Gene Summary

Gene:FGF3; fibroblast growth factor 3
Aliases: INT2, HBGF-3
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family. FGF family members possess broad mitogenic and cell survival activities and are involved in a variety of biological processes including embryonic development, cell growth, morphogenesis, tissue repair, tumor growth and invasion. This gene was identified by its similarity with mouse fgf3/int-2, a proto-oncogene activated in virally induced mammary tumors in the mouse. Frequent amplification of this gene has been found in human tumors, which may be important for neoplastic transformation and tumor progression. Studies of the similar genes in mouse and chicken suggested the role in inner ear formation. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fibroblast growth factor 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 09 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Cancer DNA
  • Survivors
  • Oncogenes
  • Testosterone
  • Breast Cancer
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 3
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Survival Rate
  • Thymidylate Synthase
  • FGF3
  • Kaposi Sarcoma
  • Genetic Recombination
  • Signal Transduction
  • Estrogen Receptors
  • Receptor, erbB-2
  • Receptors, Somatostatin
  • TGFA
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • Tamoxifen
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
  • Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma
  • Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Risk Factors
  • Chromosome 11
  • Tumor Virus Infections
  • ERBB2
  • Urinary System Cancers
  • Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
  • Transfection
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Messenger RNA
  • Gene Amplification
  • Recurrence
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 4
  • FISH
  • Fibroblast Growth Factors
Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FGF3 (cancer-related)

Liu A, Wu M, Guo X, et al.
Clinical, pathological, and genetic evaluations of Chinese patient with otodental syndrome and multiple complex odontoma: Case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2017; 96(5):e6014 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Otodental syndrome is a rare autosomal-dominant disease characterized by globodontia, associated with sensorineural, high-frequency hearing loss. Here, we describe the clinical, pathological, and genetic evaluations of a 9-year-old girl with otodental syndrome and multiple complex odontoma.The patient presented with a draining sinus tract in her left cheek, globodontia, and hearing loss. The odontomas which caused the cutaneous sinus tracts were extracted because of the odontogenic infection. The extracted odontoma and primary tooth was studied by micro-CT and further observed histopathologically. The micro-CT findings revealed that the primary tooth had three crowns with two separated pulp chambers, and their root canals were partially fused. The histological findings showed abnormal morphologies of odontoblasts and dentin, hyperplasia of enamel, and malformation of odontogenic epithelium. Furthermore, DNA sequencing and analyze of deafness associated gene GJB2, GJB3, and PDS had not revealed any SNP or mutation; but exon 3 of the causative gene FGF3 could not be amplified, which may be associated with the microdeletion at chromosome 11q13.3. Three month after surgery, the patient was found to be asymptomatic and even the evidence of the extra-oral sinus had disappeared.The dental abnormality of otodental syndrome included congenital missing teeth, globodontia, and multiple complex odontoma. Globodontia exhibited characteristic features of fusion teeth. In addition, gene FGF3 haploinsufficiency was likely to be the cause of otodental syndrome. The report provides some new information in the field of otodental syndrome, which would make dentists more familiar with this disease.

Heilmann AM, Subbiah V, Wang K, et al.
Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Clinically Advanced Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Oncology. 2016; 90(6):339-46 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the genomic alterations of cancer-related genes in advanced medullary thyroid carcinoma during the course of clinical care.
METHODS: Hybrid-capture-based comprehensive genomic profiling was performed on 34 consecutive medullary thyroid carcinoma cases to identify all four classes of genomic alterations, and outcome for an index patient was collected.
RESULTS: RET was mutated in 88% (30/34) of cases, with RET M918T being responsible for 70% (21/30) of the RET alterations. The other RET alterations were RET E632_L633del, C634R, C620R, C618G/R/S, V804M, and RET amplification. Two of the four RET wild-type patients harbored mutations in KRAS or HRAS (1/34 each). The next most frequent genomic alterations were amplifications of CCND1, FGF3, and FGF19 and alterations in CDKN2A (3/34 each). One case with a RET M918T mutation developed acquired resistance to progressively dose-escalated vandetanib. When the mTOR inhibitor everolimus was added to continued vandetanib treatment, the patient achieved a second 25% reduction of tumor volume (RECIST 1.1) for 8 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive genomic profiling identified the full breadth of RET alterations in metastatic medullary thyroid carcinoma and possible cooperating oncogenic driver alterations. This approach may refine the use of targeted therapy for these patients.

Tan Q, Li F, Wang G, et al.
Identification of FGF19 as a prognostic marker and potential driver gene of lung squamous cell carcinomas in Chinese smoking patients.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(14):18394-402 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Comprehensive genomic characterizations of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) have been performed, but the differences between smokers (S-LSCC) and never smokers (NS-LSCC) are not clear, as NS-LSCC could be considered as a different disease from S-LSCC. In this study we delineated genomic alterations in a cohort of 21 NS-LSCC and 16 S-LSCC patients, and identified common gene mutations and amplifications as previously reported. Inclusion of more NS-LSCC patients enabled us to identify unreported S-LSCC- or NS-LSCC-specific alterations. Importantly, an amplification region containing FGF19, FGF3, FGF4 and CCND1 was found five-times more frequent in S-LSCC than in NS-LSCC. Amplification of FGF19 was validated in independent LSCC samples. Furthermore, FGF19 stimulated LSCC cell growth in vitro. These data implicate FGF19 as a potential driver gene in LSCC with clinic characteristics as smoking.

Ross JS, Gay LM, Nozad S, et al.
Clinically advanced and metastatic pure mucinous carcinoma of the breast: a comprehensive genomic profiling study.
Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 155(2):405-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Pure mucinous breast carcinoma (pmucBC) is a distinctive variant of breast cancer (BC) featuring an excellent overall prognosis. However, on rare occasions, pmucBC pursues an aggressive clinical course. We queried whether comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) would uncover clinically relevant genomic alterations (CRGA) that could lead to targeted therapy treatment for patients with an advanced and metastatic form of pmucBC.
METHODS: From a series of 51,238 total cancer samples, which included 5605 cases of clinically advanced BC and 22 cases of stage IV pmucBC, DNA was extracted from 40 microns of FFPE sections. Comprehensive genomic profiling was performed using a hybrid-capture, adaptor ligation-based next generation sequencing assay to a mean coverage depth of 564X. The results were analyzed for all classes of genomic alterations (GA) including base substitutions, insertions and deletions, select rearrangements, and copy number changes. Clinically relevant genomic alterations were defined as those indicating possible treatment with anti-cancer drugs on the market or in registered clinical trials.
RESULTS: Samples were obtained from breast (11), lymph nodes (3), chest wall (2), liver (2), soft tissue (2), bone (1), and pleura (1). The median age of the 22 pmucBC patients was 57 years (range 32-79 years). Three pmucBCs were grade 1, 17 were grade 2, and 2 were grade 3. Twenty-one (95 %) pmucBC were ER+, 18 (82 %) were PR+, and 3 (14 %) were HER2+ by IHC and/or FISH. A total of 132 GA were identified (6.0 GA per tumor), including 53 CRGA, for a mean of 2.4 GA per tumor. Amplification of FGFR1 or ZNF703, located within the same amplicon, was found in 8 of 22 cases (36 %). This enrichment of FGFR1 amplification in 36 % of pmucBC versus 11 % of non-mucinous ER+ BC (601 cases) was significant (p < 0.005). Other frequently altered genes of interest in pmucBC were CCND1 and the FGF3/FGF4/FGF19 amplicon (27 %), often co-amplified together. ERBB2/HER2 alterations were identified in 5 pmucBC (23 %): ERBB2 amplification was found in 3 of 3 cases (100 %) that were HER2+ by IHC and/or FISH; 1 pmucBC was negative for HER2 overexpression by IHC, but positive for amplification by CGP; and 2 pmucBC harbored the ERBB2 substitutions D769Y and V777L (one sample also featured ERBB2 amplification). The enrichment of ERBB2 GA in metastatic pmucBC versus non-metastatic primary pmucBC was significant (p = 0.03). CRGA were also found in 20 additional genes including PIK3CA (5), BRCA1 (1), TSC2 (1), STK11 (1), AKT3 (1), and ESR1 (1).
CONCLUSIONS: Metastatic pmucBC is a distinct form of breast cancer that features a relatively high frequency of CRGA, including a significant enrichment of FGFR1 alterations and a high frequency of ERBB2 alterations when compared with non-metastatic pmucBC. These findings suggest that CGP can identify a variety of known and emerging therapy targets that have the potential to improve outcomes for patients with clinically advanced and metastatic forms of this disease.

Lefkowitch JH, Lagana SM, Kato T
Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Noncirrhotic Liver with Glycogenotic Foci: Basic Science Meets Genomic Medicine.
Semin Liver Dis. 2015; 35(4):450-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
During the past decade, the application of genomic analysis to liver tumors has provided extensive data concerning tumor phenotypes, signatures, outcomes, and prognosis. In this report the authors describe a middle-aged man without known risk factors for liver disease or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who developed a 19-cm HCC in his right lobe. The underlying liver was normal histologically except for multifocal glycogenotic foci similar to those found in experimental chemical carcinogenesis. Precision genomic analysis of this tumor disclosed five alterations with amplifications of genes CCNE1, FGF3 and FGF4, MYCL1, and ARID1A. The roles of these gene mutations and their potential effects in carcinogenesis in this case are discussed.

Lamb R, Bonuccelli G, Ozsvári B, et al.
Mitochondrial mass, a new metabolic biomarker for stem-like cancer cells: Understanding WNT/FGF-driven anabolic signaling.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(31):30453-71 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Here, we developed an isogenic cell model of "stemness" to facilitate protein biomarker discovery in breast cancer. For this purpose, we used knowledge gained previously from the study of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV). MMTV initiates mammary tumorigenesis in mice by promoter insertion adjacent to two main integration sites, namely Int-1 (Wnt1) and Int-2 (Fgf3), which ultimately activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling, driving the propagation of mammary cancer stem cells (CSCs). Thus, to develop a humanized model of MMTV signaling, we over-expressed WNT1 and FGF3 in MCF7 cells, an ER(+) human breast cancer cell line. We then validated that MCF7 cells over-expressing both WNT1 and FGF3 show a 3.5-fold increase in mammosphere formation, and that conditioned media from these cells is also sufficient to promote stem cell activity in untransfected parental MCF7 and T47D cells, as WNT1 and FGF3 are secreted factors. Proteomic analysis of this model system revealed the induction of i) EMT markers, ii) mitochondrial proteins, iii) glycolytic enzymes and iv) protein synthesis machinery, consistent with an anabolic CSC phenotype. MitoTracker staining validated the expected WNT1/FGF3-induced increase in mitochondrial mass and activity, which presumably reflects increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Importantly, many of the proteins that were up-regulated by WNT/FGF-signaling in MCF7 cells, were also transcriptionally over-expressed in human breast cancer cells in vivo, based on the bioinformatic analysis of public gene expression datasets of laser-captured patient samples. As such, this isogenic cell model should accelerate the discovery of new biomarkers to predict clinical outcome in breast cancer, facilitating the development of personalized medicine.Finally, we used mitochondrial mass as a surrogate marker for increased mitochondrial biogenesis in untransfected MCF7 cells. As predicted, metabolic fractionation of parental MCF7 cells, via MitoTracker staining, indicated that high mitochondrial mass is a new metabolic biomarker for the enrichment of anabolic CSCs, as functionally assessed by mammosphere-forming activity. This observation has broad implications for understanding the role of mitochondrial biogenesis in the propagation of stem-like cancer cells. Technically, this general metabolic approach could be applied to any cancer type, to identify and target the mitochondrial-rich CSC population.The implications of our work for understanding the role of mitochondrial metabolism in viral oncogenesis driven by random promoter insertions are also discussed, in the context of MMTV and ALV infections.

Javle M, Churi C, Kang HC, et al.
HER2/neu-directed therapy for biliary tract cancer.
J Hematol Oncol. 2015; 8:58 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Biliary cancers are highly aggressive tumors that are often diagnosed an advanced disease stage and have a poor outcome with systemic therapy. Recent efforts towards molecular characterization have identified a subset of biliary patients that have HER2/neu amplification or mutation. HER2/neu amplification is associated with response to HER2/neu-directed therapy in breast and gastric cancers. However, the efficacy of HER2/neu-targeted therapy in biliary cancers is unknown.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed cases of advanced gallbladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma with HER2/neu genetic aberrations or protein overexpression who received HER2/neu-directed therapy between 2007 and 2014. Clinical data were retrieved from medical records, and imaging studies were independently reviewed.
RESULTS: Nine patients with gallbladder cancer and five patients with cholangiocarcinoma had received HER2/neu-directed therapy (trastuzumab, lapatinib, or pertuzumab) during the study period. In the gallbladder cancer group, HER2/neu gene amplification or overexpression was detected in eight cases. These patients experienced disease stability (n = 3), partial response (n = 4), or complete response (n = 1) with HER2/neu-directed therapy. One patient had HER2/neu mutation and experienced a mixed response after lapatinib therapy. The duration of response varied from 8+ to 168 weeks (median 40 weeks), and three patients are still on therapy. One patient developed HER2/neu amplification as a secondary event after FGFR-directed therapy for FGF3-TACC3 gene fusion. The cholangiocarcinoma cases treated in this series had a higher proportion of HER2/neu mutations, and no radiological responses were seen in these patients despite HER2/neu-directed therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: HER2/neu blockade is a promising treatment strategy for gallbladder cancer patients with gene amplification and deserves further exploration in a multi-center study.

Parish A, Schwaederle M, Daniels G, et al.
Fibroblast growth factor family aberrations in cancers: clinical and molecular characteristics.
Cell Cycle. 2015; 14(13):2121-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Fibroblast growth factor ligands and receptors (FGF and FGFR) play critical roles in tumorigenesis, and several drugs have been developed to target them. We report the biologic correlates of FGF/FGFR abnormalities in diverse malignancies. The medical records of patients with cancers that underwent targeted next generation sequencing (182 or 236 cancer-related genes) were reviewed. The following FGF/FGFR genes were tested: FGF3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 12, 14, 19, 23 and FGFR1, 2, 3, and 4. Of 391 patients, 56 (14.3%) had aberrant FGF (N = 38, all amplifications) and/or FGFR (N = 22 including 5 mutations and one FGFR3-TACC3 fusion). FGF/FGFR aberrations were most frequent in breast cancers (26/81, 32.1%, p = 0.0003). In multivariate analysis, FGF/FGFR abnormalities were independently associated with CCND1/2, RICTOR, ZNF703, RPTOR, AKT2, and CDK8 alterations (all P < 0.02), as well as with an increased median number of alterations (P < 0.0001). FGF3, FGF4, FGF19 and CCND1 were co-amplified in 22 of 391 patients (5.6%, P < 0.0001), most likely because they co-localize on the same chromosomal region (11q13). There was no significant difference in time to metastasis or overall survival when comparing patients harboring FGF/FGFR alterations versus those not. Overall, FGF/FGFR was one of the most frequently aberrant pathways in our population comprising patients with diverse malignancies. These aberrations frequently co-exist with anomalies in a variety of other genes, suggesting that tailored combination therapy may be necessary in these patients.

Yamada T, Abei M, Danjoh I, et al.
Identification of a unique hepatocellular carcinoma line, Li-7, with CD13(+) cancer stem cells hierarchy and population change upon its differentiation during culture and effects of sorafenib.
BMC Cancer. 2015; 15:260 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
BACKGROUNDS: Cancer stem cell (CSC) research has highlighted the necessity of developing drugs targeting CSCs. We investigated a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line that not only has CSC hierarchy but also shows phenotypic changes (population changes) upon differentiation of CSC during culture and can be used for screening drugs targeting CSC.
METHODS: Based on a hypothesis that the CSC proportion should decrease upon its differentiation into progenitors (population change), we tested HCC cell lines (HuH-7, Li-7, PLC/PRF/5, HLF, HLE) before and after 2 months culture for several markers (CD13, EpCAM, CD133, CD44, CD90, CD24, CD166). Tumorigenicity was tested using nude mice. To evaluate the CSC hierarchy, we investigated reconstructivity, proliferation, ALDH activity, spheroid formation, chemosensitivity and microarray analysis of the cell populations sorted by FACS.
RESULTS: Only Li-7 cells showed a population change during culture: the proportion of CD13 positive cells decreased, while that of CD166 positive cells increased. The high tumorigenicity of the Li-7 was lost after the population change. CD13(+)/CD166(-) cells showed slow growth and reconstructed the bulk Li-7 populations composed of CD13(+)/CD166(-), CD13(-)/CD166(-) and CD13(-)/CD166(+) fractions, whereas CD13(-)/CD166(+) cells showed rapid growth but could not reproduce any other population. CD13(+)/CD166(-) cells showed high ALDH activity, spheroid forming ability and resistance to 5-fluorouracil. Microarray analysis demonstrated higher expression of stemness-related genes in CD166(-) than CD166(+) fraction. These results indicated a hierarchy in Li-7 cells, in which CD13(+)/CD166(-) and CD13(-)/CD166(+) cells serve as slow growing CSCs and rapid growing progenitors, respectively. Sorafenib selectively targeted the CD166(-) fraction, including CD13(+) CSCs, which exhibited higher mRNA expression for FGF3 and FGF4, candidate biomarkers for sorafenib. 5-fluorouracil followed by sorafenib inhibited the growth of bulk Li-7 cells more effectively than the reverse sequence or either alone.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified a unique HCC line, Li-7, which not only shows heterogeneity for a CD13(+) CSC hierarchy, but also undergoes a "population change" upon CSC differentiation. Sorafenib targeted the CSC in vitro, supporting the use of this model for screening drugs targeting the CSC. This type of "heterogeneous, unstable" cell line may prove more useful in the CSC era than conventional "homogeneous, stable" cell lines.

Schulze K, Imbeaud S, Letouzé E, et al.
Exome sequencing of hepatocellular carcinomas identifies new mutational signatures and potential therapeutic targets.
Nat Genet. 2015; 47(5):505-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Genomic analyses promise to improve tumor characterization to optimize personalized treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Exome sequencing analysis of 243 liver tumors identified mutational signatures associated with specific risk factors, mainly combined alcohol and tobacco consumption and exposure to aflatoxin B1. We identified 161 putative driver genes associated with 11 recurrently altered pathways. Associations of mutations defined 3 groups of genes related to risk factors and centered on CTNNB1 (alcohol), TP53 (hepatitis B virus, HBV) and AXIN1. Analyses according to tumor stage progression identified TERT promoter mutation as an early event, whereas FGF3, FGF4, FGF19 or CCND1 amplification and TP53 and CDKN2A alterations appeared at more advanced stages in aggressive tumors. In 28% of the tumors, we identified genetic alterations potentially targetable by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs. In conclusion, we identified risk factor-specific mutational signatures and defined the extensive landscape of altered genes and pathways in HCC, which will be useful to design clinical trials for targeted therapy.

Li YF, Hsiao YH, Lai YH, et al.
DNA methylation profiles and biomarkers of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Epigenetics. 2015; 10(3):229-36 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) constitutes >90% of oral cancers and is the sixth most common malignancy among males worldwide and the fourth leading cause of death due to cancer among males in Taiwan. However, most patients do not receive a diagnosis of OSCC until the late stages, which have a lower survival rate. The use of molecular marker analysis to identify early-stage OSCC would permit optimal timing for treatments and consequently prolong survival. The aim of this study was to identify biomarkers of OSCC using the Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Cancer Panel, which comprised a total of 1,505 CpG sites covering 807 genes. Samples of buccal mucosa resected from 40 OSCC patients and normal tissue samples obtained from 15 patients (normal mucosa from OSCC patients or from patients undergoing surgery unrelated to OSCC) were analyzed. Fms-related tyrosine kinase 4 (FLT4) methylation exhibited a perfect specificity for detecting OSCC, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.91 for both all-stage and early-stage OSCC. Methylation of 7 genes (ASCL1, FGF3, FLT4, GAS7, KDR, TERT, and TFPI2) constitutes the top-20 panels for detecting OSCC. The top-20 panels for detecting early-stage OSCC contain 8 genes: ADCYAP1, EPHA7, FLT4, GSTM2, KDR, MT1A, NPY, and TFPI2. FLT4 RNA expression and methylation level were validated using RT-PCR and a pyrosequencing methylation assay. The median level of FLT4 expression was 2.14-fold for normal relative to OSCC tissue samples (P < 0.0001). Among the 8 pyrosequenced FLT4 CpG sites, methylation level was much higher in the OSCC samples. In conclusion, methylation statuses of selected genes, and especially FLT4, KDR, and TFPI2, might be of great potential as biomarkers for early detection of buccal OSCC.

Roy D, Calaf GM
Allelic loss at chromosome 11q13 alters FGF3 gene expression in a human breast cancer progression model.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(6):2445-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of markers with the potential to predict tumorigenic behavior is important in breast cancer, due to the variability in clinical disease progression. Genetic alterations during neoplastic progression may appear as changes in total DNA content, single genes, or gene expression. Oncogenic alterations are thought to be prognostic indices for patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer deregulation can occur in the normal cellular process and can be measured by microsatellite instability (MSI)/loss of heterozygosity (LOH). Chromosome 11 is unique in this respect, as three regions of MSI/LOH have been identified (11p15-p15.5, 11q13-q13.3 and 11q23-q24). There are many important families of genes, such as FGF, CCND1, FADD, BAD and GAD2, that are located on chromosome 11 and these play a crucial role in breast cancer progression. Among them, different members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family of genes are clustered around human chromosome 11q13 amplicon, which are constantly altering during breast cancer progression. Therefore, in this study, locus 11q13 and FGF3 gene (11q13) function were investigated in a radiation and estrogen breast cancer model induced by high-LET (α-particle) radiation and estrogen exposure. To assess the effect of ionizing radiation and estrogen at chromosome 11q13 loci and the subsequent role of FGF3 gene expression, various microsatellite markers were chosen in this region, and allelic loses (~20-45%) were identified by PCR-SSCP analysis. Results showed an increase in FGF3 protein expression and a 6- to 8-fold change in gene expression of FGF3 and associated genes. These deregulations could be utilized as an appropriate target for therapeutic intervention in breast cancer.

Findlay JM, Middleton MR, Tomlinson I
A systematic review and meta-analysis of somatic and germline DNA sequence biomarkers of esophageal cancer survival, therapy response and stage.
Ann Oncol. 2015; 26(4):624-44 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: There is an urgent need for biomarkers to help predict prognosis and guide management of esophageal cancer. This review identifies, evaluates and meta-analyses the evidence for reported somatic and germline DNA sequence biomarkers of outcome and stage.
METHODS: A systematic review was carried out of the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases (20 August 2014), in conjunction with the ASCO Level of Evidence scale for biomarker research. Meta-analyses were carried out for all reported markers associated with outcome measures by more than one study.
RESULTS: Four thousand and four articles were identified, 762 retrieved and 182 studies included. There were 65 reported markers of survival or recurrence 12 (18.5%) were excluded due to multiple comparisons. Following meta-analysis, significant associations were seen for six tumor variants (mutant TP53 and PIK3CA, copy number gain of ERBB2/HER2, CCND1 and FGF3, and chromosomal instability/ploidy) and seven germline polymorphisms: ERCC1 rs3212986, ERCC2 rs1799793, TP53 rs1042522, MDM2 rs2279744, TYMS rs34743033, ABCB1 rs1045642 and MTHFR rs1801133. Twelve germline markers of treatment complications were reported; 10 were excluded. Two tumor and 15 germline markers (11 excluded) of chemo (radio)therapy response were reported. Following meta-analysis, associations were demonstrated for mutant TP53, ERCC1 rs11615 and XRCC1 rs25487. There were 41 tumor/germline reported markers of stage; 27 (65.9%) were excluded.
CONCLUSIONS: Numerous DNA markers of outcome and stage have been reported, yet few are backed by high-quality evidence. Despite this, a small number of variants appear reliable. These merit evaluation in prospective trials, within the context of high-throughput sequencing and gene expression.

Soria JC, DeBraud F, Bahleda R, et al.
Phase I/IIa study evaluating the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of lucitanib in advanced solid tumors.
Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(11):2244-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lucitanib is a potent, oral inhibitor fibroblast growth factor receptor types 1 and 2 (FGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor types 1, 2, and 3 (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor types α and β (PGFRα/β), which are essential kinases for tumor growth, survival, migration, and angiogenesis. Several tumor types, including breast carcinoma, demonstrate amplification of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-related genes. There are no approved drugs for molecularly defined FGF-aberrant (FGFR1- or FGF3/4/19-amplified) tumors.
METHODS: This open-label phase I/IIa study involved a dose-escalation phase to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD), recommended dose (RD), and pharmacokinetics of lucitanib in patients with advanced solid tumors, followed by a dose-expansion phase to obtain preliminary evidence of efficacy in patients who could potentially benefit from treatment (i.e. with tumors harboring FGF-aberrant pathway or considered angiogenesis-sensitive).
RESULTS: Doses from 5 to 30 mg were evaluated with dose-limiting toxic effects dominated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition-related toxic effects at the 30 mg dose level (one case of grade 4 depressed level of consciousness and two cases of grade 3 thrombotic microangiopathy). The most common adverse events (all grades, all cohorts) were hypertension (91%), asthenia (42%), and proteinuria (57%). Exposure increased with dose and t½ was 31-40 h, suitable for once daily administration. Seventy-six patients were included. All but one had stage IV; 42% had >3 lines of previous chemotherapy. Sixty-four patients were assessable for response; 58 had measurable disease. Clinical activity was observed at all doses tested with durable Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) partial responses in a variety of tumor types. In the angiogenesis-sensitive group, objective RECIST response rate (complete response + partial response) was 26% (7 of 27) and progression-free survival (PFS) was 25 weeks. In assessable FGF-aberrant breast cancer patients, 50% (6 of 12) achieved RECIST partial response with a median PFS of 40.4 weeks for all treated patients.
CONCLUSION: Lucitanib has promising efficacy and a manageable side-effect profile. The spectrum of activity observed demonstrates clinical benefit in both FGF-aberrant and angiogenesis-sensitive populations. A comprehensive phase II program is planned.

Wheler JJ, Parker BA, Lee JJ, et al.
Unique molecular signatures as a hallmark of patients with metastatic breast cancer: implications for current treatment paradigms.
Oncotarget. 2014; 5(9):2349-54 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Our analysis of the tumors of 57 women with metastatic breast cancer with next generation sequencing (NGS) demonstrates that each patient's tumor is unique in its molecular fingerprint. We observed 216 somatic aberrations in 70 different genes, including 131 distinct aberrations. The most common gene alterations (in order of decreasing frequency) included: TP53, PIK3CA, CCND1, MYC, HER2 (ERBB2), MCL1, PTEN, FGFR1, GATA3, NF1, PIK3R1, BRCA2, EGFR, IRS2, CDH1, CDKN2A, FGF19, FGF3 and FGF4. Aberrations included mutations (46%), amplifications (45%), deletions (5%), splices (2%), truncations (1%), fusions (0.5%) and rearrangements (0.5%), with multiple distinct variants within the same gene. Many of these aberrations represent druggable targets, either through direct pathway inhibition or through an associated pathway (via 'crosstalk'). The 'molecular individuality' of these tumors suggests that a customized strategy, using an "N-of-One" model of precision medicine, may represent an optimal approach for the treatment of patients with advanced tumors.

Küchler EC, Sabóia TM, Vieira TC, et al.
Studies of genes involved in craniofacial development and tumorigenesis: FGF3 contributes to isolated oral clefts and may interact with PAX9.
Acta Odontol Scand. 2014; 72(8):1070-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies suggest individuals born with oral clefts and their families have a higher susceptibility for cancer, which raises the hypothesis that these two conditions share common molecular pathways. This study evaluated the association between oral clefts and polymorphisms in genes that play a role in craniofacial and tumor development.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four hundred and ninety-seven subjects born with oral clefts and 823 unaffected subjects were recruited. Twenty-nine markers in 13 genes were genotyped by the Taqman method. Chi-square was used to compare allele and genotype frequencies. Bonferroni correction for multiple testing was used and the established alpha was 0.0003. This study also used logistic regression to test if genetic variants were associated with oral clefts using positive family history of cancer and age as covariates.
RESULTS: There was no association between family history of cancer and oral clefts (p = 0.51). None of the 1320 study participants had a diagnosis of cancer at the time of participation in the study. The marker rs4980700 in FGF3 was associated with oral clefts (p = 0.0002). Logistic regression analysis also provided evidence for gene-gene interaction between FGF3 (rs4980700) and PAX9 (rs2073242), increasing the risk for isolated oral clefts (p = 0.0003).
CONCLUSION: FGF3 is associated with oral clefts and may interact with PAX9.

Javle M, Rashid A, Churi C, et al.
Molecular characterization of gallbladder cancer using somatic mutation profiling.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(4):701-8 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer is relatively uncommon, with a high incidence in certain geographic locations, including Latin America, East and South Asia, and Eastern Europe. Molecular characterization of this disease has been limited, and targeted therapy options for advanced disease remain an open area of investigation. In the present study, surgical pathology obtained from resected gallbladder cancer cases (n = 72) was examined for the presence of targetable, somatic mutations. All cases were formalin fixed and paraffin embedded (FFPE). Two approaches were used: (a) mass spectroscopy-based profiling for 159 point ("hot spot") mutations in 33 genes commonly involved in solid tumors and (b) next-generation sequencing (NGS) platform that examined the complete coding sequence of in 182 cancer-related genes. Fifty-seven cases were analyzed for hot spot mutations; and 15, for NGS. Fourteen hot spot mutations were identified in 9 cases. Of these, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with poor survival on multivariate analysis. Other targetable mutations included PIK3CA (n = 2) and ALK (n = 1). On NGS, 26 mutations were noted in 15 cases. TP53 and PI3 kinase pathway (STK11, RICTOR, TSC2) mutations were common. One case had FGF10 amplification, whereas another had FGF3-TACC gene fusion, not previously described in gallbladder cancer. In conclusion, somatic mutation profiling using archival FFPE samples from gallbladder cancer is feasible. NGS, in particular, may be a useful platform for identifying novel mutations for targeted therapy.

Ribeiro IP, Marques F, Caramelo F, et al.
Genetic gains and losses in oral squamous cell carcinoma: impact on clinical management.
Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2014; 37(1):29-39 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The identification of genetic markers associated with oral cancer is considered essential to improve the diagnosis, prognosis, early tumor and relapse detection and, ultimately, to delineate individualized therapeutic approaches. Here, we aimed at identifying such markers.
METHODS: Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analyses encompassing 133 cancer-related genes were performed on a panel of primary oral tumor samples and its corresponding resection margins (macroscopically tumor-free tissue) allowing, in both types of tissue, the detection of a wide arrange of copy number imbalances on various human chromosomes.
RESULTS: We found that in tumor tissue, from the 133 cancer-related genes included in this study, those that most frequently exhibited copy number gains were located on chromosomal arms 3q, 6p, 8q, 11q, 16p, 16q, 17p, 17q and 19q, whereas those most frequently exhibiting copy number losses were located on chromosomal arms 2q, 3p, 4q, 5q, 8p, 9p, 11q and 18q. Several imbalances were highlighted, i.e., losses of ERBB4, CTNNB1, NFKB1, IL2, IL12B, TUSC3, CDKN2A, CASP1, and gains of MME, BCL6, VEGF, PTK2, PTP4A3, RNF139, CCND1, FGF3, CTTN, MVP, CDH1, BRCA1, CDKN2D, BAX, as well as exon 4 of TP53. Comparisons between tumor and matched macroscopically tumor-free tissues allowed us to build a logistic regression model to predict the tissue type (benign versus malignant). In this model, the TUSC3 gene showed statistical significance, indicating that loss of this gene may serve as a good indicator of malignancy.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results point towards relevance of the above mentioned cancer-related genes as putative genetic markers for oral cancer. For practical clinical purposes, these genetic markers should be validated in additional studies.

Dienstmann R, Rodon J, Prat A, et al.
Genomic aberrations in the FGFR pathway: opportunities for targeted therapies in solid tumors.
Ann Oncol. 2014; 25(3):552-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) cascade plays crucial roles in tumor cell proliferation, angiogenesis, migration and survival. Accumulating evidence suggests that in some tumor types, FGFRs are bona fide oncogenes to which cancer cells are addicted. Because FGFR inhibition can reduce proliferation and induce cell death in a variety of in vitro and in vivo tumor models harboring FGFR aberrations, a growing number of research groups have selected FGFRs as targets for anticancer drug development. Multikinase FGFR/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors have shown promising activity in breast cancer patients with FGFR1 and/or FGF3 amplification. Early clinical trials with selective FGFR inhibitors, which may overcome the toxicity constraints raised by multitarget kinase inhibition, are recruiting patients with known FGFR(1-4) status based on genomic screens. Preliminary signs of antitumor activity have been demonstrated in some tumor types, including squamous cell lung carcinomas. Rational combination of targeted therapies is expected to further increase the efficacy of selective FGFR inhibitors. Herein, we discuss unsolved questions in the clinical development of these agents and suggest guidelines for management of hyperphosphatemia, a class-specific mechanism-based toxicity. In addition, we propose standardized definitions for FGFR1 and FGFR2 gene amplification based on in situ hybridization methods. Extended access to next-generation sequencing platforms will facilitate the identification of diseases in which somatic FGFR(1-4) mutations, amplifications and fusions are potentially driving cancer cell viability, further strengthening the role of FGFR signaling in cancer biology and providing more possibilities for the therapeutic application of FGFR inhibitors.

André F, Bachelot T, Campone M, et al.
Targeting FGFR with dovitinib (TKI258): preclinical and clinical data in breast cancer.
Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(13):3693-702 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) and FGFR2 amplifications are observed in approximately 10% of breast cancers and are related to poor outcomes. We evaluated whether dovitinib (TKI258), an inhibitor of FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3, presented antitumor activity in FGFR-amplified breast cancers.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Preclinical activity of dovitinib was evaluated in both breast cancer cell lines and an FGFR1-amplified xenograft model (HBCx2). Dovitinib was then evaluated in a phase II trial that included 4 groups of patients with human EGF receptor 2-negative metastatic breast cancer on the basis of FGFR1 amplification and hormone receptor (HR) status. FGFR1 amplification was assessed by silver in situ hybridization. Preplanned retrospective analyses assessed predictive value of FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGF3 amplifications by quantitative PCR (qPCR).
RESULTS: Dovitinib monotherapy inhibits proliferation in FGFR1- and FGFR2-amplified, but not FGFR-normal, breast cancer cell lines. Dovitinib also inhibits tumor growth in FGFR1-amplified breast cancer xenografts. Eighty-one patients were enrolled in the trial. Unconfirmed response or stable disease for more than 6 months was observed in 5 (25%) and 1 (3%) patient(s) with FGFR1-amplified/HR-positive and FGFR1-nonamplified/HR-positive breast cancer. When qPCR-identified amplifications in FGFR1, FGFR2, or FGF3 were grouped to define an FGF pathway-amplified breast cancer in HR-positive patients, the mean reduction in target lesions was 21.1% compared with a 12.0% increase in patients who did not present with FGF pathway-amplified breast cancer.
CONCLUSION: Dovitinib showed antitumor activity in FGFR-amplified breast cancer cell lines and may have activity in breast cancers with FGF pathway amplification.

Küchler EC, Lips A, Tannure PN, et al.
Tooth agenesis association with self-reported family history of cancer.
J Dent Res. 2013; 92(2):149-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
It has been proposed that tooth agenesis and cancer development share common molecular pathways. We performed a cross-sectional study to investigate the epidemiological and molecular association between tooth agenesis and self-reported family history of cancer. Eighty-two individuals with tooth agenesis and 328 individuals with no birth defect were recruited from the same institution. Tooth agenesis was assessed in permanent teeth and was defined based on the age of the participants and when initial tooth formation should be radiographically visible. We also investigated the role of genes involved in dental development that have been implicated in tumorigenesis, and 14 markers in AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2 were genotyped. Individuals with tooth agenesis had an increased risk of having a family history of cancer (p = 0.00006; OR = 2.7; 95% C.I., 1.6-4.4). There were associations between AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2 with tooth agenesis [i.e., individuals who carried the polymorphic allele of FGFR2 (rs1219648) presented higher risk for having premolar agenesis (p = 0.02; OR = 1.8; 95% C.I., 1.1-3.0)]. In conclusion, tooth agenesis was associated with positive self-reported family history of cancer and with variants in AXIN2, FGF3, FGF10, and FGFR2. Prospective studies are needed to confirm if tooth agenesis can be used as a risk marker for cancer.

Hillbertz NS, Hirsch JM, Jalouli J, et al.
Viral and molecular aspects of oral cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2012; 32(10):4201-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. SCCs and their variants constitute over 90% of oral malignancies, and the disease is associated with poor prognosis. OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, virus infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and thus give rise to the malignant condition. Herein, we review the available literature regarding high-risk factors such as alcohol and tobacco usage; discuss the roles of human papillomaviruses (HPV), the Epstein-Barr virus, and the human herpes simplex virus (HSV); and evaluate several candidate genes associated with the condition: p53, p16(INK4) and p21(WAF1/CIPI), survivin, B-cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2), keratins, Fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF3), FGF4, FGF19, Oral cancer overexpressed gene 1 (ORAOV1), and Cyclin D1 (CCND1).

Arao T, Ueshima K, Matsumoto K, et al.
FGF3/FGF4 amplification and multiple lung metastases in responders to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology. 2013; 57(4):1407-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: The response rate to sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is relatively low (0.7%-3%), however, rapid and drastic tumor regression is occasionally observed. The molecular backgrounds and clinico-pathological features of these responders remain largely unclear. We analyzed the clinical and molecular backgrounds of 13 responders to sorafenib with significant tumor shrinkage in a retrospective study. A comparative genomic hybridization analysis using one frozen HCC sample from a responder demonstrated that the 11q13 region, a rare amplicon in HCC including the loci for FGF3 and FGF4, was highly amplified. A real-time polymerase chain reaction-based copy number assay revealed that FGF3/FGF4 amplification was observed in three of the 10 HCC samples from responders in which DNA was evaluable, whereas amplification was not observed in 38 patients with stable or progressive disease (P = 0.006). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed FGF3 amplification. In addition, the clinico-pathological features showed that multiple lung metastases (5/13, P = 0.006) and a poorly differentiated histological type (5/13, P = 0.13) were frequently observed in responders. A growth inhibitory assay showed that only one FGF3/FGF4-amplified and three FGFR2-amplified cancer cell lines exhibited hypersensitivity to sorafenib in vitro. Finally, an in vivo study revealed that treatment with a low dose of sorafenib was partially effective for stably and exogenously expressed FGF4 tumors, while being less effective in tumors expressing EGFP or FGF3.
CONCLUSION: FGF3/FGF4 amplification was observed in around 2% of HCCs. Although the sample size was relatively small, FGF3/FGF4 amplification, a poorly differentiated histological type, and multiple lung metastases were frequently observed in responders to sorafenib. Our findings may provide a novel insight into the molecular background of HCC and sorafenib responders, warranting further prospective biomarker studies.

Ziebart T, Draenert FG, Galetzka D, et al.
The original family revisited after 37 years: odontoma-dysphagia syndrome is most likely caused by a microduplication of chromosome 11q13.3, including the FGF3 and FGF4 genes.
Clin Oral Investig. 2013; 17(1):123-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Fibroblast growth factors consist of receptor tyrosine kinase binding proteins involved in growth, differentiation, and regeneration of a variety of tissues of the head and neck. Their role in the development of teeth has been documented, and their presence in human odontogenic cysts and tumors has previously been investigated. Odontoma–dysphagia syndrome (OMIM 164330) is a very rare disorder characterized by clustering of teeth as compound odontoma, dysplasia and aplasia of teeth, slight craniofacial abnormalities, and dysphagia. We have followed the clinical course of the disease in a family over more than 30 years and have identified a genetic abnormality segregating with the disorder.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated clinical data from nine different family members and obtained venous blood probes for genetic studies from three family members (two affected and one unaffected).
RESULTS: The present family with five patients in two generations has remained one out of only two known cases with this very rare syndrome. All those affected showed teeth dysplasia, oligodontia, and dysplasia and odontoma of the upper and lower jaw. Additional signs included dysphagia and strictures of the oesophagus. Comorbidity in one patient included aortic stenosis and coronary artery disease, requiring coronary bypasses and aortic valve replacement. Genome-wide SNP array analyses in three family members (two affected and one unaffected) revealed a microduplication of chromosome 11q13.3 spanning 355 kilobases (kb) and including two genes in full length, fibroblast growth factors 3 (FGF3) and 4 (FGF4).
CONCLUSION: The microduplication identified in this family represents the most likely cause of the odontoma–dysphagia syndrome and implies that the syndrome is caused by a gain of function of the FGF3 and FGF4 genes.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Mutations of FGF receptor genes can cause craniofacial syndromes such as odontoma–dysphagia syndrome. Following this train of thought, an evaluation of FGF gene family in sporadic odontoma could be worthwhile.

Huang L, Zheng M, Zhou QM, et al.
Identification of a 7-gene signature that predicts relapse and survival for early stage patients with cervical carcinoma.
Med Oncol. 2012; 29(4):2911-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is no gene signature for predicting relapse and survival of cervical cancer with early stage currently. In this study, we investigate whether gene expression profiling of cervical cancer could be used to predict the prognosis of patient. A series of 100 primary cervical cancer patients who underwent radical hysterectomy between January 2001 and October 2006 were analyzed for gene expression profiles by using a custom oligonucleotide microarray containing probes for 1440 human tumor-related gene transcripts. Supervised analysis of gene expression data identified 19 genes that exhibited differential expression between cervical cancer and normal cervix. Then, all 100 patients were divided into the training (n=50) and testing sets (n=50). Using Cox regression and risk-score analysis, we identified a 7-gene (UBL3, FGF3, BMI1, PDGFRA, PTPRF, RFC4, and NOL7) signature for predicting relapse of patient in the training set. The 7-gene signature was validated by the testing set (sensitivity, 84.6%; specificity, 91.9%; positive predictive value, 78.6%; negative predictive value, 94.4%). Patients with high-risk 7-gene signature had poor relapse-free survivals (RFS) than patients with low-risk 7-gene signature in both training set (P=0.026) and testing set (P=0.042). Multivariate analysis showed that the FIGO stage and 7-gene signature are independent prognostic factors associated with RFS of cervical cancer patients. The 7-gene signature can predict cancer recurrence and survival of cervical cancer patients. This may have prognostic or therapeutic implications for the future management of cervical cancer patients.

Karlsson E, Waltersson MA, Bostner J, et al.
High-resolution genomic analysis of the 11q13 amplicon in breast cancers identifies synergy with 8p12 amplification, involving the mTOR targets S6K2 and 4EBP1.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2011; 50(10):775-87 [PubMed] Related Publications
The chromosomal region 11q13 is amplified in 15-20% of breast cancers; an event not only associated with estrogen receptor (ER) expression but also implicated in resistance to endocrine therapy. Coamplifications of the 11q13 and 8p12 regions are common, suggesting synergy between the amplicons. The aim was to identify candidate oncogenes in the 11q13 region based on recurrent amplification patterns and correlations to mRNA expression levels. Furthermore, the 11q13/8p12 coamplification and its prognostic value, was evaluated at the DNA and the mRNA levels. Affymetrix 250K NspI arrays were used for whole-genome screening of DNA copy number changes in 29 breast tumors. To identify amplicon cores at 11q13 and 8p12, genomic identification of significant targets in cancer (GISTIC) was applied. The mRNA expression levels of candidate oncogenes in the amplicons [RAD9A, RPS6KB2 (S6K2), CCND1, FGF19, FGF4, FGF3, PAK1, GAB2 (11q13); EIF4EBP1 (4EBP1), PPAPDC1B, and FGFR1 (8p12)] were evaluated using real-time PCR. Resulting data revealed three main amplification cores at 11q13. ER expression was associated with the central 11q13 amplification core, encompassing CCND1, whereas 8p12 amplification/gene expression correlated to S6K2 in a proximal 11q13 core. Amplification of 8p12 and high expression of 4EBP1 or FGFR1 was associated with a poor outcome in the group. In conclusion, single nucleotide polymorphism arrays have enabled mapping of the 11q13 amplicon in breast tumors with high resolution. A proximal 11q13 core including S6K2 was identified as involved in the coamplification/coexpression with 8p12, suggesting synergy between the mTOR targets S6K2 and 4EBP1 in breast cancer development and progression.

Brown J, Bothma H, Veale R, Willem P
Genomic imbalances in esophageal carcinoma cell lines involve Wnt pathway genes.
World J Gastroenterol. 2011; 17(24):2909-23 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 21/05/2017 Related Publications
AIM: To identify molecular markers shared across South African esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell lines using cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array copy number analysis.
METHODS: We used conventional cytogenetics, FISH, and multicolor FISH to characterize the chromosomal rearrangements of five ESCC cell lines established in South Africa. The whole genome copy number profile was established from 250K SNP arrays, and data was analyzed with the CNAT 4.0 and GISTIC software.
RESULTS: We detected common translocation breakpoints involving chromosomes 1p11-12 and 3p11.2, the latter correlated with the deletion, or interruption of the EPHA3 gene. The most significant amplifications involved the following chromosomal regions and genes: 11q13.3 (CCND1, FGF3, FGF4, FGF19, MYEOV), 8q24.21(C-MYC, FAM84B), 11q22.1-q22.3 (BIRC2, BIRC3), 5p15.2 (CTNND2), 3q11.2-q12.2 (MINA) and 18p11.32 (TYMS, YES1). The significant deletions included 1p31.2-p31.1 (CTH, GADD45α, DIRAS3), 2q22.1 (LRP1B), 3p12.1-p14.2 (FHIT), 4q22.1-q32.1 (CASP6, SMAD1), 8p23.2-q11.1 (BNIP3L) and 18q21.1-q21.2 (SMAD4, DCC). The 3p11.2 translocation breakpoint was shared across four cell lines, supporting a role for genes involved at this site, in particular, the EPHA3 gene which has previously been reported to be deleted in ESCC.
CONCLUSION: The finding that a significant number of genes that were amplified (FGF3, FGF4, FGF19, CCND1 and C-MYC) or deleted (SFRP2 gene) are involved in the Wnt and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways, suggests that these pathways may be activated in these cell lines.

Azab AK, Azab F, Quang P, et al.
FGFR3 is overexpressed waldenstrom macroglobulinemia and its inhibition by Dovitinib induces apoptosis and overcomes stroma-induced proliferation.
Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17(13):4389-99 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: There is no standard of therapy for the treatment of Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM), therefore there is a need for the development of new agents. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) was shown to play a major role in several types in cancer. Dovitinib, an inhibitor of FGFR3, was effective in hematologic malignancies. In this study, we tested FGFR3 as a therapeutic target in WM and tested the effect of dovitinib on cell proliferation and apoptosis of WM cells in the context of BM microenvironment.
METHODS: The expression of FGFR3 in WM cells was tested using immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Cell signaling in response to stimulation with FGF3 and stromal cells, and its inhibition by dovitinib was performed using immunoblotting. Cell survival and cell proliferation were assessed by MTT and BrdU assays. Apoptosis was measured by detection of APO-2.7 and cleavage of caspase-3 using flow cytometry. Cell cycle was performed by PI staining of cells and flow cytometry. The combinatory effect of dovitinib with other drugs was analyzed using Calcusyn software. The effect of dovitinib was tested in vivo.
RESULTS: FGFR3 was overexpressed in WM cells and its activation induced cell proliferation. Inhibition of FGFR3 with dovitinib decreased cell survival, increased apoptosis, and induced cell cycle arrest. Inhibition of FGFR3 by dovitinib reduced the interaction of WM to bone marrow components, and reversed its proliferative effect. Dovitinib had an additive effect with other drugs. Moreover, dovitinib reduced WM tumor progression in vivo.
CONCLUSION: We report that FGFR3 is a novel therapeutic target in WM, and suggest dovitinib for future clinical trial the treatment of patients with WM.

Gruel N, Lucchesi C, Raynal V, et al.
Lobular invasive carcinoma of the breast is a molecular entity distinct from luminal invasive ductal carcinoma.
Eur J Cancer. 2010; 46(13):2399-407 [PubMed] Related Publications
In order to get insight into the molecular alterations of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), comparative genomic hybridisation array and transcriptomic analyses of a series of 62 oestrogens-positive (ER) invasive tumours [21 ILC and 41 invasive ductal carcinomas (IDC)] were performed. ILC and IDC shared highly recurrent regions of gains (1q12-q44(+) in more than 60% of the cases, 16pter-p11.2(+) in 45% and 63% of ILC and IDC, respectively) and losses (16q11.2-q24.2(-) in 84% of ILC and 67.5% of IDC and 17pter-p12(-) in 50% of ILC and IDC). However, ILC genomic signature was characterised by significantly more frequent losses of 13q21.33-q31.3 region (46.5%) and 22q11.23-q12.1 region (50%) whereas IDC showed significantly more frequent losses of 11q23.1-q23.2 region (in 44% of IDC). Nine different regions of high level amplifications were found in 38% of ILC (8/21 cases). Localised on chromosome 11 (11q13.2 region), the most frequent region of amplification encompassing the CCND1 and FGF3 genes was observed in five different ILC. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of transcriptomic data showed that ILC and IDC clustered apart. Genes involved in cell adhesion, cell communication and trafficking, extra cellular matrix-interaction pathways or cell mobility contributed to this clustering. Despite these differences, the overall clinical outcome of ILC was identical to that of IDC. This molecular study highlights that lobular and oestrogens-positive ductal invasive carcinomas share common genomic alterations but that ILC present some specific molecular alterations. These molecular specificities should help with the identification of new therapeutic targets for ILC patients.

McConkey DJ, Choi W, Marquis L, et al.
Role of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in drug sensitivity and metastasis in bladder cancer.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2009; 28(3-4):335-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process that plays essential roles in development and wound healing that is characterized by loss of homotypic adhesion and cell polarity and increased invasion and migration. At the molecular level, EMT is characterized by loss of E-cadherin and increased expression of several transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin expression (Zeb-1, Zeb-2, Twist, Snail, and Slug). Early work established that loss of E-cadherin and increased expression of MMP-9 was associated with a poor clinical outcome in patients with urothelial tumors, suggesting that EMT might also be associated with bladder cancer progression and metastasis. More recently, we have used global gene expression profiling to characterize the molecular heterogeneity in human urothelial cancer cell lines (n = 20) and primary patient tumors, and unsupervised clustering analyses revealed that the cells naturally segregate into two discrete "epithelial" and "mesenchymal" subsets, the latter consisting entirely of muscle-invasive tumors. Importantly, sensitivity to inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or type-3 fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR3) was confined to the "epithelial" subset, and sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors could be reestablished by micro-RNA-mediated molecular reversal of EMT. The results suggest that EMT coordinately regulates drug resistance and muscle invasion/metastasis in urothelial cancer and is a dominant feature of overall cancer biology.

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