HTRA1

Gene Summary

Gene:HTRA1; HtrA serine peptidase 1
Aliases: L56, HtrA, ARMD7, ORF480, PRSS11, CARASIL, CADASIL2
Location:10q26.13
Summary:This gene encodes a member of the trypsin family of serine proteases. This protein is a secreted enzyme that is proposed to regulate the availability of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) by cleaving IGF-binding proteins. It has also been suggested to be a regulator of cell growth. Variations in the promoter region of this gene are the cause of susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration type 7. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:serine protease HTRA1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 14 March, 2017

Ontology:

What does this gene/protein do?
Show (10)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 14 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: HTRA1 (cancer-related)

Halberg N, Sengelaub CA, Navrazhina K, et al.
PITPNC1 Recruits RAB1B to the Golgi Network to Drive Malignant Secretion.
Cancer Cell. 2016; 29(3):339-53 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Enhanced secretion of tumorigenic effector proteins is a feature of malignant cells. The molecular mechanisms underlying this feature are poorly defined. We identify PITPNC1 as a gene amplified in a large fraction of human breast cancer and overexpressed in metastatic breast, melanoma, and colon cancers. Biochemical, molecular, and cell-biological studies reveal that PITPNC1 promotes malignant secretion by binding Golgi-resident PI4P and localizing RAB1B to the Golgi. RAB1B localization to the Golgi allows for the recruitment of GOLPH3, which facilitates Golgi extension and enhanced vesicular release. PITPNC1-mediated vesicular release drives metastasis by increasing the secretion of pro-invasive and pro-angiogenic mediators HTRA1, MMP1, FAM3C, PDGFA, and ADAM10. We establish PITPNC1 as a PI4P-binding protein that enhances vesicular secretion capacity in malignancy.

Ciferri C, Lipari MT, Liang WC, et al.
The trimeric serine protease HtrA1 forms a cage-like inhibition complex with an anti-HtrA1 antibody.
Biochem J. 2015; 472(2):169-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
High temperature requirement A1 (HtrA1) is a trypsin-fold serine protease implicated in the progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our interest in an antibody therapy to neutralize HtrA1 faces the complication that the target adopts a trimeric arrangement, with three active sites in close proximity. In the present study, we describe antibody 94, obtained from a human antibody phage display library, which forms a distinct macromolecular complex with HtrA1 and inhibits the enzymatic activity of recombinant and native HtrA1 forms. Using biochemical methods and negative-staining EM we were able to elucidate the molecular composition of the IgG94 and Fab94 complexes and the associated inhibition mechanism. The 246-kDa complex between the HtrA1 catalytic domain trimer (HtrA1_Cat) and Fab94 had a propeller-like organization with one Fab bound peripherally to each protomer. Low-resolution EM structures and epitope mapping indicated that the antibody binds to the surface-exposed loops B and C of the catalytic domain, suggesting an allosteric inhibition mechanism. The HtrA1_Cat-IgG94 complex (636 kDa) is a cage-like structure with three centrally located IgG94 molecules co-ordinating two HtrA1_Cat trimers and the six active sites pointing into the cavity of the cage. In both complexes, all antigen-recognition regions (paratopes) are found to bind one HtrA1 protomer and all protomers are bound by a paratope, consistent with the complete inhibition of enzyme activity. Therefore, in addition to its potential therapeutic usefulness, antibody 94 establishes a new paradigm of multimeric serine protease inhibition.

Hassan WA, Udaka N, Ueda A, et al.
Neoplastic lesions in CADASIL syndrome: report of an autopsied Japanese case.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8(6):7533-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leucoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is one of the most common heritable causes of stroke and dementia in adults. The gene involved in the pathogenesis of CADASIL is Notch3; in which mutations affect the number of cysteine residues in its extracellular domain, causing its accumulation in small arteries and arterioles of the affected individuals. Besides the usual neurological and vascular findings that have been well-documented in CADASIL patients, this paper additionally reports multiple neoplastic lesions that were observed in an autopsy case of CADASIL patient; that could be related to Notch3 mutation. The patient was a 62 years old male, presented with a past history of neurological manifestations, including gait disturbance and frequent convulsive attacks. He was diagnosed as CADASIL syndrome with Notch3 Arg133Cys mutation. He eventually developed hemiplegia and died of systemic convulsions. Autopsy examination revealed-besides the vascular and neurological lesions characteristic of CADASIL- multiple neoplastic lesions in the body; carcinoid tumorlet and diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuro-endocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) in the lungs, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), prostatic adenocarcinoma (ADC) and adenomatoid tumor of the epididymis. This report describes a spectrum of neoplastic lesions that were found in a case of CADASIL patient that could be related to Notch3 gene mutations.

Altobelli E, Marzioni D, Lattanzi A, Angeletti PM
HtrA1: Its future potential as a novel biomarker for cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 34(2):555-66 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HtrA1 appears to be involved in several physiological processes as well as in the pathogenesis of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and osteoarthritis. It has also been hypothesized to play a role as a tumor suppressor. This manuscript reviews the current cancer-related HtrA1 research from the methodological and clinical standpoints including studies regarding its potential role as a tumor marker and/or prognostic factor. PRISMA method was used for study selection. The articles thus collected were examined and selected by two independent reviewers; any disagreement was resolved by a methodologist. A laboratory researcher reviewed the methods and laboratory techniques. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria and concerned the following cancer sites: the nervous system, bladder, breast, esophagus, stomach, liver, endometrium, thyroid, ovaries, pleura, lung and skin. Most articles described in vivo studies using a morphological approach and immunohistochemistry, whereas protein expression was quantified as staining intensity scored by two raters. Often the results were not comparable due to the different rating scales and study design. Current research on HtrA1 does not conclusively support its role as a tumor suppressor.

Minchenko DO, Kharkova AP, Karbovskyi LL, Minchenko OH
Expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein genes and its hypoxic regulation in U87 glioma cells depends on ERN1 mediated signaling pathway of endoplasmic reticulum stress.
Endocr Regul. 2015; 49(2):73-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to examine the association between the expression of insulin-like growth binding protein-1 and -2 (IGFBP1 and IGFBP2), insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 3/KH domain containing protein over-expressed in cancer (IGF2BP3/KOC1), and HtrA serine peptidase 1/serine protease with IGF-binding domain (HTRA1/PRSS11) genes and function of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by ERN1 (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1) as well as the regulation of these genes by hypoxia in U87glioma cells.
METHODS: The expression of IGFBP1, IGFBP2, IGF2BP3, and HTRA1 genes in U87 glioma cells and its subline with ERN1 signaling enzyme loss of function, were analyzed by qPCR. Cells underwent to hypoxia exposure (3% oxygen, 16 h).
RESULTS: The blockade of both enzymatic activities (kinase and endoribonuclease) of ERN1 in glioma cells led to a significant down-regulation of the expression of IGFBP1, IGFBP2, and IGF2BP3 genes and strong up-regulation of HTRA1. At the same time, the inhibition of ERN1 endoribonuclease significantly increased the expression of IGFBP1, IGFBP2, and HTRA1 genes and did not affect the IGF2BP3 gene expression. Hypoxia up-regulated the expression of IGFBP1 and IGFBP2 genes in control glioma cells, with more significant changes in IGFBP1 gene. Furthermore, effect of hypoxia on these gene expressions was significantly lower in glioma cells without ERN1 signaling enzyme function.
CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study demonstrate the dependence of insulin-like growth binding proteins as well as IGF2BP3 and HTRA1 gene expressions in U87 glioma cells on ERN1 signaling enzyme function and hypoxia, indicating its participation in the regulation of metabolic and proliferative processes via IGF/INS receptors, because endoplasmic reticulum stress is an important component of tumor growth and metabolic diseases.

Kiflemariam S, Ljungström V, Pontén F, Sjöblom T
Tumor vessel up-regulation of INSR revealed by single-cell expression analysis of the tyrosine kinome and phosphatome in human cancers.
Am J Pathol. 2015; 185(6):1600-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tyrosine kinome and phosphatome harbor oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes and important regulators of angiogenesis and tumor stroma formation. To provide a better understanding of their potential roles in cancer, we analyzed the expression of 85 tyrosine kinases and 42 tyrosine phosphatases by in situ hybridization 48 human normal and 24 tumor tissue specimens. Nine-tenths of the assessed transcripts had tumor cell expression concordant with expression array databases. Further, pan-cancer expression of AATK, PTPRK, and PTPRU and expression of PTPRS in a subset of tumors were observed. To demonstrate tumor subcompartment resolution, we validated the predicted tumor stroma-specific markers HTRA1, HTRA3, MXRA5, MXRA8, and SERPING1 in situ. In addition to known vascular and stromal markers such as PDGFRB, we observed stromal expression of PTK6 and TNS1 and vascular expression of INSR, PTPRF, PTPRG, PTPRU, and TNS1, of which INSR emerged as a tumor-specific vessel marker. This study demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale analyses to chart the transcriptome in situ in human cancers and their ability to identify novel cancer biomarkers.

Bao W, Zhu F, Duan Y, et al.
HtrA1 resensitizes multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting XIAP.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2015; 70:97-102 [PubMed] Related Publications
The study aims to clarify the relation between chemosensitivity and HtrA1 expression, and the possible way HtrA1 works. Drug-resistant cell line HepG2/ADM was induced by increasing adriamycin (ADM), and eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1-HtrA1 was constructed using BamHI and EcoRI restriction enzymes, after which, HepG2/ADM was transfected with pEGFP-N1-HtrA1. Resistance index (RI) of the hepatoma cell lines to different anti-cancer drugs (ADM, 5-Fu, MMC, L-OHP and VCR) was determined by MTT assay before and after HtrA1 high expression. After an HtrA1 inhibitor, NVP-LEB748 was adopted in the HtrA1 overexpressing cells, expression of proteins P-gp, MRP and XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein) in HepG2/ADM cells were analyzed by western blot, and the activities of caspases 3, 7 and 9 were respectively measured using activity assay kits. The results showed that RI was negatively correlated with the expression of HtrA1, upregulated XIAP expression was resulted from the HtrA1 inhibitor, and variance of activities of caspases 3, 7 and 9 were remarkably descended with its increasing concentration. It was concluded that high expression of HtrA1 could significantly reverse multidrug resistance of hepatoma cells by targeting XIAP. HtrA1 is therefore expected to be an effective tool in the therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Zhao Z, Li H, Wang C, et al.
Serine protease HtrA1 as an inhibitor on proliferation invasion and migration of gastric cancer.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(4):112 [PubMed] Related Publications
HtrA1, as serine protease lower expressed in various human solid tumors, can down-regulate cell growth and proliferation. In this study, we focus on whether overexpressed HtrA1 can inhibit the growth of gastric cancer in vitro. This study found the HtrA1 is lower expressed in gastric cancer tissue than in normal gastric tissue. When HtrA1 is highly expressing with recombinant plasmid in gastric cancer cell lines SGC-7901 and AGS, it weakened cell proliferation, invasion, and migration in vitro. These data suggested that HtrA1 as an inhibitor in gastric cancer cells resulted in anti-proliferation, reduced invasion, decreased migration, and suppressed growth and may be an effective molecular targets on gastric cancer treatment.

Rose M, Schubert C, Dierichs L, et al.
OASIS/CREB3L1 is epigenetically silenced in human bladder cancer facilitating tumor cell spreading and migration in vitro.
Epigenetics. 2014; 9(12):1626-40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CREB3L1 has been recently proposed as a novel metastasis suppressor gene in breast cancer. Our current study highlights CREB3L1 expression, regulation, and function in bladder cancer. We demonstrate a significant downregulation of CREB3L1 mRNA expression (n = 64) in primary bladder cancer tissues caused by tumor-specific CREB3L1 promoter hypermethylation (n = 51). Based on pyrosequencing CREB3L1 methylation was shown to be potentially associated with a more aggressive phenotype of bladder cancer. These findings were verified by an independent public data set containing data from 184 bladder tumors. In addition, immunohistochemical evaluation showed that CREB3L1 protein expression is decreased in bladder cancer tissues as well. Interestingly, protein loss is predominately observed in the nuclei of aggressive tumor cells. Based on in vitro models we clearly show that CREB3L1 re-expression mediates suppression of tumor cell migration and colony growth of high grade and invasive bladder cancer cells. The candidate tumor suppressor and TGF-β signaling inhibitor HTRA3 was furthermore identified as putative target gene of CREB3L1 in both invasive J82 bladder cells and primary bladder tumors. Hence, our data provide for the first time evidence that the transcription factor CREB3L1 may have an important role as a putative tumor suppressor in bladder cancer.

Arribas AJ, Rinaldi A, Mensah AA, et al.
DNA methylation profiling identifies two splenic marginal zone lymphoma subgroups with different clinical and genetic features.
Blood. 2015; 125(12):1922-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma is a rare lymphoma. Loss of 7q31 and somatic mutations affecting the NOTCH2 and KLF2 genes are the commonest genomic aberrations. Epigenetic changes can be pharmacologically reverted; therefore, identification of groups of patients with specific epigenomic alterations might have therapeutic relevance. Here we integrated genome-wide DNA-promoter methylation profiling with gene expression profiling, and clinical and biological variables. An unsupervised clustering analysis of a test series of 98 samples identified 2 clusters with different degrees of promoter methylation. The cluster comprising samples with higher-promoter methylation (High-M) had a poorer overall survival compared with the lower (Low-M) cluster. The prognostic relevance of the High-M phenotype was confirmed in an independent validation set of 36 patients. In the whole series, the High-M phenotype was associated with IGHV1-02 usage, mutations of NOTCH2 gene, 7q31-32 loss, and histologic transformation. In the High-M set, a number of tumor-suppressor genes were methylated and repressed. PRC2 subunit genes and several prosurvival lymphoma genes were unmethylated and overexpressed. A model based on the methylation of 3 genes (CACNB2, HTRA1, KLF4) identified a poorer-outcome patient subset. Exposure of splenic marginal zone lymphoma cell lines to a demethylating agent caused partial reversion of the High-M phenotype and inhibition of proliferation.

Sahasrabuddhe NA, Barbhuiya MA, Bhunia S, et al.
Identification of prosaposin and transgelin as potential biomarkers for gallbladder cancer using quantitative proteomics.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014; 446(4):863-9 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gallbladder cancer is an uncommon but lethal malignancy with particularly high incidence in Chile, India, Japan and China. There is a paucity of unbiased large-scale studies investigating molecular basis of gallbladder cancer. To systematically identify differentially regulated proteins in gallbladder cancer, iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomics of gallbladder cancer was carried out using Fourier transform high resolution mass spectrometry. Of the 2575 proteins identified, proteins upregulated in gallbladder cancer included several lysosomal proteins such as prosaposin, cathepsin Z and cathepsin H. Downregulated proteins included serine protease HTRA1 and transgelin, which have been reported to be downregulated in several other cancers. Novel biomarker candidates including prosaposin and transgelin were validated to be upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in gallbladder cancer using tissue microarrays. Our study provides the first large scale proteomic characterization of gallbladder cancer which will serve as a resource for future discovery of biomarkers for gallbladder cancer.

Fujinaga T, Kumamaru W, Sugiura T, et al.
Biological characterization and analysis of metastasis-related genes in cell lines derived from the primary lesion and lymph node metastasis of a squamous cell carcinoma arising in the mandibular gingiva.
Int J Oncol. 2014; 44(5):1614-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Controlling metastatic lesions is an important part of improving cancer prognosis, in addition to controlling the primary lesion. There have been numerous histological studies on primary and metastatic lesions, but little basic research has been performed using cell lines from primary and metastatic lesions belonging to the same patient. In this study, we successfully established a cell line derived from lower gingival carcinoma (WK2) as well as a line derived from secondary cervical lymph node metastasis (WK3F) through primary cultures of tissue from a patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma. We then investigated the biological characteristics of the cancer cell lines from these primary and metastatic lesions and analyzed metastasis-related genes. Comparison of the biological characteristics in vitro showed that WK3F had higher cell proliferation ability and shorter cell doubling time than WK2. WK3F also had increased cell migratory ability and higher invasive and self-replication abilities. Heterotransplantation into nude mice resulted in high tumor formation rates in the tongue and high metastasis rates in the cervical lymph nodes. Changes in WK2 and WK3F gene expression were then comprehensively analyzed using microarrays. Genes with increased expression in WK3F compared to WK2 were extracted when the Z-score was ≥2.0 and the ratio was ≥5.0, while genes with reduced expression in WK3F compared to WK2 were extracted when the Z-score was ≤-2.0 and the ratio was ≤0.2; differences were found in 604 genes. From these, MAGEC1 (88.0-fold), MMP-7 (18.6-fold), SNAI1 (6.6-fold), MACC1 (6.2-fold), and HTRA1 (0.012-fold) were selected as metastasis-related candidate genes. The results suggest that these molecules could be important for clarifying the mechanisms that regulate metastasis and provide new therapeutic targets for inhibiting tumor invasion.

Oliveras-Ferraros C, Vazquez-Martin A, Cuyàs E, et al.
Acquired resistance to metformin in breast cancer cells triggers transcriptome reprogramming toward a degradome-related metastatic stem-like profile.
Cell Cycle. 2014; 13(7):1132-44 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Therapeutic interventions based on metabolic inhibitor-based therapies are expected to be less prone to acquired resistance. However, there has not been any study assessing the possibility that the targeting of the tumor cell metabolism may result in unforeseeable resistance. We recently established a pre-clinical model of estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells that were chronically adapted to grow (> 10 months) in the presence of graded, millimolar concentrations of the anti-diabetic biguanide metformin, an AMPK agonist/mTOR inhibitor that has been evaluated in multiple in vitro and in vivo cancer studies and is now being tested in clinical trials. To assess what impact the phenomenon of resistance might have on the metformin-like "dirty" drugs that are able to simultaneously hit several metabolic pathways, we employed the ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software to functionally interpret the data from Agilent whole-human genome arrays in the context of biological processes, networks, and pathways. Our findings establish, for the first time, that a "global" targeting of metabolic reprogramming using metformin certainly imposes a great selective pressure for the emergence of new breast cancer cellular states. Intriguingly, acquired resistance to metformin appears to trigger a transcriptome reprogramming toward a metastatic stem-like profile, as many genes encoding the components of the degradome (KLK11, CTSF, FREM1, BACE-2, CASP, TMPRSS4, MMP16, HTRA1), cancer cell migration and invasion factors (TP63, WISP2, GAS3, DKK1, BCAR3, PABPC1, MUC1, SPARCL1, SEMA3B, SEMA6A), stem cell markers (DCLK1, FAK), and key pro-metastatic lipases (MAGL and Cpla2) were included in the signature. Because this convergent activation of pathways underlying tumor microenvironment interactions occurred in low-proliferative cancer cells exhibiting a notable downregulation of the G 2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulators that maintain genome stability (CCNB1, CCNB2, CDC20, CDC25C, AURKA, AURKB, BUB1, CENP-A, CENP-M) and pro-autophagic features (i.e., TRAIL upregulation and BCL-2 downregulation), it appears that the unique mechanism of acquired resistance to metformin has opposing roles in growth and metastatic dissemination. While refractoriness to metformin limits breast cancer cell growth, likely due to aberrant mitotic/cytokinetic machinery and accelerated autophagy, it notably increases the potential of metastatic dissemination by amplifying the number of pro-migratory and stemness inputs via the activation of a significant number of proteases and EMT regulators. Future studies should elucidate whether our findings using supra-physiological concentrations of metformin mechanistically mimic the ultimate processes that could paradoxically occur in a polyploid, senescent-autophagic scenario triggered by the chronic metabolic stresses that occur during cancer development and after treatment with cancer drugs.

Prorok-Hamon M, Friswell MK, Alswied A, et al.
Colonic mucosa-associated diffusely adherent afaC+ Escherichia coli expressing lpfA and pks are increased in inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer.
Gut. 2014; 63(5):761-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Colonic mucosa-associated Escherichia coli are increased in Crohn's disease (CD) and colorectal cancer (CRC). They variously haemagglutinate, invade epithelial cell lines, replicate within macrophages, translocate across M (microfold) cells and damage DNA. We investigated genes responsible for these effects and their co-association in colonic mucosal isolates.
DESIGN: A fosmid library yielding 968 clones was prepared in E coli EPI300-T1 using DNA from a haemagglutinating CRC isolate, and resulting haemagglutinating clones were 454-pyrosequenced. PCR screening was performed on 281 colonic E coli isolates from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (35 patients), CRC (21) and controls (24; sporadic polyps or irritable bowel syndrome).
RESULTS: 454-Pyrosequencing of fosmids from the haemagglutinating clones (n=8) identified the afimbrial adhesin afa-1 operon. Transfection of afa-1 into E coli K-12 predictably conferred diffuse adherence plus invasion of HEp-2 and I-407 epithelial cells, and upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor. E coli expressing afaC were common in CRC (14/21, p=0.0009) and CD (9/14, p=0.005) but not ulcerative colitis (UC; 8/21) compared with controls (4/24). E coli expressing both afaC and lpfA (relevant to M-cell translocation) were common in CD (8/14, p=0.0019) and CRC (14/21, p=0.0001), but not UC (6/21) compared with controls (2/24). E coli expressing both afaC and pks (genotoxic) were common in CRC (11/21, p=0.0015) and UC (8/21, p=0.022), but not CD (4/14) compared with controls (2/24). All isolates expressed dsbA and htrA relevant to intra-macrophage replication, and 242/281 expressed fimH encoding type-1 fimbrial adhesin.
CONCLUSIONS: IBD and CRC commonly have colonic mucosal E coli that express genes that confer properties relevant to pathogenesis including M-cell translocation, angiogenesis and genotoxicity.

Yin W, Wang P, Wang X, et al.
Identification of microRNAs and mRNAs associated with multidrug resistance of human laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cells.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2013; 46(6):546-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multidrug resistance (MDR) poses a serious impediment to the success of chemotherapy for laryngeal cancer. To identify microRNAs and mRNAs associated with MDR of human laryngeal cancer Hep-2 cells, we developed a multidrug-resistant human laryngeal cancer subline, designated Hep-2/v, by exposing Hep-2 cells to stepwise increasing concentrations of vincristine (0.02-0.96'µM). Microarray assays were performed to compare the microRNA and mRNA expression profiles of Hep-2 and Hep-2/v cells. Compared to Hep-2 cells, Hep-2/v cells were more resistant to chemotherapy drugs (≈ 45-fold more resistant to vincristine, 5.1-fold more resistant to cisplatin, and 5.6-fold more resistant to 5-fluorouracil) and had a longer doubling time (42.33 ± 1.76 vs 28.75 ± 1.12'h, P<0.05), higher percentage of cells in G0/G1 phase (80.98 ± 0.52 vs 69.14 ± 0.89, P<0.05), increased efflux of rhodamine 123 (95.97 ± 0.56 vs 12.40 ± 0.44%, P<0.01), and up-regulated MDR1 expression. A total of 7 microRNAs and 605 mRNAs were differentially expressed between the two cell types. Of the differentially expressed mRNAs identified, regulator of G-protein signaling 10, high-temperature requirement protein A1, and nuclear protein 1 were found to be the putative targets of the differentially expressed microRNAs identified. These findings may open a new avenue for clarifying the mechanisms responsible for MDR in laryngeal cancer.

Spugnini EP, Cardillo I, Fanciulli M, et al.
Electroporation as a strategy to promote HtrA1 gene uptake and chemotherapy efficacy in a mouse model of mesothelioma.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2013; 5:974-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is not a consensus on the best therapeutic approach to mesothelioma and the prognosis is still dismal. We have recently demonstrated that HtrA1 is a potential therapeutic target in mesothelioma cells. In this manuscript we describe that electroporation in a mouse mesothelioma xenograft was able to facilitate the expression of exogenous HtrA1 injected intra-lesionally in the tumors and to increase the penetration in the neoplastic cells of cisplatin given intra-peritoneally. Indeed, HtrA1 over-expression caused a significant slowing down of tumor growth; moreover, cisplatin efficacy in reducing tumor mass was amplified by electroporation and this phenomenon was even more significant when combining the electroporation of cisplatin and HtrA1. Considering that a substantial number of mesothelioma patients develop early local recurrence, even with radical resection combined with aggressive chemo- and radiotherapy, this multi-modality approach could be very effective in improving local tumor control after surgery. The identification of effective combination coupled with the development of novel equipments and electrodes will be instrumental in planning the translation of these results to humans as per correct laboratory-clinical interface.

Lehner A, Magdolen V, Schuster T, et al.
Downregulation of serine protease HTRA1 is associated with poor survival in breast cancer.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(4):e60359 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HTRA1 is a highly conserved serine protease which has been implicated in suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and cell motility in breast cancer. Its prognostic relevance for breast cancer is unclear so far. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of HTRA1 mRNA expression on patient outcome using a cohort of 131 breast cancer patients as well as a validation cohort including 2809 publically available data sets. Additionally, we aimed at investigating for the presence of promoter hypermethylation as a mechanism for silencing the HTRA1 gene in breast tumors. HTRA1 downregulation was detected in more than 50% of the breast cancer specimens and was associated with higher tumor stage (p = 0.025). By applying Cox proportional hazard models, we observed favorable overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) related to high HTRA1 expression (HR = 0.45 [CI 0.23-0.90], p = 0.023; HR = 0.55 [CI 0.32-0.94], p = 0.028, respectively), with even more pronounced impact in node-positive patients (HR = 0.21 [CI 0.07-0.63], p = 0.006; HR = 0.29 [CI 0.13-0.65], p = 0.002, respectively). Moreover, HTRA1 remained a statistically significant factor predicting DFS among established clinical parameters in the multivariable analysis. Its impact on patient outcome was independently confirmed in the validation set (for relapse-free survival (n = 2809): HR = 0.79 [CI 0.7-0.9], log-rank p = 0.0003; for OS (n = 971): HR = 0.63 [CI 0.48-0.83], log-rank p = 0.0009). In promoter analyses, we in fact detected methylation of HTRA1 in a small subset of breast cancer specimens (two out of a series of 12), and in MCF-7 breast cancer cells which exhibited 22-fold lower HTRA1 mRNA expression levels compared to unmethylated MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, we show that downregulation of HTRA1 is associated with shorter patient survival, particularly in node-positive breast cancer. Since HTRA1 loss was demonstrated to induce EMT and cancer cell invasion, these patients might benefit from demethylating agents or histone deacetylase inhibitors previously reported to lead to HTRA1 upregulation, or from novel small-molecule inhibitors targeting EMT-related processes.

Zurawa-Janicka D, Kobiela J, Galczynska N, et al.
Changes in expression of human serine protease HtrA1, HtrA2 and HtrA3 genes in benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 28(5):1838-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human HtrA proteins are serine proteases involved in essential physiological processes. HtrA1 and HtrA3 function as tumor suppressors and inhibitors of the TGF-β signaling pathway. HtrA2 regulates mitochondrial homeostasis and plays a pivotal role in the induction of apoptosis. The aim of the study was to determine whether the HtrA proteins are involved in thyroid carcinogenesis. We used the immunoblotting technique to estimate protein levels of HtrA1, HtrA2, long and short variants of HtrA3 (HtrA3-L and HtrA3-S) and TGF-β1 in tissues of benign and malignant thyroid lesions, and control groups. We found that the levels of HtrA2 and HtrA3-S were higher in thyroid malignant tumors compared to normal tissues and benign tumors. The HtrA3-L level was increased in malignant tumor tissues compared to benign tumor tissues and control tissues from patients with benign lesions, and elevated in normal tissues from patients with thyroid carcinoma compared to normal tissues from patients with benign lesions. We also compared levels of HtrA proteins in follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and found that these types of carcinoma differed in the expression of HtrA3-S and HtrA1. These results indicate the implication of HtrA proteins in thyroid carcinogenesis suggest that HtrA3 variants may play different roles in cancer development, and that the increased HtrA3-L levels in thyroid tissue could be correlated with the development of malignant lesions. The TGF-β1 levels in tumor tissues were not significantly altered compared to control tissues.

Wang N, Eckert KA, Zomorrodi AR, et al.
Down-regulation of HtrA1 activates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and ATM DNA damage response pathways.
PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e39446 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Expression of the serine protease HtrA1 is decreased or abrogated in a variety of human primary cancers, and higher levels of HtrA1 expression are directly related to better response to chemotherapeutics. However, the precise mechanisms leading to HtrA1 down regulation during malignant transformation are unclear. To investigate HtrA1 gene regulation in breast cancer, we characterized expression in primary breast tissues and seven human breast epithelial cell lines, including two non-tumorigenic cell lines. In human breast tissues, HtrA1 expression was prominent in normal ductal glands. In DCIS and in invasive cancers, HtrA1 expression was greatly reduced or lost entirely. HtrA1 staining was also reduced in all of the human breast cancer cell lines, compared with the normal tissue and non-tumorigenic cell line controls. Loss of HtrA1 gene expression was attributable primarily to epigenetic silencing mechanisms, with different mechanisms operative in the various cell lines. To mechanistically examine the functional consequences of HtrA1 loss, we stably reduced and/or overexpressed HtrA1 in the non-tumorigenic MCF10A cell line. Reduction of HtrA1 levels resulted in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition with acquisition of mesenchymal phenotypic characteristics, including increased growth rate, migration, and invasion, as well as expression of mesenchymal biomarkers. A concomitant decrease in expression of epithelial biomarkers and all microRNA 200 family members was also observed. Moreover, reduction of HtrA1 expression resulted in activation of the ATM and DNA damage response, whereas overexpression of HtrA1 prevented this activation. Collectively, these results suggest that HtrA1 may function as a tumor suppressor by controlling the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and may function in chemotherapeutic responsiveness by mediating DNA damage response pathways.

Huang CH, Chiou SH
Proteomic analysis of upregulated proteins in Helicobacter pylori under oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2011; 27(12):544-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
The development of gastric cancer was suggested to be associated with chronic inflammation as a consequence of Helicobacter pylori infection. Such inflammation-related oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vivo may exert bidirectional effects on both hosts and H pylori. In this study, ROS-induced oxidative stress was mimicked by coculture of gastric epithelial cells with H pylori treated with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). To investigate the effect of H(2)O(2) on the proteome of H pylori, we performed two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography coupled with nano-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry) and bioinformatics database analysis. The nine most overexpressed proteins consisted of three virulence factors, including cytotoxin-associated protein A (CagA), vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA), adherence-associated protein (AlpA), and two antioxidant enzymes alkylhydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) and catalase (KatA), plus one serine protease (HtrA), aconitate hydratase, and fumarate reductase. We have also confirmed the upregulation of virulence factors and antioxidant proteins in several H pylori strains isolated from patients of different clinical outcomes. Furthermore, it is noted that H pylori was found to decrease in infection rate and increase in proliferation after being exposed to H(2)O(2). We also found that gastric epithelial cells can be protected from oxidative damage by H(2)O(2) in the presence of H pylori. In conclusion, this study lends support to the supposition that ROS containing H(2)O(2) as one of the major oxidative species can induce upregulation of virulence factors and antioxidant enzymes in H pylori, which may aid in the elucidation of inflammation leading to the development of gastric cancer from H pylori infection.

Neuhausen SL, Brummel S, Ding YC, et al.
Genetic variation in IGF2 and HTRA1 and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011; 20(8):1690-702 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have a lifetime breast cancer risk of 40% to 80%, suggesting the presence of risk modifiers. We previously identified significant associations in genetic variants in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling pathway. Here, we investigate additional IGF signaling genes as risk modifiers for breast cancer development in BRCA carriers.
METHODS: A cohort of 1,019 BRCA1 and 500 BRCA2 mutation carriers were genotyped for 99 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 13 genes. Proportional hazards regression was used to model time from birth to diagnosis of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers separately. For linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks with multiple SNPs, an additive genetic model was used. For an SNP analysis, no additivity assumptions were made.
RESULTS: Significant associations were found between risk of breast cancer and LD blocks in IGF2 for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (global P values of 0.009 for BRCA1 and 0.007 for BRCA2), HTRA1 for BRCA1 carriers (global P value of 0.005), and MMP3 for BRCA2 carriers (global P = 0.0000007 for BRCA2).
CONCLUSIONS: We identified significant associations of genetic variants involved in IGF signaling. With the known interaction of BRCA1 and IGF signaling and the loss of PTEN in a majority of BRCA1 tumors, this suggests that signaling through AKT may modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers.
IMPACT: These results suggest potential avenues for future research targeting the IGF signaling pathway in modifying risk in BRCA1and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Arnold IC, Zigova Z, Holden M, et al.
Comparative whole genome sequence analysis of the carcinogenic bacterial model pathogen Helicobacter felis.
Genome Biol Evol. 2011; 3:302-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter felis naturally colonizes the gastric mucosa of dogs and cats. Due to its ability to persistently infect laboratory mice, H. felis has been used extensively to experimentally model gastric disorders induced in humans by H. pylori. We determined the 1.67 Mb genome sequence of H. felis using combined Solexa and 454 pyrosequencing, annotated the genome, and compared it with multiple previously published Helicobacter genomes. About 1,063 (63.6%) of the 1,671 genes identified in the H. felis genome have orthologues in H. pylori, its closest relative among the fully sequenced Helicobacter species. Many H. pylori virulence factors are shared by H. felis: these include the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT, the immunomodulator NapA, and the secreted enzymes collagenase and HtrA. Helicobacter felis lacks a Cag pathogenicity island and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA but possesses a complete comB system conferring natural competence. Remarkable features of the H. felis genome include its paucity of transcriptional regulators and an extraordinary abundance of chemotaxis sensors and restriction/modification systems. Helicobacter felis possesses an episomally replicating 6.7-kb plasmid and harbors three chromosomal regions with deviating GC content. These putative horizontally acquired regions show homology and synteny with the recently isolated H. pylori plasmid pHPPC4 and homology to Campylobacter bacteriophage genes (transposases, structural, and lytic genes), respectively. In summary, the H. felis genome harbors a variety of putative mobile elements that are unique among Helicobacter species and may contribute to this pathogen's carcinogenic properties.

He X, Khurana A, Maguire JL, et al.
HtrA1 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity by targeting XIAP for degradation.
Int J Cancer. 2012; 130(5):1029-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HtrA1, a member of serine protease family, has been previously found to be involved in resistance to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer although the underlying mechanism is not clear. Using mixture-based oriented peptide library approach, previously we identified X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins family, as a potential substrate of HtrA1. The aim of our work is to investigate the link between HtrA1 and XIAP proteins and their relationships with chemoresistance in ovarian cancer. Our results showed that recombinant XIAP was degraded by purified wild-type HtrA1 but not mutant HtrA1 in vitro. Consistent with the in vitro data, coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that HtrA1 and XIAP formed a protein complex in vivo. Ectopic expression of HtrA1 led to decreased level of XIAP in OV167 and OV202 ovarian cancer cells, while knockdown of HtrA1 resulted in increased level of XIAP in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. Furthermore, overexpression of HtrA1 in OV202 cells promoted cell sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis that could be reversed by increased expression of XIAP. The cleavage of XIAP induced by HtrA1 was enhanced by cisplatin treatment. Taken together, our experiments have identified XIAP as a novel substrate of HtrA1 and the degradation of XIAP by HtrA1 contributes to cell response to chemotherapy, suggesting that restoring the expression of HtrA1 may be a promising treatment strategy for ovarian cancer.

Barros Filho MC, Katayama ML, Brentani H, et al.
Gene trio signatures as molecular markers to predict response to doxorubicin cyclophosphamide neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2010; 43(12):1225-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
In breast cancer patients submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (4 cycles of doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, AC), expression of groups of three genes (gene trio signatures) could distinguish responsive from non-responsive tumors, as demonstrated by cDNA microarray profiling in a previous study by our group. In the current study, we determined if the expression of the same genes would retain the predictive strength, when analyzed by a more accessible technique (real-time RT-PCR). We evaluated 28 samples already analyzed by cDNA microarray, as a technical validation procedure, and 14 tumors, as an independent biological validation set. All patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (4 AC). Among five trio combinations previously identified, defined by nine genes individually investigated (BZRP, CLPTM1, MTSS1, NOTCH1, NUP210, PRSS11, RPL37A, SMYD2, and XLHSRF-1), the most accurate were established by RPL37A, XLHSRF-1 based trios, with NOTCH1 or NUP210. Both trios correctly separated 86% of tumors (87% sensitivity and 80% specificity for predicting response), according to their response to chemotherapy (82% in a leave-one-out cross-validation method). Using the pre-established features obtained by linear discriminant analysis, 71% samples from the biological validation set were also correctly classified by both trios (72% sensitivity; 66% specificity). Furthermore, we explored other gene combinations to achieve a higher accuracy in the technical validation group (as a training set). A new trio, MTSS1, RPL37 and SMYD2, correctly classified 93% of samples from the technical validation group (95% sensitivity and 80% specificity; 86% accuracy by the cross-validation method) and 79% from the biological validation group (72% sensitivity and 100% specificity). Therefore, the combined expression of MTSS1, RPL37 and SMYD2, as evaluated by real-time RT-PCR, is a potential candidate to predict response to neoadjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide in breast cancer patients.

Bowden MA, Drummond AE, Fuller PJ, et al.
High-temperature requirement factor A3 (Htra3): a novel serine protease and its potential role in ovarian function and ovarian cancers.
Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010; 327(1-2):13-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The high-temperature requirement factor A (Htra) family of serine proteases is conserved from bacteria to humans. In the mouse and human, Htra3, a member of the Htra family, is transcribed into two transcripts through alternative splicing. In the rat, Htra3 is located on chromosome 14q21 and the overall intron/exon structure of Htra3 is conserved between the rat, mouse and human. Rat Htra3, similar to the mouse and human, is alternatively spliced into two transcripts (long and short). The expression and regulation of Htra3 gene and protein in the rat ovary was recently determined. The long form Htra3 has the dominant expression throughout rat ovarian postnatal development, folliculogenesis and luteinization compared to short form Htra3. The expression of the HTRA3 gene and the cellular localization of the protein in the rhesus monkey ovary were investigated. Protein expression increased during folliculogenesis and was significantly higher in the granulosa-lutein cells compared to the theca-lutein cells, suggesting a role for HTRA3 in folliculogenesis and luteinization in the primate ovary. A preliminary study has also revealed a significant decrease in HTRA3 mRNA expression in ovarian cancer and granulosa cell tumor cell lines, suggesting that HTRA3 may act as a tumor suppressor. The role of the PDZ domain, specific to the long form Htra3, and the specific substrates of Htra3 in vivo, need to be defined to better understand the roles of HtrA3 in the normal and malignant ovary.

He X, Ota T, Liu P, et al.
Downregulation of HtrA1 promotes resistance to anoikis and peritoneal dissemination of ovarian cancer cells.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(8):3109-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously identified serine protease HtrA1 as a downregulated gene in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), but the functional consequence of loss of HtrA1 in EOC remains largely unclear. Here, we report that loss of HtrA1 attenuates anoikis--a critical physiologic barrier for tumor metastasis. In response to loss of anchorage, HtrA1 expression was upregulated in SKOV3 cells, resulting in autocatalytic activation of HtrA1. Stable knockdown of HtrA1 in SKOV3 and TOV21G cells resulted in resistance to anoikis due to enhanced activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/AKT pathway. In suspended SKOV3 cells, enhanced expression of HtrA1 inhibited EGFR/AKT pathway, leading to increased cell death, whereas protease-inactive mutant HtrA1 failed to result in either the inhibition of EGFR/AKT pathway or increased cell death, suggesting the requirement of HtrA1 protease activity in regulating anoikis. Immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays revealed that HtrA1 interacted with EGFR not only on the cell membrane but also in the nucleus. Most importantly, downregulation of HtrA1 significantly enhanced the peritoneal dissemination of SKOV3ip1 cells in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice, with increased phospho-EGFR level in corresponding tumor nodules compared with that in xenografts originated from the control cells. Taken together, these data reveal for the first time a novel function of HtrA1 in promoting anoikis by attenuating activation of EGFR/AKT pathway that may contribute to its metastasis suppression capacity, thus providing a possible explanation for the aggressive nature of human ovarian tumors with downregulated HtrA1.

Arrach N, Cheng P, Zhao M, et al.
High-throughput screening for salmonella avirulent mutants that retain targeting of solid tumors.
Cancer Res. 2010; 70(6):2165-70 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Salmonella has a natural ability to target a wide range of tumors in animal models. However, strains used for cancer therapy have generally been selected only for their avirulence rather than their tumor-targeting ability. To select Salmonella strains that are avirulent and yet efficient in tumor targeting, a necessary criterion for clinical applications, we measured the relative fitness of 41,000 Salmonella transposon insertion mutants growing in mouse models of human prostate and breast cancer. Two classes of potentially safe mutants were identified. Class 1 mutants showed reduced fitness in normal tissues and unchanged fitness in tumors (e.g., mutants in htrA, SPI-2, and STM3120). Class 2 mutants showed reduced fitness in tumors and normal tissues (e.g., mutants in aroA and aroD). In a competitive fitness assay in human PC-3 tumors growing in mice, class 1 mutant STM3120 had a fitness advantage over class 2 mutants aroA and aroD, validating the findings of the initial screening of a large pool of transposon mutants and indicating a potential advantage of class 1 mutants for delivery of cancer therapeutics. In addition, an STM3120 mutant successfully targeted tumors after intragastric delivery, opening up the oral route as an option for therapy administration.

Essafi A, Hastie ND
WT1 the oncogene: a tale of death and HtrA.
Mol Cell. 2010; 37(2):153-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Here, Hartkamp et al. (2010) identify WT1 as a novel bona fide substrate of the HtrA2/Omi mitochondrial protease and show that this reaction modulates WT1 antiapoptotic activity under cytotoxic stress. This supports an oncogenic function for WT1, with implications for novel chemotherapeutic avenues.

Xiong G, Husseiny MI, Song L, et al.
Novel cancer vaccine based on genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 126(11):2622-34 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although tumors express potentially immunogenic tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), cancer vaccines often fail because of inadequate antigen delivery and/or insufficient activation of innate immunity. Engineering nonpathogenic bacterial vectors to deliver TAAs of choice may provide an efficient way of presenting TAAs in an immunogenic form. In this study, we used genes of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI2) to construct a novel cancer vaccine in which a TAA, survivin, was fused to SseF effector protein and placed under control of SsrB, the central regulator of SPI2 gene expression. This construct uses the type III secretion system (T3SS) of Salmonella and allows preferential delivery of tumor antigen into the cytosol of antigen-presenting cells for optimal immunogenicity. In a screen of a panel of attenuated strains of Salmonella, we found that a double attenuated strain of Salmonella typhimurium, MvP728 (purD/htrA), was not toxic to mice and effectively expressed and translocated survivin protein inside the cytosol of murine macrophages. We also found that a ligand for CD1d-reactive natural killer T (NKT) cells, alpha-glucuronosylceramide (GSL1), enhanced MvP728-induced interleukin-12 production in human dendritic cells and that in vivo coadministration of a NKT ligand with MvP728-Llo or MvP728-survivin enhanced effector-memory cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. Furthermore, combined use of MvP728-survivin with GSL1 produced antitumor activity in mouse models of CT26 colon carcinoma and orthotopic DBT glioblastoma. Therefore, the use of TAA delivery via SPI-2-regulated T3SS of Salmonella and NKT ligands as adjuvants may provide a foundation for new cancer vaccines.

Chien J, Campioni M, Shridhar V, Baldi A
HtrA serine proteases as potential therapeutic targets in cancer.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2009; 9(4):451-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The human HtrA family of serine proteases consists of four members: HtrA1, HtrA2, HtrA3 and HtrA4. Although prokaryotic HtrA proteins are well characterized in their dual roles as chaperones and proteases that degrade misfolded proteins in the periplasm, some members of mammalian HtrA proteins are described as potential modulators of programmed cell death and chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity. Goal of this review article is to describe the molecular alterations associated with these HtrA serine proteases and how these alterations may be associated with tumor behavior and response to chemotherapy. We will also discuss evidence that chemotherapeutic drugs regulate the expression and activation of HtrA serine proteases and that these proteases contributes to programmed cell death. Finally, we will discuss the potential role of epigenetic therapy in targeting the expression and activation of HtrA serine proteases and the mechanisms by which these proteases enhance cytotoxic effect of conventional chemotherapy.

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