Gene Summary

Gene:FUT4; fucosyltransferase 4
Summary:The product of this gene transfers fucose to N-acetyllactosamine polysaccharides to generate fucosylated carbohydrate structures. It catalyzes the synthesis of the non-sialylated antigen, Lewis x (CD15). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:alpha-(1,3)-fucosyltransferase 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Lewis X Antigen
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Up-Regulation
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Transcription Factor HES-1
  • Western Blotting
  • Down-Regulation
  • Transfection
  • Young Adult
  • Transcriptome
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Bladder Cancer
  • MicroRNAs
  • Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
  • Chromosome 11
  • Promoter Regions
  • Liver
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Breast Cancer
  • Apoptosis
  • Messenger RNA
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Signal Transduction
  • Drug Resistance
  • Zinc Finger Protein GLI1
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Lewis Blood-Group System
  • Cell Movement
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Transcription Factors
  • Transcription
  • Fucosyltransferases
  • Antigens, CD34
  • SOXB1 Transcription Factors
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FUT4 (cancer-related)

Yuan X, Liu J, Ye X
Effect of miR-200c on the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and relevant mechanisms.
J BUON. 2019 Jan-Feb; 24(1):61-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to explore the effect of miR-200c on the proliferation, migration and invasion of breast cancer cells and its relevant mechanisms.
METHODS: Cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8), scratch wound healing assay and Transwell assay were performed after upregulation of miR-200c to detect the capabilities of proliferation, migration and invasion of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Also, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot were carried out to determine the expression levels of fucosyltransferase-4 (FUT4) and relevant genes in PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.
RESULTS: miR-200c upregulation in MCF-7 cells decreased the capabilities of proliferation, migration and invasion in MCF-7 cells. MiR-200c could regulate the level of FUT4 in MCF-7 cells, and might affect the cell proliferation, migration and invasion through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that miR-200c might serve as a new target in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. MiR-200c regulated the expression of FUT4, and affected the biological behaviors of breast cancer MCF-7 cells, such as proliferation, migration and invasion.

Giordano G, Parcesepe P, D'Andrea MR, et al.
JAK/Stat5-mediated subtype-specific lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6D (LY6G6D) expression drives mismatch repair proficient colorectal cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human microsatellite-stable (MSS) colorectal cancers (CRCs) are immunologically "cold" tumour subtypes characterized by reduced immune cytotoxicity. The molecular linkages between immune-resistance and human MSS CRC is not clear.
METHODS: We used transcriptome profiling, in silico analysis, immunohistochemistry, western blot, RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence staining to characterize novel CRC immune biomarkers. The effects of selective antagonists were tested by in vitro assays of long term viability and analysis of kinase active forms using anti-phospho antibodies.
RESULTS: We identified the lymphocyte antigen 6 complex, locus G6D (LY6G6D) as significantly overexpressed (around 15-fold) in CRC when compared with its relatively low expression in other human solid tumours. LY6G6D up-regulation was predominant in MSS CRCs characterized by an enrichment of immune suppressive regulatory T-cells and a limited repertoire of PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint receptors. Coexpression of LY6G6D and CD15 increases the risk of metastatic relapse in response to therapy. Both JAK-STAT5 and RAS-MEK-ERK cascades act in concert as key regulators of LY6G6D and Fucosyltransferase 4 (FUT4), which direct CD15-mediated immune-resistance. Momelotinib, an inhibitor of JAK1/JAK2, consistently abrogated the STAT5/LY6G6D axis in vitro, sensitizing MSS cancer cells with an intact JAK-STAT signaling, to efficiently respond to trametinib, a MEK inhibitor used in clinical setting. Notably, colon cancer cells can evade JAK2/JAK1-targeted therapy by a reversible shift of the RAS-MEK-ERK pathway activity, which explains the treatment failure of JAK1/2 inhibitors in refractory CRC.
CONCLUSIONS: Combined targeting of STAT5 and MAPK pathways has superior therapeutic effects on immune resistance. In addition, the new identified LY6G6D antigen is a promising molecular target for human MSS CRC.

Zhang Y, Zhang D, Lv J, et al.
MiR-125a-5p suppresses bladder cancer progression through targeting FUT4.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2018; 108:1039-1047 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely studied in various human cancers, including bladder cancer. Previous report revealed that miR-125a-5p is downregulated in urothelial carcinomas. However, the biological function and molecular mechanism of miR-125a-5p in bladder cancer has not been elucidated. Therefore, this study focused on the role of miR-125a-5p in bladder cancer. The expression levels of miR-125a-5p were firstly tested in one normal cell line and four bladder cancer cell lines with qRT-PCR. The relative lower expression of miR-125a-5p was detected in bladder cancer cells. To confirm the effects of ectopic expression of miR-125a-5p on the biological behaviors of bladder cancer cells, gain-of-function assays were carried out. According to experimental results, miR-125a-5p overexpression suppressed cell proliferation and cell cycle progression, induced cell apoptosis. Moreover, overexpression of miR-125a-5p suppressed cell migration and invasion and reversed epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Mechanism investigation indicated that FUT4 is a target mRNA of miR-125a-5p in bladder cancer. The effects of FUT4 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion were identified by conducting gain-of-function assays. Finally, rescue assays indicated that FUT4 can reverse the effects of miR-125a-5p on bladder cancer progression. In summary, miR-125a-5p suppresses bladder cancer progression through targeting FUT4.

Liu C, Li Z, Wang S, et al.
FUT4 is involved in PD-1-related immunosuppression and leads to worse survival in patients with operable lung adenocarcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(1):65-76 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: As an important glycosyltransferase, fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is abnormally upregulated in different types of cancers, but its clinical role remains inexplicit. This work aimed to determine the predictive ability of FUT4 in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) after curative resection, as well as to explore the role of a possible FUT4 molecular mechanism on LUAD malignant behavior.
METHODS: A total of 273 LUAD patients after curative resection with complete clinicopathological and RNAseq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort were collected. Correlation of FUT4 with overall survival (OS) was analyzed based on TCGA and further validated by online "Kaplan-Meier Plotter" database and IHC in 70 LUAD patients recruited in the First Hospital of China Medical University cohort. Multivariate Cox regression analysis and 1000 bootstrapping were performed to verify the predictive value of FUT4. Gene set enrichment assay (GSEA) was performed to investigate the biological characteristics. Correlation between PD-1 and FUT4 was analyzed based on TCGA cohort and validated by IHC on cohort from our hospital.
RESULTS: Increased FUT4 expression led to reduced overall survival (OS) of LUAD patients based on TCGA (p = 0.006 and 0.001 for dichotomous and trichotomous modeling, respectively) and externally validated in KMPLOTTER (p = 0.01) and by IHC based on cohort from our hospital (p = 0.005 and p = 0.019 for dichotomous and trichotomous modeling, respectively). FUT4 overexpression was an independent high risk factor for OS along with advanced pT stage and pTNM stage (p = 0.001, p = 0.037, and p < 0.001, respectively). GSEA revealed that FUT4 overexpression might correlate with shortened survival of LUAD patients by promoting cell proliferation via ERBB signaling, and suppressing immune response-related pathways. FUT4 expression positively correlated with PD-1 in TCGA (p = 0.026) and validated by IHC on cohort from our hospital (p = 0.029).
CONCLUSIONS: Increased FUT4 expression led to reduced OS in operable LUAD. FUT4 showed significant correlation with immune response and PD-1 expression.

Sarun KH, Lee K, Williams M, et al.
Genomic Deletion of
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(10) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a deadly cancer that is caused by asbestos exposure and that has limited treatment options. The current standard of MPM diagnosis requires the testing of multiple immunohistochemical (IHC) markers on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue to differentiate MPM from other lung malignancies. To date, no single biomarker exists for definitive diagnosis of MPM due to the lack of specificity and sensitivity; therefore, there is ongoing research and development in order to identify alternative biomarkers for this purpose. In this study, we utilized primary MPM cell lines and tested the expression of clinically used biomarker panels, including CK8/18, Calretinin, CK 5/6, CD141, HBME-1, WT-1, D2-40, EMA, CEA, TAG72, BG8, CD15, TTF-1, BAP1, and Ber-Ep4. The genomic alteration of

Lorenzo-Martín LF, Citterio C, Menacho-Márquez M, et al.
Vav proteins maintain epithelial traits in breast cancer cells using miR-200c-dependent and independent mechanisms.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(2):209-227 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The bidirectional regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transitions (EMT) is key in tumorigenesis. Rho GTPases regulate this process via canonical pathways that impinge on the stability of cell-to-cell contacts, cytoskeletal dynamics, and cell invasiveness. Here, we report that the Rho GTPase activators Vav2 and Vav3 utilize a new Rac1-dependent and miR-200c-dependent mechanism that maintains the epithelial state by limiting the abundance of the Zeb2 transcriptional repressor in breast cancer cells. In parallel, Vav proteins engage a mir-200c-independent expression prometastatic program that maintains epithelial cell traits only under 3D culture conditions. Consistent with this, the depletion of endogenous Vav proteins triggers mesenchymal features in epithelioid breast cancer cells. Conversely, the ectopic expression of an active version of Vav2 promotes mesenchymal-epithelial transitions using E-cadherin-dependent and independent mechanisms depending on the mesenchymal breast cancer cell line used. In silico analyses suggest that the negative Vav anti-EMT pathway is operative in luminal breast tumors. Gene signatures from the Vav-associated proepithelial and prometastatic programs have prognostic value in breast cancer patients.

Komura T, Yano M, Miyake A, et al.
Immune Condition of Colorectal Cancer Patients Featured by Serum Chemokines and Gene Expressions of CD4+ Cells in Blood.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 2018:7436205 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC), the most common malignancy worldwide, causes inflammation. We explored the inflammatory pathophysiology of CRC by assessing the peripheral blood parameters.
Methods: The differences in gene expression profiles of whole blood cells and cell subpopulations between CRC patients and healthy controls were analyzed using DNA microarray. Serum cytokine/chemokine concentrations in CRC patients and healthy controls were measured via multiplex detection immunoassays. In addition, we explored correlations between the expression levels of certain genes of peripheral CD4+ cells and serum chemokine concentrations.
Results: The gene expression profiles of peripheral CD4+ cells of CRC patients differed from those of healthy controls, but this was not true of CD8+ cells, CD14+ cells, CD15+ cells, or CD19+ cells. Serum IL-8 and eotaxin-1 levels were significantly elevated in CRC patients, and the levels substantially correlated with the expression levels of certain genes of CD4+ cells. Interestingly, the relationships between gene expression levels in peripheral CD4+ cells and serum IL-8 and eotaxin-1 levels resembled those of monocytes/macrophages, not T cells.
Conclusions: Serum IL-8 and eotaxin-1 concentrations increased and were associated with changes in the gene expression of peripheral CD4+ cells in CRC patients.

Hiramatsu S, Tanaka H, Nishimura J, et al.
Neutrophils in primary gastric tumors are correlated with neutrophil infiltration in tumor-draining lymph nodes and the systemic inflammatory response.
BMC Immunol. 2018; 19(1):13 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Tumor-Associated Neutrophils (TANs) may be able to induce lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis, although the detailed roles of TANs remain unclear. The Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) is an inflammation-based prognostic factor for gastric cancer. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of CD15
RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining showed that the median number of CD15
CONCLUSION: Our findings suggested that local infiltration of CD15

Maupetit-Mehouas S, Court F, Bourgne C, et al.
DNA methylation profiling reveals a pathological signature that contributes to transcriptional defects of CD34
Mol Oncol. 2018; 12(6):814-829 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Despite the high efficiency of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), some patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) will display residual disease that can become resistant to treatment, indicating intraclonal heterogeneity in chronic-phase CML (CP-CML). To determine the basis of this heterogeneity, we conducted the first exhaustive characterization of the DNA methylation pattern of sorted CP-CML CD34

Qing X, Panosyan E, Yue C, et al.
Therapy-related myeloid neoplasm in an 18-year-old boy with B-lymphoblastic leukemia.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2017; 103(3):263-266 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric malignancy. Acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome during the course of ALL is a rare entity. Some of these cases are therapy-related while the others occur due to lineage switch. The correct diagnosis relies on comparing the immunophenotypes and cytogenetic/molecular alterations of the myeloid neoplasm and the ALL. We present the clinical, pathologic and cytogenetic features of a case of an 18-year-old male with prior treatment for B-lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) who developed therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN) 4-5years after his initial diagnosis of B-ALL.
CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old boy with no significant past medical history presented to Harbor-UCLA Medical Center (HUMC) in November 2012 with night sweats, fevers and chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fatigue, weakness, and weight loss. Peripheral blood flow cytometric analysis disclosed B-ALL. The blasts expressed CD10, CD19, CD22 (dim), CD34, CD38, HLA-DR, and TdT, and were negative for CD20, CD13, CD33, CD117, and cytoplasmic MPO. Chromosomal analysis and a supplemental fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) study performed on the bone marrow aspirate showed an abnormal karyotype (47,XY,+X,del(9)(p21p21)[4]/46,XY[16]). He achieved remission after induction chemotherapy and remained in remission until March 2016 when bilateral testicular masses were noted. Biopsy of the left testicular mass showed relapsed B-ALL. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained rare TdT-positive blasts, suggestive of minimal/early involvement by B-ALL. However, there was no evidence of acute leukemia in his bone marrow at this time. He was then treated with COG protocol AALL1331 randomized to blinatumomab arm and achieved second remission. In June 2017, the patient's peripheral blood smear showed 11% circulating monoblasts. By flow cytometry, the blasts expressed CD4, CD11b, CD13, CD15, CD33, CD38, CD56, and CD64. In addition, a few TdT-positive blasts were seen in his CSF cytospin smear. Bone marrow biopsy was subsequently performed which was consistent with evolving acute myeloid leukemia. A diagnosis of myeloid neoplasm, consistent with t-MN was made. Chromosomal analysis and FISH studies performed on his bone marrow aspirate showed normal karyotype (46,XY[20]), negative FISH result for deletion 9p21 locus, and positive KMT2A (MLL) rearrangement, respectively. Despite of chemotherapy, the patient died within one month after diagnosis.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of t-MN should be suspected in patients with a history of receiving cytotoxic agents and/or irradiation. In this case study, we diagnosed t-MN with KMT2A rearrangement in a patient with history of B-ALL with 9p deletion and gain of X chromosome. Unusual features associated with this case are discussed.

Ferlemann FC, Menon V, Condurat AL, et al.
Surface marker profiling of SH-SY5Y cells enables small molecule screens identifying BMP4 as a modulator of neuroblastoma differentiation.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):13612 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma is the most common extra-cranial solid tumor in children. Its broad spectrum of clinical outcomes reflects the underlying inherent cellular heterogeneity. As current treatments often do not lead to tumor eradication, there is a need to better define therapy-resistant neuroblastoma and to identify new modulatory molecules. To this end, we performed the first comprehensive flow cytometric characterization of surface molecule expression in neuroblastoma cell lines. Exploiting an established clustering algorithm (SPADE) for unbiased visualization of cellular subsets, we conducted a multiwell screen for small molecule modulators of neuroblastoma phenotype. In addition to SH-SY5Y cells, the SH-EP, BE(2)-M17 and Kelly lines were included in follow-up analysis as in vitro models of neuroblastoma. A combinatorial detection of glycoprotein epitopes (CD15, CD24, CD44, CD57, TrkA) and the chemokine receptor CXCR4 (CD184) enabled the quantitative identification of SPADE-defined clusters differentially responding to small molecules. Exposure to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 was found to enhance a TrkA

Singh R, De Sarkar N, Sarkar S, et al.
Analysis of the whole transcriptome from gingivo-buccal squamous cell carcinoma reveals deregulated immune landscape and suggests targets for immunotherapy.
PLoS One. 2017; 12(9):e0183606 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Gingivo-buccal squamous cell carcinoma (GBSCC) is one of the most common oral cavity cancers in India with less than 50% patients surviving past 5 years. Here, we report a whole transcriptome profile on a batch of GBSCC tumours with diverse tobacco usage habits. The study provides an entire landscape of altered expression with an emphasis on searching for targets with therapeutic potential.
METHODS: Whole transcriptomes of 12 GBSCC tumours and adjacent normal tissues were sequenced and analysed to explore differential expression of genes. Expression changes were further compared with those in TCGA head and neck cohort (n = 263) data base and validated in an independent set of 10GBSCC samples.
RESULTS: Differentially expressed genes (n = 2176) were used to cluster the patients based on their tobacco habits, resulting in 3 subgroups. Immune response was observed to be significantly aberrant, along with cell adhesion and lipid metabolism processes. Different modes of immune evasion were seen across 12 tumours with up-regulation or consistent expression of CD47, unlike other immune evasion genes such as PDL1, FUT4, CTLA4 and BTLA which were downregulated in a few samples. Variation in infiltrating immune cell signatures across tumours also indicates heterogeneity in immune evasion strategies. A few actionable genes such as ITGA4, TGFB1 and PTGS1/COX1 were over expressed in most samples.
CONCLUSION: This study found expression deregulation of key immune evasion genes, such as CD47 and PDL1, and reasserts their potential as effective immunotherapeutic targets for GBSCC, which requires further clinical studies. Present findings reiterate the idea of using transcriptome profiling to guide precision therapeutic strategies.

Pal SK, Pham A, Vuong W, et al.
Prognostic Significance of Neutrophilic Infiltration in Benign Lymph Nodes in Patients with Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.
Eur Urol Focus. 2017; 3(1):130-135 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies suggest that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-mediated recruitment of neutrophils to premetastatic tissue occurs prior to metastatic progression.
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine if neutrophilic infiltration in benign nodal tissue is associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue was secured from 55 patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who had undergone cystectomy at our institution. Sections of benign lymph nodes were obtained and stained with primary antibodies against 3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine, phosphorylated STAT3, and interleukin-17, the latter being a key mediator of neutrophil infiltration and STAT3 activation.
OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The Kaplan-Meier method was used to interrogate differences in overall survival (OS) in patients with high versus low biomarker expression. Cohorts stratified by receipt and nonreceipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were separately explored.
RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Of the 55 patients examined, 19 patients (35%) had no prior neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Amongst these patients, median OS was improved in patients with low 3-fucosyl-N-acetyl-lactosamine
CONCLUSIONS: The results herein support the hypothesis that bladder cancer metastasis may be driven by STAT3-mediated neutrophilic infiltration in premetastatic sites. Validation of these findings using tissues derived from a phase 3 surgical trial (Southwest Oncology Group 1011) is currently underway.
PATIENT SUMMARY: Lymph node metastases occur in up to 25% of patients with muscle-invasive cancer and it represents one of the most frequent sites of bladder cancer metastasis. This report provides preliminary evidence that neutrophil levels in benign lymph nodes may predict clinical outcome.

Picot T, Aanei CM, Fayard A, et al.
Expression of embryonic stem cell markers in acute myeloid leukemia.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(7):1010428317716629 [PubMed] Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia is driven by leukemic stem cells which can be identified by cross lineage expression or arrest of differentiation compared to normal hematopoietic stem cells. Self-renewal and lack of differentiation are also features of stem cells and have been associated with the expression of embryonic genes. The aim of our study was to evaluate the expression of embryonic antigens (OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA1, SSEA3) in hematopoietic stem cell subsets (CD34

Li Y, Sun Z, Liu B, et al.
Tumor-suppressive miR-26a and miR-26b inhibit cell aggressiveness by regulating FUT4 in colorectal cancer.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(6):e2892 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis is a multistep molecular network process, which is the major cause of death in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in tumorigenesis as either tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Increased expression of fucosyltransferase4 (FUT4) has been reported to be associated with the invasive and metastatic properties of CRC. Here to identify potential key miRNAs and their target genes for colorectal cancer (CRC), we compared miRNA expression profiles between metastatic CRC cell SW620 and primary CRC cell SW480. Microarray analysis revealed that there were 85 differentially expressed miRNAs in SW620 cells with highly metastatic potential compared to SW480 cells with lowly metastatic potential. The expression of miR-26a and miR-26b were lower in SW620 cells than in SW480 cells, as well as downregulated in tumor tissues than in adjacent normal tissues of CRC patients. By applying bioinformatic approaches for the prediction of miRNA targeting 3'-UTR of FUT4, we identified FUT4 as one of the miR-26a/26b-targeted genes, while the expression of the target gene exhibited patterns opposite to that of miR-26a/26b in CRC cell lines, tumor tissues and corresponding adjacent tissues. Forced miR-26a/26b expression affected migratory behavior of CRC cells and FUT4 expression, while altered expression of FUT4 in CRC cell lines modulated progression upon transfection with miR-26a/26b mimic or inhibiter. FUT4 also regulated directly aggressiveness of SW620 and SW480 cells. Moreover, statistical analyses revealed that low miR-26a/26b levels and high expression of FUT4 were positively correlated with poor overall survival. The identified CRC-restricted miR-26a and miR-26b might be implicated in cancer progression via their target gene FUT4, suggesting their potential usage in CRC treatment.

Alexiou GA, Lazari D, Markopoulos G, et al.
Moschamine inhibits proliferation of glioblastoma cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(5):1010428317705744 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma is the most common and most malignant primary brain tumor with a median survival of 15 months. Moschamine is an indole alkaloid that has a serotoninergic and cyclooxygenase inhibitory effect. In this study, we sought to determine whether moschamine could exert cytotoxic and cytostatic effects on glioma cells in vitro. Moschamine was tested for toxicity in zebrafish. We investigated the effect of moschamine on U251MG and T98G glioblastoma cell lines. Viability and proliferation of the cells were examined with trypan blue exclusion assay, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, and the xCELLigence system. Apoptosis (annexin-propidium iodide), cell cycle, and CD24/CD44/CD56/CD15 expression were tested with flow cytometry. Treatment with moschamine significantly reduced cell viability in both cell lines tested. Induction of cell death and cell cycle arrest was confirmed with flow cytometry in both cell lines. After treatment with moschamine, there was a dose-dependent decrease in CD24 and CD44 expression, whereas there was no change in CD56 and CD15 expression in T98G cell line. The zebrafish mortality on the fifth post-fertilization day was zero even for 1 mM of moschamine concentration. The treatment of glioblastoma cell lines with moschamine may represent a novel strategy for targeting glioblastoma.

Wang P, Lan C, Xiong S, et al.
HIF1α regulates single differentiated glioma cell dedifferentiation to stem-like cell phenotypes with high tumorigenic potential under hypoxia.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(17):28074-28092 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The standard treatment for Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is surgical resection and subsequent radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Surgical resection of GBM is typically restricted because of its invasive growth, which results in residual tumor cells including glioma stem cells (GSCs) and differentiated cells. Recurrence has been previously thought to occur as a result of these GSCs, and hypoxic microenvironment maintains the GSCs stemness also plays an important role. Summarizing traditional studies and we find many researchers ignored the influence of hypoxia on differentiated cells. We hypothesized that the residual differentiated cells may be dedifferentiated to GSC-like cells under hypoxia and play a crucial role in the rapid, high-frequency recurrence of GBM. Therefore, isolated CD133-CD15-NESTIN- cells were prepared as single-cell culture and treated with hypoxia. More than 95% of the surviving single differentiated CD133-CD15-NESTIN- cell dedifferentiated into tumorigenic CD133+CD15+NESTIN+ GSCs, and this process was regulated by hypoxia inducible factor-1α. Moreover, the serum also played an important role in this dedifferentiation. These findings challenge the traditional glioma cell heterogeneity model, cell division model and glioma malignancy development model. Our study also highlights the mechanism of GBM recurrence and the importance of anti-hypoxia therapy. In addition to GSCs, residual differentiated tumor cells also substantially contribute to treatment resistance and the rapid, high recurrence of GBM.

Iglesia RP, Prado MB, Cruz L, et al.
Engagement of cellular prion protein with the co-chaperone Hsp70/90 organizing protein regulates the proliferation of glioblastoma stem-like cells.
Stem Cell Res Ther. 2017; 8(1):76 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM), a highly aggressive brain tumor, contains a subpopulation of glioblastoma stem-like cells (GSCs) that play roles in tumor maintenance, invasion, and therapeutic resistance. GSCs are therefore a promising target for GBM treatment. Our group identified the cellular prion protein (PrP
METHODS: GSCs expressing different levels of PrP
RESULTS: We observed that, when GBM cells are cultured as neurospheres, they express specific stemness markers such as CD133, CD15, Oct4, and SOX2; PrP
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our results show that the modulation of HOP-PrP

Mannelli F, Ponziani V, Bencini S, et al.
Haematologica. 2017; 102(3):529-540 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutations in CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (

Ramezani S, Vousooghi N, Kapourchali FR, et al.
Rolipram potentiates bevacizumab-induced cell death in human glioblastoma stem-like cells.
Life Sci. 2017; 173:11-19 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Glioblastoma cancer stem-like cells (GCSCs) promote themselves proliferation by secreting the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF
MAIN METHODS: CD133+/CD15+ GCSCs were characterized by flow cytometry and expanded in a serum-free primary culture system. The cell survival, apoptosis, and protein expression values were measured using MTT assay, TUNEL staining and western blot, successively. Intracellular cAMP and free secreted VEGF
KEY FINDINGS: Bevacizumab suppressed GCSCs survival with IC
SIGNIFICANCE: This study highlighted a booster cytotoxic effect of combined rolipram and bevacizumab treatment on the GCSCs primary culture, suggesting that this approach is warranted in treatment of GBMs overexpressing VEGF

Ichikawa A, Miyoshi H, Yamauchi T, et al.
Composite lymphoma of peripheral T-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma, mixed cellularity type; pathological and molecular analysis.
Pathol Int. 2017; 67(4):194-201 [PubMed] Related Publications
Composite lymphomas (CLs) are defined as two unrelated lymphomas occurring at the same time within the same tissue. The incidence of these tumors is low. Of all possible combinations between lymphomas, the least frequent are the ones combining peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We recently identified five cases of CL composed of PTCL and classical HL, mixed cellularity type. We investigated histological and clinical features of these cases. Immunostaining was performed on paraffin sections. PTCL cells were positive for CD8 and TIA-1 in four of the five cases. Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells were positive for CD30 and weakly positive for PAX5 in all cases, positive for CD15 in three of five cases, positive for CD20 in one of five cases, and negative for EBER. Monoclonal rearrangement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) genes was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using whole paraffin sections. We concluded more precisely the monoclonality of the IGH rearrangement of HRS cells based on single-cell PCR for IGH and DNA sequencing analysis after laser microdissection of single cells in one case. HL can occur in CD8-positive and TIA-1-positive PTCL. Clinicians should recognize the possibility of these CL.

Vieira Torquato HF, Ribeiro-Filho AC, Buri MV, et al.
Canthin-6-one induces cell death, cell cycle arrest and differentiation in human myeloid leukemia cells.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj. 2017; 1861(4):958-967 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Canthin-6-one is a natural product isolated from various plant genera and from fungi with potential antitumor activity. In the present study, we evaluate the antitumor effects of canthin-6-one in human myeloid leukemia lineages.
METHODS: Kasumi-1 lineage was used as a model for acute myeloid leukemia. Cells were treated with canthin-6-one and cell death, cell cycle and differentiation were evaluated in both total cells (Lin
RESULTS: Among the human lineages tested, Kasumi-1 was the most sensitive to canthin-6-one. Canthin-6-one induced cell death with apoptotic (caspase activation, decrease of mitochondrial potential) and necrotic (lysosomal permeabilization, double labeling of annexin V/propidium iodide) characteristics. Moreover, canthin-6-one induced cell cycle arrest at G
CONCLUSIONS: These results show that canthin-6-one can affect Kasumi-1 cells by promoting cell death, cell cycle arrest and cell differentiation depending on concentration used.
GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: Canthin-6-one presents an interesting cytotoxic activity against leukemic cells and represents a promising scaffold for the development of molecules for anti-leukemic applications, especially by its anti-leukemic stem cell activity.

Arun I, Roy P, Arora N, et al.
PAX-5 Positivity in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma: A Case Report and Review of Literature.
Int J Surg Pathol. 2017; 25(4):333-338 [PubMed] Related Publications
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a subtype of T-cell lymphomas that may mimic several other malignancies morphologically. With the help of immunohistochemistry, most cases of ALCL can be diagnosed on the basis of expression of T-cell lineage associated antigens. However, aberrations in the expression of immunohistochemical markers pose diagnostic challenges. The morphological and immunophenotypic features of ALCL show considerable overlap with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL), which is a B-cell lymphoma. The 2008 World Health Organization Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues suggests that staining for the B-cell transcription factor, paired box 5 (PAX-5), is helpful in differentiating between them, as it is weakly positive in most CHL and should be negative in ALCL. We report a rare case of ALK-negative ALCL, which was positive for PAX-5 and CD15, mimicking CHL by immunohistochemistry, resulting in a diagnostic dilemma.

Manoranjan B, Mahendram S, Almenawer SA, et al.
The identification of human pituitary adenoma-initiating cells.
Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2016; 4(1):125 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Classified as benign central nervous system (CNS) tumors, pituitary adenomas account for 10% of diagnosed intracranial neoplasms. Although surgery is often curative, patients with invasive macroadenomas continue to experience significant morbidity and are prone to tumor recurrence. Given the identification of human brain tumor-initiating cells (TICs) that initiate and maintain tumor growth while promoting disease progression and relapse in multiple CNS tumors, we investigated whether TICs also drive the growth of human pituitary adenomas. Using a nanoString-based 80-gene custom codeset specific for developmental pathways, we identified a differential stem cell gene expression profile within human pituitary adenomas. Prospective functional characterization of stem cell properties in patient-derived adenomas representing all hormonal subtypes yielded a subtype-dependent self-renewal profile, which was enriched within the CD15+ cell fraction. The tumor-initiating capacity of CD15

Hayashida M, Daibata M, Tagami E, et al.
Establishment and characterization of a novel Hodgkin lymphoma cell line, AM-HLH, carrying the Epstein-Barr virus genome integrated into the host chromosome.
Hematol Oncol. 2017; 35(4):567-575 [PubMed] Related Publications
We describe the establishment and characterization of a cell line, AM-HLH, obtained from a patient with Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV

Cui HX, Wang H, Wang Y, et al.
ST3Gal III modulates breast cancer cell adhesion and invasion by altering the expression of invasion-related molecules.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(6):3317-3324 [PubMed] Related Publications
Changes in the carbohydrate structure on the surface of tumor cells is an important feature of cancer metastasis. The specific role of sialic acids in the glycoconjugate terminal has not yet been clearly elucidated in these processes. Previously, we reported that α2,3-sialic acid residues in breast cancer are associated with metastatic potential. The α2,3-sialyltransferase ST3Gal III, which adds α2,3-sialic acids to glycoproteins, is overexpressed in various tumors, and enzyme activity is correlated with tumor metastasis, yet its mechanistic role has not been fully evaluated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the influence of ST3Gal III on key steps in the process of breast cancer metastasis. ST3Gal III-overexpressing and ST3Gal III-silenced breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cell lines were generated. They showed an increase or decrease in the tumor-associated antigen sialyl-Lewis X (SLeX). The E-selectin binding capacity of the transfectants was proportional to cell surface SLeX levels. Cell migration and invasion were positively correlated with ST3Gal III levels. Moreover, ST3Gal III expression modulated the protein expression of invasion-related molecules, including β1 integrin, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and cyclooxygenase-2, which may account for the mechanism involved in the effects of ST3Gal III on breast cancer invasiveness. In conclusion, our findings in these novel models of ST3Gal III expression revealed a critical requirement for ST3Gal III in several steps of breast cancer metastasis. ST3Gal III modulates breast cancer cell adhesion and invasion by altering the expression of invasion-related molecules. This study provides novel insights into the mechanisms underlying metastasis and suggests a new target for the effective drug treatment of breast cancer metastasis.

Al Mussaed E, Osman H, Elyamany G
Simultaneous existence of acute myeloid leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a case report.
BMC Cancer. 2016; 16(1):739 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The simultaneous Occurrence of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been rarely reported. Most of these cases have been occurring more frequently as a secondary event in patients receiving chemotherapeutic agents for CLL.
CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 77-year-old man who presented with fatigue, pallor and lower limb pain and weakness. Initial laboratory studies showed Hb 7.7 g/dl, WBC 279.6 × 10(9)/1, PLT 143× 10(9)/1. The peripheral blood (PB) smear examination showed circulating blast cells (20 %) cells and 50 % lymphocytes, with smudge cells. A bone marrow examination showed infiltration by two discrete abnormal cell populations, one represents the leukemic blast cells (60 %) and the other represents small mature lymphocytes (30 %). The immunologic phenotype of blasts was characterized by the co-expression of CD13, CD33, CD14, CD4, CD15, CD64, HLA-DR, CD11c. Lymphocytes were characterized by a typical CLL immunophenotype: CD19+, CD5+, CD23+, CD20+ (dim) and negative for FMC7, CD34, CD10 and TdT. Cytogenetic studies were negative for CLL and AML panels. PCR assays for AML specific genetic abnormalities were negative. Immunoglobulin gene analysis established the clonal nature of the B-cell expansion. A final diagnosis of concomitant CLL and AML(FAB: M5) was made.
CONCLUSION: We have reported a case in which there was simultaneous presentation of AML and CLL. Both forms of leukemia were well documented by morphology, cytometric analysis and molecular studies. Our findings support the idea that this rare concurrence of AML and untreated CLL may represent two separate disease processes.

Bogdanic M, Ostojic Kolonic S, Kaic G, et al.
Fine-needle aspiration cytology yield as a basis for morphological, molecular, and cytogenetic diagnosis in alk-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma with atypical clinical presentation.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2017; 45(1):51-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a T-cell lymphoma usually occurring in children and young adults. It frequently involves lymph nodes and extranodal sites and is associated with favorable prognosis. A 20-year old man was admitted for painful mass in the left axilla with overlying skin redness. Clinical presentation and US findings were highly suspicious for sarcoma. Definitive diagnosis was established cytolologically and using ancillary technologies from cytological samples. Fine needle aspiration cytology of tumor mass (lymph node conglomerate and surrounding tissue) show predominance of large, pleomorphic, atypical cells with large nuclei and vacuolised cytoplasm. Atypical cells immunocytochemically were positive for LCA, CD30, CD3, EMA, and ALK; negative for CD15 and CD56. NPM-ALK transcript was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCT). Molecular analysis of TCRß and TCRγ genes demonstrated clonal TCR genes rearrangement. Complex karyotype with multiple numerical and structural changes was found on conventional cytogenetics. These findings excluded sarcoma and corroborated the diagnosis of ALK positive ALCL. Cutaneous involvement in ALCL can clinically mimic sarcoma, especially in cases with localized disease without B symptoms. In those cases, immunostaining, PCR, and conventional cytogenetics are helpful to exclude sarcoma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:51-54. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Zhao L, Feng X, Song X, et al.
miR-493-5p attenuates the invasiveness and tumorigenicity in human breast cancer by targeting FUT4.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):1007-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women. Altered fucosylation was found to be closely associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cell proliferation and metastasis, and aberrant miRNA expression has been observed in breast cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the level of fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and miR-493-5p in breast cancer and investigate their relationship. In the present study, we demonstrated the differential expressional profiles of FUT4 and miR‑493-5p in 29 clinical breast cancer tissues, matched adjacent tissue samples and two breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). Briefly, altered expression levels of FUT4 modified the invasive activities and tumorigenicity of the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Further study demonstrated that miR-493-5p plays a role as a suppressor in breast cancer cell invasion and tumorigenicity. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-493-5p were inversely proportional to those of FUT4 both at the mRNA and protein levels. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR‑493-5p bound to the 3'-untranslated (3'-UTR) region of FUT4, and inhibited the expression of FUT4 in breast cancer cells. Taken together, our data suggest that FUT4 may have a potential role in the treatment of breast cancer, as well as miR-493-5p is a novel regulator of invasiveness and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells through targeting FUT4. The miR-493-5p/FUT4 pathway has therapeutic potential in breast cancer.

Singhal S, Bhojnagarwala PS, O'Brien S, et al.
Origin and Role of a Subset of Tumor-Associated Neutrophils with Antigen-Presenting Cell Features in Early-Stage Human Lung Cancer.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 30(1):120-135 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Based on studies in mouse tumor models, granulocytes appear to play a tumor-promoting role. However, there are limited data about the phenotype and function of tumor-associated neutrophils (TANs) in humans. Here, we identify a subset of TANs that exhibited characteristics of both neutrophils and antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in early-stage human lung cancer. These APC-like "hybrid neutrophils," which originate from CD11b(+)CD15(hi)CD10(-)CD16(low) immature progenitors, are able to cross-present antigens, as well as trigger and augment anti-tumor T cell responses. Interferon-γ and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor are requisite factors in the tumor that, working through the Ikaros transcription factor, synergistically exert their APC-promoting effects on the progenitors. Overall, these data demonstrate the existence of a specialized TAN subset with anti-tumor capabilities in human cancer.

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