Gene Summary

Gene:FGF10; fibroblast growth factor 10
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities, and are involved in a variety of biological processes, including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This protein exhibits mitogenic activity for keratinizing epidermal cells, but essentially no activity for fibroblasts, which is similar to the biological activity of FGF7. Studies of the mouse homolog of suggested that this gene is required for embryonic epidermal morphogenesis including brain development, lung morphogenesis, and initiation of lim bud formation. This gene is also implicated to be a primary factor in the process of wound healing. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fibroblast growth factor 10
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Fibroblasts
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Mutation
  • Self Report
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 10
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Risk Factors
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta2
  • DNA Copy Number Variations
  • Genotype
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Mammary Glands, Human
  • Chromosome 5
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Stromal Cells
  • Carcinoma
  • FGFR2
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
  • Western Blotting
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transcription Factors
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Base Sequence
  • p53 Protein
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Gene Amplification
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 7
  • Lung Cancer
  • Breast Cancer
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FGF10 (cancer-related)

Eiro N, Fernandez-Gomez J, Sacristán R, et al.
Stromal factors involved in human prostate cancer development, progression and castration resistance.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(2):351-359 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To detect new predictive markers from the prostate cancer tissue, to study the expression by cultured cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) of stromal factors implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, and to compare their expressions in localized, metastatic, castration-sensitive (CSCP), castration-resistant prostate tumors (CRCP) as well as in fibroblasts from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The genomic expression of 20 stroma-derived factors, including the androgen receptor (AR), growth factors (FGF2, FGF7, FGF10, HGF, TGFβ, PDGFB), protein implicated in invasion (MMP-2, MMP-9 and MMP-11), inflammation (IL-6, IL-17, STAT-3 and NFκB), stroma/epithelium interaction (CDH11, FAP, CXCL12 and CXCL14) and chaperones (HPA1A and HSF1), was evaluated in cultured fibroblasts both from BHP and prostate carcinomas (PCa). After isolation and culture of fibroblasts by biopsy specimens, RNA was isolated and genomic studies performed.
RESULTS: Finally, 5 BPH and 37 PCa specimens were selected: clinically localized (19), metastatic (5), CSCP (7) and CRPC (6). Interleukin-17 receptor (IL-17RB) was highly expressed in CAFs compared with fibroblasts from BPH. However, metalloproteinase-2 and chemokine ligand 14 (CXCL14) were expressed at higher levels by fibroblasts from BPH. The fibroblastic growth factor-7 was highly expressed by CAFs from localized tumors, but metalloproteinase-11 in metastatic tumors. MMP-11, androgen receptor (AR) and heat-shock-70kda-protein-1A (HSPA1A) expressions were significantly higher in CAFs from CRPC.
CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a CAFs heterogeneity among prostate carcinomas with regard to some molecular profile expressions that may be relevant in tumor development (IL-17RB), progression (MMP-11) and castration resistance (AR, MMP-11 and HSPA1A).

Castro MA, de Santiago I, Campbell TM, et al.
Regulators of genetic risk of breast cancer identified by integrative network analysis.
Nat Genet. 2016; 48(1):12-21 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Genetic risk for breast cancer is conferred by a combination of multiple variants of small effect. To better understand how risk loci might combine, we examined whether risk-associated genes share regulatory mechanisms. We created a breast cancer gene regulatory network comprising transcription factors and groups of putative target genes (regulons) and asked whether specific regulons are enriched for genes associated with risk loci via expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We identified 36 overlapping regulons that were enriched for risk loci and formed a distinct cluster within the network, suggesting shared biology. The risk transcription factors driving these regulons are frequently mutated in cancer and lie in two opposing subgroups, which relate to estrogen receptor (ER)(+) luminal A or luminal B and ER(-) basal-like cancers and to different luminal epithelial cell populations in the adult mammary gland. Our network approach provides a foundation for determining the regulatory circuits governing breast cancer, to identify targets for intervention, and is transferable to other disease settings.

Boucherat O, Landry-Truchon K, Bérubé-Simard FA, et al.
Epithelial inactivation of Yy1 abrogates lung branching morphogenesis.
Development. 2015; 142(17):2981-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional zinc-finger-containing transcription factor that plays crucial roles in numerous biological processes by selectively activating or repressing transcription, depending upon promoter contextual differences and specific protein interactions. In mice, Yy1 null mutants die early in gestation whereas Yy1 hypomorphs die at birth from lung defects. We studied how the epithelial-specific inactivation of Yy1 impacts on lung development. The Yy1 mutation in lung epithelium resulted in neonatal death due to respiratory failure. It impaired tracheal cartilage formation, altered cell differentiation, abrogated lung branching and caused airway dilation similar to that seen in human congenital cystic lung diseases. The cystic lung phenotype in Yy1 mutants can be partly explained by the reduced expression of Shh, a transcriptional target of YY1, in lung endoderm, and the subsequent derepression of mesenchymal Fgf10 expression. Accordingly, SHH supplementation partially rescued the lung phenotype in vitro. Analysis of human lung tissues revealed decreased YY1 expression in children with pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), a rare pediatric lung tumor arising during fetal development and associated with DICER1 mutations. No evidence for a potential genetic interplay between murine Dicer and Yy1 genes during lung morphogenesis was observed. However, the cystic lung phenotype resulting from the epithelial inactivation of Dicer function mimics the Yy1 lung malformations with similar changes in Shh and Fgf10 expression. Together, our data demonstrate the crucial requirement for YY1 in lung morphogenesis and identify Yy1 mutant mice as a potential model for studying the genetic basis of PPB.

Ooi A, Oyama T, Nakamura R, et al.
Semi-comprehensive analysis of gene amplification in gastric cancers using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Mod Pathol. 2015; 28(6):861-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
The prognosis of patients with gastric carcinomas at an advanced stage still remains dismal, and therefore novel therapeutic modalities are urgently needed. Since the successful targeting of amplified ERBB2 with a humanized monoclonal antibody, the amplified genes of other receptor tyrosine kinases such as EGFR, FGFR2, and MET, as well as those of other cell regulator genes, are being considered as candidate targets of molecular therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine the amplification status of 26 genes, which are frequently amplified in solid cancers, in advanced gastric cancers. A total of 93 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded advanced gastric cancer tissues were examined by multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification, and 32 cases with 'gain' or 'amplified' status of 16 genes were further examined for the respective gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and for the respective protein overexpression by immunohistochemistry. The frequencies of gene amplifications in advanced gastric cancers were as follows: ERBB2 (13 cases, 14%), FGFR2 (7 cases, 8%), MYC (7 cases, 8%), TOP2A (7 cases, 8%), MET (4 cases, 4%), MDM2 (4 cases, 4%), CCND1 (3 cases, 3%), FGF10 (2 cases, 3%), and EGFR (1 case, 1%). Amplification of the receptor tyrosine kinases genes occurred in a mutually exclusive manner except for one tumor in which ERBB2 and FGFR2 were both amplified but in different cancer cells. Co-amplification of ERBB2 and MYC, and EGFR and CCND1, in single nuclei but on different amplicons, was confirmed in one case each. Attempts at correlating the FISH status with the immunohistochemical staining pattern showed variable results from complete concordance to no correlation. In conclusion, combination of multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification and FISH analysis is a feasible approach for obtaining the semi-comprehensive genetic information that is necessary for personalized molecular targeted therapy.

Lahtela J, Pradhan B, Närhi K, et al.
The putative tumor suppressor gene EphA3 fails to demonstrate a crucial role in murine lung tumorigenesis or morphogenesis.
Dis Model Mech. 2015; 8(4):393-401 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is based on histological analysis and molecular profiling of targetable driver oncogenes. Therapeutic responses are further defined by the landscape of passenger mutations, or loss of tumor suppressor genes. We report here a thorough study to address the physiological role of the putative lung cancer tumor suppressor EPH receptor A3 (EPHA3), a gene that is frequently mutated in human lung adenocarcinomas. Our data shows that homozygous or heterozygous loss of EphA3 does not alter the progression of murine adenocarcinomas that result from Kras mutation or loss of Trp53, and we detected negligible postnatal expression of EphA3 in adult wild-type lungs. Yet, EphA3 was expressed in the distal mesenchyme of developing mouse lungs, neighboring the epithelial expression of its Efna1 ligand; this is consistent with the known roles of EPH receptors in embryonic development. However, the partial loss of EphA3 leads only to subtle changes in epithelial Nkx2-1, endothelial Cd31 and mesenchymal Fgf10 RNA expression levels, and no macroscopic phenotypic effects on lung epithelial branching, mesenchymal cell proliferation, or abundance and localization of CD31-positive endothelia. The lack of a discernible lung phenotype in EphA3-null mice might indicate lack of an overt role for EPHA3 in the murine lung, or imply functional redundancy between EPHA receptors. Our study shows how biological complexity can challenge in vivo functional validation of mutations identified in sequencing efforts, and provides an incentive for the design of knock-in or conditional models to assign the role of EPHA3 mutation during lung tumorigenesis.

Kanehira M, Kikuchi T, Santoso A, et al.
Human marrow stromal cells downsize the stem cell fraction of lung cancers by fibroblast growth factor 10.
Mol Cell Biol. 2014; 34(15):2848-56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The functional interplay between cancer cells and marrow stromal cells (MSCs) has attracted a great deal of interest due to the MSC tropism for tumors but remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated human MSC-secreted paracrine factors that appear to have critical functions in cancer stem cell subpopulations. We show that MSC-conditioned medium reduced the cancer stem cell-enriched subpopulation, which was detected as a side population and quiescent (G0) cell cycle fraction in human lung cancer cells by virtue of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10). This reduction of the stem cell-enriched fraction was also observed in lung cancer cells supplemented with recombinant human FGF10 protein. Moreover, supplementary FGF10 attenuated the expression of stemness genes encoding transcription factors, such as OCT3/4 and SOX2, and crippled the self-renewal capacity of lung cancer cells, as evidenced by the impaired formation of floating spheres in the suspension culture. We finally confirmed the therapeutic potential of the FGF10 treatment, which rendered lung cancer cells prone to a chemotherapeutic agent, probably due to the reduced cancer stem cell subpopulation. Collectively, these results add further clarification to the molecular mechanisms underlying MSC-mediated cancer cell kinetics, facilitating the development of future therapies.

Javle M, Rashid A, Churi C, et al.
Molecular characterization of gallbladder cancer using somatic mutation profiling.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(4):701-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer is relatively uncommon, with a high incidence in certain geographic locations, including Latin America, East and South Asia, and Eastern Europe. Molecular characterization of this disease has been limited, and targeted therapy options for advanced disease remain an open area of investigation. In the present study, surgical pathology obtained from resected gallbladder cancer cases (n = 72) was examined for the presence of targetable, somatic mutations. All cases were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). Two approaches were used: (a) mass spectroscopy-based profiling for 159 point ("hot spot") mutations in 33 genes commonly involved in solid tumors and (b) next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform that examined the complete coding sequence of in 182 cancer-related genes. Fifty-seven cases were analyzed for hot spot mutations; and 15, for NGS. Fourteen hot spot mutations were identified in 9 cases. Of these, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with poor survival on multivariate analysis. Other targetable mutations included PIK3CA (n = 2) and ALK (n = 1). On NGS, 26 mutations were noted in 15 cases. TP53 and PI3 kinase pathway (STK11, RICTOR, TSC2) mutations were common. One case had FGF10 amplification, whereas another had FGF3-TACC gene fusion, not previously described in gallbladder cancer. In conclusion, somatic mutation profiling using archival FFPE samples from gallbladder cancer is feasible. NGS, in particular, may be a useful platform for identifying novel mutations for targeted therapy.

Sugimoto K, Yoshida S, Mashio Y, et al.
Role of FGF10 on tumorigenesis by MS-K.
Genes Cells. 2014; 19(2):112-25 [PubMed] Related Publications
Murine MS-K and NFSA cell lines formed tumor after inoculation into mouse and both cell lines expressed high level of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (vegf-A) and produced same level of VEGF-A. However, poor blood vessel formation, and necrosis was significantly observed in NFSA-tumor, contrary to well-developed blood vessel formation in MS-K tumor. The microarray analysis showed high expression of fibroblast growth factor-10 (fgf-10) in MS-K than NFSA. In this report, the role of fgf-10 on tumor growth was studied. MS-K enhanced more proliferation of endothelial cells by direct co-culture than NFSA, and rFGF10 supported the proliferation of HUVEC in combination with VEGF-A. fgf-10-knocked down MS-K, MS-K (fgf-10-KD), proliferated slower in vitro and the tumorigenicity of them was also slower than control. The blood vessel formation in these MS-K (fgf-10-KD) clones was reduced compared with the MS-K (normal). qPCR analysis showed the suppression of vegf-A, vegf-C and fgfr-1-expression in the MS-K (fgf-10-KD) clones. Taken together, these results indicated that FGF10, which was produced from tumor cells, was essential for the proliferation of tumor cell itself and also supports proliferation of endothelial cells. Thus, FGF10 plays an important role for tumor growth by both paracrine and autocrine manner.

Chung SS, Koh CJ
Bladder cancer cell in co-culture induces human stem cell differentiation to urothelial cells through paracrine FGF10 signaling.
In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2013; 49(10):746-51 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) is required for embryonic epidermal morphogenesis including brain development, lung morphogenesis, and initiation of limb bud formation. In this study, we investigated the role of FGF10 as a lead induction factor for stem cell differentiation toward urothelial cell. To this end, human multipotent stem cell in vitro system was employed. Human amniotic fluid stem cells were co-cultured with immortalized bladder cancer lines to induce directed differentiation into urothelial cells. Urothelial markers, uroplakin II, III, and cytokeratin 8, were monitored by RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and Western blot analysis. Co-cultured stem cells began to express uroplakin II, III, and cytokeratin 8. Targeted FGF10 gene knockdown from bladder cancer cells abolished the directed differentiation. In addition, when FGF10 downstream signaling was blocked with the Mek inhibitor, the co-culture system lost the capacity to induce urothelial differentiation. Exogenous addition of recombinant FGF10 protein promoted stem cell differentiation into urothelium cell lineage. Together, this report suggests that paracrine FGF10 signaling stimulates the differentiation of human stem cell into urothelial cells. Current study provides insight into the potential role of FGF10 as a lead growth factor for bladder regeneration and its therapeutic application for bladder transplantation.

Reintjes N, Li Y, Becker A, et al.
Activating somatic FGFR2 mutations in breast cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(3):e60264 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
It is known that FGFR2 gene variations confer a risk for breast cancer. FGFR2 and FGF10, the main ligand of FGFR2, are both overexpressed in 5-10% of breast tumors. In our study, we sequenced the most important coding regions of FGFR2 in somatic tumor tissue of 140 sporadic breast cancer patients and performed MLPA analysis to detect copy number variations in FGFR2 and FGF10. We identified one somatic heterozygous missense mutation, p.K660N (c.1980G>C), within the tyrosine kinase domain of FGFR2 in tumor tissue of a sporadic breast cancer patient, which is likely mediated by the FGFR2-IIIb isoform. The presence of wild type and mutated alleles in equal quantities suggests that the mutation has driven clonal amplification of mutant cells. We have analyzed the tyrosine kinase activity of p.K660N and another recently described somatic breast cancer mutation in FGFR2, p.R203C, after expression in HEK293 cells and demonstrated that the intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity of both mutant proteins is strongly increased resulting in elevated phosphorylation and activity of downstream effectors. To our knowledge, this is the first report of functional analysis of somatic breast cancer mutations in FGFR2 providing evidence for the activating nature of FGFR2-mediated signalling in the pathogenesis of breast cancer.

Küchler EC, Lips A, Tannure PN, et al.
Tooth agenesis association with self-reported family history of cancer.
J Dent Res. 2013; 92(2):149-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been proposed that tooth agenesis and cancer development share common molecular pathways. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate the epidemiological and molecular association between tooth agenesis and self-reported family history of cancer. Eighty-two individuals with tooth agenesis and 328 individuals with no birth defect were recruited from the same institution. Tooth agenesis was assessed in permanent teeth and was defined based on the age of the participants and when initial tooth formation should be radiographically visible. We also investigated the role of genes involved in dental development that have been implicated in tumorigenesis, and 14 markers in AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2 were genotyped. Individuals with tooth agenesis had an increased risk of having a family history of cancer (p = 0.00006; OR = 2.7; 95% C.I., 1.6-4.4). There were associations between AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2 with tooth agenesis [i.e., individuals who carried the polymorphic allele of FGFR2 (rs1219648) presented higher risk for having premolar agenesis (p = 0.02; OR = 1.8; 95% C.I., 1.1-3.0)]. In conclusion, tooth agenesis was associated with positive self-reported family history of cancer and with variants in AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2. Prospective studies are needed to confirm if tooth agenesis can be used as a risk marker for cancer.

Masunaga A, Nagashio R, Iwamoto S, et al.
A case of pulmonary papillary adenoma: possible relationship between tumor histogenesis/tumorigenesis and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 IIIb.
Pathol Int. 2012; 62(9):640-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pulmonary papillary adenoma is a rare tumor. We analyzed a tumor which appeared in a 16-year-old Japanese woman. The tumor histologically showed papillary proliferation of one-layered tumor cells coating inflammatory fibrovascular cores. At the periphery of the tumor, the tumor cells grew in a lepidic fashion. The tumor cells were confirmed as type-II pneumocytes with electron-microscope. In this study, using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, we examined the expressions and quantities of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) IIIb, based on the extent of their abilities of proliferation and differentiation of type II pneumocytes. The tumor cells expressed FGFR 2 and produced 350 times more FGFR2IIIb messenger RNA (mRNA) than did the nontumorous lung. The quantity of KGF mRNA in the tumor tissue was twice that of the nontumorous lung. Moreover, there was dysregulation of FGFR2IIIb transcription in the tumor. According to these findings, we expect overexpression of FGFR2IIIb to play an important role in causing tumor. Because FGFR is suspected to be connected with lung carcinoma, we also treat similar tumorigenesis via FGFR as carcinoma; complete resection of adenoma might be indicated.

Huijts PE, van Dongen M, de Goeij MC, et al.
Allele-specific regulation of FGFR2 expression is cell type-dependent and may increase breast cancer risk through a paracrine stimulus involving FGF10.
Breast Cancer Res. 2011; 13(4):R72 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: SNPs rs2981582 and rs2981578, located in a linkage disequilibrium block (LD block) within intron 2 of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 gene (FGFR2), are associated with a mildly increased breast cancer risk. Allele-specific regulation of FGFR2 mRNA expression has been reported previously, but the molecular basis for the association of these variants with breast cancer has remained elusive to date.
METHODS: mRNA levels of FGFR2 and three fibroblast growth factor genes (FGFs) were measured in primary fibroblast and epithelial cell cultures from 98 breast cancer patients and correlated to their rs2981578 genotype. The phosphorylation levels of downstream FGFR2 targets, FGF receptor substrate 2α (FRS2α) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), were quantified in skin fibroblasts exposed to FGF2. Immunohistochemical markers for angiogenesis and lymphocytic infiltrate were semiquantitatively assessed in 25 breast tumors.
RESULTS: The risk allele of rs2981578 was associated with increased FGFR2 mRNA levels in skin fibroblasts, but not in skin epithelial cell cultures. FGFR2 mRNA levels in skin fibroblasts and breast fibroblasts correlated strongly in the patients from whom both cultures were available. Tumor-derived fibroblasts expressed, on average, eight times more FGFR2 mRNA than the corresponding fibroblasts from normal breast tissue. Fibroblasts with higher FGFR2 mRNA expression showed more FRS2α and ERK1/2 phosphorylation after exposure to FGF2. In fibroblasts, higher FGFR2 expression correlated with higher FGF10 expression. In 25 breast tumors, no associations between breast tumor characteristics and fibroblast FGFR2 mRNA levels were found.
CONCLUSIONS: The influence of rs2981578 genotypes on FGFR2 mRNA expression levels is cell type-dependent. Expression differences correlated well with signaling levels of the FGFR2 pathway. Our results suggest that the increased breast cancer risk associated with SNP rs2981578 is due to increased FGFR2 signaling activity in stromal fibroblasts, possibly also involving paracrine FGF10 signaling.

Hur Y, Lee H
Wavelet-based identification of DNA focal genomic aberrations from single nucleotide polymorphism arrays.
BMC Bioinformatics. 2011; 12:146 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Copy number aberrations (CNAs) are an important molecular signature in cancer initiation, development, and progression. However, these aberrations span a wide range of chromosomes, making it hard to distinguish cancer related genes from other genes that are not closely related to cancer but are located in broadly aberrant regions. With the current availability of high-resolution data sets such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarrays, it has become an important issue to develop a computational method to detect driving genes related to cancer development located in the focal regions of CNAs.
RESULTS: In this study, we introduce a novel method referred to as the wavelet-based identification of focal genomic aberrations (WIFA). The use of the wavelet analysis, because it is a multi-resolution approach, makes it possible to effectively identify focal genomic aberrations in broadly aberrant regions. The proposed method integrates multiple cancer samples so that it enables the detection of the consistent aberrations across multiple samples. We then apply this method to glioblastoma multiforme and lung cancer data sets from the SNP microarray platform. Through this process, we confirm the ability to detect previously known cancer related genes from both cancer types with high accuracy. Also, the application of this approach to a lung cancer data set identifies focal amplification regions that contain known oncogenes, though these regions are not reported using a recent CNAs detecting algorithm GISTIC: SMAD7 (chr18q21.1) and FGF10 (chr5p12).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that WIFA can be used to reveal cancer related genes in various cancer data sets.

Cha JD, Kim HJ, Cha IH
Genetic alterations in oral squamous cell carcinoma progression detected by combining array-based comparative genomic hybridization and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011; 111(5):594-607 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most common malignancy of the oral cavity, has been shown to occur via a multistep process driven by the accumulation of carcinogen-induced genetic changes.
STUDY DESIGN: Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) were conducted to screen human genomewide alterations on fresh tissues of the cancer area, the dysplastic transitional area, and the resection margin (normal) free of tumor; these samples were obtained from 7 OSCC patients.
RESULTS: The highest amplification frequencies (100%, 7/7) were detected in FAM5B, TIPARP, PIK3CA, NLGN1, FGF10, HDAC9, GRM3, DDEF1, EDNRB, CHRDL1, and HTR2C, and the highest deletion frequencies in THRAP3, CTTNBP2NL, GATAD2B, REL, CKAP2L, RHOA, EIF4E3, PDLIM5, FBXO3, NEUROD4, and ABCA5 in the OSCC. In the dysplasia, amplification (100%, 7/7) was detected in RNF36 and deletion in CKAP2L and TCF8. We could detect large differences with MLPA in the number of alterations between the cancer or dysplasia versus the normal area with P values of <.001.
CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that these DNA copy number changes on each chromosome in the 3 categories may be associated with OSCC tumorigenesis and/or progression.

Chattopadhyay I, Singh A, Phukan R, et al.
Genome-wide analysis of chromosomal alterations in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma exposed to tobacco and betel quid from high-risk area in India.
Mutat Res. 2010; 696(2):130-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genomic alterations such as chromosomal amplifications, deletions and loss of heterozygosity play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of cancer. Environmental risk factors contribute to the development and progression of tumors by facilitating the loss of tumor suppressor genes and amplification of oncogenes. In this current study, Affymetrix 10K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays were used to evaluate genomic alterations in 20 pairs of matched germ-line and tumor DNA obtained from patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) from high-risk area of India where tobacco, betel quid and alcohol use are widespread. Twenty-two amplified regions and 16 deleted regions identified across chromosomal arms were biologically relevant. The candidate genes located at amplified regions of chromosomes or low-level gain regions such as PLA2G5 (1p36-p34), COL11A1 (1p21), KCNK2 (1q41), S100A3 (1q21), ENAH (1q42.12), RGS1 (1q31), KCNH1 (1q32-q41), INSIG2 (2q14.1), FGF12 (3q28), TRIO (5p15.2), RNASEN (5p15.2), FGF10 (5p13-p12), EDN1(6p24.1-p22.3), SULF1 (8q13.2-13.3), TLR4 (9q32-q33), TNC (9q33), NTRK2 (9q22.1), CD44 (11p13), NCAM1 (11q23.1), TRIM29 (11q22-q23), PAK1 (11q13-q14) and RAB27A (15q15-q21.1), are found to be associated with cellular migration and proliferation, tumor cell metastasis and invasion, anchorage independent growth and inhibition of apoptosis. The candidate genes located at deleted regions of chromosomes, such as FBLN2 (3p25.1), WNT7A (3p25), DLC1 (8p22), LZTS1 (8p22), CDKN2A (9p21), COL4A1 (13q34), CDK8 (13q12) and DCC (18q21.3), are found to be associated with the suppression of tumor. The suggested candidate genes were mostly involved in potential signaling pathways such as focal adhesion (COL4A1), tight junction (CLDN10), MAPK signaling pathway (FGF12) and neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway (CCKAR). Expression of FGF12 and COL4A1 was validated by tissue microarray. These unique copy number alteration profiles should be taken into consideration when developing biomarkers for the early detection of ESCC in high-risk areas of India in association with tobacco and betel quid use.

Osterholm C, Barczyk MM, Busse M, et al.
Mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthesis enzyme EXT1 influences growth factor signaling and fibroblast interactions with the extracellular matrix.
J Biol Chem. 2009; 284(50):34935-43 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Heparan sulfate (HS) chains bind and modulate the signaling efficiency of many ligands, including members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and platelet-derived growth factor families. We previously reported the structure of HS synthesized by embryonic fibroblasts from mice with a gene trap mutation of Ext1 that encodes a glycosyltransferase involved in HS chain elongation. The gene trap mutation results in low expression of Ext1, and, as a consequence, HS chain length is substantially reduced. In the present study, Ext1 mutant and wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts were analyzed for the functional consequences of the Ext1 mutation for growth factor signaling and interaction with the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in response to FGF2 stimulation was markedly decreased in the Ext1 mutant fibroblasts, whereas neither PDGF-BB nor FGF10 signaling was significantly affected. Furthermore, Ext1 mutants displayed reduced ability to attach to collagen I and to contract collagen lattices, even though no differences in the expression of collagen-binding integrins were observed. Reintroduction of Ext1in the Ext1 mutant fibroblasts rescued HS chain length, FGF2 signaling, and the ability of the fibroblasts to contract collagen. These data suggest that the length of the HS chains is a critical determinant of HS-protein interactions and emphasize the essential role of EXT1 in providing specific binding sites for growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins.

Krejci P, Prochazkova J, Bryja V, et al.
Molecular pathology of the fibroblast growth factor family.
Hum Mutat. 2009; 30(9):1245-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family contains 22 proteins that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in both developing and adult organism. The mutations in the FGF genes were not known to play role in human disease until the year 2000, when mutations in FGF23 were found to cause hypophosphatemic rickets. Nine years later, seven FGFs have been associated with human disorders. These include FGF3 in Michel aplasia; FGF8 in cleft lip/palate and in hypogonadotropic hypogonadism; FGF9 in carcinoma; FGF10 in the lacrimal/salivary glands aplasia, and lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital syndrome; FGF14 in spinocerebellar ataxia; FGF20 in Parkinson disease; and FGF23 in tumoral calcinosis and hypophosphatemic rickets. The heterogeneity in the functional consequences of FGF mutations, the modes of inheritance, pattern of involved tissues/organs, and effects in different developmental stages provide fascinating insights into the physiology of the FGF signaling system. We review the current knowledge about the molecular pathology of the FGF family.

Schwertfeger KL
Fibroblast growth factors in development and cancer: insights from the mammary and prostate glands.
Curr Drug Targets. 2009; 10(7):632-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family is comprised of 22 ligands that bind and activate several FGF receptor (FGFR) isoforms. Critical roles for FGFs and FGFRs have been well-established during embryonic development. For example, the FGF10/FGFR2IIIb axis has been linked to embryonic development of both the mammary and prostate glands, which are the subject of this review. Furthermore, recent studies using novel mouse models have suggested that this pathway also participates in postnatal development in the mammary and prostate glands. These studies have provided novel insights into the mechanisms by which FGFs and FGFRs promote ductal outgrowth and branching morphogenesis. In addition to the established roles of FGFs in development, aberrant activation of the FGF pathway has been linked to tumor progression in both breast and prostate cancer. Recent studies have linked FGFR1 expression and single nucleotide polymorphisms in FGFR2 to breast cancer. Furthermore, novel pre-clinical models have demonstrated the ability of FGFRs to promote numerous aspects of breast and prostate cancer. Understanding the roles of FGFs in development will provide insights into the mechanisms by which deregulation of the FGF pathway leads to tumorigenesis, ultimately leading to the development of novel therapeutic strategies designed to target this pathway in cancer patients.

Katoh M
Cancer genomics and genetics of FGFR2 (Review).
Int J Oncol. 2008; 33(2):233-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
FGFR2 gene encodes FGFR2b in epithelial cells, and FGFR2c in mesenchymal cells. FGFR2b is a high affinity receptor for FGF1, FGF3, FGF7, FGF10 and FGF22, while FGFR2c for FGF1, FGF2, FGF4, FGF6, FGF9, FGF16 and FGF20. Here genomics and genetics of FGFR2, and therapeutics targeted to FGFR2 will be reviewed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of FGFR2 are associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Gene amplification or missense mutation of FGFR2 occurs in gastric cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and endometrial cancer. Genetic alterations of FGFR2 induce aberrant FGFR2 signaling activation due to release of FGFR2 from autoinhibition, or creation of FGF signaling autocrine loop. Class switch of FGFR2b to FGFR2c is associated with more malignant phenotype. FGF and canonical WNT signals synergize during mammary carcinogenesis, but counteract during osteogenesis and adipogenesis. Among PD173074, SU5402, and AZD2171 functioning as FGFR inhibitors, AZD2171 is the most promising anti-cancer drug. Cancer genomics and genetics are utilized to predict cancer-driving pathway for therapeutic optimization. FGFR2ome is defined as a complete data set of SNP, copy number variation (CNV), missense mutation, gene amplification, and predominant isoform of FGFR2. FGFR2ome analyses in patients with several tumor types among various populations should be carried out to establish integrative database of FGFR2 for the rational clinical application of FGFR2-targeted cancer therapy.

Adamowicz M, Radlwimmer B, Rieker RJ, et al.
Frequent amplifications and abundant expression of TRIO, NKD2, and IRX2 in soft tissue sarcomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2006; 45(9):829-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
Copy number gains and high-level amplifications of the short arm of chromosome 5 are frequently observed in soft tissue sarcomas. To identify genes from this region possibly involved in tumor progression, we analyzed 34 soft tissue sarcomas (10 pleomorphic and 8 dedifferentiated liposarcomas, 6 malignant fibrous histiocytomas, and 10 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST)) using a DNA microarray including 418 BAC clones representing 99% of chromosome arm 5p. In seven tumors, distinct high-level amplifications were identified affecting four different subregions. From these regions, genes TERT, TRIO, SKP2, FBXO32, NKD2, SLC6A3, IRX2, POLS, FYB, PTGER4, and FGF10 were selected for detailed quantitative expression analysis (RQ-PCR) based on their potential tumorigenic function. Of these, TRIO, coding for a guanidine nucleotide exchange factor, was consistently overexpressed in all cases, while IRX2 and NKD2, both involved in the regulation of developmental processes via the WNT pathway, showed a characteristic expression only in MPNSTs. Detailed nonparametric multidimensional scaling analysis further showed that the expression of TRIO, IRX2, and NKD2 strongly correlated with the gene copy number. In conclusion, we found TRIO, IRX2, and NKD2 frequently affected by high-level amplifications as well as up-regulated in a gene-dosage dependent manner. Thus, these genes represent candidate targets of 5p amplifications in soft tissue sarcomas and might play a crucial role during the progression of this disease.

Yasumoto H, Matsubara A, Mutaguchi K, et al.
Restoration of fibroblast growth factor receptor2 suppresses growth and tumorigenicity of malignant human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells.
Prostate. 2004; 61(3):236-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors (FGFRs) expedite stromal-epithelial communication in development and homeostasis of the human prostate. Loss of resident epithelial cell FGFR2IIIb that responds to stromal FGF7 and FGF10 accompanies malignant progression of both model animal and human prostate tumors.
METHODS: We examined whether restoration of FGFR2IIIb by transfection in the malignant human prostate tumor PC-3 cell line restored cellular properties associated with less malignant tumors. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, and tumor cell implants were used to monitor malignant properties. Activity of FGFR2IIIb was assessed by immunoblot of FRS2 and p44/42 MAP kinase. Immunochemical analysis of pancytokeratin and lactoferrin expression was utilized to assess changes in cellular differentiation.
RESULTS: Expression of FGFR2IIIb in PC-3 cells by transfection resulted in growth suppression in vitro and reduced tumor formation in vivo concurrent with increased cellular differentiation and apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that restoration of FGFR2IIIb to the malignant human prostate epithelial cell prototype PC-3 restores properties associated with nonmalignant tumors and normal cells. This further suggests that epithelial cell resident, homeostasis-promoting FGFR2 may be involved in suppression of malignancy and that restoration may be a candidate for gene therapy of hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

Theodorou V, Boer M, Weigelt B, et al.
Fgf10 is an oncogene activated by MMTV insertional mutagenesis in mouse mammary tumors and overexpressed in a subset of human breast carcinomas.
Oncogene. 2004; 23(36):6047-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) infection causes a high incidence of murine mammary carcinomas by insertion of its proviral DNA in the genome of mammary epithelial cells. Retroviral insertion can activate flanking proto-oncogenes by a process called insertional mutagenesis. By sequencing the DNA adjacent to MMTV proviral insertions in mammary tumors from BALB/c mice infected with C3H-MMTV, we have found a common MMTV insertion site in the Fgf10 locus. RT-PCR studies showed that Fgf10 is expressed only in those tumors harboring a MMTV proviral insertion in this locus, suggesting that Fgf10 is a proto-oncogene. The oncogenicity of Fgf10 was evaluated in vivo by subcutaneous transplantation of retrovirally transduced HC11 mammary epithelial cells into BALB/c mice. Highly vascularized invasive subcutaneous tumors developed indicating that Fgf10 can act as an oncogene. A survey of primary human breast carcinomas revealed strongly elevated Fgf10 mRNA levels in approximately 10% of the tumors tested, suggesting that Fgf10 may also be involved in oncogenicity of a subset of human breast cancers.

Taniguchi F, Harada T, Sakamoto Y, et al.
Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by keratinocyte growth factor or fibroblast growth factor-10 promotes cell proliferation in human endometrial carcinoma cells.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003; 88(2):773-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) exert diverse effects resulting from their interaction with cognate receptors on target cells. Our current study was designed to examine the local production and action of two specific stromal-epithelial cell mediatory factors, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and FGF-10, in human endometrial carcinoma cells. The RT-PCR method was used to determine gene expression of KGF, FGF-10, and KGF receptor in human endometrial carcinoma cells (HEC-1) and human endometrial stromal cells. KGF mRNAs were expressed in both of these cell types. On the other hand, FGF-10 mRNA was detected only in the endometrial stromal cells, and KGF receptor mRNA was observed in the HEC-1 cells. The novel finding of the present study is that KGF is expressed in carcinoma cells and FGF-10 is expressed in human endometrial stromal cells. The distinct phosphorylation of ERK-1 and -2 (ERK1/2), which are members of the MAPK family, was observed when HEC-1 cells were treated with KGF or FGF-10. KGF and FGF-10 could induce the prompt phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and consequently stimulate DNA synthesis. KGF and FGF-10 did not activate the phosphorylation of Akt, protein kinase C, or signal transducer and activator of transcription-3. Blocking the MAPK pathway with the specific methyl ethyl ketone 1/2 inhibitor (U0126) completely neutralized the enhancement of cell proliferation induced by KGF and FGF-10. In addition, KGF and FGF-10 activated expressions of downstream nuclear transcription factors, such as Elk-1 and c-myc, but not c-fos. These results demonstrate for the first time that KGF and FGF-10 are capable of stimulating the growth of endometrial carcinoma cells via activating MAPK pathway through autocrine/paracrine fashion.

Calvo R, West J, Franklin W, et al.
Altered HOX and WNT7A expression in human lung cancer.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000; 97(23):12776-81 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HOX genes encode transcription factors that control patterning and cell fates. Alterations in HOX expression have been clearly implicated in leukemia, but their role in most other malignant diseases remains unknown. By using degenerate reverse transcription-PCR and subsequent real-time quantitative assays, we examined HOX expression in lung cancer cell lines, direct tumor-control pairs, and bronchial epithelial cultures. As in leukemia, genes of the HOX9 paralogous group and HOXA10 were frequently overexpressed. For HOXB9, we confirmed that elevated RNA was associated with protein overexpression. In some cases, marked HOX overexpression was associated with elevated FGF10 and FGF17. During development, the WNT pathway affects cell fate, polarity, and proliferation, and WNT7a has been implicated in the maintenance of HOX expression. In contrast to normal lung and mortal short-term bronchial epithelial cultures, WNT7a was frequently reduced or absent in lung cancers. In immortalized bronchial epithelial cells, WNT7a was lost concomitantly with HOXA1, and a statistically significant correlation between the expression of both genes was observed in lung cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we identified a homozygous deletion of beta-catenin in the mesothelioma, NCI-H28, associated with reduced WNT7a and the lowest overall cell line expression of HOXA1, HOXA7, HOXA9, and HOXA10, whereas HOXB9 levels were unaffected. Of note, both WNT7a and beta-catenin are encoded on chromosome 3p, which undergoes frequent loss of heterozygosity in these tumors. Our results suggest that alterations in regulatory circuits involving HOX, WNT, and possibly fibroblast growth factor pathways occur frequently in lung cancer.

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