FSCN1

Gene Summary

Gene:FSCN1; fascin actin-bundling protein 1
Aliases: HSN, SNL, p55, FAN1
Location:7p22.1
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the fascin family of actin-binding proteins. Fascin proteins organize F-actin into parallel bundles, and are required for the formation of actin-based cellular protrusions. The encoded protein plays a critical role in cell migration, motility, adhesion and cellular interactions. Expression of this gene is known to be regulated by several microRNAs, and overexpression of this gene may play a role in the metastasis of multiple types of cancer by increasing cell motility. Expression of this gene is also a marker for Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin's lymphoma. A pseudogene of this gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 15. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:fascin
Source:NCBIAccessed: 15 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (18)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 15 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 15 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FSCN1 (cancer-related)

Zhang N, Bi X, Zeng Y, et al.
TGF-β1 promotes the migration and invasion of bladder carcinoma cells by increasing fascin1 expression.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):977-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is a multifunctional cytokine that is reported to regulate cellular motility and invasive capability during tumor progression. Fascin1, an actin-bundling protein, increases cell motility, migration and adhesion. To investigate the function of TGF-β1 and test whether fascin1 is an important mediator of the tumor response to TGF-β1 in bladder carcinoma cells, real-time RT-PCR and western blot analysis were used to test changes in fascin1 expression after TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml) treatment in T24 and BIU87 cells. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique was performed to silence fascin1. Cell viability and biological behavior changes were evaluated by cell growth (MTT), wound-healing and Matrigel invasion assays. In the present study, we found that the mRNA and protein levels of fascin1 in the T24 and BIU87 cells were significantly increased after 10 ng/ml TGF-β1 treatment (p<0.05). The proliferation of T24 cells (p=0.005) was also significantly increased, while no significant change was observed in BIU87 cells (p=0.318). In addition, the migratory and invasive potential of the two cell lines were promoted. Furthermore, we successfully silenced fascin1, and observed that fascin1 siRNA significantly attenuated the migration and invasiveness induced by TGF-β1. The findings suggested that TGF-β1 can promote invasion and migration of T24 and BIU87 bladder carcinoma cells, and the increase in fascin1 expression may be the key point of this impact of TGF-β1.

Hsiao KY, Wu YJ, Liu ZN, et al.
Anticancer Effects of Sinulariolide-Conjugated Hyaluronan Nanoparticles on Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells.
Molecules. 2016; 21(3):297 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is one of the most clinically challenging malignant diseases worldwide. Sinulariolide (SNL), extracted from the farmed coral species Sinularia flexibilis, has been used for suppressing malignant cells. For developing anticancer therapeutic agents, we aimed to find an alternative for non-small cell lung cancer treatment by using SNL as the target drug. We investigated the SNL bioactivity on A549 lung cancer cells by conjugating SNL with hyaluronan nanoparticles to form HA/SNL aggregates by using a high-voltage electrostatic field system. SNL was toxic on A549 cells with an IC50 of 75 µg/mL. The anticancer effects of HA/SNL aggregates were assessed through cell viability assay, apoptosis assays, cell cycle analyses, and western blotting. The size of HA/SNL aggregates was approximately 33-77 nm in diameter with a thin continuous layer after aggregating numerous HA nanoparticles. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the HA/SNL aggregate-induced apoptosis was more effective at a lower SNL dose of 25 µg/mL than pure SNL. Western blotting indicated that caspases-3, -8, and -9 and Bcl-xL and Bax played crucial roles in the apoptotic signal transduction pathway. In summary, HA/SNL aggregates exerted stronger anticancer effects on A549 cells than did pure SNL via mitochondria-related pathways.

Liang Z, Wang Y, Shen Z, et al.
Fascin 1 promoted the growth and migration of non-small cell lung cancer cells by activating YAP/TEAD signaling.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(8):10909-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fascin 1 (Fascin actin-bundling protein 1) is an actin-binding protein. Although several studies have reported the dysregulation of Fascin 1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), its functions in the progression of NSCLC and the related molecular mechanism were not fully understood. In this study, the expression of Fascin 1 in NSCLC tissues was determined using quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the roles of Fascin 1 in the progression of NSCLC were investigated. It was found that both the messenger RNA (mRNA) level and the protein level of Fascin 1 were upregulated in NSCLC tissues. Forced expression of Fascin 1 promoted the growth and migration of NSCLC cells, while knocking down the expression of Fascin 1 inhibited the growth, migration, and tumorigenesis of NSCLC cells. Mechanism studies showed that Fascin 1 increased the transcriptional activity of the YAP/TEAD (Yes-associated protein/TEA domain transcriptional factor) complex, and knocking down the expression of Fascin 1 attenuated the expression of target genes downstream the YAP/TEAD complex. In addition, MST1 interacted with Fascin 1. Taken together, Fascin 1 plays an oncogenic role in NSCLC by activating the transcriptional activity of the YAP/TEAD complex.

Zou Q, Wu M, Zhong L, et al.
Development of a Xeno-Free Feeder-Layer System from Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Prolonged Expansion of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Culture.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0149023 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Various feeder layers have been extensively applied to support the prolonged growth of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) for in vitro cultures. Among them, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) and mouse fibroblast cell line (SNL) are most commonly used feeder cells for hPSCs culture. However, these feeder layers from animal usually cause immunogenic contaminations, which compromises the potential of hPSCs in clinical applications. In the present study, we tested human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) as a potent xeno-free feeder system for maintaining human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The hUC-MSCs showed characteristics of MSCs in xeno-free culture condition. On the mitomycin-treated hUC-MSCs feeder, hiPSCs maintained the features of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), such as low efficiency of spontaneous differentiation, stable expression of stemness markers, maintenance of normal karyotypes, in vitro pluripotency and in vivo ability to form teratomas, even after a prolonged culture of more than 30 passages. Our study indicates that the xeno-free culture system may be a good candidate for growth and expansion of hiPSCs as the stepping stone for stem cell research to further develop better and safer stem cells.

Nagaishi T, Watabe T, Jose N, et al.
Epithelial Nuclear Factor-x03BA;B Activation in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases and Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis.
Digestion. 2016; 93(1):40-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Prolonged inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) may lead to colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). Previous studies had shown that nuclear factor-x03BA;B (NF-x03BA;B) activation in both macrophages and epithelia in inflamed colonic tissue is associated with CAC development. However, the mechanism by which epithelial NF-x03BA;B activation leading to CAC development had not previously been rigorously studied. We and others had observed the increased expression of the type 2 receptor for tumor necrosis factor (TNFR2/TNFRSF1b/p75) in IBD models. Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is suggested to be associated with epithelial permeability via TNF signaling. Therefore, the relationship between epithelial MLCK expression and NF-x03BA;B activation via TNFR2 signaling on CAC development was investigated. Pro-tumorigenic cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 at the lamina propria were increased in the setting of colitis and further increased in tumor tissues with upregulated epithelial TNFR2 and MLCK expressions in an animal model of CAC. The upregulated MLCK expression was also observed in TNF-stimulated colonic epithelial cells in vitro in association with the upregulation of TNFR2 but not TNFR1/TNFRSF1a/p55. Gene silencing of tnfrsf1b, but not tnfrsf1a, resulted in restoration of epithelial tight junction (TJ) associated with decreased MLCK expression. The presence of anti-TNF antibody also resulted in restoration of TJ in association with suppressed MLCK expression, and interestingly, similar results including the suppressed TNFR2 and MLCK expressions were observed by inhibiting MLCK in the epithelial cells. MLCK silencing also led to suppressed TNFR2 expression, suggesting that the restored TJ leads to reduced TNFR2 signaling. Such suppression of MLCK as well as blockade of TNFR2 signaling resulted in reduced CAC development, restored TJ, and decreased pro-tumorigenic cytokines. These imply that TNF-induced NF-x03BA;B activation and MLCK expression may be a potential target for the prevention of IBD-associated carcinogenesis.

Huang W, Cen S, Kang XL, et al.
TGF-β1-induced Fascin1 promotes cell invasion and metastasis of human 786-0 renal carcinoma cells.
Acta Histochem. 2016; 118(2):144-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) on the expression of Fascin1 protein and its impact on cell invasion and metastasis in human renal carcinoma.
METHODS: Renal tissue slices of 52 cases when undergoing radical nephrectomy were collected to be the observation group, and the normal renal tissues of 23 cases when undergoing nephrectomy due to trauma were collected to be the control group. The expressions of TGF-β1 and Fascin1 were measured by immunohistochemical staining. Human renal carcinoma 786-0 cell line was selected as the study subject. The cells were divided into six groups including NT (no transfection), si-NC (transfection with pGenesil-1-con) si-Fascin1 (transfection with pGen-1-FSCN1) groups, and three corresponding groups: NT, si-NC and si-Fascin1 groups treated with TGF-β1. RT-qPCR, Western-Blot, Transwell, and flow cytometry method were used in this study.
RESULTS: The expressions of TGF-β1 and Fascin1 in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The expression of TGF-β1 was positively correlated with that of Fascin1. After 24 and 48h of treatment with TGF-β1 (10ng/mL), the invasive and metastatic abilities of the 786-0 cells in the NT and si-NC groups were higher than those before the treatment (P<0.05). Comparing the three groups before TGF-β1 treatment, the invasive and metastatic ability of 786-0 cells in the si-Fascin1 were significantly lower than those in the NT group and si-NC group (P<0.05).
CONCLUSION: TGF-β1 could induce the expressions of 786-0 Fascin1 mRNA and protein and thus improve the invasive and metastatic ability of human 786-0 renal carcinoma cell.

Xue M, Zhao L, Yang F, et al.
MicroRNA‑145 inhibits the malignant phenotypes of gastric carcinoma cells via downregulation of fascin 1 expression.
Mol Med Rep. 2016; 13(1):1033-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA (miR)‑145 has been demonstrated to act as a tumor suppressor, and deregulation of fascin 1 (FSCN1) has been observed in several types of human malignancy, including gastric carcinoma. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the function of miR‑145, specifically its targets in gastric carcinoma have yet to be fully elucidated. In the present study, downregulation of miR‑145 and upregulation of FSCN1 was identified in gastric carcinoma cell lines, compared with normal gastric mucosal epithelial cells. A luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR‑145 was able to bind to the 3'‑untranslated region of FSCN1 mRNA. Overexpression of miR‑145 led to a significant decrease in FSCN1 expression levels, whereas knockdown of miR‑145 resulted in increased FSCN1 expression levels in gastric carcinoma cells. Furthermore, overexpression of miR‑145 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion in gastric carcinoma cells. Similar effects were also observed in gastric carcinoma cells transfected with FSCN1 small interfering RNA. In addition, overexpression of FSCN1 reversed the suppressive effects of miR‑145 upregulation on proliferation, migration and invasion in gastric carcinoma cells, suggesting that FSCN1 is indeed involved in the miR‑145‑mediated malignant phenotype of gastric carcinoma cells. The present study revealed an anti‑oncogenic role of miR‑145 in gastric carcinoma via inhibition of FSCN1, and suggested that miR‑145 may be used for the treatment of gastric carcinoma.

Smith AL, Alirezaie N, Connor A, et al.
Candidate DNA repair susceptibility genes identified by exome sequencing in high-risk pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Lett. 2016; 370(2):302-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
The genetic basis underlying the majority of hereditary pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) is unknown. Since DNA repair genes are widely implicated in gastrointestinal malignancies, including PC, we hypothesized that there are novel DNA repair PC susceptibility genes. As germline DNA repair gene mutations may lead to PC subtypes with selective therapeutic responses, we also hypothesized that there is an overall survival (OS) difference in mutation carriers versus non-carriers. We therefore interrogated the germline exomes of 109 high-risk PC cases for rare protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in 513 putative DNA repair genes. We identified PTVs in 41 novel genes among 36 kindred. Additional genetic evidence for causality was obtained for 17 genes, with FAN1, NEK1 and RHNO1 emerging as the strongest candidates. An OS difference was observed for carriers versus non-carriers of PTVs with early stage (≤IIB) disease. This adverse survival trend in carriers with early stage disease was also observed in an independent series of 130 PC cases. We identified candidate DNA repair PC susceptibility genes and suggest that carriers of a germline PTV in a DNA repair gene with early stage disease have worse survival.

Xue M, Pang H, Li X, et al.
Long non-coding RNA urothelial cancer-associated 1 promotes bladder cancer cell migration and invasion by way of the hsa-miR-145-ZEB1/2-FSCN1 pathway.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(1):18-27 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Numerous studies suggest that several long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in bladder cancer development and progression. Long non-coding RNA urothelial cancer-associated 1 (lncRNA-UCA1) is highly expressed in bladder cancer tissues and cells, and it has been shown to play an important role in regulating aggressive phenotypes of bladder cancer cells. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of lncRNA-UCA1-mediated bladder cancer cell migration and invasion. Here, we show that overexpression of lncRNA-UCA1 could induce EMT and increase the migratory and invasive abilities of bladder cancer cells. Mechanistically, lncRNA-UCA1 induced EMT of bladder cancer cells by upregulating the expression levels of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 and 2 (ZEB1 and ZEB2), and regulated bladder cancer cell migration and invasion by tumor suppressive hsa-miR-145 and its target gene the actin-binding protein fascin homologue 1 (FSCN1). Furthermore, we also observed a positive correlation between lncRNA-UCA1 and ZEB1/2 expression, and a negative correlation between lncRNA-UCA1 and hsa-miR-145 expression in bladder cancer specimens. Importantly, we found that lncRNA-UCA1 repressed hsa-miR-145 expression to upregulate ZEB1/2, whereas the suppression of hsa-miR-145 could upregulate lncRNA-UCA1 expression in bladder cancer cells. Moreover, the binding site for hsa-miR-145 within exons 2 and 3 of lncRNA-UCA1 contributed to the reciprocal negative regulation of lncRNA-UCA1 and hsa-miR-145. Taken together, our results identified that lncRNA-UCA1 enhances bladder cancer cell migration and invasion in part through the hsa-miR-145/ZEB1/2/FSCN1 pathway. Therefore, lncRNA-UCA1 might act as a promising therapeutic target for the invasion and metastasis of bladder cancer.

Li YQ, Lu JH, Bao XM, et al.
MiR-24 functions as a tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma through targeting FSCN1.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:130 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence indicates that the dysregulation of miRNAs expression is involved in the tumorigenesis by acting as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. However, no study investigates the function and mechanisms of miR-24 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR, MTT, colony formation, soft-agar, wound healing, Transwell migration and invasion assays, and xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis models were performed to test the expression levels and functions of miR-24 in NPC. Luciferase reporter assay, quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry were used to identify and verify the target of miR-24.
RESULTS: The results showed that MiR-24 was obviously downregulated in NPC cell lines and tissue samples (P < 0.05). Ectopic expression of miR-24 inhibited the cell viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro (all P < 0.05), and suppressed the xenograft tumor growth and lung metastasis formation in vivo (all P < 0.05). Fascin homologue 1 (FSCN1) was verified as a direct target of miR-24, and silencing FSCN1 expression with small interfering RNA inhibited NPC cell proliferation and invasion (all P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, miR-24 acts as a novel tumor suppressor in the development and progression of NPC through targeting FSCN1, which providing new insight into the mechanisms of NPC carcinogenesis and suggesting the possibility of miR-24 as a therapeutic target.

Li Y, Gao Y, Xu Y, et al.
Down-regulation of miR-326 is associated with poor prognosis and promotes growth and metastasis by targeting FSCN1 in gastric cancer.
Growth Factors. 2015; 33(4):267-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been documented as playing important roles in diverse biological processes including tumorigenesis. However, the function and mechanism of miR-326 in gastric cancer are still unknown. The aim of this study is to identify the role of miR-326 in gastric cancer and clarify the regulation of Fascin1 (FSCN1) by miR-326.
METHODS: The expression levels of miR-326 were detected in gastric cancer samples and cell lines by real-time PCR. The clinical and prognostic significance of miR-326 in gastric cancer patients were analyzed. Furthermore, the function of miR-326 on tumor cell growth and mobility were explored through MTT, colony formation, Transwell migration and invasion assays in vitro. A miR-326 target was confirmed using luciferase reporter assays, real-time PCR and Western blot.
RESULTS: Our study showed that miR-326 expression was decreased in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, and low expression of miR-326 was associated to clinical stage, tumor depth, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. In survival analysis, low expression of miR-326 was a poor independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies showed that miR-326 served as a tumor suppressor regulating gastric cancer cells growth, migration and invasion. Furthermore, we identified FSCN1 as the functional target of miR-326 by directly targeting the 3'-UTR of FSCN1.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrated that miR-326 overexpression was a poor prognostic marker for gastric cancer patients, and miR-326 served as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer via directly regulating FSCN1.

Jørgensen PH, Vainer B, Hermann GG
A clinical and molecular review of inverted papilloma of the urinary tract: how to handle?
APMIS. 2015; 123(11):920-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inverted papilloma (IP) of the urinary tract is classified by the World Health Organisation as a non-invasive urothelial tumour with normal to minimal cytological atypia of the neoplastic cells. During the 1980s, it came under suspicion of having a premalignant or malignant potential and of being concurrent with urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). This quandary has been proven difficult to solve, due to the fact that IP is very rare and literature mostly consists of case reports with varying levels of information, making strong meta-analyses problematic. New immunohistochemical techniques and genetic approaches are more frequently being used in the attempt to achieve better classifications, prognosis and treatment of lesions hereunder IP. This review will, in our awareness, be the first to combine the knowledge from retrospective studies with these new approaches for determining a possible premalignant potential and concurrency with UCC and subsequently outline a recommendation for follow-up.

Omran OM, Al Sheeha M
Cytoskeletal Focal Adhesion Proteins Fascin-1 and Paxillin Are Predictors of Malignant Progression and Poor Prognosis in Human Breast Cancer.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2015; 34(3):201-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is a major health problem in both developing and developed countries. The incremental motility of malignant cells is a critical step in their migration, invasion, and metastasis and is regulated by the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulation of focal adhesion. Fascin-1 and paxillin are essential components of these cellular structures. In cancer, the expression level of fascin-1 and paxillin can vary depending on cell type. However, its precise role in breast cancer of Saudi women has not been evaluated in any published study. We investigated fascin-1 and paxillin expression in breast carcinoma, and we have related these results to the established prognostic factors. We studied 100 breast carcinoma specimens. Immunohistochemical analyses for fascin-1 and paxillin were conducted on paraffin sections of breast tissues using the avidin-biotin peroxidase method. Fascin-1 and paxillin were expressed in 58% and 43% of infiltrating duct carcinoma (IDC) cases. There was a statistically significant correlation between fascin-1 and paxillin expression with each of the following: tumor grade, clinical stage, lymph-node metastasis grade, and HER2 expression. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between fascin-1 expression with paxillin immunostaining but no such association with PR or ER status. Increased fascin-1 and paxillin expression in IDC cells and their correlation with poor prognostic factors support their strong correlation with tumor progression, invasion, and metastasis in human breast cancer, indicating that these markers can be used as a target for the development of novel therapies.

Zhang Y, Yang X, Wu H, et al.
MicroRNA-145 inhibits migration and invasion via inhibition of fascin 1 protein expression in non-small-cell lung cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(4):6193-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA (miR)-145 has been shown to act as a suppressor in numerous cancer types, including non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Fascin 1 (FSCN1), an actin bundling protein, has been implicated in NSCLC. However, the detailed role of miR-145 as well as the association between miR-145 and FSCN1 in the regulation of migration and invasion in NSCLC cells has remained elusive. The present study revealed that miR-145 was downregulated and FSCN1 was upregulated in NSCLC tissues and cell lines. Further investigation showed that overexpression of miR-145 markedly inhibited the protein expression of FSCN1, while knockdown of miR-145 upregulated the protein (but not mRNA) levels of FSCN1 in the NSCLC cell line H129. Moreover, a luciferase reporter assay indicated that FSCN1 is a direct target of miR-145 in NSCLC H129 cells. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-145 markedly inhibited the migration and invasion of NSCLC cells, similar to the effect of small interfering RNA-mediated FSCN1 inhibition in H129 cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of miR-145 overexpression on migration and invasion was reversed by FSCN1 upregulation in H129 cells. These findings suggested that miR-145 has an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion in NSCLC cells, at least in part through suppressing the protein expression of its target FSCN1. Therefore, miR-145/FSCN1 may be used as a potential target for the treatment of NSCLC.

Du ZP, Wu BL, Xie JJ, et al.
Network Analyses of Gene Expression following Fascin Knockdown in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(13):5445-51 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fascin-1 (FSCN1) is an actin-bundling protein that induces cell membrane protrusions, increases cell motility, and is overexpressed in various human epithelial cancers, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). We analyzed various protein-protein interactions (PPI) of differentially-expressed genes (DEGs), in fascin knockdown ESCC cells, to explore the role of fascin overexpression. The node-degree distributions indicated these PPI sub-networks to be characterized as scale-free. Subcellular localization analysis revealed DEGs to interact with other proteins directly or indirectly, distributed in multiple layers of extracellular membrane-cytoskeleton/ cytoplasm-nucleus. The functional annotation map revealed hundreds of significant gene ontology (GO) terms, especially those associated with cytoskeleton organization of FSCN1. The Random Walk with Restart algorithm was applied to identify the prioritizations of these DEGs when considering their relationship with FSCN1. These analyses based on PPI network have greatly expanded our comprehension of the mRNA expression profile following fascin knockdown to future examine the roles and mechanisms of fascin action.

Wang G, Zhu S, Gu Y, et al.
MicroRNA-145 and MicroRNA-133a Inhibited Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion, While Promoted Apoptosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Via Targeting FSCN1.
Dig Dis Sci. 2015; 60(10):3044-52 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of FSCN1 has been observed in human cancers. However, the regulatory mechanism of FSCN1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unknown.
AIMS: Our study aimed to reveal the roles of microRNA (miR)-133a, miR-145, and FSCN1 in HCC cells.
METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR and western blot were performed to determine the expression of miR-133a, miR-145, and FSCN1. Luciferase reporter assay was used to determine whether FSCN1 was a target of miR-133a and miR-145. Effects of miR-133a, miR-145, and FSCN1 on HCC cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion were then investigated.
RESULTS: We showed that the expression of FSCN1 was increased in HCC tissues compared to the normal adjacent tissues. Moreover, upregulation of FSCN1 and downregulation of miR-145 and miR-133a co-existed in HCC. Functional studies revealed that miR-145 and miR-133a negatively regulated the expression of FSCN1 in HCC cells, via directly binding to the 3'-untranslational region of FSCN1 mRNA. Overexpression of miR-145 and miR-133a led to decreased FSCN1 expression, and downregulation of miR-145 and miR-133a resulted in increased FSCN1 expression in HCC cells. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-145 and miR-133a inhibited cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion, while promoted apoptosis in HCC cells. On the contrary, inhibition of miR-145 and miR-133a promoted cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion, while suppressed apoptosis in HCC cells.
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that the abnormal upregulation of FSCN1 in HCC is associated with downregulation of miR-145 and miR-133a, and miR-145 and miR-133a inhibit malignant progression of HCC in vitro, possibly via directly targeting FSCN1.

Ruiz de Garibay G, Herranz C, Llorente A, et al.
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Biomarkers Linked to Lung Metastatic Potential and Cell Stemness.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(7):e0132546 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare lung-metastasizing neoplasm caused by the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells that commonly carry loss-of-function mutations in either the tuberous sclerosis complex 1 or 2 (TSC1 or TSC2) genes. While allosteric inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has shown substantial clinical benefit, complementary therapies are required to improve response and/or to treat specific patients. However, there is a lack of LAM biomarkers that could potentially be used to monitor the disease and to develop other targeted therapies. We hypothesized that the mediators of cancer metastasis to lung, particularly in breast cancer, also play a relevant role in LAM. Analyses across independent breast cancer datasets revealed associations between low TSC1/2 expression, altered mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway signaling, and metastasis to lung. Subsequently, immunohistochemical analyses of 23 LAM lesions revealed positivity in all cases for the lung metastasis mediators fascin 1 (FSCN1) and inhibitor of DNA binding 1 (ID1). Moreover, assessment of breast cancer stem or luminal progenitor cell biomarkers showed positivity in most LAM tissue for the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1), integrin-ß3 (ITGB3/CD61), and/or the sex-determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) proteins. The immunohistochemical analyses also provided evidence of heterogeneity between and within LAM cases. The analysis of Tsc2-deficient cells revealed relative over-expression of FSCN1 and ID1; however, Tsc2-deficient cells did not show higher sensitivity to ID1-based cancer inhibitors. Collectively, the results of this study reveal novel LAM biomarkers linked to breast cancer metastasis to lung and to cell stemness, which in turn might guide the assessment of additional or complementary therapeutic opportunities for LAM.

Seguí N, Mina LB, Lázaro C, et al.
Germline Mutations in FAN1 Cause Hereditary Colorectal Cancer by Impairing DNA Repair.
Gastroenterology. 2015; 149(3):563-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
Identification of genes associated with hereditary cancers facilitates management of patients with family histories of cancer. We performed exome sequencing of DNA from 3 individuals from a family with colorectal cancer who met the Amsterdam criteria for risk of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. These individuals had mismatch repair-proficient tumors and each carried nonsense variant in the FANCD2/FANCI-associated nuclease 1 gene (FAN1), which encodes a nuclease involved in DNA inter-strand cross-link repair. We sequenced FAN1 in 176 additional families with histories of colorectal cancer and performed in vitro functional analyses of the mutant forms of FAN1 identified. We detected FAN1 mutations in approximately 3% of families who met the Amsterdam criteria and had mismatch repair-proficient cancers with no previously associated mutations. These findings link colorectal cancer predisposition to the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway, supporting the connection between genome integrity and cancer risk.

Inamoto T, Taniguchi K, Takahara K, et al.
Intravesical administration of exogenous microRNA-145 as a therapy for mouse orthotopic human bladder cancer xenograft.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(25):21628-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We previously reported that the level of microRNA (miR)-145 is attenuated in human bladder cancer cells. In this current study, we investigated whether intravesical administration of miR-145 could be a potential therapeutic strategy for controlling bladder cancer by using an orthotopic human bladder cancer xenograft model. Following transfection of 253J B-V cells with miR-145, the effects of the ectopic expression of miR-145 were examined by performing MTT, Western blotting analysis, Hoechst33342 staining, and wound healing assay in vitro. Also, a mouse orthotopic human bladder cancer model was established by inoculating 253J B-V cells into the bladder wall of mice. The anti-cancer effects of intravesical injections of miR-145 into these mice were then assessed. Transfection of 253J B-V cells with miR-145 induced apoptosis and suppression of cell migration in vitro. Western blotting showed that the levels of c-Myc, socs7, FSCN1, E-cadherin, β-catenin, and catenin δ-1 were decreased and that the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways were increased in compensatory fashion. In vivo, mice treated with miR-145 showed 76% inhibition of tumor growth, with a significant prolongation of animal survival (p = 0.0183 vs. control). Western blotting showed that both apoptosis and cell motility-related genes were significantly decreased as seen in vitro. Furthermore, PI3k/Akt and Erk1/2 signaling pathways, which were activated in a compensatory manner in vitro, were decreased in vivo. Intravesical administration of exogenous miR-145 was thus concluded to be a valid therapy for bladder cancer in this human bladder cancer xenograft model.

Chen JJ, Cai WY, Liu XW, et al.
Reverse Correlation between MicroRNA-145 and FSCN1 Affecting Gastric Cancer Migration and Invasion.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0126890 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRs) play important roles in modulating gene expression during the processes of tumorigenesis and tumor development. Previous studies have found that miR-145 is down-regulated in the stomach neoplasm and is related to tumor migration and invasion. However, both the molecular mechanism and function of miR-145 in gastric cancer remain unclear. The present study is the first demonstration of the significant down-regulation of miR-145 expression in infiltrative gastric cancer compared to expanding gastric cancer. Additionally, correlation analyses revealed strong inverse correlations between miR-145 and FSCN1 expression levels in infiltrative gastric cancer. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-145 directly targets FSCN1 and suppresses cell migration and invasion in gastric cancer. Knocking down the expression of FSCN1 led to the suppression of migration and invasion in gastric cancer cells, and re-expressing FSCN1 in miR-145-overexpressing cells reversed their migration and invasion defects. Thus, we concluded that miR-145 regulates cell migration and invasion in gastric cancer primarily by directly targeting FSCN1.

Zhao H, Yang F, Zhao W, et al.
Fascin Overexpression Promotes Cholangiocarcinoma RBE Cell Proliferation, Migration, and Invasion.
Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2016; 15(2):322-33 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fascin is overexpressed in various tumor tissues and is closely related to tumor metastasis and invasion. However, the role of fascin in cholangiocarcinoma RBE cells has not been clearly reported. This study aimed to establish a cholangiocarcinoma cell line with stable and high expression of fascin to observe the effect of fascin on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. A fascin overexpression vector, pcDNA3.1-Fascin, was constructed and transfected into the human cholangiocarcinoma RBE cell line. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence indicated that fascin was steadily and highly expressed in RBE cells. The results of 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide and colony formation assay indicated that upregulated fascin expression could enhance cholangiocarcinoma cell proliferation. The results of wound healing assay and transwell assay indicated that fascin could promote cholangiocarcinoma cell migration and invasion, and a further study found that the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway was activated after upregulation of fascin, whereas E-cadherin expression in these cells was significantly decreased. Additionally, E-cadherin expression was significantly increased after inhibiting nuclear factor-κB activity using inhibitor or small interfering RNA, and E-cadherin expression was decreased by fascin overexpression after nuclear factor-κB inhibition, suggesting that nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway was not involved in the regulation of E-cadherin by fascin. In summary, the results of this study demonstrated that fascin effectively promoted cholangiocarcinoma RBE cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. This study provides evidence for fascin as a potential target in the treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.

Li YQ, He QM, Ren XY, et al.
MiR-145 inhibits metastasis by targeting fascin actin-bundling protein 1 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(3):e0122228 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Based on our recent microarray analysis, we found that miR-145 was obviously downregulated in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissues. However, little is known about its function and mechanism involving in NPC development and progression.
METHODS: Quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect miR-145 expression in NPC cell lines and clinical samples. Wound healing, Transwell migration and invasion, three-dimension spheroid invasion assays, and lung metastasis model were performed to test the migratory, invasive, and metastatic ability of NPC cells. Luciferase reporter assay, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blotting were used to verify the target of miR-145.
RESULTS: MiR-145 was obviously decreased in NPC cell lines and clinical samples (P<0.01). Ectopic overexpression of miR-145 significantly inhibited the migratory and invasive ability of SUNE-1 and CNE-2 cells. In addition, stably overexpressing of miR-145 in SUNE-1 cells could remarkably restrain the formation of metastatic nodes in the lungs of mice. Furthermore, fascin actin-bundling protein 1 (FSCN1) was verified as a target of miR-145, and silencing FSCN1 with small RNA interfering RNA could suppress NPC cell migration and invasion.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrated that miR-145 function as a tumor suppressor in NPC development and progression via targeting FSCN1, which could sever as a potential novel therapeutic target for patients with NPC.

Lai C, Chen Z, Li R
MicroRNA-133a inhibits proliferation and invasion, and induces apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cells via targeting fascin actin-bundling protein 1.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(1):1473-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fascin actin-bundling protein 1 (FSCN1) is associated with tumor progression. In addition, deregulation of the expression of FSCN1 has been observed in certain types of cancer. However, the detailed role of FSCN1 in gastric cancer remains to be elucidated. In the present study, downregulation of microRNA (miR)-133a and upregulation of FSCN1 were both observed in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines. Functional studies have revealed that miR-133a is able to bind to the 3'-untranslated region of FSCN1 mRNA, and overexpression of miR-133a causes downregulation of FSCN1 expression, while downregulation of miR-133a leads to an increased FSCN1 expression in gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-133a inhibited proliferation and invasion, but promoted apoptosis of gastric cancer cells, which may be reversed by upregulation of FSCN1. By contrast, downregulation of miR-133a enhanced proliferation and invasion, but suppressed apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, the anti-oncogenic activity of miR-133a may involve the inhibition of the target gene FSCN1. The present study suggested that miR-133a may be a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of gastric cancer.

Aoude LG, Pritchard AL, Robles-Espinoza CD, et al.
Nonsense mutations in the shelterin complex genes ACD and TERF2IP in familial melanoma.
J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015; 107(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The shelterin complex protects chromosomal ends by regulating how the telomerase complex interacts with telomeres. Following the recent finding in familial melanoma of inactivating germline mutations in POT1, encoding a member of the shelterin complex, we searched for mutations in the other five components of the shelterin complex in melanoma families.
METHODS: Next-generation sequencing techniques were used to screen 510 melanoma families (with unknown genetic etiology) and control cohorts for mutations in shelterin complex encoding genes: ACD, TERF2IP, TERF1, TERF2, and TINF 2. Maximum likelihood and LOD [logarithm (base 10) of odds] analyses were used. Mutation clustering was assessed with χ(2) and Fisher's exact tests. P values under .05 were considered statistically significant (one-tailed with Yates' correction).
RESULTS: Six families had mutations in ACD and four families carried TERF2IP variants, which included nonsense mutations in both genes (p.Q320X and p.R364X, respectively) and point mutations that cosegregated with melanoma. Of five distinct mutations in ACD, four clustered in the POT1 binding domain, including p.Q320X. This clustering of novel mutations in the POT1 binding domain of ACD was statistically higher (P = .005) in melanoma probands compared with population control individuals (n = 6785), as were all novel and rare variants in both ACD (P = .040) and TERF2IP (P = .022). Families carrying ACD and TERF2IP mutations were also enriched with other cancer types, suggesting that these variants also predispose to a broader spectrum of cancers than just melanoma. Novel mutations were also observed in TERF1, TERF2, and TINF2, but these were not convincingly associated with melanoma.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings add to the growing support for telomere dysregulation as a key process associated with melanoma susceptibility.

Özdemir BC, Hensel J, Secondini C, et al.
The molecular signature of the stroma response in prostate cancer-induced osteoblastic bone metastasis highlights expansion of hematopoietic and prostate epithelial stem cell niches.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(12):e114530 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The reciprocal interaction between cancer cells and the tissue-specific stroma is critical for primary and metastatic tumor growth progression. Prostate cancer cells colonize preferentially bone (osteotropism), where they alter the physiological balance between osteoblast-mediated bone formation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and elicit prevalently an osteoblastic response (osteoinduction). The molecular cues provided by osteoblasts for the survival and growth of bone metastatic prostate cancer cells are largely unknown. We exploited the sufficient divergence between human and mouse RNA sequences together with redefinition of highly species-specific gene arrays by computer-aided and experimental exclusion of cross-hybridizing oligonucleotide probes. This strategy allowed the dissection of the stroma (mouse) from the cancer cell (human) transcriptome in bone metastasis xenograft models of human osteoinductive prostate cancer cells (VCaP and C4-2B). As a result, we generated the osteoblastic bone metastasis-associated stroma transcriptome (OB-BMST). Subtraction of genes shared by inflammation, wound healing and desmoplastic responses, and by the tissue type-independent stroma responses to a variety of non-osteotropic and osteotropic primary cancers generated a curated gene signature ("Core" OB-BMST) putatively representing the bone marrow/bone-specific stroma response to prostate cancer-induced, osteoblastic bone metastasis. The expression pattern of three representative Core OB-BMST genes (PTN, EPHA3 and FSCN1) seems to confirm the bone specificity of this response. A robust induction of genes involved in osteogenesis and angiogenesis dominates both the OB-BMST and Core OB-BMST. This translates in an amplification of hematopoietic and, remarkably, prostate epithelial stem cell niche components that may function as a self-reinforcing bone metastatic niche providing a growth support specific for osteoinductive prostate cancer cells. The induction of this combinatorial stem cell niche is a novel mechanism that may also explain cancer cell osteotropism and local interference with hematopoiesis (myelophthisis). Accordingly, these stem cell niche components may represent innovative therapeutic targets and/or serum biomarkers in osteoblastic bone metastasis.

Moraitis D, Karanikou M, Liakou C, et al.
SIN1, a critical component of the mTOR-Rictor complex, is overexpressed and associated with AKT activation in medullary and aggressive papillary thyroid carcinomas.
Surgery. 2014; 156(6):1542-8; discussion 1548-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) forms 2 active complexes in the cell: the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR-Raptor (mTORC1) and the rapamycin-insensitive mTOR-Rictor (mTORC2). The latter activates AKT kinase, which promotes tumor cell survival and proliferation by multiple downstream targets. Mammalian stress-activated protein kinase interacting protein 1 (SIN1), an essential subunit of the mTORC2 complex, maintains the integrity of the complex and substrate specificity and regulates Akt activation. The role of mTOR-Rictor complex activation in thyroid carcinogenesis remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated expression patterns of Sin1 in the cells lines of thyroid carcinoma and tumors and their association with AKT activation, histologic type, and tumor aggressiveness.
METHODS: Tissue specimens from 42 patients with thyroid cancer, including follicular (5), papillary (18), medullary (16), and poorly differentiated (3) carcinomas were analyzed via immunohistochemistry for SIN1 expression and AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 residue (Ser473-p-AKT). Eight of 18 papillary carcinomas were aggressive histologic variants. In addition, expression of Sin1 and activation of AKT kinase were analyzed in fresh-frozen tissue samples (normal/tumor), primary cell cultures (papillary thyroid carcinoma [PTC]), and an established thyroid cancer cell line (medullary thyroid carcinoma) by Western blotting.
RESULTS: With immunohistochemistry, we found that Sin1 was overexpressed in medullary thyroid carcinomas and aggressive variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma compared with conventional papillary and follicular carcinomas (P < .001). Sin1 expression correlated with AKT activation in the entire study group (P = .002). Using Western blot analysis, we found that Sin1 and p-AKT were detected at a greater level in cultured primary cells from aggressive PTC compared with conventional PTC as well as in cell lines of medullary and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. High expression levels of SIN1 were detected in papillary thyroid carcinomas compared with benign nodules in immunoblots in which we used fresh-frozen patient samples. Two of the Sin1 protein isoforms, p76 and p55, were detected predominantly in PTC samples.
CONCLUSION: Sin1, a critical factor of the mTORC2 complex is overexpressed in clinically aggressive thyroid cancer types and is associated strongly with activation of AKT kinase. Sin1-dependent AKT activation might represent a target for experimental therapy.

Guo L, Bai H, Zou D, et al.
The role of microRNA-133b and its target gene FSCN1 in gastric cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidences have documented that microRNAs (miRNAs) act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors in gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of miR-133b in a large number of GC samples and elucidate its role in GC carcinogenesis and the detailed mechanism.
METHODS: We used Taqman probe stem-loop real-time PCR to accurately measure the levels of miR-133b in 100 pairs of gastric cancer tissues and the adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. miR-133b mimics were overexpressed in GC cell lines, miR-133b inhibitors were also introduced in GES cells to investigate its role on regulating cell proliferation, cell migration and cell invasion. The target of miR-133b was identified by luciferase reporter assay and western blot. Fascin actin-bundling protein 1 (FSCN1) siRNA was used to achieve the knockdown of FSCN1 in GC cells and to investigate its role on modulating GC cell proliferation and invasion.
RESULTS: miR-133b was significantly down-regulated in GC cell lines and in GC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, lower-level of miR-133b was also associated with venous invasion and a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Re-introduction of miR-133b in GC cells can inhibit cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion. In contrary, knockdown of miR-133b in GES cells can promote cell proliferation and invasion. Further investigation indicated that miR-133b targeted FSCN1 in GC cells and knockdown of FSCN1 can also inhibit GC cell growth and invasion.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that miR-133b was significantly down-regulated in GC tissues and exerted its tumor suppressor role in GC cells. The investigation of the detailed mechanism showed that miR-133b directly targeted FSCN1 which functioned as an oncogenic gene in GC cells. These results suggested that miR-133b can be developed as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for GC.

Adams JC
Fascin-1 as a biomarker and prospective therapeutic target in colorectal cancer.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2015; 15(1):41-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fascin-1 is a filamentous actin-binding protein that crosslinks actin microfilaments into tight, parallel bundles. These bundles are important for the extension of microspikes, filopodia and invadopodia from cell surfaces and for the functionality of these protrusions in cell migration and/or dynamic sensing of the local microenvironment. Fascin-1 is absent in normal colonic epithelium, but its upregulation in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas and its correlation with an aggressive clinical course has piqued the interest of many laboratories with research interests in cancer metastasis. This report summarizes current knowledge of the molecular interactions of fascin-1 in relation to its activities and mechanisms of upregulation in colorectal carcinoma cells. The status and key questions surrounding investigations of fascin-1 as a novel, early prognostic biomarker in colorectal cancer are discussed. Ongoing pre-clinical research into new migration inhibitory and anti-metastatic compounds that alter the actin cytoskeleton, and the goal of targeting fascin-1, is also discussed.

Schaub FX, Cleveland JL
Tipping the MYC-MIZ1 balance: targeting the HUWE1 ubiquitin ligase selectively blocks MYC-activated genes.
EMBO Mol Med. 2014; 6(12):1509-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MYC family oncoproteins (MYC, N‐MYC and L‐MYC) function as basic helix‐loop‐helix‐leucine zipper (bHLH‐Zip) transcription factors that are activated (i.e., overexpressed) in well over half of all human malignancies (Boxer & Dang, 2001; Beroukhim et al, 2010). In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, Eilers and colleagues (Peter et al, 2014) describe a novel approach to disable MYC, whereby inhibition of the ubiquitin ligase HUWE1 stabilizes MIZ1 and leads to the selective repression of MYC‐activated target genes.

Kamada M, Mitsui Y, Kumazaki T, et al.
Tumorigenic risk of human induced pluripotent stem cell explants cultured on mouse SNL76/7 feeder cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 453(3):668-73 [PubMed] Related Publications
The potential for tumor formation from transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) derivatives represents a high risk in their application to regenerative medicine. We examined the genetic origin and characteristics of tumors, that were formed when 13 hiPSC lines, established by ourselves, and 201B7 hiPSC from Kyoto University were transplanted into severe combined immune-deficient (SCID) mice. Though teratomas formed in 58% of mice, five angiosarcomas, one malignant solitary fibrous tumor and one undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma formed in the remaining mice. Three malignant cell lines were established from the tumors, which were derived from mitomycin C (MMC)-treated SNL76/7 (MMC-SNL) feeder cells, as tumor development from fusion cells between MMC-SNL and hiPSCs was negative by genetic analysis. While parent SNL76/7 cells produced malignant tumors, neither MMC-SNL nor MMC-treated mouse embryo fibroblast (MEF) produced malignant tumors. When MMC-SNL feeder cells were co-cultured with hiPSCs, growing cell lines were generated, that expressed genes similar to the parent SNL76/7 cells. Thus, hiPSCs grown on MMC-SNL feeder cells have a high risk of generating feeder-derived malignant tumors. The possible mechanism(s) of growth restoration and the formation of multiple tumor types are discussed with respect of the interactions between MMC-SNL and hiPSC.

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