Gene Summary

Gene:ING3; inhibitor of growth family member 3
Aliases: Eaf4, ING2, MEAF4, p47ING3
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is similar to ING1, a tumor suppressor protein that can interact with TP53, inhibit cell growth, and induce apoptosis. This protein contains a PHD-finger, which is a common motif in proteins involved in chromatin remodeling. This gene can activate p53 trans-activated promoters, including promoters of p21/waf1 and bax. Overexpression of this gene has been shown to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. Allelic loss and reduced expression of this gene were detected in head and neck cancers. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been observed. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:inhibitor of growth protein 3
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

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Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: ING3 (cancer-related)

Zhao S, Wang L, Zhang C, et al.
Inhibitor of growth 3 induces cell death by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by blocking the PI3K/AKT pathway.
Cancer Gene Ther. 2018; 25(9-10):240-247 [PubMed] Related Publications
ING3 is a potential candidate tumor-suppressor gene that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cancers, however the exact role and mechanism of ING3 in gastric cancer (GC) remains elusive. In this study, the low expression of ING3 was validated in GC tissues and various GC cell lines. Overexpression of ING3 by transfection with pEGFP-ING3 plasmids inhibited cell proliferation in SGC-7901 and BGC-825 cells, concomitant with the decrease in the expression of PCNA, a marker for cell proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of ING3-induced cell cycle arrest at G

Özdaş S
Nuclear entrapment of p33ING1b by inhibition of exportin-1: A trigger of apoptosis in head and neck squamous cell cancer.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2018; 64(5):66-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
The effect of deregulation of nuclear export mediated by exportin-1, with consequent cellular mislocalization of p33ING1b, a member of the tumor suppressor gene family, has not been previously investigated in head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). We evaluated the effect of reversing cytoplasmic p33ING1b localization through inhibition of exportin-1 by leptomycin B (LMB) and the effect of nuclear entrapment of p33ING1b on molecular alterations in primary and metastatic HNSCC lines. The expression and location of exportin-1 and p33ING1b were analyzed by a quantitative real‑time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction PCR (qRT-PCR), a Western blot, and immunostaining. Cell proliferation and migration assays were conducted to determine the effect of exportin-1 inhibition on the cell lines. Exportin-1 was overexpressed in metastatic HNSCC, whereas p33ING1b was poorly expressed. Exportin-1 inhibition induced nuclear entrapment and upregulation of p33ING1b, extensive apoptosis, and growth arrest. It also suppressed cell migration. Cytoplasmic p33ING1b-mediated regulation of cell growth and nuclear entrapment of p33ING1b via inhibition of exportin-1 may be a key mechanism for inducing HNSCC apoptosis.

Gao Y, Ma H, Gao C, et al.
Tumor-promoting properties of miR-8084 in breast cancer through enhancing proliferation, suppressing apoptosis and inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
J Transl Med. 2018; 16(1):38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is one of the most frequent malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women. MicroRNAs play a key role in breast cancer development and progression. microRNA(miR)-8084 has been observed an aberrant expression in breast cancer. However, the functions and regulatory axes of miR-8084, particularly in breast cancer, were not entirely clear.
METHODS: miR-8084 expression in breast cancer were investigated in a GEO dataset by in silico analysis and in 42 paired tumor tissues by qPCR. The effects of deregulation of miR-8084 on breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo were examined by colony-formation assay, wound healing assay, transwell assay and nude mouse subcutaneous tumor formation model. The target gene of miR-8084 were predicted by TargetScan and miRDB, and confirmed by luciferase reporter system. The roles of miR-8084 in the breast cancer cell proliferation, apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were investigated by MTS, FACS and associated-marker detection by western blot.
RESULTS: miR-8084 is significantly up-regulated in both serum and malignant tissues from the source of breast cancer patients. miR-8084 promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cells by activating ERK1/2 and AKT. Meanwhile miR-8084 inhibits apoptosis by decreasing p53-BAX related pathway. miR-8084 also enhances migration and invasion by inducing EMT. Moreover, the tumor suppressor ING2 is a potential target of miR-8084, and miR-8084 regulatory axes contribute to pro-tumor effect, at least partially through regulating ING2.
CONCLUSION: Our results strongly suggest that miR-8084 functions as an oncogene that promotes the development and progression of breast cancer, and miR-8084 is a potential new diagnostic marker and therapeutic target of breast cancer.

McClurg UL, Nabbi A, Ricordel C, et al.
Human ex vivo prostate tissue model system identifies ING3 as an oncoprotein.
Br J Cancer. 2018; 118(5):713-726 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Although the founding members of the INhibitor of Growth (ING) family of histone mark readers, ING1 and ING2, were defined as tumour suppressors in animal models, the role of other ING proteins in cellular proliferation and cancer progression is unclear.
METHODS: We transduced ex vivo benign prostate hyperplasia tissues with inducible lentiviral particles to express ING proteins. Proliferation was assessed by H3S10
RESULTS: We found that ING3 stimulates cellular proliferation in ex vivo tissues, suggesting that ING3 could be oncogenic. Indeed, ING3 overexpression transformed normal human dermal fibroblasts. We observed elevated levels of ING3 in prostate cancer samples, which correlated with poorer patient survival. Consistent with an oncogenic role, gene-silencing experiments revealed that ING3 is required for the proliferation of breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer cells. Finally, ING3 controls the expression of an intricate network of cell cycle genes by associating with chromatin modifiers and the H3K4
CONCLUSIONS: Our investigations create a shift in the prevailing view that ING proteins are tumour suppressors and redefine ING3 as an oncoprotein.

Nabbi A, McClurg UL, Thalappilly S, et al.
ING3 promotes prostate cancer growth by activating the androgen receptor.
BMC Med. 2017; 15(1):103 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) is a major driver of prostate cancer, and increased AR levels and co-activators of the receptor promote the development of prostate cancer. INhibitor of Growth (ING) proteins target lysine acetyltransferase or lysine deacetylase complexes to the histone H3K4Me3 mark of active transcription, to affect chromatin structure and gene expression. ING3 is a stoichiometric member of the TIP60 lysine acetyltransferase complex implicated in prostate cancer development.
METHODS: Biopsies of 265 patients with prostate cancer were stained for ING3, pan-cytokeratin, and DNA. LNCaP and C4-2 androgen-responsive cells were used for in vitro assays including immunoprecipitation, western blotting, Luciferase reporter assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Cell viability and migration assays were performed in prostate cancer cell lines using scrambled siRNA or siRNA targeting ING3.
RESULTS: We find that ING3 levels and AR activity positively correlate in prostate cancer. ING3 potentiates androgen effects, increasing expression of androgen-regulated genes and androgen response element-driven reporters to promote growth and anchorage-independent growth. Conversely, ING3 knockdown inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and invasion. ING3 activates the AR by serving as a scaffold to increase interaction between TIP60 and the AR in the cytoplasm, enhancing receptor acetylation and translocation to the nucleus. Activation is independent of ING3's ability to target the TIP60 complex to H3K4Me3, identifying a previously unknown chromatin-independent cytoplasmic activity for ING3. In agreement with in vitro observations, analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data (n = 498) and a prostate cancer tissue microarray (n = 256) show that ING3 levels are higher in aggressive prostate cancers, with high levels of ING3 predicting shorter patient survival in a low AR subgroup. Including ING3 levels with currently used indicators such as the Gleason score provides more accurate prognosis in primary prostate cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to the majority of previous reports suggesting tumor suppressive functions in other cancers, our observations identify a clear oncogenic role for ING3, which acts as a co-activator of AR in prostate cancer. Data from TCGA and our previous and current tissue microarrays suggest that ING3 levels correlate with AR levels and that in patients with low levels of the receptor, ING3 level could serve as a useful prognostic biomarker.

Ngollo M, Lebert A, Daures M, et al.
Global analysis of H3K27me3 as an epigenetic marker in prostate cancer progression.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):261 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: H3K27me3 histone marks shape the inhibition of gene transcription. In prostate cancer, the deregulation of H3K27me3 marks might play a role in prostate tumor progression.
METHODS: We investigated genome-wide H3K27me3 histone methylation profile using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and 2X400K promoter microarrays to identify differentially-enriched regions in biopsy samples from prostate cancer patients. H3K27me3 marks were assessed in 34 prostate tumors: 11 with Gleason score > 7 (GS > 7), 10 with Gleason score ≤ 7 (GS ≤ 7), and 13 morphologically normal prostate samples.
RESULTS: Here, H3K27me3 profiling identified an average of 386 enriched-genes on promoter regions in healthy control group versus 545 genes in GS ≤ 7 and 748 genes in GS > 7 group. We then ran a factorial discriminant analysis (FDA) and compared the enriched genes in prostate-tumor biopsies and normal biopsies using ANOVA to identify significantly differentially-enriched genes. The analysis identified ALG5, EXOSC8, CBX1, GRID2, GRIN3B, ING3, MYO1D, NPHP3-AS1, MSH6, FBXO11, SND1, SPATS2, TENM4 and TRA2A genes. These genes are possibly associated with prostate cancer. Notably, the H3K27me3 histone mark emerged as a novel regulatory mechanism in poor-prognosis prostate cancer.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings point to epigenetic mark H3K27me3 as an important event in prostate carcinogenesis and progression. The results reported here provide new molecular insights into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer.

Yang C, Gao J, Yan N, et al.
Propofol inhibits the growth and survival of gastric cancer cells in vitro through the upregulation of ING3.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 37(1):587-593 [PubMed] Related Publications
Propofol is one of the most extensively used intravenous anesthetic agents and it can influence the biological behavior of gastric cancer. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In the present study, we found that propofol significantly inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and migration, and also promoted apoptosis in gastric carcinoma cell lines SGC-7901 and MGC-803, as detected using MTT, colony formation and flow cytometry assays, respectively. Moreover, propofol (10 and 20 µM) markedly upregulated the expression of inhibitor of growth 3 (ING3), which was lower in SGC-7901 and MGC-803 cells compared with that noted in normal human gastric epithelial cell lines GES-1 and HFE145. Furthermore, we transfected SGC-7901 and MGC-803 cells with ING3 overexpression vectors or ING3 small interference RNA (siING3), respectively, to assess the role of ING3 in propofol-induced antitumor activity. The siING3 transfection reversed the effects of propofol on the biological behavior of gastric cancer cells, while transfection of ING3 promoted the effects of propofol. In conclusion, our results indicate that propofol exerts an inhibitory effect on the growth and survival of gastric cancer cells by interfering with ING3 degradation.

Zhang R, Jin J, Shi J, Hou Y
INGs are potential drug targets for cancer.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017; 143(2):189-197 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The inhibitor of growth (ING) family consists of ING1, ING2, ING3, ING4 and ING5, which function as the type II tumor suppressors. INGs regulate cell proliferation, senescence, apoptosis, differentiation, angiogenesis, DNA repair, metastasis, and invasion by multiple pathways. In addition, INGs increase cancer cell sensitivity for chemotherapy and radiotherapy, while clinical observations show that INGs are frequently lost in some types of cancers. The aim of the study was to summarize the recent progress regarding INGs regulating tumor progression.
METHODS: The literatures of INGs regulating tumor progression were searched and assayed.
RESULTS: The regulating signaling pathways of ING1, ING2, ING3 or ING4 on tumor progression were shown. The mechanisms of INGs on tumor suppression were also assayed.
CONCLUSIONS: This review better summarized the signaling mechanism of INGs on tumor suppression, which provides a candidate therapy strategy for cancers.

Esmaeili M, Pungsrinont T, Schaefer A, Baniahmad A
A novel crosstalk between the tumor suppressors ING1 and ING2 regulates androgen receptor signaling.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2016; 94(10):1167-1179 [PubMed] Related Publications
The androgen receptor (AR) is a transcriptional factor that has a pivotal role in the development of normal and also cancerous prostate. Therefore, analyzing AR signaling is essential to understand cancerogensis and proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa). Inhibitor of growth 1 (ING1) and ING2 are tumor suppressors with reduced expression in many cancer types. There are also indications of misregulation of ING1 and ING2 in PCa. However, the roles of ING1 and ING2 in PCa and AR signaling are poorly understood. Here, we show that surprisingly the ING1b knockdown (KD) represses AR-mediated transactivation on AR key target genes in the human LNCaP PCa cells. This is associated with growth reduction of LNCaP cells by ING1 KD. In line with this, using Ing1 knockout (KO) mice, we provide further evidence that ING1 deficiency downregulates prostate-specific AR target genes in vivo. Further analyses suggest that KD of ING1b results in induction of both cellular senescence and the cell cycle inhibitor p16
KEY MESSAGE: • The tumor suppressors ING1 and 2 are dysregulated in human prostate cancer. • ING1 deficiency reduces AR-mediated gene expression in vitro and in vivo. • ING2, like ING1, inhibits AR-mediated transactivation and prostate cancer cell growth. • ING1 regulates ING2. • ING1 and ING2 crosstalk with each other to inhibit AR signaling in prostate cancer.

Almami A, Hegazy SA, Nabbi A, et al.
ING3 is associated with increased cell invasion and lethal outcome in ERG-negative prostate cancer patients.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9731-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inhibitor of growth family member 3 (ING3) is a member of the ING tumor suppressor family. Although its expression has been reported in various types of cancers, the role of ING3 and its prognostic value in prostate cancer (PCa) has not been investigated. ING3 expression and prognostic value was assessed in a cohort of PCa patients (n = 312) treated with transurethral resection of prostate using immumoflourescent automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) system. In vitro studies were carried out in conjunction to investigate its expression in various PCa cell lines. ING3 knockdown was also carried out in DU145 cell lines to assess for any changes in invasion and migration. ING3 expression was highest in benign prostate tissues (mean 3.2 ± 0.54) compared to PCa (mean 2.5 ± 0.26) (p = 0.437), advanced prostate cancer (AdvPCa) (mean 1.5 ± 0.32) (p = 0.004), and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) (mean 2.28 ± 0.32) (p = 0.285). ING3 expression was inversely correlated to Gleason score (p = 0.039) and ETS-related gene (ERG) expression (p = 0.019). Higher ING3 expression was marginally associated with lethal disease (p = 0.052), and this was more pronounced in patients with ERG-negative status (p = 0.018). Inhibition of ING3 in DU145 PCa cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA) was associated with decreased cell invasion (p = 0.0016) and cell migration compared to control cells. ING3 is significantly associated with PCa disease progression and cancer-specific mortality. To our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting an oncogenic function of ING3, previously well known as a tumor suppressor protein. Further studies should investigate potential-related pathways in association to ING3.

Temel M, Turkmen A, Dokuyucu R, et al.
A novel tumor suppressor gene in basal cell carcinoma: inhibition of growth factor-2.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(6):4611-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies at the chromosome 4q22-35 region, it was shown that the amount of deletion was high in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). It has been proposed that genes located in this chromosomal region could be tumor suppressor genes in BCC. It has been thought that deletions in the ING2 gene located in the same region can play a role in the pathophysiology of BCC and that deletions occurring in this region may influence the level of ING2 expression in BCC. Tumoral and non-tumoral tissues from 75 patients with BCC (45 men and 30 women) were included to the study. Lesions were excised by a surgical margin of 0.5 cm. After excision, RNA was isolated from tumoral and non-tumoral tissue samples. ING2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression level was determined in tumoral and non-tumoral tissues by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). It was detected that ING2 mRNA expression level decreased in tumoral tissues when compared to non-tumoral tissues from BCC patients (p = 0.0001). It was found that expression levels of this gene were comparable among patients with primary, recurrent, or multiple BCC. It is thought that ING2 gene expression level could contribute to the development of BCC but not be associated with the stage and the prognosis of the tumor.

Han XR, Bai XZ, Sun Y, Yang Y
Nuclear ING2 expression is reduced in osteosarcoma.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(5):1967-72 [PubMed] Related Publications
Osteosarcoma is a high-grade malignant bone tumor. Loss of inhibitor of growth 2 (ING2) expression has been demonstrated in numerous types of cancers. However, no study has shown the relationship between ING2 expression and osteosarcoma. In the present study, we confirmed that the levels of ING2 mRNA and protein were lower in cancer tissues than these levels in normal tissues. Loss of nuclear ING2 protein was significantly associated with a decreased survival time of patients. Osteosarcoma cells were transfected with ING2 protein without a nuclear localization signal or intact ING2 protein to examine the effects of exogenous expression of ING2 in vitro. Compared to the control cells, intact ING2-expressing cells exhibited increased apoptosis, G1 phase arrest and senescence. Taken together, these results suggest that ING2 acts as a tumor suppressor in osteosarcoma.

Yu G, Lee YC, Cheng CJ, et al.
RSK promotes prostate cancer progression in bone through ING3, CKAP2, and PTK6-mediated cell survival.
Mol Cancer Res. 2015; 13(2):348-57 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Prostate cancer has a proclivity to metastasize to bone. The mechanism by which prostate cancer cells are able to survive and progress in the bone microenvironment is not clear. Identification of molecules that play critical roles in the progression of prostate cancer in bone will provide essential targets for therapy. Ribosomal S6 protein kinases (RSK) have been shown to mediate many cellular functions critical for cancer progression. Whether RSK plays a role in the progression of prostate cancer in bone is unknown. IHC analysis of human prostate cancer specimens showed increased phosphorylation of RSK in the nucleus of prostate cancer cells in a significant fraction of human prostate cancer bone metastasis specimens, compared with the primary site or lymph node metastasis. Expression of constitutively active myristylated RSK in C4-2B4 cells (C4-2B4/RSK) increased their survival and anchorage-independent growth compared with C4-2B4/vector cells. Using an orthotopic bone injection model, it was determined that injecting C4-2B4/RSK cells into mouse femurs enhanced their progression in bone compared with control cells. In PC3-mm2 cells, knockdown of RSK1 (RPS6KA1), the predominant RSK isoform, but not RSK2 (RPS6KA2) alone, decreased anchorage-independent growth in vitro and reduced tumor progression in bone and tumor-induced bone remodeling in vivo. Mechanistic studies showed that RSK regulates anchorage-independent growth through transcriptional regulation of factors that modulate cell survival, including ING3, CKAP2, and PTK6. Together, these data provide strong evidence that RSK is an important driver in prostate cancer progression in bone.
IMPLICATIONS: RSK, an important driver in prostate cancer progression in bone, has promising potential as a therapeutic target for prostate cancer bone metastasis.

Sardiu ME, Smith KT, Groppe BD, et al.
Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)-induced dynamics of a human histone deacetylase protein interaction network.
Mol Cell Proteomics. 2014; 13(11):3114-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are targets for cancer therapy. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is an HDAC inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. To obtain a better mechanistic understanding of the Sin3/HDAC complex in cancer, we extended its protein-protein interaction network and identified a mutually exclusive pair within the complex. We then assessed the effects of SAHA on the disruption of the complex network through six homologous baits. SAHA perturbs multiple protein interactions and therefore compromises the composition of large parts of the Sin3/HDAC network. A comparison of the effect of SAHA treatment on gene expression in breast cancer cells to a knockdown of the ING2 subunit indicated that a portion of the anticancer effects of SAHA may be attributed to the disruption of ING2's association with the complex. Our dynamic protein interaction network resource provides novel insights into the molecular mechanism of SAHA action and demonstrates the potential for drugs to rewire networks.

Gou WF, Sun HZ, Zhao S, et al.
Downregulated inhibitor of growth 3 (ING3) expression during colorectal carcinogenesis.
Indian J Med Res. 2014; 139(4):561-7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: ING3 (inhibitor of growth protein 3) overexpression decreased S-phase cell population and colony-forming efficiency, and induced apoptosis at a p53-mediated manner. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of ING3 expression in colorectal carcinogenesis and subsequent progression.
METHODS: ING3 expression was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray containing colorectal non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM), adenoma and adenocarcinoma. Colorectal carcinoma tissue and cell lines were studied for ING3 expression by Western blot or RT-PCR.
RESULTS: ING3 mRNA was differentially expressed in Colo201, Colo205, DLD-1, HCT-15, HCT-116, HT-29, KM-12, SW480, SW620 and WiDr cells. Carcinomas showed significantly lower ING3 expression than matched NNM at mRNA level (P< 0.05), but not at protein level. Immunohistochemically, ING3 expression was significantly decreased from NNM, adenoma to adenocarcinoma (P< 0.05). ING3 expression was not correlated with age, sex, tumour size, depth of invasion, lymphatic or venous invasion, lymph node metastasis, tumour- node- metastasis staging or differentiation. Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that ING3 protein expression was not associated the prognosis of the patients with colorectal carcinoma (P< 0.05).
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that downregulated ING3 expression might play an important role in colorectal adenoma-adenocarcinoma sequence. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism.

Pan YQ, Zhang X, Xu DP, et al.
Decreased expression of ING2 gene and its clinicopathological significance in Chinese NSCLC patients.
Neoplasma. 2014; 61(4):468-75 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inhibitor of growth 2 (ING2) is a member of lNG family, involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA repair, apoptosis and senescence, and participating in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation by histone modification. Recent researches suggest ING2 plays roles in carcinogenesis both as tumor suppressor gene and ongocene depending on tumor types and cell status. Here, we investigated the status of ING2 in a series of 64 Chinese non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)patients using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and confirmed the results with Western blotting. RT-PCR results revealed the expression level of ING2 was consistent with mRNA level. The IHC results showed that ING2 protein expression was significantly decreased in NSCLC samples compared with normal lung tissues (P

Zhong J, Yang L, Liu N, et al.
Knockdown of inhibitor of growth protein 2 inhibits cell invasion and enhances chemosensitivity to 5-FU in human gastric cancer cells.
Dig Dis Sci. 2013; 58(11):3189-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The inhibitor of growth (ING) family is involved in multiple cellular functions, but the role of ING2 in gastric cancer progression is unclear.
AIM: To investigate the effects of ING2 gene knockdown on chemosensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in human gastric cancer cells and its possible mechanisms.
METHODS: Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeting ING2 (shING2) was transfected into MGC-803 cells using Lipofectamine 2000, and stable transfection cell lines were established using G418. Cell viability, cell cycle distribution, cell apoptosis, and invasive ability were measured to determine the influence of ING2 knockdown on cell biologic characteristics. Messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of ING2, cyclin D1, NF-kappaB/p65, and several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were determined by use of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or Western blotting, respectively.
RESULTS: Our results showed that ING2 knockdown induced cell apoptosis and inhibited cell viability significantly (P < 0.05). Additionally, ING2 knockdown induced a specific G0/G1 arrest. Furthermore, the suppression of ING2 could enhance the chemosensitivity of gastric cancer cells to 5-FU significantly. Moreover, knockdown of ING2 expression significantly reduced cellular metastatic ability and expression of MMPs in MGC-803 cells. The expression of cyclin D1 and NF-kappaB/p65 was also markedly inhibited in MGC-803/shING2 cells compared with control cells.
CONCLUSIONS: ING2 not only plays an essential role in the growth and invasion of MGC-803 cells but also represents a potential approach to chemosensitization therapy in human gastric cancer.

Yang HY, Liu HL, Tian LT, et al.
Expression and prognostic value of ING3 in human primary hepatocellular carcinoma.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2012; 237(4):352-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor-suppressor ING3 has been shown to be involved in tumor transcriptional regulation, apoptosis and the cell cycle. Some studies have demonstrated that ING3 is dysregulated in several types of cancers. However, the expression and function of ING3 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate ING3 expression in hepatic tumors and its clinical relevance in hepatic cancer. The expression of ING3 protein was examined in 120 dissected HCC tissues and 47 liver tissues adjacent to the tumor by immunohistochemical assays and confirmed by Western blot analysis in 20 paired frozen tumor and non-tumor liver tissues. The relationship between ING3 staining and clinico-pathological characteristics of HCC was further analyzed. The mRNA expression of ING3 in the dissected tissues was also analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and realtime PCR. Both mRNA and protein concentrations of ING3 were found to be downregulated in the majority of HCC tumors in comparison with matched non-tumor hepatic tissues. Analysis of the relationship between ING3 staining and clinico-pathological characteristics of HCC showed that the low expression of ING3 protein is correlated with more aggressive behavior of the tumor. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that patients with a low expression of ING3 have a significantly increased risk of shortened survival time. In addition, multivariate analysis suggested that the level of ING3 expression may be an independent prognostic factor. Our findings indicate that ING3 may be an important marker for human hepatocellular carcinoma progression and prognosis, as well as a potential therapeutic target.

Xing J, Dinney CP, Shete S, et al.
Comprehensive pathway-based interrogation of genetic variations in the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway and risk of bladder cancer.
Cancer. 2012; 118(1):205-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway genes play an important role in bladder cancer etiology. However, only a limited number of genes and variations in this pathway have been evaluated to date.
METHODS: In this study, the authors applied a comprehensive pathway-based approach to assess the effects of 207 tagging and potentially functional SNPs in 26 NER genes on bladder cancer risk using a large case-control study that included 803 bladder cancer cases and 803 controls.
RESULTS: In total, 17 SNPs were associated significantly with altered bladder cancer risk (P < .05), of which, 7 SNPs retained noteworthiness after they were assessed with a Bayesian approach for the probability of false discovery. The most noteworthy SNP was reference SNP 11132186 (rs11132186) in the inhibitor of growth family, member 2 (ING2) gene. Compared with the major allele-containing genotypes, the odds ratio was 0.52 (95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.83; P = .005) for the homozygous variant genotype. Three additional ING2 variants also exhibited significant associations with bladder cancer risk. Significant gene-smoking interactions were observed for 3 of the top 17 SNPs. Furthermore, through an exploratory classification and regression tree (CART) analysis, potential gene-gene interactions were identified.
CONCLUSIONS: In this a large association study of the NER pathway and the risk of bladder cancer, several novel predisposition variants were identified along with potential gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in modulating bladder cancer risk. The results reinforce the importance of a comprehensive, pathway-focused, and tagging SNP-based candidate gene approach to identify low-penetrance cancer susceptibility loci.

Saito M, Kumamoto K, Robles AI, et al.
Targeted disruption of Ing2 results in defective spermatogenesis and development of soft-tissue sarcomas.
PLoS One. 2010; 5(11):e15541 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
ING2 (inhibitor of growth family, member 2) is a member of the plant homeodomain (PHD)-containing ING family of putative tumor suppressors. As part of mSin3A-HDAC corepressor complexes, ING2 binds to tri-methylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4me3) to regulate chromatin modification and gene expression. ING2 also functionally interacts with the tumor suppressor protein p53 to regulate cellular senescence, apoptosis and DNA damage response in vitro, and is thus expected to modulate carcinogenesis and aging. Here we investigate the developmental and physiological functions of Ing2 through targeted germline disruption. Consistent with its abundant expression in mouse and human testes, male mice deficient for Ing2 showed abnormal spermatogenesis and were infertile. Numbers of mature sperm and sperm motility were significantly reduced in Ing2(-/-) mice (∼2% of wild type, P<0.0001 and ∼10% of wild type, P<0.0001, respectively). Their testes showed degeneration of seminiferous tubules, meiotic arrest before pachytene stage with incomplete meiotic recombination, induction of p53, and enhanced apoptosis. This phenotype was only partially abrogated by concomitant loss of p53 in the germline. The arrested spermatocytes in Ing2(-/-) testes were characterized by lack of specific HDAC1 accumulation and deregulated chromatin acetylation. The role of Ing2 in germ cell maturation may extend to human ING2 as well. Using publicly available gene expression datasets, low expression of ING2 was found in teratozoospermic sperm (>3-fold reduction) and in testes from patients with defective spermatogenesis (>7-fold reduction in Sertoli-cell only Syndrome). This study establishes ING2 as a novel regulator of spermatogenesis functioning through both p53- and chromatin-mediated mechanisms, suggests that an HDAC1/ING2/H3K4me3-regulated, stage-specific coordination of chromatin modifications is essential to normal spermatogenesis, and provides an animal model to study idiopathic and iatrogenic infertility in men. In addition, a bona fide tumor suppressive role of Ing2 is demonstrated by increased incidence of soft-tissue sarcomas in Ing2(-/-) mice.

Pot I, Ikeuchi Y, Bonni A, Bonni S
SnoN: bridging neurobiology and cancer biology.
Curr Mol Med. 2010; 10(7):667-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The transcriptional regulator SnoN has been the subject of growing interest due to its diverse functions in normal and pathological settings. A large body of evidence has established a fundamental role for SnoN as a modulator of signaling and responses by the transforming growth beta (TGFbeta) family of cytokines, though how SnoN regulates TGFbeta responses remains incompletely understood. In accordance with the critical and complex roles of TGFbeta in tumorigenesis and metastasis, SnoN may act as a tumor promoter or suppressor depending on the stage and type of cancer. Beyond its role in cancer, SnoN has also been implicated in the control of axon morphogenesis in postmitotic neurons in the mammalian brain. Remarkably, signaling pathways that control SnoN functions in the divergent cycling cells and postmitotic neurons appear to be conserved. Identification of novel SnoN regulatory and effector mechanisms holds the promise of advances at the interface of cancer biology and neurobiology.

Borkosky SS, Gunduz M, Beder L, et al.
Allelic loss of the ING gene family loci is a frequent event in ameloblastoma.
Oncol Res. 2010; 18(10):509-18 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ameloblastoma is the most frequently encountered odontogenic tumor, characterized by a locally invasive behavior, frequent recurrences, and, although rare, metastatic capacity. Loss or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) allows cells to acquire neoplastic growth. The ING family proteins are tumor suppressors that physically and functionally interact with p53 to perform important roles in apoptosis, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, and senescence. TP53 genetic alterations were reported to infrequently occur in ameloblastoma. Considering that other TSGs related to TP53 could be altered in this tumor, we focused our study on the ING family genes. We analyzed the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) status of the ING family (ING1-ING5) chromosomal loci in a group of ameloblastomas by microsatellite analysis, and correlated the ING LOH status with clinicopathological characteristics. By using specific microsatellite markers, high frequency of LOH was found at the loci of each ING gene family member (33.3-72.2%). A significant relationship was shown between LOH of D2S 140 (ING5 locus) and solid tumor type (p = 0.02). LOH of ING3MS (ING3 locus) was also high in solid type tumors, showing a near significant association. In addition, a notable tendency toward higher LOH for half of the markers was observed in recurrent cases. LOH of ING family genes appears as a common genetic alteration in solid ameloblastoma. The current study provides interesting novel information regarding the potential prognostic significance of the allelic loss of the ING gene family loci in ameloblastoma tumorigenesis.

Puskás LG, Fehér LZ, Vizler C, et al.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids synergize with lipid droplet binding thalidomide analogs to induce oxidative stress in cancer cells.
Lipids Health Dis. 2010; 9:56 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cytoplasmic lipid-droplets are common inclusions of eukaryotic cells. Lipid-droplet binding thalidomide analogs (2,6-dialkylphenyl-4/5-amino-substituted-5,6,7-trifluorophthalimides) with potent anticancer activities were synthesized.
RESULTS: Cytotoxicity was detected in different cell lines including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, glioblastoma at micromolar concentrations. The synthesized analogs are non-toxic to adult animals up to 1 g/kg but are teratogenic to zebrafish embryos at micromolar concentrations with defects in the developing muscle. Treatment of tumor cells resulted in calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ER stress and cell death. Antioxidants could partially, while an intracellular calcium chelator almost completely diminish ROS production. Exogenous docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid induced calcium release and ROS generation, and synergized with the analogs in vitro, while oleic acid had no such an effect. Gene expression analysis confirmed the induction of ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway components, such as GADD153, ATF3, Luman/CREB3 and the ER-associated degradation-related HERPUD1 genes. Tumor suppressors, P53, LATS2 and ING3 were also up-regulated in various cell lines after drug treatment. Amino-phthalimides down-regulated the expression of CCL2, which is implicated in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis.
CONCLUSIONS: Because of the anticancer, anti-angiogenic action and the wide range of applicability of the immunomodulatory drugs, including thalidomide analogs, lipid droplet-binding members of this family could represent a new class of agents by affecting ER-membrane integrity and perturbations of ER homeostasis.

Cengiz B, Gunduz E, Gunduz M, et al.
Tumor-specific mutation and downregulation of ING5 detected in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Cancer. 2010; 127(9):2088-94 [PubMed] Related Publications
Our previous study showed high frequency of allelic loss at chromosome 2q37 region in oral cancer. This location contains several candidate tumor suppressor genes such as PPP1R7, ILKAP, DTYMK and ING5. We previously showed 3 members of inhibitor of growth (ING) family, ING1, ING3 and ING4 as tumor suppressor gene in head and neck cancer. As ING5 shows high homology with other members of ING genes including highly conserved carboxy-terminal plant homeodomain and nuclear localization signal, we first picked up ING5 and examined it as a possible tumor suppressor in oral cancer. For this aim, mutation and mRNA expression status of ING5 in paired normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma samples were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequencing. Three missense mutations located within leucine zipper like (LZL) finger and novel conserved region (NCR) domains in ING5 protein were detected, probably abrogating its normal function. We also found 5 different alternative splicing variants of ING5. Then, we examined mRNA level of ING5 by quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, which demonstrated decreased expression of ING5 mRNA in 61% of the primary tumors as compared to the matched normal samples. In conclusion, tumor-specific mutation and downregulation of ING5 mRNA suggested it as a tumor suppressor gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Zhang H, Ma H, Wang Q, et al.
Analysis of loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 4q in hepatocellular carcinoma using high-throughput SNP array.
Oncol Rep. 2010; 23(2):445-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
To identify tumour suppressor genes (TSGs) associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on chromosome 4q using a high-throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, we first scanned for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 40 SNPs on chromosome 4q and discovered 2 hot regions: 4q24-26 and 4q34.3-35. We then further scanned for LOH of 338 SNPs in genes around 4q34.3-35 and discovered 3 genes with the most frequent LOH: nei endonuclease VIII-like 3 (NEIL3), interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) and inhibitor of growth family member 2 (ING2). A review of the literature indicates only ING2 might be a TSG associated with HCC.

Ythier D, Brambilla E, Binet R, et al.
Expression of candidate tumor suppressor gene ING2 is lost in non-small cell lung carcinoma.
Lung Cancer. 2010; 69(2):180-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
ING2 is a candidate tumor suppressor gene involved in cell cycle control, apoptosis and senescence. Furthermore, we have recently shown that loss of ING2 expression is associated with increased genome instability. We investigated its status in a series of 120 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The results showed that ING2 protein expression is downregulated in more than 50% of NSCLC, with a higher frequency in adenocarcinoma (ADK) as compared to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (68% versus 45%, P=0.021). Loss of ING2 expression occurs in a high proportion of tumors from stage I and was not associated with patient's gender, age and 5-year survival. When investigating the possible mechanisms responsible for the decrease of ING2 expression, we did not observe any loss of heterozygosity or mutation in the ING2 gene. However, in 95% of the cases examined, we identified a silent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). By using quantitative RT-PCR, we found that ING2 loss of expression may be due to the decrease of its mRNA level. Analysis of CpG islands present in the promoter region of the ING2 gene did not allow for the detection of methylation. Mechanistically, although p53 can regulate ING2 transcription and ING2 enhances p53 activity, no correlation between ING2 and p53 IHC status was observed. Overall, these results indicate that loss of ING2 expression could contribute to lung tumorigenesis independently of p53.

Chen G, Wang Y, Garate M, et al.
The tumor suppressor ING3 is degraded by SCF(Skp2)-mediated ubiquitin-proteasome system.
Oncogene. 2010; 29(10):1498-508 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inhibitor of growth family member 3 (ING3) has been shown to modulate transcription, cell cycle control and apoptosis. We previously reported that nuclear ING3 expression was remarkably reduced in melanomas, which correlated with a poorer patient survival, suggesting that decreased ING3 expression may be associated with melanoma progression. However, the mechanism of diminished ING3 expression in melanoma is not clear. Here we show that ING3 level was decreased in metastatic melanoma cells because of a rapid degradation. Furthermore, we showed that ING3 undergoes degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. ING3 physically interacts with subunits of E3 ligase Skp1-Cullin-F-box protein complex (SCF complex). Knockdown of F-box protein S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) reduces the ubiquitination of ING3 and significantly stabilizes ING3 in melanoma cells. In addition, lysine 96 residue is essential for ING3 ubiquitination as its mutation to arginine dramatically abrogated ING3 degradation. Disruption of ING3 degradation stimulated ING3-induced G1 cell-cycle arrest and enhanced ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our data show that ING3 is degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway through the SCF(Skp2) complex and interruption of ING3 degradation enhances the tumor-suppressive function of ING3, which provides a potential cancer therapeutic approach by interfering ING3 degradation.

Unoki M, Kumamoto K, Harris CC
ING proteins as potential anticancer drug targets.
Curr Drug Targets. 2009; 10(5):442-54 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent emerging evidence suggests that ING family proteins play roles in carcinogenesis both as oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes depending on the family members and on cell status. Previous results from non-physiologic overexpression experiments showed that all five family members induce apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, thus it had been thought until very recently that all of the family members function as tumor suppressor genes. Therefore restoration of ING family proteins in cancer cells has been proposed as a treatment for cancers. However, ING2 knockdown experiments showed unexpected results: ING2 knockdown led to senescence in normal human fibroblast cells and suppressed cancer cell growth. ING2 is also overexpressed in colorectal cancer, and promotes cancer cell invasion through an MMP13 dependent pathway. Additionally, it was reported that ING2 has two isoforms, ING2a and ING2b. Although expression of ING2a predominates compared with ING2b, both isoforms confer resistance against cell cycle arrest or apoptosis to cancer cells, thus knockdown of both isoforms is critical to remove this resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that ING2 can function as an oncogene in some specific types of cancer cells, indicating restoration of this gene in cancer cells could cause cancer progression. Because knockdown of ING2 suppresses cancer cell invasion and induces apoptosis or cell cycle arrest, ING2 may be an anticancer drug target. In this brief review, we discuss possible clinical applications of ING2 with the latest knowledge of molecular targeted therapies.

Kumamoto K, Fujita K, Kurotani R, et al.
ING2 is upregulated in colon cancer and increases invasion by enhanced MMP13 expression.
Int J Cancer. 2009; 125(6):1306-15 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inhibitor of growth 2 (ING2) is associated with chromatin remodeling and regulation of gene expression by binding to a methylated histone H3K4 residue and recruiting HDAC complexes to the region. The aim of our study is to investigate the regulation of ING2 expression and the clinical significance of upregulated ING2 in colon cancer. Here, we show that the ING2 mRNA level in colon cancer tissue increased to more than twice than that in normal mucosa in the 45% of colorectal cancer cases that we examined. A putative NF-kappaB binding site was found in the ING2 promoter region. We confirmed that NF-kappaB could bind to the ING2 promoter by EMSA and luciferase assays. Subsequent microarray analyses revealed that ING2 upregulates expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13), which enhances cancer invasion and metastasis. ING2 regulation of MMP13 expression was confirmed in both ING2 overexpression and knock down experiments. MMP13 expression was further induced by coexpression of ING2 with HDAC1 or with mSin3A, suggesting that the ING2-HDAC1-mSin3A complex members regulates expression of MMP13. In vitro invasion assay was performed to determine functional significance of ING2 upregulation. ING2 overexpressed cells exhibited greater invasive potential. Taken together, upregulation of ING2 was associated with colon cancer and MMP13-dependent cellular invasion, indicating that ING2 expression might be involved with cancer invasion and metastasis.

Borkosky SS, Gunduz M, Nagatsuka H, et al.
Frequent deletion of ING2 locus at 4q35.1 associates with advanced tumor stage in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2009; 135(5):703-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in the ING family members has been shown in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) except for ING2. Like all the other members of ING family, ING2, which is located at chromosome 4q35.1, is a promising tumor suppressor gene (TSG). In this study, we performed LOH analysis of ING2 in HNSCC and compared it with clinicopathological variables.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed LOH analysis in DNAs from 80 paired of normal and HNSCC tissues, using a specifically designed microsatellite marker on chromosome 4q35.1, which detects allelic loss of ING2. TP53 mutation analysis and its relationship with ING2 chromosomal deletion were also performed in available 68 of the samples. The correlation between LOH status and clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated by using statistical methods. The overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) were also determined.
RESULTS: LOH was detected in 54.6% (30/55) of the informative samples. Statistical significance was obtained between LOH and tumor (T) stage (P = 0.02), application of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Positive node status (N) appeared to be the only independent prognostic factor for both OS (P = 0.031) and DFS (P = 0.044).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed allelic loss of 4q35.1 in HNSCC. The high percentage of LOH suggests ING2 as a candidate TSG in HNSCC. High LOH frequency was statistically associated with advanced T stage, suggesting that ING2 LOH might occur in late stages during HNSCC progression.

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