fusions involving TFE3 or TFEB in sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC), the molecular mechanisms underlying the renal-specific tumorigenesis of these genes remain largely unclear. The recently published findings of The Cancer Genome Atlas Network reported that five of the 416 surveyed clear cell RCC tumours (1.2%) harboured SFPQ-TFE3 fusions, providing further evidence for the importance of gene fusions. A total of five TFE3 gene fusions (PRCC-TFE3, ASPSCR1-TFE3, SFPQ-TFE3, NONO-TFE3, and CLTC-TFE3) and one TFEB gene fusion (MALAT1-TFEB) have been identified in RCC tumours and characterized at the mRNA transcript level. A multitude of molecular pathways well-described in carcinogenesis are regulated in part by TFE3 or TFEB proteins, including activation of TGFβ and ETS transcription factors, E-cadherin expression, CD40L-dependent lymphocyte activation, mTORC1 signalling, insulin-dependent metabolism regulation, folliculin signalling, and retinoblastoma-dependent cell cycle arrest. Determining which pathways are most important to RCC oncogenesis will be critical in discovering the most promising therapeutic targets for this disease.

Rajgor D, Mellad JA, Soong D, et al.
Mammalian microtubule P-body dynamics are mediated by nesprin-1.
J Cell Biol. 2014; 205(4):457-75 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nesprins are a multi-isomeric family of spectrin-repeat (SR) proteins, predominantly known as nuclear envelope scaffolds. However, isoforms that function beyond the nuclear envelope remain poorly examined. Here, we characterize p50(Nesp1), a 50-kD isoform that localizes to processing bodies (PBs), where it acts as a microtubule-associated protein capable of linking mRNP complexes to microtubules. Overexpression of dominant-negative p50(Nesp1) caused Rck/p54, but not GW182, displacement from microtubules, resulting in reduced PB movement and cross talk with stress granules (SGs). These cells disassembled canonical SGs induced by sodium arsenite, but not those induced by hydrogen peroxide, leading to cell death and revealing PB-microtubule attachment is required for hydrogen peroxide-induced SG anti-apoptotic functions. Furthermore, p50(Nesp1) was required for miRNA-mediated silencing and interacted with core miRISC silencers Ago2 and Rck/p54 in an RNA-dependent manner and with GW182 in a microtubule-dependent manner. These data identify p50(Nesp1) as a multi-functional PB component and microtubule scaffold necessary for RNA granule dynamics and provides evidence for PB and SG micro-heterogeneity.

Zanfardino M, Spampanato C, De Cicco R, et al.
Simvastatin reduces melanoma progression in a murine model.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(6):1763-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Statins are a class of drugs that inhibit the rate-limiting step in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and show an anticancer effect, probably through the inhibition of cell proliferation. To date, the exact mechanism of cancer cell growth arrest induced by statins is not known. We report that simvastatin is able to induce apoptosis in melanoma cells but not in normal cells and also able to contrast the growth of tumor in an experimental melanoma murine model. We observed a delay in the tumor development in almost the 50% of the simvastatin administered animals and a strong reduction of the tumor volume with a differences of ~150% compared to the controls. Also the survival rate was significantly higher in mice that received the drug with a survival increase of ~130% compared to the controls. The tumor growth reduction in mice was supported by the results of cell migration assay, confirming that simvastatin clearly reduced cell migration. Moreover, simvastatin induced a strong downregulation of NonO gene expression, an important growth factor involved in the splicing regulation. This result could explain the decrease of melanoma cells proliferation, suggesting a possible action mechanism. The results derived from our experiments may sustain the many reports on the anticancer inhibitory property of statins and encourage new studies on this drug for a possible use in therapy, probably in combination with conventional chemotherapy.

Iio A, Takagi T, Miki K, et al.
DDX6 post-transcriptionally down-regulates miR-143/145 expression through host gene NCR143/145 in cancer cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013; 1829(10):1102-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
In various human malignancies, widespread dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression is reported to occur and affects various cell growth programs. Recent studies suggest that the expression levels of miRNAs that act as tumor suppressors are frequently reduced in cancers because of chromosome deletions, epigenetical changes, aberrant transcription, and disturbances in miRNA processing. MiR-143 and -145 are well-recognized miRNAs that are highly expressed in several tissues, but down-regulated in most types of cancers. However, the mechanism of this down-regulation has not been investigated in detail. Here, we show that DEAD-box RNA helicase 6, DDX6 (p54/RCK), post-transcriptionally down-regulated miR-143/145 expression by prompting the degradation of its host gene product, NCR143/145 RNA. In human gastric cancer cell line MKN45, DDX6 protein was abundantly expressed and accumulated in processing bodies (P-bodies). DDX6 preferentially increased the instability of non-coding RNA, NCR143/145, which encompasses the miR-143/145 cluster, and down-regulated the expression of mature miR-143/145. In human monocytic cell line THP-1, lipopolysaccharide treatment promoted the assembly of P-bodies and down-regulated the expression of NCR143/145 and its miR-143/145 rapidly. In these cells, cycloheximide treatment led to a loss of P-bodies and to an increase in NCR143/145 RNA stability, thus resulting in up-regulation of miR-143/145 expression. These data demonstrate that DDX6 contributed to the control of NCR143/145 RNA stability in P-bodies and post-transcriptionally regulated miR-143/145 expression in cancer cells.

Hodge JC, Pearce KE, Wang X, et al.
Molecular cytogenetic analysis for TFE3 rearrangement in Xp11.2 renal cell carcinoma and alveolar soft part sarcoma: validation and clinical experience with 75 cases.
Mod Pathol. 2014; 27(1):113-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma with TFE3 rearrangement at Xp11.2 is a distinct subtype manifesting an indolent clinical course in children, with recent reports suggesting a more aggressive entity in adults. This subtype is morphologically heterogeneous and can be misclassified as clear cell or papillary renal cell carcinoma. TFE3 is also rearranged in alveolar soft part sarcoma. To aid in diagnosis, a break-apart strategy fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probe set specific for TFE3 rearrangement and a reflex dual-color, single-fusion strategy probe set involving the most common TFE3 partner gene, ASPSCR1, were validated on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from nine alveolar soft part sarcoma, two suspected Xp11.2 renal cell carcinoma, and nine tumors in the differential diagnosis. The impact of tissue cut artifact was reduced through inclusion of a chromosome X centromere control probe. Analysis of the UOK-109 renal carcinoma cell line confirmed the break-apart TFE3 probe set can distinguish the subtle TFE3/NONO fusion-associated inversion of chromosome X. Subsequent extensive clinical experience was gained through analysis of 75 cases with an indication of Xp11.2 renal cell carcinoma (n=54), alveolar soft part sarcoma (n=13), perivascular epithelioid cell neoplasms (n=2), chordoma (n=1), or unspecified (n=5). We observed balanced and unbalanced chromosome X;17 translocations in both Xp11.2 renal cell carcinoma and alveolar soft part sarcoma, supporting a preference but not a necessity for the translocation to be balanced in the carcinoma and unbalanced in the sarcoma. We further demonstrate the unbalanced separation is atypical, with TFE3/ASPSCR1 fusion and loss of the derivative X chromosome but also an unanticipated normal X chromosome gain in both males and females. Other diverse sex chromosome copy number combinations were observed. Our TFE3 FISH assay is a useful adjunct to morphologic analysis of such challenging cases and will be applicable to assess the growing spectrum of TFE3-rearranged tumors.

Hatano K, Yamaguchi S, Nimura K, et al.
Residual prostate cancer cells after docetaxel therapy increase the tumorigenic potential via constitutive signaling of CXCR4, ERK1/2 and c-Myc.
Mol Cancer Res. 2013; 11(9):1088-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Despite an increasing prevalence of patients with docetaxel-refractory prostate cancer, little is known about the tumor biology of the docetaxel-resistant residual tumor cells compared with primary tumor cells. In this study, tumorigenic potential was increased in the docetaxel-resistant residual prostate cancer cell lines (DRD, 1G7 and PC3DR) compared with parental cells (DU145 or PC3). Enhanced tumorigenic potential was conferred by oncogenic c-Myc, which was stabilized by constitutively activated ERK1/2 in DRD, 1G7, and PC3DR cells. Constitutively activated ERK1/2 was maintained by CXCR4, which was upregulated in DRD, 1G7, and PC3DR cells. In docetaxel-treated DU145 cells, transiently activated ERK1/2 induced CXCR4 expression by stabilizing c-Myc. Furthermore, constitutive activation of CXCR4, ERK1/2, and c-Myc signaling was evident in clinical tissue samples from human patients with docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer. In DTX-resistant residual prostate cancer cells, the enhanced tumorigenic potential was reduced by ERK1/2 inhibition, or by AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist. Thus, docetaxel treatment constitutively activated the CXCR4, ERK1/2, and c-Myc signaling loop in docetaxel-resistant residual prostate cancer cells.
IMPLICATIONS: Constitutive signaling pathways are viable therapeutic targets for residual prostate tumor cells following acquisition of docetaxel resistance.

Banck MS, Kanwar R, Kulkarni AA, et al.
The genomic landscape of small intestine neuroendocrine tumors.
J Clin Invest. 2013; 123(6):2502-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) are the most common malignancy of the small bowel. Several clinical trials target PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling; however, it is unknown whether these or other genes are genetically altered in these tumors. To address the underlying genetics, we analyzed 48 SI-NETs by massively parallel exome sequencing. We detected an average of 0.1 somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) per 106 nucleotides (range, 0-0.59), mostly transitions (C>T and A>G), which suggests that SI-NETs are stable cancers. 197 protein-altering somatic SNVs affected a preponderance of cancer genes, including FGFR2, MEN1, HOOK3, EZH2, MLF1, CARD11, VHL, NONO, and SMAD1. Integrative analysis of SNVs and somatic copy number variations identified recurrently altered mechanisms of carcinogenesis: chromatin remodeling, DNA damage, apoptosis, RAS signaling, and axon guidance. Candidate therapeutically relevant alterations were found in 35 patients, including SRC, SMAD family genes, AURKA, EGFR, HSP90, and PDGFR. Mutually exclusive amplification of AKT1 or AKT2 was the most common event in the 16 patients with alterations of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling. We conclude that sequencing-based analysis may provide provisional grouping of SI-NETs by therapeutic targets or deregulated pathways.

Schmid R, Meyer K, Spang R, et al.
Melanoma inhibitory activity promotes melanoma development through activation of YBX1.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013; 26(5):685-96 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA), a small soluble secreted protein, is functionally important for progression of malignant melanoma. We recently revealed that p54(nrb) acts as a mediator of MIA action. In this study, we characterize the transcriptional regulation of p54(nrb) by MIA to explain MIA's molecular action. We identified one highly conserved region in the p54(nrb) promoter that is necessary and sufficient for MIA-dependent activation. Functional promoter analysis identified the transcription factor YBX1 as the mediator of MIA activation of p54(nrb) transcription. We screened the genome for further potential MIA-regulated genes carrying the element in their promoter regions. Integrating our sequence data with expression data from human melanomas identified a list of 23 potential MIA-YBX1 targets in melanomas. In summary, we present for the first time effects of MIA on transcriptional regulation. Uncovering new potential downstream effectors working via activation of YBX1 supports the important role of MIA in melanoma.

Bernhart E, Damm S, Wintersperger A, et al.
Protein kinase D2 regulates migration and invasion of U87MG glioblastoma cells in vitro.
Exp Cell Res. 2013; 319(13):2037-48 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor, which, despite combined modality treatment, reoccurs and is invariably fatal for affected patients. Recently, a member of the serine/threonine protein kinase D (PRKD) family, PRKD2, was shown to be a potent mediator of glioblastoma growth. Here we studied the role of PRKD2 in U87MG glioblastoma cell migration and invasion in response to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an activator of PRKD2 and a GBM mitogen. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that random cell migration was significantly diminished in response to PRKD2 silencing. The pharmacological PRKD family inhibitor CRT0066101 decreased chemotactic migration and invasion across uncoated or matrigel-coated Transwell inserts. Silencing of PRKD2 attenuated migration and invasion of U87MG cells even more effectively. In terms of downstream signaling, CRT0066101 prevented PRKD2 autophosphorylation and inhibited p44/42 MAPK and to a smaller extent p54/46 JNK and p38 MAPK activation. PRKD2 silencing impaired activation of p44/42 MAPK and p54/46 JNK, downregulated nuclear c-Jun protein levels and decreased c-Jun(S73) phosphorylation without affecting the NFκB pathway. Finally, qPCR array analyses revealed that silencing of PRKD2 downregulates mRNA levels of integrin alpha-2 and -4 (ITGA2 and -4), plasminogen activator urokinase (PLAU), plasminogen activator urokinase receptor (PLAUR), and matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1). Findings of the present study identify PRKD2 as a potential target to interfere with glioblastoma cell migration and invasion, two major determinants contributing to recurrence of glioblastoma after multimodality treatment.

Ohe C, Kuroda N, Hes O, et al.
A renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma/perivascular epithelioid cell tumor with TFE3 gene break visualized by FISH.
Med Mol Morphol. 2012; 45(4):234-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
We present a case of renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma (eAML)/perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) with a TFE3 gene break visible by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Histologically, the tumor was composed of mainly epithelioid cells forming solid arrangements with small foci of spindle cells. In a small portion of the tumor, neoplastic cells displayed nuclear pleomorphism, such as polygonal and enlarged vesicular nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Marked vascularity was noticeable in the background, and perivascular hyaline sclerosis was also seen. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for α-smooth muscle actin and melanosome in the cytoplasm. Nuclei of many neoplastic cells were positive for TFE3. FISH analysis of the TFE3 gene break using the Poseidon TFE3 (Xp11) Break probe revealed positive results. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) for ASPL/TFE3, PRCC/TFE3, CLTC/TFE3, PSF/TFE3, and NonO/TFE3 gene fusions all revealed negative results. This is the first reported case of renal eAML/PEComa with a TFE3 gene break, and it has unique histological findings as compared to previously reported TFE3 gene fusion-positive PEComas. Pathologists should recognize that PEComa with TFE3 gene fusion can arise even in the kidney.

Nelson LD, Bender C, Mannsperger H, et al.
Triplex DNA-binding proteins are associated with clinical outcomes revealed by proteomic measurements in patients with colorectal cancer.
Mol Cancer. 2012; 11:38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tri- and tetra-nucleotide repeats in mammalian genomes can induce formation of alternative non-B DNA structures such as triplexes and guanine (G)-quadruplexes. These structures can induce mutagenesis, chromosomal translocations and genomic instability. We wanted to determine if proteins that bind triplex DNA structures are quantitatively or qualitatively different between colorectal tumor and adjacent normal tissue and if this binding activity correlates with patient clinical characteristics.
METHODS: Extracts from 63 human colorectal tumor and adjacent normal tissues were examined by gel shifts (EMSA) for triplex DNA-binding proteins, which were correlated with clinicopathological tumor characteristics using the Mann-Whitney U, Spearman's rho, Kaplan-Meier and Mantel-Cox log-rank tests. Biotinylated triplex DNA and streptavidin agarose affinity binding were used to purify triplex-binding proteins in RKO cells. Western blotting and reverse-phase protein array were used to measure protein expression in tissue extracts.
RESULTS: Increased triplex DNA-binding activity in tumor extracts correlated significantly with lymphatic disease, metastasis, and reduced overall survival. We identified three multifunctional splicing factors with biotinylated triplex DNA affinity: U2AF65 in cytoplasmic extracts, and PSF and p54nrb in nuclear extracts. Super-shift EMSA with anti-U2AF65 antibodies produced a shifted band of the major EMSA H3 complex, identifying U2AF65 as the protein present in the major EMSA band. U2AF65 expression correlated significantly with EMSA H3 values in all extracts and was higher in extracts from Stage III/IV vs. Stage I/II colon tumors (p=0.024). EMSA H3 values and U2AF65 expression also correlated significantly with GSK3 beta, beta-catenin, and NF- B p65 expression, whereas p54nrb and PSF expression correlated with c-Myc, cyclin D1, and CDK4. EMSA values and expression of all three splicing factors correlated with ErbB1, mTOR, PTEN, and Stat5. Western blots confirmed that full-length and truncated beta-catenin expression correlated with U2AF65 expression in tumor extracts.
CONCLUSIONS: Increased triplex DNA-binding activity in vitro correlates with lymph node disease, metastasis, and reduced overall survival in colorectal cancer, and increased U2AF65 expression is associated with total and truncated beta-catenin expression in high-stage colorectal tumors.

Wang Y, Lui WY
Transforming growth factor-β1 attenuates junctional adhesion molecule-A and contributes to breast cancer cell invasion.
Eur J Cancer. 2012; 48(18):3475-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a potent regulator in promoting the invasion and proliferation of breast cancer cells. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a tight junction protein that displays an inverse relationship to cell invasiveness in breast cancer cells. Whether TGF-β1 signaling induces alteration of JAM-A expression leading to cell invasion has not been investigated. In this study, we report that TGF-β1 down-regulated JAM-A expression via its effect on both transcriptional and post-translational regulations of JAM-A, thus inducing cell invasion. On exploring whether TGF-β1 might be the upstream regulator of JAM-A expression, we found that knockdown of TGF-β receptors and canonical Smad signaling could upregulate JAM-A level and inhibit cell invasion in MDA-MB-231 cells. TGF-β1 treatment of MCF-7 cells caused a significant reduction of JAM-A mRNA and protein and induced cell invasion. Delineating the signal mechanisms involved in TGF-β1-mediated JAM-A repression, we found that TGF-β1 significantly inhibited JAM-A gene transcription via the activation of Smads. In addition to Smad activation, we found that involvement of p54 JNK is crucial for post-translational modification of TGF-β1-mediated JAM-A protein degradation. Blockage of JNK pathway by inhibitor could attenuate TGF-β1-induced cell invasion. We provide evidences for the first time that TGF-β1 induces breast cancer cell invasion via TGF-β1-mediated control on JAM-A expression. Identification of JAM-A as a downstream target of TGF-β1 represents a crucial mechanism in cancer progression.

Kuroda N, Mikami S, Pan CC, et al.
Review of renal carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions with focus on pathobiological aspect.
Histol Histopathol. 2012; 27(2):133-40 [PubMed] Related Publications
The concept of Xp11.2 renal cell carcinoma (RCC) was recently established as a tumor affecting 15% of RCC patients <45 years. Many patients present with advanced stage with frequent lymph node metastases. Histologically, Xp11.2 RCC is characterized by mixed papillary nested/alveolar growth pattern and tumor cells with clear and/or eosinophilic, voluminous cytoplasm. Neoplastic cells show intense nuclear immunoreactivity to TFE3, while focal immunostaining for melanocytic markers, including melanosome-associated antigen or Melan A in some cases, are also noted. Alpha smooth muscle actin and TFEB are consistently negative. Ultrastructurally, the ASPL-TFE3 RCC variant contains rhomboid crystals in the cytoplasm, similar to that observed in alveolar soft part sarcoma. The fusion of the TFE3 gene with several different genes, including ASPL(17q25), PRCC(1q21), PSF(1q34), NonO (Xq12) and CLTC (17q23) have been identified to date. The behavior of Xp11.2 RCC in children and young adults is considered as indolent even when diagnosed at advanced stage, including lymph node metastasis. However, Xp11.2 RCC in older patients behaves in a more aggressive fashion. Therapy includes nephrectomy with extended lymphadenectomy. There may be a role for new protease inhibitors in advanced inoperable disease. Further research is required to correlate clinical behavior with the expanding genetic spectrum of this tumor, and to establish standard therapy protocols for primary and metastatic lesions.

Tsofack SP, Garand C, Sereduk C, et al.
NONO and RALY proteins are required for YB-1 oxaliplatin induced resistance in colon adenocarcinoma cell lines.
Mol Cancer. 2011; 10:145 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: YB-1 is a multifunctional protein that affects transcription, splicing, and translation. Overexpression of YB-1 in breast cancers causes cisplatin resistance. Recent data have shown that YB-1 is also overexpress in colorectal cancer. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that YB-1 also confers oxaliplatin resistance in colorectal adenocarcinomas.
RESULTS: We show for the first time that transfection of YB-1 cDNA confers oxaliplatin resistance in two colorectal cancer cell lines (SW480 and HT29 cell lines). Furthermore, we identified by mass spectrometry analyses important YB-1 interactors required for such oxaliplatin resistance in these colorectal cancer cell lines. A tagged YB-1 construct was used to identify proteins interacting directly to YB-1 in such cells. We then focused on proteins that are potentially involved in colorectal cancer progression based on the Oncomine microarray database. Genes encoding for these YB-1 interactors were also examined in the public NCBI comparative genomic hybridization database to determine whether these genes are localized to regions of chromosomes rearranged in colorectal cancer tissues. From these analyses, we obtained a list of proteins interacting with YB-1 and potentially involved in oxaliplatin resistance. Oxaliplatin dose response curves of SW480 and HT29 colorectal cancer cell lines transfected with several siRNAs corresponding to each of these YB-1 interactors were obtained to identify proteins significantly affecting oxaliplatin sensitivity upon gene silencing. Only the depletion of either NONO or RALY sensitized both colorectal cancer cell lines to oxaliplatin. Furthermore, depletion of NONO or RALY sensitized otherwise oxaliplatin resistant overexpressing YB-1 SW480 or HT29 cells.
CONCLUSION: These results suggest knocking down NONO or RALY significant counteracts oxaliplatin resistance in colorectal cancers overexpressing the YB-1 protein.

Schiffner S, Zimara N, Schmid R, Bosserhoff AK
p54nrb is a new regulator of progression of malignant melanoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(8):1176-82 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nuclear RNA-binding protein p54(nrb) and its murine homolog NonO are known to be involved in a variety of nuclear processes including transcription and RNA processing. Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) has been shown to play an essential role in the progression of malignant melanoma and to influence melanoma-associated molecules and pathways in the early tumor formation steps. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that MIA is a regulator of p54(nrb). Here, we show that p54(nrb) is strongly expressed and localized in the nucleus of both melanoma cell lines and melanoma tissue samples compared with normal human melanocytes or normal skin, respectively. Furthermore, all tested melanoma cell lines revealed strong p54(nrb) promoter activity. Treatment with MIA-specific small interfering RNAs showed an influence of MIA on p54(nrb) expression on both messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein level. Knockdown of p54(nrb) protein in melanoma cell lines led to reduced proliferation rates and to a strong decrease in their migratory potential. In addition, attachment to laminin and poly-l-lysine was significantly increased. We could identify Connexin-43 (Cx-43) as a downstream target molecule of p54(nrb) as knockdown of p54(nrb) resulted in enhanced Cx-43 mRNA and protein levels. As a confirmation of these findings, melanoma cell lines showed very low Cx-43 expression levels compared with melanocytes. Our results demonstrate that p54(nrb) is highly expressed in malignant melanoma and, as a MIA target molecule, it seems to be involved in the development and progression of malignant melanoma.

Kuroda N, Kawada C, Tamura K, et al.
Re-evaluation of histological type by immunohistochemical and genetic study of transcription factors (TFE3 and TFEB) of VHL gene mutation-negative clear cell renal cell carcinoma and other special types of renal tumor.
Med Mol Morphol. 2011; 44(1):46-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Translocation-type renal carcinoma has been recently discovered, and it is possible that this tumor may have been previously diagnosed as other types of renal tumor. We have subjected 41 renal tumors, including VHL gene mutation-negative clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), papillary RCC, and chromophobe RCC, to immunohistochemistry of transcription factor E3 (TFE3) and TFEB. All tumors were histologically evaluated by additional immunohistochemical study. As a result, 5 tumors showed a positive reaction for TFE3 with a range from 1+ to 2+ in intensity. No tumors were positive for TFEB. In 5 tumors immunohistochemically positive for TFE3, chimeric transcripts including ASPL-TFE3, PRCC-TFE3, CLTCTFE3, PSF-TFE3, or Nono-TFE3 were not detected. The diagnosis of 6 tumors was changed by reevaluation through retrospective histological and immunohistochemical study. In 4 of 6 tumors, the diagnosis of clear cell RCC was changed to chromophobe RCC. In 1 tumor, oncocytoma was detectable, and RCC with rhabdoid features and sarcomatoid changes was detected in 1 tumor. Finally, the cutoff value of TFE3 immunohistochemistry should be more than 2+ with a wide range. The translocation-type renal carcinoma seems to be quite rare.

Kuroda N, Tamura M, Tanaka Y, et al.
Adult-onset renal cell carcinoma associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusion with smooth muscle stroma and abnormal vessels.
Pathol Int. 2009; 59(7):486-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) associated with Xp11.2 translocation/TFE3 gene fusion has been recently identified. Herein is presented a case of RCC with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions with unusual histological findings. A 68-year-old Japanese woman was incidentally found to have a renal mass on CT. Histological examination showed clear cell neoplasm with alveolar and papillary growth patterns. The nuclear atypia corresponded to Fuhrman grade 3. Additionally, smooth muscle stroma was observed and abnormal vessels showing a heterogeniety in thickness were also identified. On immunohistochemistry, neoplastic cells were diffusely positive for transcription factor E3 (TFE3) and Melan A, and focally positive for CD10 and RCC marker. The smooth muscle stroma was positive for alpha-smooth muscle actin and h-caldesmon, but reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of the tumor using frozen material could not detect any previously reported chimeric transcripts including ASPL-TFE3, PRCC-TFE3, CLTC-TFE3, PSF-TFE3 or NoNo-TFE3. G-band karyotype was unsuccessful. Pathologists should pay attention to the afore-described unusual stromal reaction of adult-onset RCC associated with Xp11.2 translocations/TFE3 gene fusions.

Lin F, Wang R, Shen JJ, et al.
Knockdown of RCK/p54 expression by RNAi inhibits proliferation of human colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
Cancer Biol Ther. 2008; 7(10):1669-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in both men and women around the world. Although much progress of the mechanism of colorectal carcinogenesis has been made, the studies centering on the mechanisms of tumorigenesis are much needed to be further exploited. The overexpression of RCK/p54 gene, a member of the DEAD box protein/RNA helicase family, has been found in this malignancy. Roles of RCK in the development of colon cancer, however, are unknown. In this report, we explored whether RCK/p54 plays a role in maintaining the malignant phenotype and functions in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway of colorectal cancer cells harboring an APC mutation. The ectopic overexpression of RCK/p54 gene in colorectal cancer cells by transfection with RCK/p54 cDNA could lead to a significant increase of Tcf transcriptional activity and expression levels of Wnt target genes. By RNAi assay, we also observed that the Tcf transcriptional activity in LoVo-shRNA cells was significantly decreased by approximately 61.3%, while the mRNA and protein expression levels of Wnt target genes were also obviously decreased. Furthermore, the anti-tumour effects and its possible mechanisms of actions in LoVo cells elicited by a decrease in the level of RCK/p54 by RNAi were examined. Results showed that RCK/p54 downregulation could significantly reduce the viability of LoVo cells, increased cell number of S phase, led to cell apoptosis induction, and inhibited tumor growth in nude mice. Taken together, RCK/ p54 might be a determinant of colorectal cancer proliferation by activating the canonical Wnt pathway and RCK/p54-shRNA might be a potential strategy for colorectal cancer gene therapy.

Cannon GM, Balasudramani M, Getzenberg RH
Characterization of nuclear matrix protein alterations associated with renal cell carcinoma.
Urology. 2007; 69(6):1227-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs), which constitute the nuclear skeleton, play a role in regulating gene expression and are thought to play an important role in carcinogenesis. Five NMPs specific to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have been previously identified, RCCA 1 to 5. Our aim was to identify the sequence of these novel NMPs that are associated with RCC.
METHODS: NMPs were extracted from five conventional clear cell RCC specimens from patients undergoing surgical excision for presumed RCC. The RCCA proteins identified were analyzed by matrix-assisted light desorption ionization mass spectrometry to determine their peptide mass fingerprint. This fingerprint was then analyzed by searching the Mascot and National Institutes of Health BLAST (basic local alignment search tool) databases to determine protein identification.
RESULTS: Only RCCA-1 and RCCA-2 were able to be consistently identified from each tumor specimen by the reverse staining method necessary to perform mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting revealed that RCCA-1 appears to be a differentially spliced form of nucleoporin p54 that has been identified in endometrial carcinoma. RCCA-2 was identified as an albumin-like protein.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of nucleoporin p54 and albumin alterations in RCC. The identification of an abnormal nucleoporin in RCC suggests that alterations in nuclear transport might play a role in the development of this disease. The alterations in these NMPs suggest future areas for investigation in identifying diagnostic markers of, or therapeutic targets for, RCC.

Tsuda M, Davis IJ, Argani P, et al.
TFE3 fusions activate MET signaling by transcriptional up-regulation, defining another class of tumors as candidates for therapeutic MET inhibition.
Cancer Res. 2007; 67(3):919-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
Specific chromosomal translocations encoding chimeric transcription factors are considered to play crucial oncogenic roles in a variety of human cancers but the fusion proteins themselves seldom represent suitable therapeutic targets. Oncogenic TFE3 fusion proteins define a subset of pediatric renal adenocarcinomas and one fusion (ASPL-TFE3) is also characteristic of alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS). By expression profiling, we identified the MET receptor tyrosine kinase gene as significantly overexpressed in ASPS relative to four other types of primitive sarcomas. We therefore examined MET as a direct transcriptional target of ASPL-TFE3. ASPL-TFE3 binds to the MET promoter and strongly activates it. Likewise, PSF-TFE3 and NONO-TFE3 also bind this promoter. Induction of MET by ASPL-TFE3 results in strong MET autophosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). In cancer cell lines containing endogenous TFE3 fusion proteins, inhibiting MET by RNA interference or by the inhibitor PHA665752 abolishes HGF-dependent MET activation, causing decreased cell growth and loss of HGF-dependent phenotypes. MET is thus a potential therapeutic target in these cancers. Aberrant transcriptional up-regulation of MET by oncogenic TFE3 fusion proteins represents another mechanism by which certain cancers become dependent on MET signaling. The identification of kinase signaling pathways transcriptionally up-regulated by oncogenic fusion proteins may reveal more accessible therapeutic targets in this class of human cancers.

Hisada-Ishii S, Ebihara M, Kobayashi N, Kitagawa Y
Bipartite nuclear localization signal of matrin 3 is essential for vertebrate cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007; 354(1):72-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Matrin 3, a nuclear matrix protein has potential (1) to withhold promiscuously edited RNAs within the nucleus in cooperation with p54(nrb) and PSF, (2) to mediate NMDA-induced neuronal death, and (3) to modulate promoter activity of genes proximal to matrix/scaffold attachment region (MAR/SAR). We identified a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) of chicken matrin 3 (cmatr3) at residues 583-602. By expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to the NLS mutant in chicken DT40 cells, we showed an essential role of the NLS for cell proliferation. Furthermore, we showed that both clusters of basic amino acids and a linker of the bipartite NLS were essential and sufficient for the nuclear import of GFP. Exogenous cmatr3 rescued the HeLa cells where human matrin 3 was suppressed by RNA interference, but cmatr3 containing deletions at either of the basic amino acid clusters or the linker could not.

Terenzi F, Hui DJ, Merrick WC, Sen GC
Distinct induction patterns and functions of two closely related interferon-inducible human genes, ISG54 and ISG56.
J Biol Chem. 2006; 281(45):34064-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human P54 and P56 proteins are tetratricopeptide proteins that are encoded by two closely related genes, ISG54 and ISG56. These genes are induced strongly but transiently when cells are treated with interferons or double-stranded RNA or infected with a variety of viruses. We observed that, although double-stranded RNA or Sendai virus infection induced the two genes with similar kinetics, their induction kinetics in response to interferon-beta were quite different. The induction kinetics by virus infection were also different between two cell lines. Functionally the two proteins were similar. Like P56, P54 bound to the translation initiation factor eIF3 and inhibited translation. However, unlike P56, P54 bound to both the "e" and the "c" subunits of eIF3. Consequently, P54 inhibited two functions of eIF3. Like P56, it inhibited the ability of eIF3 to stabilize the eIF2 x GTP x Met-tRNA(i) ternary complex. But in addition, it also inhibited the formation of the 48 S pre-initiation complex between the 40 S ribosomal subunit and the 20 S complex composed of eIF3, ternary complex, eIF4F, and mRNA. Thus, although similar in structure, the human P54 and P56 proteins are induced differently and function differently.

Nonomura N, Tokizane T, Nakayama M, et al.
Possible correlation between polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-beta gene and the clinicopathological features of bladder cancer in Japanese patients.
Int J Urol. 2006; 13(7):971-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: In a variety of cancers, several polymorphisms of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) genes have been reported to result in different clinical outcomes. We investigated whether a polymorphism of the TNF gene is associated with a susceptibility to bladder cancer and its disease status.
METHODS: Polymorphisms in the TNF-alpha gene promoter (-308 bp) and the NcoI site in the first intron of the TNF-beta gene were analyzed in 141 Japanese patients with bladder cancer and 173 Japanese controls by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The correlations between the polymorphisms of the TNF genes and the clinicopathological features were analyzed.
RESULTS: The number of cases and controls with TNF-alpha2 was too small to be assessable. In contrast, the TNF-beta1/2 genotype at the NcoI site in the first intron conferred a 1.71-fold increased risk of bladder cancer compared to the TNF-beta2/2 genotype. In the bladder cancer group, patients with the TNF-beta1 allele had a significantly higher risk for a high-grade tumor (grade 3) or carcinoma in situ (CIS) than those without the TNF-beta1 allele. Moreover, in the superficial bladder cancers, patients with the TNF-beta1 allele showed a significantly higher intravesical recurrence rate than those without the TNF-beta1 allele.
CONCLUSION: This polymorphism in the TNF-beta gene appears to be associated with tumor occurrence and disease status, such as the tumor grade and the presence of CIS. Further study with an increased sample size is warranted.

Mathur M, Samuels HH
Role of PSF-TFE3 oncoprotein in the development of papillary renal cell carcinomas.
Oncogene. 2007; 26(2):277-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
A subset of papillary renal cell carcinomas (RCC) is characterized by the expression of a TFE3 fusion protein, where the fusion partner can be any of the several proteins identified so far such as PSF (PTB associated splicing factor), NonO, PRCC, CLTC and ASPL. These proteins result from chromosomal translocations involving the TFE3 gene located on the X chromosome. Our present study documents the central role of PSF-TFE3 in oncogenic transformation. We show that the inhibition of PSF-TFE3 expression through siRNA or shRNA leads to impaired growth, proliferation, invasion potential and long-term survival of UOK-145 papillary renal carcinoma-derived cells, which endogenously express PSF-TFE3. The oncogenic potential of PSF-TFE3 became evident by stable expression of PSF-TFE3 in NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells, which leads to the acquisition of anchorage-independent growth as revealed by soft agar assay. In addition, the expression of PSF-TFE3 in normal renal proximal tubular epithelial cells from where such tumors originate leads to dedifferentiation and loss of some key functional proteins, which may reflect an initial step in the multistep process of tumor development. This suggests that the expression of PSF-TFE3 in renal epithelial cells plays an important role in the initiation and maintenance of oncogenic phenotype in papillary RCC.

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