Gene Summary

Gene:FUT4; fucosyltransferase 4
Summary:The product of this gene transfers fucose to N-acetyllactosamine polysaccharides to generate fucosylated carbohydrate structures. It catalyzes the synthesis of the non-sialylated antigen, Lewis x (CD15). [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2009]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:alpha-(1,3)-fucosyltransferase 4
Source:NCBIAccessed: 09 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 10 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Infant
  • Liver
  • Sulfotransferases
  • Antigens, CD15
  • Drug Resistance
  • Transcription Factors
  • Sialyltransferases
  • Glycoproteins
  • Hedgehog Proteins
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Chromosome 11
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Western Blotting
  • Signal Transduction
  • Transfection
  • Cerebellar Neoplasms
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Transcription Factor HES-1
  • Transcription
  • Apoptosis
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Breast Cancer
  • Lewis Blood-Group System
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Base Sequence
  • MicroRNAs
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • CD Antigens
  • Hodgkin Lymphoma
  • Fucosyltransferases
  • Young Adult
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Medulloblastoma
  • Zinc Finger Protein GLI1
  • Messenger RNA
  • Promoter Regions
  • MAP Kinase Signaling System
Tag cloud generated 09 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: FUT4 (cancer-related)

Bogdanic M, Ostojic Kolonic S, Kaic G, et al.
Fine-needle aspiration cytology yield as a basis for morphological, molecular, and cytogenetic diagnosis in alk-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma with atypical clinical presentation.
Diagn Cytopathol. 2017; 45(1):51-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
ALK positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a T-cell lymphoma usually occurring in children and young adults. It frequently involves lymph nodes and extranodal sites and is associated with favorable prognosis. A 20-year old man was admitted for painful mass in the left axilla with overlying skin redness. Clinical presentation and US findings were highly suspicious for sarcoma. Definitive diagnosis was established cytolologically and using ancillary technologies from cytological samples. Fine needle aspiration cytology of tumor mass (lymph node conglomerate and surrounding tissue) show predominance of large, pleomorphic, atypical cells with large nuclei and vacuolised cytoplasm. Atypical cells immunocytochemically were positive for LCA, CD30, CD3, EMA, and ALK; negative for CD15 and CD56. NPM-ALK transcript was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCT). Molecular analysis of TCRß and TCRγ genes demonstrated clonal TCR genes rearrangement. Complex karyotype with multiple numerical and structural changes was found on conventional cytogenetics. These findings excluded sarcoma and corroborated the diagnosis of ALK positive ALCL. Cutaneous involvement in ALCL can clinically mimic sarcoma, especially in cases with localized disease without B symptoms. In those cases, immunostaining, PCR, and conventional cytogenetics are helpful to exclude sarcoma. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2017;45:51-54. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Zhao L, Feng X, Song X, et al.
miR-493-5p attenuates the invasiveness and tumorigenicity in human breast cancer by targeting FUT4.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(2):1007-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women. Altered fucosylation was found to be closely associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of cell proliferation and metastasis, and aberrant miRNA expression has been observed in breast cancer. The present study aimed to evaluate the level of fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and miR-493-5p in breast cancer and investigate their relationship. In the present study, we demonstrated the differential expressional profiles of FUT4 and miR‑493-5p in 29 clinical breast cancer tissues, matched adjacent tissue samples and two breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). Briefly, altered expression levels of FUT4 modified the invasive activities and tumorigenicity of the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Further study demonstrated that miR-493-5p plays a role as a suppressor in breast cancer cell invasion and tumorigenicity. Moreover, the expression levels of miR-493-5p were inversely proportional to those of FUT4 both at the mRNA and protein levels. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed that miR‑493-5p bound to the 3'-untranslated (3'-UTR) region of FUT4, and inhibited the expression of FUT4 in breast cancer cells. Taken together, our data suggest that FUT4 may have a potential role in the treatment of breast cancer, as well as miR-493-5p is a novel regulator of invasiveness and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cells through targeting FUT4. The miR-493-5p/FUT4 pathway has therapeutic potential in breast cancer.

Valiulienė G, Treigytė G, Savickienė J, et al.
Histone modifications patterns in tissues and tumours from acute promyelocytic leukemia xenograft model in response to combined epigenetic therapy.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 79:62-70 [PubMed] Related Publications
Xenograft models are suitable for in vivo study of leukemia's pathogenesis and the preclinical development of anti-leukemia agents but understanding of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms linking to adult cell functions in pathological conditions during different in vivo treatments is yet unknown. In this study, for the first time epigenetic chromatin modifications were characterized in tissues and tumours from murine xenograft model generated using the human acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) NB4 cells engrafted in immunodeficient NOG mice. Xenografts were subjected to combined epigenetic treatment by histone deacetylase inhibitor Belinostat, histone methyltransferase inhibitor 3-DZNeaplanocin A and all-trans-retinoic acid based on in vitro model, where such combination inhibited NB4 cell growth and enhanced retinoic acid-induced differentiation to granulocytes. Xenotransplantation was assessed by peripheral blood cells counts, the analysis of cell surface markers (CD15, CD33, CD45) and the expression of certain genes (PML-RAR alpha, CSF3, G-CSFR, WT1). The combined treatment prolonged APL xenograft mice survival and prevented tumour formation. The analysis of the expression of histone marks such as acetylation of H4, trimethylation of H3K4, H3K9 and H3K27 in APL xenograft mice tumours and tissues demonstrated tissue-specific changes in the level of histone modifications and the APL prognostic mark, WT1 protein. In summary, the effects of epigenetic agents used in this study were positive for leukemia prevention and linked to a modulation of the chromatin epigenetic environment in adult tissues of malignant organism.

Singh AR, Joshi S, Zulcic M, et al.
PI-3K Inhibitors Preferentially Target CD15+ Cancer Stem Cell Population in SHH Driven Medulloblastoma.
PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0150836 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Sonic hedgehog (SHH) medulloblastoma (MB) subtype is driven by a proliferative CD15+ tumor propagating cell (TPC), also considered in the literature as a putative cancer stem cell (CSC). Despite considerable research, much of the biology of this TPC remains unknown. We report evidence that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI-3K) play a crucial role in the propagation, survival and potential response to therapy in this CD15+ CSC/TPC-driven malignant disease. Using the ND2-SmoA1 transgenic mouse model for MB, mouse genetics and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), we demonstrate that the CD15+TPCs are 1) obligately required for SmoA1Tg-driven tumorigenicity 2) regulated by PTEN and PI-3K signaling 3) selectively sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of pan PI-3K inhibitors in vitro and in vivo but resistant to chemotherapy 4) in the SmoA1Tg mouse model are genomically similar to the SHH human MB subgroup. The results provide the first evidence that PTEN plays a role in MB TPC signaling and biology and that PI-3K inhibitors target and suppress the survival and proliferation of cells within the mouse and human CD15+ cancer stem cell compartment. In contrast, CD15+ TPCs are resistant to cisplatinum, temozolomide and the SHH inhibitor, NVP-LDE-225, agents currently used in treatment of medulloblastoma. These studies validate the therapeutic efficacy of pan PI-3K inhibitors in the treatment of CD15+ TPC dependent medulloblastoma and suggest a sequential combination of PI-3K inhibitors and chemotherapy will have augmented efficacy in the treatment of this disease.

Keino D, Kinoshita A, Tomizawa D, et al.
Residual disease detected by multidimensional flow cytometry shows prognostic significance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia with intermediate cytogenetics and negative FLT3-ITD: a report from the Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.
Int J Hematol. 2016; 103(4):416-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Residual disease (RD) after induction chemotherapy may predict clinical outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the present study, we investigated the prognostic significance of RD detected by multidimensional flow cytometry (MDF) among 34 children treated for AML in a clinical trial (JPLSG AML-05) in Japan. Bone marrow samples were analyzed at the points of the end of the first induction course (BMA-1) and second induction course (BMA-2) by MDF. RD was evaluated by detecting the immature cells showing abnormal antigen expression pattern; CD34(+), CD15(+), CD7(+). Thirteen (39.4 %) of 34 patients at BMA-1 and 8 (27.6 %) of 34 at BMA-2 had RD levels ≥0.1 %. There was no significant difference in 3y-EFS and 3y-OS between patients with RD levels ≥0.1 % and those with RD levels <0.1 % (53.8 versus 70.0 %, P = 0.30 and 50.0 versus 66.7 %, P = 0.27, respectively). However, IR cytogenetics and negative FLT3-ITD patients with RD levels ≥0.1 % exhibited significantly lower 3y-EFS and 3y-OS than those with RD levels <0.1 % (33.3 versus 83.3 %, P = 0.02 and 20.0 versus 76.9 %, P = 0.005, respectively). Our study suggests that RD shows prognostic relevance in pediatric patients with IR cytogenetics and negative FLT3-ITD AML.

Mereiter S, Magalhães A, Adamczyk B, et al.
Glycomic analysis of gastric carcinoma cells discloses glycans as modulators of RON receptor tyrosine kinase activation in cancer.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1860(8):1795-808 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Terminal α2-3 and α2-6 sialylation of glycans precludes further chain elongation, leading to the biosynthesis of cancer relevant epitopes such as sialyl-Lewis X (SLe(X)). SLe(X) overexpression is associated with tumor aggressive phenotype and patients' poor prognosis.
METHODS: MKN45 gastric carcinoma cells transfected with the sialyltransferase ST3GAL4 were established as a model overexpressing sialylated terminal glycans. We have evaluated at the structural level the glycome and the sialoproteome of this gastric cancer cell line applying liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. We further validated an identified target expression by proximity ligation assay in gastric tumors.
RESULTS: Our results showed that ST3GAL4 overexpression leads to several glycosylation alterations, including reduced O-glycan extension and decreased bisected and increased branched N-glycans. A shift from α2-6 towards α2-3 linked sialylated N-glycans was also observed. Sialoproteomic analysis further identified 47 proteins with significantly increased sialylated N-glycans. These included integrins, insulin receptor, carcinoembryonic antigens and RON receptor tyrosine kinase, which are proteins known to be key players in malignancy. Further analysis of RON confirmed its modification with SLe(X) and the concomitant activation. SLe(X) and RON co-expression was validated in gastric tumors.
CONCLUSION: The overexpression of ST3GAL4 interferes with the overall glycophenotype of cancer cells affecting a multitude of key proteins involved in malignancy. Aberrant glycosylation of the RON receptor was shown as an alternative mechanism of oncogenic activation.
GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides novel targets and points to an integrative tumor glycomic/proteomic-profiling for gastric cancer patients' stratification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Glycans in personalised medicine" Guest Editor: Professor Gordan Lauc.

Zhang C, Yi Y, Chen C, et al.
Discordant lymphoma consisting of mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma in the right supraclavicular lymph nodes: a case report.
Diagn Pathol. 2015; 10:215 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Discordant lymphoma is defined by the simultaneous presence of two or more distinct types of lymphomas at different anatomic sites. With fewer than 20 studies reporting cases of discordant lymphoma to date, the incidence of this condition is believed to be very low.
CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of discordant lymphoma in a 34-year-old female patient that involved mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma in the right supraclavicular lymph nodes. The patient presented with a mass in the mediastinum and enlargement of the right supraclavicular lymph nodes, but no obvious signs of lymphoma. Histological examination revealed that the encapsulated mediastinal mass contained medium- or large-size tumor cells with lightly stained cytoplasm and round vesicular nuclei as well as a high percentage of mitotic cells; strongly positive immunohistochemical staining for PAX5, CD20, and CD79a also was observed. Examination of biopsied right supraclavicular lymph node tissues revealed separation by collagen fibers, extensive inflammatory cell infiltration, and large-size tumor cells, such as Reed-Sternberg cells. These tissues stained strongly positive for PAX5 and CD30, weakly positive for CD15, and negative for Epstein-Barr viral RNA. We also found monoclonal gene rearrangement in the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene in the mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, but no monoclonal gene rearrangement in the nodular sclerosis Hodgkin lymphoma. These findings suggested that these two lymphomas were not of a common clonal origin. The patient was treated by surgical excision of the mediastinal mass followed by radio-chemotherapy, and no metastasis or recurrence occurred during a follow-up period of 32 months.
CONCLUSION: A review of previously reported cases indicated that the clinical manifestations and pathological features of discordant lymphoma are diverse due to variation in the types of lymphomas involved. Physicians must have an awareness of discordant lymphoma to avoid incorrect and missed diagnoses, especially considering that the true incidence may not be as low as previously believed.

Feng X, Zhao L, Gao S, et al.
Increased fucosylation has a pivotal role in multidrug resistance of breast cancer cells through miR-224-3p targeting FUT4.
Gene. 2016; 578(2):232-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fucosylation is the final step in the glycosylation machinery, which produces glycans involved in tumor multidrug resistance development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous negative regulators of gene expression and have been implicated in most cellular processes of tumors, including drug resistance. This study was undertaken to determine the roles of fucosylation and miR-224-3p in multidrug resistance of human breast cancer cell lines. Comparative analysis revealed differential modification patterns of fucosylation of the fucosylated N-glycans in drug-resistant T47D/ADR cells and sensitive line T47D cells. The expressional profiles of fucosyltransferase genes in two pairs of parental and chemoresistant human breast cancer cell lines showed that FUT4 was up-regulated highly in MDR cell lines. Altered level of FUT4 affected the drug-resistant phenotype of T47D and T47D/ADR cells both in vitro and in vivo. By bioinformatics analysis, we identified FUT4 as one of the miR-224-3p-targeted genes. Further studies showed an inverse relationship between of FUT4 and miR-224-3p in parental and ADR-resistant breast cancer cells, wherein miR-224-3p was downregulated in resistant cells. 3'-UTR dual-luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-224-3p directly targeted 3'-untranslation region (3'-UTR) of FUT4 mRNA. In addition, miR-224-3p overexpression sensitized T47D/ADR cells to chemotherapeutics and reduced the growth rate of breast cancer xenografts in vivo. Our results indicate that FUT4 and miR-224-3p are crucial regulators of cancer response to chemotherapy, and may serve as therapeutic targets to reverse chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer.

Ohtsu N, Nakatani Y, Yamashita D, et al.
Eva1 Maintains the Stem-like Character of Glioblastoma-Initiating Cells by Activating the Noncanonical NF-κB Signaling Pathway.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(1):171-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM)-initiating cells (GIC) are a tumorigenic subpopulation that are resistant to radio- and chemotherapies and are the source of disease recurrence. Therefore, the identification and characterization of GIC-specific factors is critical toward the generation of effective GBM therapeutics. In this study, we investigated the role of epithelial V-like antigen 1 (Eva1, also known as myelin protein zero-like 2) in stemness and GBM tumorigenesis. Eva1 was prominently expressed in GICs in vitro and in stem cell marker (Sox2, CD15, CD49f)-expressing cells derived from human GBM tissues. Eva1 knockdown in GICs reduced their self-renewal and tumor-forming capabilities, whereas Eva1 overexpression enhanced these properties. Eva1 deficiency was also associated with decreased expression of stemness-related genes, indicating a requirement for Eva1 in maintaining GIC pluripotency. We further demonstrate that Eva1 induced GIC proliferation through the activation of the RelB-dependent noncanonical NF-κB pathway by recruiting TRAF2 to the cytoplasmic tail. Taken together, our findings highlight Eva1 as a novel regulator of GIC function and also provide new mechanistic insight into the role of noncanonical NF-κB activation in GIC, thus offering multiple potential therapeutic targets for preclinical investigation in GBM.

Tian L, Shen D, Li X, et al.
Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion of lung cancer by down-regulating FUT4.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(2):1619-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important factor in lung cancer metastasis, and targeting EMT is a potential therapeutic strategy. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and its synthetic cancer sugar antigen Lewis Y (LeY) was abnormally elevated in many cancers. In this study, a traditional Chinese medicine ginsenoside Rg3 was used to investigate whether its inhibition to EMT and invasion of lung cancer is by the glycobiology mechanism. We found that Rg3 treatment (25, 50, 100 μg/ml) inhibited cell migration and invasion by wound-healing and transwell assays. Rg3 could significantly alter EMT marker proteins with increased E-cadherin, but decreased Snail, N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. Rg3 also down-regulated FUT4 gene and protein expression in lung cancer cells by qPCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. After FUT4 down-regulated with shFUT4, EMT was obviously inhibited. Furthermore, the activation of EGFR through decreased LeY biosynthesis was inhibited, which blocked the downstream MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. In addition, Rg3 reduced tumor volume and weight in xenograft mouse model, and significantly decreased tumor metastasis nodules in lung tissues by tail vein injection. In conclusion, Rg3 inhibits EMT and invasion of lung cancer by down-regulating FUT4 mediated EGFR inactivation and blocking MAPK and NF-κB signal pathways. Rg3 may be a potentially effective agent for the treatment of lung cancer.

Kuhlen M, Hönscheid A, Schemme J, et al.
Hodgkin lymphoma as a novel presentation of familial DICER1 syndrome.
Eur J Pediatr. 2016; 175(4):593-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: DICER1 germline mutations are associated with an inherited cancer syndrome, most commonly presenting with pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), ovarian sex cord tumors, thyroid cysts/goitre, and cystic nephroma. We describe the occurrence of a Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) of the T cell phenotype in a family with DICER1 syndrome. The patient presented with PPB Type I and HL. Immunohistochemical staining of the Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells revealed CD30, TGP, CD2, CD3, CD15, and IRF4 positivity and weekly positivity of PAX5. T cell receptor repertoire analysis suggested HL of T cell origin, which is in contrast to common B cell-derived HL. The mother had been diagnosed with thyroid cysts, one sister had died from a primitive neuroectodermal tumor, and a brother had died from PPB Type III. Two mutational events were revealed in all affected family members; a single bp deletion, c.5299delC, leading to a frameshift and premature stop in exon 24 and a heterozygous variant (c.4616C>T; p.Thr1539Met) located in exon 23 of the DICER1 gene. This variant is predicted to be benign by in silico analysis.
CONCLUSION: Future studies looking for DICER1 mutations in HL cases of the T cell phenotype will be important to confirm its association with constitutional DICER1 syndrome.
WHAT IS KNOWN: • DICER1 germline mutations are associated with an inherited cancer syndrome, most commonly pleuropulmonary blastoma, ovarian sex cord tumors, thyroid cysts/goitre, and cystic nephroma. • Hodgkin lymphoma is one of the most frequent types of malignant lymphomas and typically arises sporadically. T cell-derived Hodgkin lymphomas are exceptionally rare. What is New: • DICER1 syndrome may have an even broader phenotypic spectrum and seems to be associated with rare forms of T cell Hodgkin lymphoma.

Li L, Xu L, Yan J, et al.
CXCR2-CXCL1 axis is correlated with neutrophil infiltration and predicts a poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:129 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammation is a hallmark of cancer, yet the mechanisms that regulate immune cell infiltration into tumors remain poorly characterized. This study attempted to characterize the composition, distribution, and prognostic value of CXCR2(+) cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to examine the CXCR2 ligands that are responsible for local immune infiltration in different areas of HCC tumors.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescene were used to identify CXCR2(+) cells in HCC tissues. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were applied to estimate recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) for 259 HCC patients. The expression levels of CXCR2 ligands (CXCL-1, -2, -5, and -8) were measured by real-time PCR and compared with local immune cell density. The combined prognostic value of the CXCR2-CXCL1 axis was further evaluated.
RESULTS: In HCC tissues, CXCR2(+) cells were mainly neutrophils that were enriched in the peri-tumoral stroma (PS) region. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that increased CXCR2(+) PS cells were associated with reduced RFS and OS (P = 0.015 for RFS; P = 0.002 for OS). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis identified CXCR2(+) PS cell density as an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.737, 95 % confidence interval [CI] = 1.167-2.585, P = 0.006). Furthermore, we detected a positive correlation between the density of CD15(+) neutrophils and CXCL1 levels in both the peri-tumoral stroma and intra-tumoral regions. The combination of CXCR2 and CXCL1 expression levels represented a powerful predictor of a poor prognosis for patients with HCC.
CONCLUSIONS: Our data showed that the CXCR2(+) cell density was an independent prognostic factor for predicting OS for HCC patients. The CXCR2-CXCL1 axis can regulate neutrophil infiltration into HCC tumor tissues and might represent a useful target for anti-HCC therapies.

Qazi MA, Vora P, Venugopal C, et al.
A novel stem cell culture model of recurrent glioblastoma.
J Neurooncol. 2016; 126(1):57-67 [PubMed] Related Publications
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults with average disease relapse at 9 months and median survival rarely extending beyond 15 months. Brain tumor stem cells (BTSCs) have been implicated in not only initiating GBM but also conferring resistance to therapy. However, it is not clear whether the BTSC population that initiates tumor growth is also responsible for GBM recurrence. In this study, we have developed a novel in vitro treatment model to profile the evolution of primary treatment-naïve GBM BTSCs through chemoradiotherapy. We report that our in vitro model enriched for a CD15+/CD133- BTSC population, mirroring the phenotype of BTSCs in recurrent GBM. We also show that in vitro treatment increased stem cell gene expression as well as self-renewal capacity of primary GBMs. In addition, the chemoradiotherapy-refractory gene signature obtained from gene expression profiling identified a hyper-aggressive subtype of glioma. The delivery of in vitro chemoradiotherapy to primary GBM BTSCs models several aspects of recurrent GBM biology, and could be used as a discovery and drug-screening platform to uncover new biological drivers and therapeutic targets in GBM.

Zhang H, Li ZL, Ye SB, et al.
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells inhibit T cell proliferation in human extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma: a novel prognostic indicator.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2015; 64(12):1587-99 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and its correlation with advanced disease stage have been shown in solid cancers. Here, we investigated the functional features and clinical significance of MDSCs in extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma (ENKL). A higher percentage of circulating HLA-DR(-)CD33(+)CD11b(+) MDSCs was observed in ENKL patients than in healthy controls (P < 0.05, n = 32) by flow cytometry analysis. These MDSCs from ENKL patients (ENKL-MDSCs) consisted of CD14(+) monocytic (Mo-MDSCs, >60 %) and CD15(+) granulocytic (PMN-MDSCs, <20 %) MDSCs. Furthermore, these ENKL-MDSCs expressed higher levels of Arg-1, iNOS and IL-17 compared to the levels of MDSCs from healthy donors, and they expressed moderate levels of TGFβ and IL-10 but lower levels of CD66b. The ENKL-MDSCs strongly suppressed the anti-CD3-induced allogeneic and autologous CD4 T cell proliferation (P < 0.05), but they only slightly suppressed CD8 T cell proliferation (P > 0.05). Interestingly, ENKL-MDSCs inhibited the secretion of IFNγ but promoted IL-10, IL-17 and TGFβ secretion as well as Foxp3 expression in T cells. The administration of inhibitors of iNOS, Arg-1 and ROS significantly reversed the suppression of anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation by MDSCs (P < 0.05). Importantly, based on multivariate Cox regression analysis, the HLA-DR(-)CD33(+)CD11b(+) cells and CD14(+) Mo-MDSCs were independent predictors for disease-free survival (DFS, P = 0.013 and 0.016) and overall survival (OS, P = 0.017 and 0.027). Overall, our results identified for the first time that ENKL-MDSCs (mainly Mo-MDSCs) have a prognostic value for patients and a suppressive function on T cell proliferation.

Giordano G, Febbraro A, Tomaselli E, et al.
Cancer-related CD15/FUT4 overexpression decreases benefit to agents targeting EGFR or VEGF acting as a novel RAF-MEK-ERK kinase downstream regulator in metastatic colorectal cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 34:108 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer-related immune antigens in the tumor microenvironment could represent an obstacle to agents targeting EGFR "cetuximab" or VEGF "bevacizumab" in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients.
METHODS: Infiltrating immune cells into tumor tissues, cancer-related expression of immune antigens (CD3, CD8, CD68, CD73, MPO, CD15/FUT4) from 102 mCRC patients receiving first-line Cetuximab or Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy were assessed by immunohistochemistry and validated in an independent tissue microarrays of 140 patients. Genome-wide expression profiles from 436 patients and 60 colon cancer cell lines were investigated using bioinformatics analysis. In vitro kinase assays of target genes activated by chemokines or growth factors were performed.
RESULTS: Here, we report that cancer-related CD15/FUT4 is overexpressed in most of mCRCs patients (43 %) and associates with lower intratumoral CD3+ and CD8+ T cells, higher systemic inflammation (NLR at diagnosis >5) and poorer outcomes, in terms of response and progression-free survival than those CD15/FUT4-low or negative ones (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2.92; 95 % CI = 1.86-4.41; P < 0.001). Overexpression of CD15/FUT4 is induced through RAF-MEK-ERK kinase cascade, suppressed by MEK inhibitors and exhibits a close connection with constitutive oncogenic signalling pathways that respond to ERBB3 or FGFR4 activation (P < 0.001). CD15/FUT4-high expressing colon cancer cells with primary resistance to cetuximab or bevacizumab are significantly more sensitive to MEK inhibitors than CD15/FUT4-low counterparts.
CONCLUSION: Cancer-related CD15/FUT4 overexpression participates in cetuximab or bevacizumab mechanisms of resistance in mCRC patients. CD15/FUT4 as a potential target of the antitumor immune response requires further evaluation in clinical studies.

Zeira E, Abramovitch R, Meir K, et al.
The knockdown of H19lncRNA reveals its regulatory role in pluripotency and tumorigenesis of human embryonic carcinoma cells.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(33):34691-703 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The function of imprinted H19 long non-coding RNA is still controversial. It is highly expressed in early embryogenesis and decreases after birth and re-expressed in cancer. To study the role of H19 in oncogenesis and pluripotency, we down-regulated H19 expression in vitro and in vivo in pluripotent human embryonic carcinoma (hEC) and embryonic stem (hES) cells. H19 knockdown resulted in a decrease in the expression of the pluripotency markers Oct4, Nanog, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81, and in the up-regulation of SSEA1; it further attenuated cell proliferation, decreased cell-matrix attachment, and up-regulated E-Cadherin expression. SCID-Beige mice transplanted with H19 down-regulated hEC cells exhibited slower kinetics of tumor formation, resulting in an increased animal survival. Tumors derived from H19 down-regulated cells showed a decrease in the expression of pluripotency markers and up-regulation of SSEA-1 and E-cadherin. Our results suggest that H19 oncogenicity in hEC cells is mediated through the regulation of the pluripotency state.

do Nascimento JC, Ferreira Sde A, Vasconcelos JL, et al.
Fut3 role in breast invasive ductal carcinoma: Investigating its gene promoter and protein expression.
Exp Mol Pathol. 2015; 99(3):409-15 [PubMed] Related Publications
Fucosylated glycans synthesized by α1,3/4-fucosyltransferase (FUT3) enzyme play an important role in breast cancer prognosis and metastasis, being involved in the binding of circulating tumor cells to the endothelium and being related to tumor stage, metastatic potential and chemoresistance. Despite the pro-tumor action of this enzyme, studies have demonstrated its role in natural killer-induced cytotoxicity through the recognition of sialyl Lewis X by C-type lectin receptors and through extrinsic apoptosis pathway triggered by Apo2L-TRAIL. This study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of FUT3 in invasive breast carcinoma (IDC) from patients of Pernambuco state, Northeast of Brazil, and genotype FUT3 promoter region to identify possible SNPs that could be associated with variations in FUT3 expression. Immunohistochemistry assay was used to access the FUT3 expression in normal (n=11) and tumor tissues (n=85). DNA sequencing was performed to genotype the FUT3 promoter region in patients with IDC (n=109) and healthy controls (n=110). Our results demonstrated that the absence of FUT3 enzyme is related to breast's IDC. The non-expression of FUT3 was more frequent in larger lesions and also in HER2 negative IDC tumors. Genomic analysis showed that two variations localized in FUT3 promoter region are possibly associated with IDC. Our results suggest that minor allele T of SNP rs73920070 (-6933 C>T) confers protection whereas minor allele T of SNP rs2306969 (-6951 C>T) triggers to susceptibility to IDC in the population of Pernambuco state, Northeast of Brazil.

Shan X, Tian LL, Zhang YM, et al.
Ginsenoside Rg3 suppresses FUT4 expression through inhibiting NF-κB/p65 signaling pathway to promote melanoma cell death.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(2):701-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Abnormal glycosylation is catalyzed by the specific glycosyltransferases and correlates with tumor cell apoptosis. Increased fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is seen in many types of cancer, and manipulating FUT4 expression through specific signaling pathway inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis. NF-κB is known playing a vital role to control cell growth and apoptosis. Ginsenoside Rg3 is an herbal medicine with strong antitumor activity through inhibiting tumor growth and promoting tumor cell death. However, whether Rg3-induced inhibition on tumor development involves reduced NF-κB signaling and FUT4 expression remains unknown. In the present study, we found that Rg3 suppressed FUT4 expression by abrogating the binding of NF-κB to FUT4 promoter through inhibiting the expression of signaling molecules of NF-κB pathway, reducing NF-κB DNA binding activity and NF-κB transcription activity. NF-κB inhibitor (Bay 11-7082) or knocking down p65 expression by p65 siRNA also led to a significant decreased FUT4 expression. In addition, Rg3 induced apoptosis by activating both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, in a xenograft mouse model, Rg3 downregulated FUT4 and NF-κB/p65 expression and suppressed melanoma cell growth and induced apoptosis without any noticeable toxicity. In conclusion, Rg3 induces tumor cell apoptosis correlated with its inhibitory effect on NF-κB signaling pathway-mediated FUT4 expression. Results suggest Rg3 might be a novel therapy agent for melanoma treatment.

Hossain DM, Pal SK, Moreira D, et al.
TLR9-Targeted STAT3 Silencing Abrogates Immunosuppressive Activity of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells from Prostate Cancer Patients.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(16):3771-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Recent advances in immunotherapy of advanced human cancers underscored the need to address and eliminate tumor immune evasion. The myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are important inhibitors of T-cell responses in solid tumors, such as prostate cancers. However, targeting MDSCs proved challenging due to their phenotypic heterogeneity.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Myeloid cell populations were evaluated using flow cytometry on blood samples, functional assays, and immunohistochemical/immunofluorescent stainings on specimens from healthy subjects, localized and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.
RESULTS: Here, we identify a population of Lin(-)CD15(HI)CD33(LO) granulocytic MDSCs that accumulate in patients' circulation during prostate cancer progression from localized to metastatic disease. The prostate cancer-associated MDSCs potently inhibit autologous CD8(+) T cells' proliferation and production of IFNγ and granzyme-B. The circulating MDSCs have high levels of activated STAT3, which is a central immune checkpoint regulator. The granulocytic pSTAT3(+) cells are also detectable in patients' prostate tissues. We previously generated an original strategy to silence genes specifically in Toll-like Receptor-9 (TLR9) positive myeloid cells using CpG-siRNA conjugates. We demonstrate that human granulocytic MDSCs express TLR9 and rapidly internalize naked CpG-STAT3siRNA, thereby silencing STAT3 expression. STAT3 blocking abrogates immunosuppressive effects of patients-derived MDSCs on effector CD8(+) T cells. These effects depended on reduced expression and enzymatic activity of Arginase-1, a downstream STAT3 target gene and a potent T-cell inhibitor.
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we demonstrate the accumulation of granulocytic MDSCs with prostate cancer progression and the feasibility of using TLR9-targeted STAT3siRNA delivery strategy to alleviate MDSC-mediated immunosuppression.

Bassagañas S, Allende H, Cobler L, et al.
Inflammatory cytokines regulate the expression of glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of tumor-associated sialylated glycans in pancreatic cancer cell lines.
Cytokine. 2015; 75(1):197-206 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an abundant stroma containing several pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are described to modulate the expression of important genes related to tumor promotion and progression. In the present work we have investigated the potential role of these cytokines in the biosynthesis of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens such as sialyl-Lewis(x) (SLe(x)) through the regulation of specific glycosyltransferase genes.
METHODS: Two human PDAC cell lines MDAPanc-3 and MDAPanc-28 were treated with pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNFα, IL-6 or IL-8, and the content of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens at the cell membrane was analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, variation in the mRNA expression of sialyltransferase (ST) and fucosyltransferase (FUT) genes, which codify for the ST and FucT enzymes involved in the carbohydrate antigens' biosynthesis, was determined. The inflammatory microenvironment of PDAC tissues and the expression of Lewis-type antigens were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to find a possible correlation between inflammation status and the presence of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens.
RESULTS: IL-1β stimuli increased SLe(x) and α2,6-sialic acid levels in MDAPanc-28 cells and enhanced the mRNA levels of ST3GAL3-4 and FUT5-7, which codify for ST and FucT enzymes related to SLe(x) biosynthesis, and of ST6GAL1. IL-6 and TNFα treatments increased the levels of SLe(x) and Le(y) antigens in MDPanc-3 cells and, similarly, the mRNA expression of ST3GAL3-4, FUT1-2 and FUT6, related to these Lewis-type antigens' biosynthesis, were increased. Most PDAC tissues stained for SLe(x) and SLe(a) and tended to be expressed in the tumor samples with a higher presence of inflammatory immune cells.
CONCLUSIONS: The inflammatory microenvironment can modulate the glycosylation pattern of PDAC cells, increasing the expression of tumor-associated sialylated antigens such as SLe(x), which contributes to pancreatic tumor malignancy.

Gate D, Danielpour M, Bannykh S, Town T
Characterization of cancer stem cells and primary cilia in medulloblastoma.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2015; 14(5):600-11 [PubMed] Related Publications
Medulloblastoma, a tumor of the cerebellum, is the most common pediatric central nervous system malignancy. These tumors are etiologically linked to mutations in the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway, which signals through the primary, non-motile cilium. The growth of these aggressive tumors relies on self-renewal of tumor-propagating cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Previous reports have implicated CD133-expressing cells as CSCs in brain tumors, while those expressing CD15 have been shown to propagate medulloblastoma. Here, we demonstrate that CD133+ and CD15+ cells are distinct medulloblastoma populations. CD15+ cells comprise approximately 0.5-1% of total human medulloblastoma cells, display CSC properties in culture and are detected in the Smoothened A1 transgenic mouse model of medulloblastoma. Additionally, we report on a medulloblastoma patient with enriched CD15+ cells in recurrent vs primary medulloblastoma. We also demonstrate that human medulloblastoma cells critically rely on establishment of primary cilia to drive Shh-mediated cell division. Primary cilia are found in external granule cells of human fetal cerebellum and in 12/14 medulloblastoma samples. Yet, CD15+ medulloblastoma cells lack primary cilia, suggesting that this CSC population signals independently of Shh. These results are important when considering the effects of current and prospective treatment modalities on medulloblastoma CSC populations.

Caxaria S, Arthold S, Nathwani AC, Goh PA
Generation of Integration-Free Patient Specific iPS Cells Using Episomal Plasmids Under Feeder Free Conditions.
Methods Mol Biol. 2016; 1353:355-66 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reprogramming somatic cells into a pluripotent state involves the overexpression of transcription factors leading to a series of changes that end in the formation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). These iPSCs have a wide range of potential uses from drug testing and in vitro disease modelling to personalized cell therapies for patients. While viral methods for reprogramming factor delivery have been traditionally preferred due to their high efficiency, it is now possible to generate iPSCs using nonviral methods at similar efficiencies. We developed a robust reprogramming strategy that combines episomal plasmids and the use of commercially available animal free reagents that can be easily adapted for the GMP manufacture of clinical grade cells.

Musialik E, Bujko M, Kober P, et al.
Promoter DNA methylation and expression levels of HOXA4, HOXA5 and MEIS1 in acute myeloid leukemia.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(5):3948-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
HOXA genes encode transcription factors, which are crucial for embryogenesis and tissue differentiation and are involved in the early stages of hematopoiesis. Aberrations in HOXA genes and their cofactor MEIS1 are found in human neoplasms, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The present study investigated the role of HOXA4, HOXA5 and MEIS1 promoter DNA methylation and mRNA expression in AML. Samples from 78 AML patients and 12 normal bone marrow (BM) samples were included. The levels of promoter DNA methylation were determined using quantitative methylation‑specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR; qMSP) and the relative expression levels were measured using reverse transcription quantitative PCR in Ficoll‑separated BM mononuclear cells and in fluorescent activated cell sorting‑sorted populations of normal hematopoietic progenitors. In total, 38.1 and 28.9% of the patients exhibited high methylation levels of HOXA4 and HOXA5, respectively, compared with the control samples, and MEIS1 methylation was almost absent. An inverse correlation between HOXA4 methylation and expression was identified in a group of patients with a normal karyotype (NK AML). An association between the genes was observed and correlation between the DNA methylation and expression levels of the HOXA gene promoter with the expression of MEIS1 was observed. Patients with favorable chromosomal aberrations revealed a low level of HOXA4 methylation and decreased expression levels of HOXA5 and MEIS1 compared with the NK AML and the adverse cytogenetic risk patients. The NK AML patients with NPM1 mutations exhibited elevated HOXA4 methylation and expression levels of HOXA5 and MEIS1 compared with the NPM1 wild‑type patients. Comparison of the undifferentiated BM‑derived hematopoietic CD34+CD38low, CD34+CD38+ and CD15+ cells revealed a gradual decrease in the expression levels of these three genes and an increase in HOXA4 promoter methylation. This differentiation‑associated variability was not observed in AML, which was classified according to the French‑American‑British system.

Talvas J, Garrait G, Goncalves-Mendes N, et al.
Immunonutrition stimulates immune functions and antioxidant defense capacities of leukocytes in radiochemotherapy-treated head & neck and esophageal cancer patients: A double-blind randomized clinical trial.
Clin Nutr. 2015; 34(5):810-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Immunonutrition has been reported to improve the immune status of perioperative cancer patients, thereby reducing complications and length of hospital stay.
AIM: This study aimed to assess whether immunonutrition enriched in arginine, EPA & DHA and nucleotides could impact the immune cells responses in head & neck and esophageal cancer patients treated by radiochemotherapy (RCT).
METHODS: A double-blind clinical trial was carried out in 28 patients randomized into two groups, receiving either an immunomodulating enteral nutrition formula (IEN, n = 13, Impact(®), Nestlé) or an isoenergetic isonitrogenous standard enteral nutrition formula (SEN, n = 15) throughout RCT (5-7 weeks). After isolation from whole blood, immune cells metabolism and functions were assessed at the beginning (Db) and at the end (De) of RCT.
RESULTS: Immunonutrition maintained CD4(+)/CD8(+) T-lymphocyte counts ratio and CD3 membrane expression between Db and De. Polymorphonuclear cells CD62L and CD15 densities and ROS production were increased in IEN patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) production of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin-E2 was stable in IEN patients and lower than in SEN patients at De. Genes coding for immune receptors, antioxidant enzymes and NADPH oxidase subunits were overexpressed in the PBMC of IEN vs SEN patients at De.
CONCLUSION: Immunonutrition can enhance immune cell responses through the modulation of their phenotypes and functions. By modulating the gene expression of immune cells, immunonutrition could make it easier for the organism to adapt to the systemic inflammation and oxidative stress induced by RCT.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: This clinical trial has been registered on ClinicalTrial.gov website: NCT00333099.

Ordóñez R, Gallo-Oller G, Martínez-Soto S, et al.
Genome-wide microarray expression and genomic alterations by array-CGH analysis in neuroblastoma stem-like cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(11):e113105 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Neuroblastoma has a very diverse clinical behaviour: from spontaneous regression to a very aggressive malignant progression and resistance to chemotherapy. This heterogeneous clinical behaviour might be due to the existence of Cancer Stem Cells (CSC), a subpopulation within the tumor with stem-like cell properties: a significant proliferation capacity, a unique self-renewal capacity, and therefore, a higher ability to form new tumors. We enriched the CSC-like cell population content of two commercial neuroblastoma cell lines by the use of conditioned cell culture media for neurospheres, and compared genomic gains and losses and genome expression by array-CGH and microarray analysis, respectively (in CSC-like versus standard tumor cells culture). Despite the array-CGH did not show significant differences between standard and CSC-like in both analyzed cell lines, the microarray expression analysis highlighted some of the most relevant biological processes and molecular functions that might be responsible for the CSC-like phenotype. Some signalling pathways detected seem to be involved in self-renewal of normal tissues (Wnt, Notch, Hh and TGF-β) and contribute to CSC phenotype. We focused on the aberrant activation of TGF-β and Hh signalling pathways, confirming the inhibition of repressors of TGF-β pathway, as SMAD6 and SMAD7 by RT-qPCR. The analysis of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway showed overexpression of PTCH1, GLI1 and SMO. We found overexpression of CD133 and CD15 in SIMA neurospheres, confirming that this cell line was particularly enriched in stem-like cells. This work shows a cross-talk among different pathways in neuroblastoma and its importance in CSC-like cells.

Chavali PL, Saini RK, Zhai Q, et al.
TLX activates MMP-2, promotes self-renewal of tumor spheres in neuroblastoma and correlates with poor patient survival.
Cell Death Dis. 2014; 5:e1502 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Nuclear orphan receptor TLX (Drosophila tailless homolog) is essential for the maintenance of neural stem/progenitor cell self-renewal, but its role in neuroblastoma (NB) is not well understood. Here, we show that TLX is essential for the formation of tumor spheres in three different NB cell lines, when grown in neural stem cell media. We demonstrate that the knock down of TLX in IMR-32 cells diminishes its tumor sphere-forming capacity. In tumor spheres, TLX is coexpressed with the neural progenitor markers Nestin, CD133 and Oct-4. In addition, TLX is coexpressed with the migratory neural progenitor markers CD15 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in xenografts of primary NB cells from patients. Subsequently, we show the effect of TLX on the proliferative, invasive and migratory properties of IMR-32 cells. We attribute this to the recruitment of TLX to both MMP-2 and Oct-4 gene promoters, which resulted in the respective gene activation. In support of our findings, we found that TLX expression was high in NB patient tissues when compared with normal peripheral nervous system tissues. Further, the Kaplan-Meier estimator indicated a negative correlation between TLX expression and survival in 88 NB patients. Therefore, our results point at TLX being a crucial player in progression of NB, by promoting self-renewal of NB tumor-initiating cells and altering their migratory and invasive properties.

Chung TW, Kim SJ, Choi HJ, et al.
Hepatitis B virus X protein specially regulates the sialyl lewis a synthesis among glycosylation events for metastasis.
Mol Cancer. 2014; 13:222 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The metastasis of hematogenous cancer cells is associated with abnormal glycosylation such as sialyl lewis antigens. Although the hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays important role in liver disease, the precise function of HBx on aberrant glycosylation for metastasis remains unclear.
METHODS: The human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues, HBx transgenic mice and HBx-transfected cells were used to check the correlation of expressions between HBx and Sialyl lewis antigen for cancer metastasis. To investigate whether expression levels of glycosyltransferases induced in HBx-transfected cells are specifically associated with sialyl lewis A (SLA) synthesis, which enhances metastasis by interaction of liver cancer cells with endothelial cells, ShRNA and siRNAs targeting specific glycosyltransferases were used.
RESULTS: HBx expression in liver cancer region of HCC is associated with the specific synthesis of SLA. Furthermore, the SLA was specifically induced both in liver tissues from HBx-transgenic mice and in in vitro HBx-transfected cells. HBx increased transcription levels and activities of α2-3 sialyltransferases (ST3Gal III), α1-3/4 fucosyltransferases III and VII (FUT III and VII) genes, which were specific for SLA synthesis, allowing dramatic cell-cell adhesion for metastatic potential. Interestingly, HBx specifically induced expression of N-acetylglucosamine-β1-3 galactosyltransferase V (β1-3GalT 5) gene associated with the initial synthesis of sialyl lewis A, but not β1-4GalT I. The β1-3GalT 5 shRNA suppressed SLA expression by HBx, blocking the adhesion of HBx-transfected cells to the endothelial cells. Moreover, β1-3GalT 5 silencing suppressed lung metastasis of HBx-transfected cells in in vivo lung metastasis system.
CONCLUSION: HBx targets the specific glycosyltransferases for the SLA synthesis and this process regulates hematogenous cancer cell adhesion to endothelial cells for cancer metastasis.

Hou HA, Lin YC, Kuo YY, et al.
GATA2 mutations in patients with acute myeloid leukemia-paired samples analyses show that the mutation is unstable during disease evolution.
Ann Hematol. 2015; 94(2):211-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recently, mutations of the GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) gene were identified in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with CEBPA double mutations (CEBPA (double-mut)), but the interaction of this mutation with other genetic alterations and its dynamic changes during disease progression remain to be determined. In this study, 14 different missense GATA2 mutations, which were all clustered in the highly conserved N-terminal zinc finger 1 domain, were identified in 27.4, 6.7, and 1 % of patients with CEBPA (double-mut), CEBPA (single-mut), and CEBPA wild type, respectively. All but one patient with GATA2 mutation had concurrent CEBPA mutation. GATA2 mutations were closely associated with younger age, FAB M1 subtype, intermediate-risk cytogenetics, expression of HLA-DR, CD7, CD15, or CD34 on leukemic cells, and CEBPA mutation, but negatively associated with FAB M4 subtype, favorable-risk cytogenetics, and NPM1 mutation. Patients with GATA2 mutation had significantly better overall survival and relapse-free survival than those without GATA2 mutation. Sequential analysis showed that the original GATA2 mutations might be lost during disease progression in GATA2-mutated patients, while novel GATA2 mutations might be acquired at relapse in GATA2-wild patients. In conclusion, AML patients with GATA2 mutations had distinct clinic-biological features and a favorable prognosis. GATA2 mutations might be lost or acquired at disease progression, implying that it was a second hit in the leukemogenesis of AML, especially those with CEBPA mutation.

Taylor S, Carpentieri D, Williams J, et al.
Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma in an Adolescent Male With BAP1 Deletion.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2015; 37(5):e323-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesotheliomas in children are uncommon, aggressive tumors with a grave prognosis. We herein report the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings of a 16-year-old male. The adolescent presented with a history of abdominal pain, nausea and daily, nonbilious, nonbloody emesis for 3 weeks. Radiographic imaging suggested small bowel obstruction. The diagnostic work-up and differential diagnoses are discussed. Histologically, the tumor was composed of epithelioid cells with a papillary and glandular architectural pattern. A few glands appeared to produce mucinous material. Histochemistry revealed PAS diastase resistant mucin, an inconspicuous finding in diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma. An extensive immunohistochemistry panel (calretinin, WT-1, D2-40, CK 7, CAM 5.2, CK 5/6, CEA, B72.3, CK 20, CD10, CD30, CD15, CD117, PLAP, S100, TFE3, and EMA) confirmed the diagnosis. Of special interest, BAP1 staining was cytoplasmic and consistent with 3p deletion detected by conventional cytogenetics. The ultrastructural analysis demonstrated long microvilli, desmosomes, and intercellular junctions which further supported the diagnosis.

Wu D, Allen CT, Fromm JR
Flow cytometry of ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of breast implant-associated effusion and capsular tissue.
Cytometry B Clin Cytom. 2015; 88(1):58-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) of the breast capsule is a rare lymphoma involving capsular tissues and/or effusions associated with breast implants. While several studies have detailed the histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of these tumors, no study has yet described flow cytometry features of the neoplastic cells of this entity. Here, we report two cases from our institution in which multi-parametric flow cytometry was performed.
METHODS: The immunophenotype of ALCL in association with breast implant was evaluated by flow cytometry.
RESULTS: We show that much like CD30+ tumor cells of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and ALCL of non-breast implant tumors, the neoplastic cells of this entity can be readily identified by flow cytometry. The neoplastic cells of both cases were largely devoid of T-cell antigens, but had expression of weak CD15, strong CD30, and expression of CD40. These results are correlated with routine morphologic and IHC analysis, supporting the flow cytometry immunophenotype.
CONCLUSIONS: Flow cytometry can aid in the diagnostic evaluation of effusions or tissue samples in association with breast implant/prostheses.

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