Gene Summary

Gene:IL2RA; interleukin 2 receptor subunit alpha
Aliases: p55, CD25, IL2R, IMD41, TCGFR, IDDM10
Summary:The interleukin 2 (IL2) receptor alpha (IL2RA) and beta (IL2RB) chains, together with the common gamma chain (IL2RG), constitute the high-affinity IL2 receptor. Homodimeric alpha chains (IL2RA) result in low-affinity receptor, while homodimeric beta (IL2RB) chains produce a medium-affinity receptor. Normally an integral-membrane protein, soluble IL2RA has been isolated and determined to result from extracellular proteolyisis. Alternately-spliced IL2RA mRNAs have been isolated, but the significance of each is presently unknown. Mutations in this gene are associated with interleukin 2 receptor alpha deficiency.[provided by RefSeq, Nov 2009]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:interleukin-2 receptor subunit alpha
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (21)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (7)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Stem Cell Factor
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Mast Cells
  • Breast Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • Tryptases
  • Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
  • Mutation
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Cytokines, Interleukin-2
  • Case-Control Studies
  • T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory
  • Myelodysplastic Syndromes
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Young Adult
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Survival Rate
  • Bone Marrow
  • Biomarkers
  • Chromosome 10
  • Genotype
  • CD2 Antigens
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Mastocytosis, Systemic
  • Leukemic Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genetic Predisposition
  • Gene Expression
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Skin Diseases
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand
  • Cohort Studies
  • Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • Adolescents
  • Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (4)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: IL2RA (cancer-related)

Gong W, Hoffmann JM, Stock S, et al.
Comparison of IL-2 vs IL-7/IL-15 for the generation of NY-ESO-1-specific T cells.
Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2019; 68(7):1195-1209 [PubMed] Related Publications
The anti-tumor efficacy of TCR-engineered T cells in vivo depends largely on less-differentiated subsets such as T cells with naïve-like T cell (T

Wang Y, Yu W, Zhu J, et al.
Anti-CD166/4-1BB chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapy for the treatment of osteosarcoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2019; 38(1):168 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells have displayed outstanding performance in the treatment of patients with hematological malignancies. However, their efficacy against solid tumors has been largely limited.
METHODS: In this study, human osteosarcoma cell lines were prepared, flow cytometry using antibodies against CD166 was performed on different cell samples. CD166-specific T cells were obtained by viral gene transfer of corresponding DNA plasmids and selectively expanded using IL-2 and IL-15. The ability of CD166.BBζ CAR-T cells to kill CD166
RESULTS: CD166 was selectively expressed on four different human osteosarcoma cell lines, indicating its role as the novel target for CAR-T cell therapy. CD166.BBζ CAR-T cells killed osteosarcoma cell lines in vitro; the cytotoxicity correlated with the level of CD166 expression on the tumor cells. Intravenous injection of CD166.BBζ CAR-T cells into mice resulted in the regression of the tumor with no obvious toxicity.
CONCLUSIONS: Together, the data suggest that CD166.BBζ CAR-T cells may serve as a new therapeutic strategy in the future clinical practice for the treatment of osteosarcoma.

Zhou KY, Wang YX, Zhang S, et al.
GOF/LOF knowledge inference with tensor decomposition in support of high order link discovery for gene, mutation and disease.
Math Biosci Eng. 2019; 16(3):1376-1391 [PubMed] Related Publications
For discovery of new usage of drugs, the function type of their target genes plays an important role, and the hypothesis of "Antagonist-GOF" and "Agonist-LOF" has laid a solid foundation for supporting drug repurposing. In this research, an active gene annotation corpus was used as training data to predict the gain-of-function or loss-of-function or unknown character of each human gene after variation events. Unlike the design of(entity, predicate, entity) triples in a traditional three way tensor, a four way and a five way tensor, GMFD-/GMAFD-tensor, were designed to represent higher order links among or among part of these entities: genes(G), mutations(M), functions(F), diseases( D) and annotation labels(A). A tensor decomposition algorithm, CP decomposition, was applied to the higher order tensor and to unveil the correlation among entities. Meanwhile, a state-of-the-art baseline tensor decomposition algorithm, RESCAL, was carried on the three way tensor as a comparing method. The result showed that CP decomposition on higher order tensor performed better than RESCAL on traditional three way tensor in recovering masked data and making predictions. In addition, The four way tensor was proved to be the best format for our issue. At the end, a case study reproducing two disease-gene-drug links(Myelodysplatic Syndromes-IL2RA-Aldesleukin, Lymphoma- IL2RA-Aldesleukin) presented the feasibility of our prediction model for drug repurposing.

Gerashchenko GV, Grygoruk OV, Kononenko OA, et al.
Expression pattern of genes associated with tumor microenvironment in prostate cancer.
Exp Oncol. 2018; 40(4):315-322 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIM: To assess relative expression (RE) levels of CAF-, TAM-specific, immune defense-associated genes in prostate tumors and to show correlation of RE with clinical, pathological and molecular characteristics, with the aim to define clinically significant specific alterations in a gene expression pattern.
METHODS: RE of 23 genes was analyzed by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 37 freshly frozen samples of prostate cancer tissues of a different Gleason score (GS) and at various tumor stages, compared with RE in 37 paired conventionally normal prostate tissue (CNT) samples and 20 samples of prostate adenomas.
RESULTS: Differences in RE were shown for 11 genes out of 23 studied, when tumor samples were compared with corresponding CNTs. 7 genes, namely ACTA2, CXCL14, CTGF, THY1, FAP, CD163, CCL17 were upregulated in tumors. 4 genes, namely CCR4, NOS2A, MSMB, IL1R1 were downregulated in tumors. 14 genes demonstrated different RE in TNA at different stages: CXCL12, CXCL14, CTGF, FAP, HIF1A, THY1, CCL17, CCL22, CCR4, CD68, CD163, NOS2A, CTLA4, IL1R1. RE changes of 9 genes - CXCL12, CXCL14, HIF1A, CCR4, CCL17, NOS2A, CTLA4, IL1R1, IL2RA - were found in tumors with different GS. Moreover, 9 genes showed differences in RE in TNA, dependently on the presence or absence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion and 7 genes showed differences in RE of groups with differential PTEN expression. Significant correlations were calculated between RE of 9 genes in adenocarcinomas and the stage, and GS; also, between RE of 2 genes and the fusion presence; and between RE of 4 genes and PTEN expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Several gene expression patterns were identified that correlated with the GS, stage and molecular characteristics of tumors, i.e. presence of the TMPRSS2/ERG fusion and alterations in PTEN expression. These expression patterns can be used for molecular profiling of prostate tumors, with the aim to develop personalized medicine approaches. However, the proposed profiling requires a more detailed analysis and a larger cohort of patients with prostate tumor.

Katase N, Nishimatsu SI, Yamauchi A, et al.
DKK3 knockdown confers negative effects on the malignant potency of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells via the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(3):1021-1032 [PubMed] Related Publications
Dickkopf‑related protein 3 (DKK3), which is a member of the Dickkopf WNT signaling pathway inhibitor family, is considered to be a tumor suppressor, due to its reduced expression in cancer cells and its ability to induce apoptosis when overexpressed by adenovirus. However, our previous study demonstrated alternative functions for DKK3 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Our study reported that DKK3 expression was predominantly upregulated in HNSCC cell lines and tissue samples, and its expression was significantly correlated with poor prognosis. Furthermore, DKK3 overexpression in HNSCC cells significantly increased cancer cell proliferation, migration, invasion and in vivo tumor growth. These data have led to the hypothesis that DKK3 may exert oncogenic functions and may increase the malignant properties of HNSCC. The present study established a stable DKK3 knockdown cell line (HSC‑3 shDKK3) using lentivirus‑mediated short hairpin RNA, and assessed its effects on cancer cell behavior using MTT, migration and invasion assays. In addition, its effects on in vivo tumor growth were assessed using a xenograft model. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of DKK3 knockdown were investigated by microarray analysis, pathway analysis and western blotting. Compared with control cells, HSC‑3 shDKK3 cells exhibited significantly reduced proliferation, migration and invasion, and formed significantly smaller tumor masses when subcutaneously transplanted into nude mice. In addition, in HSC‑3 shDKK3 cells, the expression levels of phosphorylated (p)‑protein kinase B (Akt) (Ser473), p‑phosphoinositide 3‑kinase (PI3K) p85 (Tyr467), p‑PI3K p55 (Try199), p‑3‑phosphoinositide‑dependent protein kinase‑1 (PDK1) (Ser241) and total p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK) were reduced. Furthermore, phosphorylation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) (Ser2448) was slightly decreased in HSC‑3 shDKK3 cells, which may be due to the increased expression of DEP domain‑containing mTOR‑interacting protein. Conversely, DKK3 overexpression in HSC‑3 shDKK3 cells rescued cellular proliferation, migration and invasion. With regards to expression levels, p‑PI3K and p‑PDK1 expression was not altered, whereas mTOR and p‑p38 MAPK expression was elevated. These data supported the hypothesis and indicated that DKK3 may contribute to the malignant phenotype of HNSCC cells via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways.

Kageyama Y, Miwa H, Arakawa R, et al.
Expression of CD25 fluctuates in the leukemia-initiating cell population of CD25-positive AML.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(12):e0209295 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD25 is expressed on leukemic cells in 10-20% cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and its expression is associated with poor prognosis. We reevaluated the relationship between CD25 expression and the leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) properties of AML using a patient-derived xenograft model. We divided lineage marker-negative (Lin-) CD34+CD38- or Lin-CD34+ cells from CD25-positive AML into CD25-positive and -negative populations, and then transplanted each population into NOD.Cg-PrkdcscidIl2rgtm1Wjl/Sz mice. Leukemic engraftment was observed with both CD25-positive and -negative populations from three of nine CD25-positive AML patients. In two of those three patients, CD25-positive and -negative Lin-CD34+ cells engrafted at the primary transplantation led to leukemic engraftment at the secondary transplantation, in which engrafted cells contained both CD25-positive and -negative Lin-CD34+ AML cells. In an in vitro culture system, expression of CD25 was considerably induced in the CD25-negative population of Lin-CD34+ cells from two cases of CD25-positive AML. In one case, CD25-positive Lin-CD34+ cells gave rise to CD25-negative as well as -positive CD34+ cells. These observations suggest that there exist CD25-positive and -negative populations that can reconstitute CD25-positive AML in a patient-derived xenograft model, and that CD25 expression fluctuates in the LICs of AML.

Benonisson H, Sow HS, Breukel C, et al.
High FcγR Expression on Intratumoral Macrophages Enhances Tumor-Targeting Antibody Therapy.
J Immunol. 2018; 201(12):3741-3749 [PubMed] Related Publications
Therapy with tumor-specific Abs is common in the clinic but has limited success against solid malignancies. We aimed at improving the efficacy of this therapy by combining a tumor-specific Ab with immune-activating compounds. In this study, we demonstrate in the aggressive B16F10 mouse melanoma model that concomitant application of the anti-TRP1 Ab (clone TA99) with TLR3-7/8 or -9 ligands, and IL-2 strongly enhanced tumor control in a therapeutic setting. Depletion of NK cells, macrophages, or CD8

Zhu F, Yi G, Liu X, et al.
Ring finger protein 31-mediated atypical ubiquitination stabilizes forkhead box P3 and thereby stimulates regulatory T-cell function.
J Biol Chem. 2018; 293(52):20099-20111 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/12/2019 Related Publications
The CD4

Wang L, Bi XW, Zhu YJ, et al.
IL-2Rα up-regulation is mediated by latent membrane protein 1 and promotes lymphomagenesis and chemotherapy resistance in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.
Cancer Commun (Lond). 2018; 38(1):62 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/12/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) is a highly aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma often resistant to chemotherapy. Serum level of soluble IL-2 receptor α (IL-2Rα) is elevated in NKTCL patients and correlates significantly with treatment response and survival. In the current study we examined the potential role of IL-2Rα by over-expressing IL-2Rα in representative cell lines.
METHODS: Levels of IL-2Rα were evaluated in the human natural killer cell line NK-92 and the NKTCL cell line SNK-6. Lentiviral vectors were used to express latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) in NK-92 cells, and IL-2Rα in both NK-92 and SNK-6 cells. The biological effects of these genes on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle distribution, and chemosensitivity were analyzed.
RESULTS: Expression of IL-2Rα was significantly higher in SNK-6 cells than in NK-92 cells. Expressing LMP1 in NK-92 cells remarkably up-regulated IL-2Rα levels, whereas selective inhibitorss of the proteins in the MAPK/NF-κB pathway significantly down-regulated IL-2Rα. IL-2Rα overexpression in SNK-6 cells promoted cell proliferation by altering cell cycle distribution, and induced resistance to gemcitabine, doxorubicin, and asparaginase. These effects were reversed by an anti-IL-2Rα antibody.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that LMP1 activates the MAPK/NF-κB pathway in NKTCL cells, up-regulating IL-2Rα expression. IL-2Rα overexpression promotes growth and chemoresistance in NKTCL, making this interleukin receptor a potential therapeutic target.

Subramanian K, Dierckx T, Khouri R, et al.
Decreased RORC expression and downstream signaling in HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia uncovers an antiproliferative IL17 link: A potential target for immunotherapy?
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(7):1664-1675 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/12/2019 Related Publications
Retinoic acid-related drugs have shown promising pre-clinical activity in Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma, but RORC signaling has not been explored. Therefore, we investigated transcriptome-wide interactions of the RORC pathway in HTLV-1 and ATL, using our own and publicly available gene expression data for ATL and other leukemias. Gene expression data from ATL patients were analyzed using WGCNA to determine gene modules and their correlation to clinical and molecular data. Both PBMCs and CD4

Mercier-Letondal P, Marton C, Deschamps M, et al.
Isolation and Characterization of an HLA-DRB1*04-Restricted HPV16-E7 T Cell Receptor for Cancer Immunotherapy.
Hum Gene Ther. 2018; 29(10):1202-1212 [PubMed] Related Publications
High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a causal factor in oropharyngeal and gynecological malignancies, and development of HPV-targeted immunotherapy could be used to treat patients with these cancers. T cell-mediated adoptive immunotherapy targeting E6 and E7, two HPV16 proteins consistently expressed in tumor cells, appears to be both attractive and safe. However, isolation of HPV-specific T cells is difficult owing to the low frequency of these cell precursors in the peripheral blood. In addition, HPV-positive cancer cells often down-regulate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression ex vivo, limiting the efficacy of MHC class I-restricted approaches. Of particular interest is that both CD4 and CD8 T cells can mediate the responses. Given that CD4 T cells play a critical role in coordinating effective antitumor responses, the generation of a T helper response in patients with HPV16-associated malignancies would unleash the ultimate potential of immunotherapy. In this view, T-cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer could be a relevant strategy to generate HPV16-E7-specific and MHC class II-restricted T cells in sufficient numbers. An HPV16-E7/HLA-DRB1*04 TCR has been isolated from a cancer patient with complete response, and retroviral particles encoding this TCR have been produced. The transgenic TCR is highly expressed in transduced T cells, with a functional inducible caspase-9 suicide gene safety cassette. TCR transgenic T cells are HPV16-E7

Sweeney JG, Liang J, Antonopoulos A, et al.
Loss of GCNT2/I-branched glycans enhances melanoma growth and survival.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3368 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 28/12/2019 Related Publications
Cancer cells often display altered cell-surface glycans compared to their nontransformed counterparts. However, functional contributions of glycans to cancer initiation and progression remain poorly understood. Here, from expression-based analyses across cancer lineages, we found that melanomas exhibit significant transcriptional changes in glycosylation-related genes. This gene signature revealed that, compared to normal melanocytes, melanomas downregulate I-branching glycosyltransferase, GCNT2, leading to a loss of cell-surface I-branched glycans. We found that GCNT2 inversely correlated with clinical progression and that loss of GCNT2 increased melanoma xenograft growth, promoted colony formation, and enhanced cell survival. Conversely, overexpression of GCNT2 decreased melanoma xenograft growth, inhibited colony formation, and increased cell death. More focused analyses revealed reduced signaling responses of two representative glycoprotein families modified by GCNT2, insulin-like growth factor receptor and integrins. Overall, these studies reveal how subtle changes in glycan structure can regulate several malignancy-associated pathways and alter melanoma signaling, growth, and survival.

Willingham SB, Ho PY, Hotson A, et al.
A2AR Antagonism with CPI-444 Induces Antitumor Responses and Augments Efficacy to Anti-PD-(L)1 and Anti-CTLA-4 in Preclinical Models.
Cancer Immunol Res. 2018; 6(10):1136-1149 [PubMed] Related Publications
Adenosine signaling through A2A receptors (A2AR) expressed on immune cells suppresses antitumor immunity. CPI-444 is a potent, selective, oral A2AR antagonist. Blockade of A2AR with CPI-444 restored T-cell signaling, IL2, and IFNγ production that were suppressed by adenosine analogues

Barve A, Casson L, Krem M, et al.
Comparative utility of NRG and NRGS mice for the study of normal hematopoiesis, leukemogenesis, and therapeutic response.
Exp Hematol. 2018; 67:18-31 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/11/2019 Related Publications
Cell-line-derived xenografts (CDXs) or patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) in immune-deficient mice have revolutionized our understanding of normal and malignant human hematopoiesis. Transgenic approaches further improved in vivo hematological research, allowing the development of human-cytokine-producing mice, which show superior human cell engraftment. The most popular mouse strains used in research, the NOG (NOD.Cg-Prkdc

Li PF, Mao YZ, Bai B, et al.
Persistent peripheral blood EBV-DNA positive with high expression of PD-L1 and upregulation of CD4 + CD25 + T cell ratio in early stage NK/T cell lymphoma patients may predict worse outcome.
Ann Hematol. 2018; 97(12):2381-2389 [PubMed] Related Publications
Although gemcitabine, oxaliplatin and L-asparaginase/pegylated asparaginase (P-GEMOX) treatment for early-stage extranodal natural killer/T cell lymphoma (ENKTL) is effective, some patients die within 1 year of diagnosis. We attempted to determine an optimal biomarker for identifying such patients. We enrolled 71 patients with ENKTL who received P-GEMOX between January 2011 and January 2014. We classified the patients according to the outcome into worse (died within 1 year) or better groups (survival time ≥ 3, 4 or 5 years). The area under the curve (AUC) was determined to identify the optimal biomarker for differentiating the groups. The AUC was highest in patients who were plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA-positive post-treatment. The AUC was 0.82, 0.86 and 0.86 when the worse group was compared to the better group, respectively. Among the post-treatment EBV DNA-positive patients, as compared to EBV DNA-negative patients, pre-treatment EBV DNA-positive patients had a higher proportion of CD4 + CD25 + T cells. There was higher programmed cell death protein ligand-1(PD-L1) expression in post-treatment EBV DNA-positive patients. Post-treatment positive EBV DNA status maybe a useful biomarker of worse outcomes in early stage ENKTL.

Ngai H, Tian G, Courtney AN, et al.
IL-21 Selectively Protects CD62L
J Immunol. 2018; 201(7):2141-2153 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
T cells expressing CD19-specific chimeric Ag receptors (CARs) produce high remission rates in B cell lymphoma, but frequent disease recurrence and challenges in generating sufficient numbers of autologous CAR T cells necessitate the development of alternative therapeutic effectors. Vα24-invariant NKTs have intrinsic antitumor properties and are not alloreactive, allowing for off-the-shelf use of CAR-NKTs from healthy donors. We recently reported that CD62L

Fang H, Ketterling RP, Hanson CA, et al.
A Test Utilization Approach to the Diagnostic Workup of Isolated Eosinophilia in Otherwise Morphologically Unremarkable Bone Marrow: A Single Institutional Experience.
Am J Clin Pathol. 2018; 150(5):421-431 [PubMed] Related Publications
Objectives: Determine ancillary test utilization for the workup of isolated eosinophilia in otherwise morphologically unremarkable bone marrow (BM).
Methods: We evaluated BM ancillary testing performed in cases with isolated eosinophilia and otherwise morphologically unremarkable BM. Cases with abnormal morphology (eg, dysplasia, basophilia) and/or findings suggestive of a disorder (eg, unexplained thromboses, lymphoma) are specifically excluded.
Results: A total of 132 cases met inclusion criteria. Ten cases had an ancillary testing abnormality that warranted a more specific hematologic diagnosis: four cases of lymphocytic variant of hypereosinophilic syndrome, three cases of myeloid neoplasm with PDGFRA rearrangement, and one case each of myeloid neoplasm with PDGFRB rearrangement, chronic eosinophilic leukemia, and morphologically occult systemic mastocytosis. No cases revealed a cryptic PDGFRB or BCR/ABL1 rearrangement or JAK2 V617F mutation.
Conclusions: Findings from our institutional experience support initial testing in isolated eosinophilia with otherwise unremarkable BM to include PDGFRA rearrangement, tryptase/CD25 immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, and T-cell flow cytometry/receptor gene rearrangement. This approach achieves diagnostic quality and test utilization efficiency in our clinical practice.

Liu Z, Meng J, Li X, et al.
Identification of Hub Genes and Key Pathways Associated with Two Subtypes of Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Based on Gene Expression Profiling via Integrated Bioinformatics.
Biomed Res Int. 2018; 2018:3574534 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
There is a significant difference in prognosis between the germinal center B-cell (GCB) and activated B-cell (ABC) subtypes of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the signaling pathways and driver genes involved in these disparate subtypes are ambiguous. This study integrated three cohort profile datasets, including 250 GCB samples and 250 ABC samples, to elucidate potential candidate hub genes and key pathways involved in these two subtypes. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. After Gene Ontology functional enrichment analysis of the DEGs, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and sub-PPI network analyses were conducted using the STRING database and Cytoscape software. Subsequently, the Oncomine database and the cBioportal online tool were employed to verify the alterations and differential expression of the 8 hub genes (MME, CD44, IRF4, STAT3, IL2RA, ETV6, CCND2, and CFLAR). Gene set enrichment analysis was also employed to identify the intersection of the key pathways (JAK-STAT, FOXO, and NF-

Yan Q, Zhao R, Shen C, et al.
Upregulation of MicroRNA 711 Mediates HIV-1 Vpr Promotion of Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Latency and Induction of Pro-proliferation and Pro-survival Cytokines by Targeting the Notch/NF-κB-Signaling Axis.
J Virol. 2018; 92(18) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Coinfection with HIV-1 and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) often leads to AIDS-related malignancies, including Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL). The interaction between HIV and KSHV plays a pivotal role in the progression of these malignancies. We have previously demonstrated that, by upregulating miR-942-5p, HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) inhibits KSHV lytic replication by targeting IκBα to activate the NF-κB signaling (Q. Yan, C. Shen, J. Qin, W. Li, M. Hu, H. Lu, D. Qin, J. Zhu, S. J. Gao, C. Lu, J Virol 90:8739-8753, 2016). Here, we show that Vpr inactivates Notch signaling, resulting in inhibition of KSHV lytic replication and induction of pro-proliferative and -survival cytokines, including interleukin-2 (IL-2), TIMP-1, IGF-1, and NT-4. Mechanistically, Vpr upregulates miR-711, which directly targets the Notch1 3' untranslated region. Suppression of miR-711 relieved Notch1 and reduced Vpr inhibition of KSHV lytic replication and Vpr induction of pro-proliferation and -survival cytokines, while overexpression of miR-711 exhibited the opposite effect. Finally, overexpression of Notch1 reduced Vpr induction of NF-κB activity by promoting IκBα promoter activity. Our novel findings reveal that by upregulating miR-711 to target Notch1, Vpr silences Notch signaling to activate the NF-κB pathway by reducing IκBα expression, leading to inhibition of KSHV lytic replication and induction of pro-proliferation and -survival cytokines. Therefore, the miR-711/Notch/NF-κB axis is important in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related malignancies and could be an attractive therapeutic target.

Gorlov I, Orlow I, Ringelberg C, et al.
Identification of gene expression levels in primary melanoma associated with clinically meaningful characteristics.
Melanoma Res. 2018; 28(5):380-389 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Factors influencing melanoma survival include sex, age, clinical stage, lymph node involvement, as well as Breslow thickness, presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes based on histological analysis of primary melanoma, mitotic rate, and ulceration. Identification of genes whose expression in primary tumors is associated with these key tumor/patient characteristics can shed light on molecular mechanisms of melanoma survival. Here, we show results from a gene expression analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary melanomas with extensive clinical annotation. The Cancer Genome Atlas data on primary melanomas were used for validation of nominally significant associations. We identified five genes that were significantly associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the joint analysis after adjustment for multiple testing: IL1R2, PPL, PLA2G3, RASAL1, and SGK2. We also identified two genes significantly associated with melanoma metastasis to the regional lymph nodes (PIK3CG and IL2RA), and two genes significantly associated with sex (KDM5C and KDM6A). We found that LEF1 was significantly associated with Breslow thickness and CCNA2 and UBE2T with mitosis. RAD50 was the gene most significantly associated with survival, with a higher level of expression associated with worse survival.

Angelova EA, Medeiros LJ, Wang W, et al.
Clinicopathologic and molecular features in hairy cell leukemia-variant: single institutional experience.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(11):1717-1732 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hairy cell leukemia-variant is rare. Only a small number of cases have been reported in the literature with little cytogenetic or molecular data available. In this study, we describe the clinicopathologic and genetic features of 23 patients with hairy cell leukemia-variant (16 men and 7 women) with a median age of 70 years. Most patients had splenomegaly (90%), leukocytosis (77%), and lymphocytosis (82%); no patients had monocytopenia. Histologically, the bone marrow biopsy specimens showed a mixed pattern of predominantly interstitial and lesser intrasinusoidal infiltration by leukemic cells. In bone marrow aspirate smears most cells had villous cytoplasmic features and a small nucleolus. We describe unusual sites of hairy cell leukemia-variant involvement in 4 patients, including brain, omentum, terminal ileum, and skin at the time of initial presentation. Immunophenotyping showed monotypic B-cells positive for pan B-cell antigens, CD11c, and CD103, and negative for CD25 and annexin A1. Conventional cytogenetic or fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed deletions of 17p13/TP53 and 11q22/ATM gene in 5/12 (42%) and 2/9 (22%) cases, respectively. Sequencing of the variable region of IGVH showed mutations (>2% deviation from germline) in 40% of the cases assessed. MAP2K1 mutation (p.C121S) was seen in 1 of 14 (7%) patients tested. No BRAF V600E mutations were detected. The patients were treated in a heterogeneous manner, but most often with therapies designed for classical hairy cell leukemia and the 5-year overall survival was 84%. In summary, hairy cell leukemia-variant exhibits a heterogeneous spectrum of clinical, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features that may overlap with classic hairy cell leukemia and other hairy cell-like B-cell neoplasms. A subset of patients can have an aggressive clinical course. In our experience MAP2K1 mutations are uncommon in this disease.

Wang M, Zhang C, Tian T, et al.
Increased Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood of Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Rely on Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α-TNF Receptor-2 Pathway.
Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1274 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harbors an immune suppression environment, featured by increased regulatory T cells (Tregs). The expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-2 (TNFR2) on Tregs could be used to identify the maximally suppressive Treg population, and TNF-α furtherly promoted the expansion and function of Tregs

Davis M, Tripathi S, Hughley R, et al.
AR negative triple negative or "quadruple negative" breast cancers in African American women have an enriched basal and immune signature.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(6):e0196909 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
There is increasing evidence that Androgen Receptor (AR) expression has prognostic usefulness in Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), where tumors that lack AR expression are considered "Quadruple negative" Breast Cancers ("QNBC"). However, a comprehensive analysis of AR expression within all breast cancer subtypes or stratified by race has not been reported. We assessed AR mRNA expression in 925 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and 136 tumors in 2 confirmation sets. AR protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in 197 tumors from a multi-institutional cohort, for a total of 1258 patients analyzed. Cox hazard ratios were used to determine correlations to PAM50 breast cancer subtypes, and TNBC subtypes. Overall, AR-negative patients are diagnosed at a younger age compared to AR-positive patients, with the average age of AA AR-negative patients being, 49. AA breast tumors express AR at lower rates compared to Whites, independent of ER and PR expression (p<0.0001). AR-negative patients have a (66.60; 95% CI, 32-146) odds ratio of being basal-like compared to other PAM50 subtypes, and this is associated with an increased time to progression and decreased overall survival. AA "QNBC" patients predominately demonstrated BL1, BL2 and IM subtypes, with differential expression of E2F1, NFKBIL2, CCL2, TGFB3, CEBPB, PDK1, IL12RB2, IL2RA, and SOS1 genes compared to white patients. Immune checkpoint inhibitors PD-1, PD-L1, and CTLA-4 were significantly upregulated in both overall "QNBC" and AA "QNBC" patients as well. Thus, AR could be used as a prognostic marker for breast cancer, particularly in AA "QNBC" patients.

Landman S, Cruijsen M, Urbano PCM, et al.
DNA Methyltransferase Inhibition Promotes Th1 Polarization in Human CD4
J Immunol Res. 2018; 2018:4973964 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Regulatory T cells (Treg) can show plasticity whereby FOXP3 expression, the master transcription factor for Treg suppressor function, is lost and proinflammatory cytokines are produced. Optimal FOXP3 expression strongly depends on hypomethylation of the

Sharapova TN, Romanova EA, Sashchenko LP, Yashin DV
Tag7 (PGLYRP1) Can Induce an Emergence of the CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127+ Cells with Antitumor Activity.
J Immunol Res. 2018; 2018:4501273 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
We have shown that in the human peripheral blood cells, the innate immunity protein Tag7 can activate a subpopulation of CD3+CD4+CD25+ cells, which have antitumor activity. These cells can induce lysis of HLA-negative tumor cell lines. The Hsp70 stress molecule on the surface of the tumor cells is used as a recognition target, while the Tag7 protein on the lymphocyte membrane acts as a receptor for Hsp70. We have also demonstrated that this subpopulation of the CD4+CD25+ cells is CD127 positive and hence is not the Treg cells. Our data suggest that this subpopulation of cells is identical to the CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes, which are activated in the leukocyte pool by the IL-2 cytokine.

Leung CS
Analysis of ROR1 Protein Expression in Mice with Reconstituted Human Immune System Components.
J Immunol Res. 2018; 2018:2480931 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 1 (ROR1) is an oncofetal antigen expressed on multiple tumors and has no significant expression on normal human tissues. ROR1 is highly upregulated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B cells. NOD-scid IL2rg

Zahran AM, Mohammed Saleh MF, Sayed MM, et al.
Up-regulation of regulatory T cells, CD200 and TIM3 expression in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 22(3):587-595 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The bone marrow immunosuppressive microenvironment of AML patients sustains and modulates proliferation, survival and drug resistance of AML through deregulation of both innate and adaptive immune response. We aimed to investigate the level of Tregs, expression of Tim-3 on peripheral blood T cells, expression of CD200 in myeloid blasts in newly diagnosed AML patients with normal cytogenetics (AML-NC) and their prognostic impact.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: This study included 40 patients with de novo AML-NC and 20 healthy controls. Flow-cytometry was used for detection of CD4+CD25+high FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, Tim-3 expression on peripheral blood T cells and CD200 expression on myeloid blasts.
RESULTS: The percentages of CD4+CD25+high and CD4+CD25+high Foxp3+ Tregs were significantly increased in AML patients than controls. The levels of Tregs, Tim-3/CD4+, Tim-3/CD8+, CD200 and MFI of CD200 were significantly lower in responding patients than in those with persistent leukemia. Only high CD200 expression (> 50%) showed statistically significant worse OS with P< 0.04.
CONCLUSION: The increased levels of Tregs, Tim-3 expression on peripheral blood T cells and CD200 expression in myeloid blast in AML patients could play a role in the development of AML. Analysis of these markers could serve as prognostic markers and might guide the therapy in AML patients in the future.

Budna J, Kaczmarek M, Kolecka-Bednarczyk A, et al.
Enhanced Suppressive Activity of Regulatory T Cells in the Microenvironment of Malignant Pleural Effusions.
J Immunol Res. 2018; 2018:9876014 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Cancer metastatic spread to serous cavity causes malignant pleural effusions (MPEs), indicating dismal prognosis. Tumor microenvironment can implement suppressive activity on host immune responses. Thus, we investigated the prevalence of Tregs and the relationship between them and TGF-

Blatt K, Menzl I, Eisenwort G, et al.
Phenotyping and Target Expression Profiling of CD34
Neoplasia. 2018; 20(6):632-642 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Leukemic stem cells (LSCs) are an emerging target of curative anti-leukemia therapy. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), LSCs frequently express CD34 and often lack CD38. However, little is known about markers and targets expressed in ALL LSCs. We have examined marker- and target expression profiles in CD34

Luo B, Que ZJ, Zhou ZY, et al.
Feiji Recipe inhibits the growth of lung cancer by modulating T-cell immunity through indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase pathway in an orthotopic implantation model.
J Integr Med. 2018; 16(4):283-289 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Escape from the body's immune response is a basic characteristic of lung cancer, and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) plays a key role in mediating immune escape of non-small-cell lung cancer, which leads to recurrence and metastasis. Feiji Recipe, a compound Chinese herbal medicine, has the effect of stabilizing lesions and prolonging survival in patients with lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the anticancer properties of Feiji Recipe.
METHODS: An orthotopic transplant model of mouse Lewis lung cancer, with stable expression of IDO gene, was established in C57BL/6 mice. Optical imaging was used to observe the effects of Feiji Recipe in the treatment of lung cancer in vivo. The effects of Feiji Recipe on the proliferation of mouse Lewis lung cancer cell line 2LL, 2LL-enhanced green fluorescent protein (2LL-EGFP) and 2LL-EGFP-IDO were investigated, and the apoptosis of T-cells was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide using flow cytometry. Chemical composition of Feiji Recipe was validated by high-performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS: Compared to the control group, the survival of animals treated with Feiji Recipe was significantly prolonged (P = 0.0074), and the IDO protein level decreased (P = 0.0072); moreover, the percentages of CD4
CONCLUSION: The molecular mechanism of Feiji Recipe in treatment of lung cancer is to restore the function of T-cells in the cancer microenvironment through interfering with the IDO pathway.

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