Gene Summary

Gene:KAT5; lysine acetyltransferase 5
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the MYST family of histone acetyl transferases (HATs) and was originally isolated as an HIV-1 TAT-interactive protein. HATs play important roles in regulating chromatin remodeling, transcription and other nuclear processes by acetylating histone and nonhistone proteins. This protein is a histone acetylase that has a role in DNA repair and apoptosis and is thought to play an important role in signal transduction. Alternative splicing of this gene results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:histone acetyltransferase KAT5
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (25)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • RT-PCR
  • Cell Line
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Histone Acetyltransferases
  • Cell Movement
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational
  • Androgen Receptors
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • DNA Damage
  • Promoter Regions
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
  • X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein
  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Histones
  • Apoptosis
  • beta Catenin
  • Lysine Acetyltransferase 5
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Chromosome 11
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Acetylation
  • Protein Binding
  • Down-Regulation
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Up-Regulation
  • Trans-Activators
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Liver Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • KAT5
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Transcription
  • Signal Transduction
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KAT5 (cancer-related)

Wei Y, Wang F, Sang B, et al.
Activation of KRas-ERK1/2 signaling drives the initiation and progression of glioma by suppressing the acetylation of histone H4 at lysine 16.
Life Sci. 2019; 225:55-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Acetylation of H4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac) has been well-characterized as an acetylated mark, and the expression of which is closely associated with the tumorigenesis of human cancers. This study aimed to reveal whether KRas mutation drives the initiation and progression of glioma via modulation of H4 acetylation.
METHODS: Changes of H4K16 acetylation in human glioblastoma A172 cells following transfection with a plasmid for expression of mutant KRas were tested by western blot analysis. MTT assay, transwell assay, soft-agar colony formation assay, RT-PCR and chromatin immunoprecipitation were carried out to evaluate the effect of H4K16ac on A172 cells growth and migration. Furthermore, the enzymes participating in the deacetylation of H4K16ac were studied by using RT-PCR and western blot analysis.
RESULTS: H4K16ac was found to be deacetylated by KRas-ERK1/2 activation. H4K16Q (a plasmid for mimicking H4K16ac) repressed A172 cells viability, colony formation, and migratory capacity. Besides, H4K16ac was capable of regulating the transcription of several ERK1/2 pathway downstream genes. KRas-ERK1/2 signaling repressed H4 acetylation at K16 via modulation of a histone deacetylase Sirt2, as well as a histone acetyl-transferase TIP60. Moreover, KRas-ERK1/2 inhibited TIP60 via an MDM2-dependnet fashion.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that activation of KRas-ERK1/2 signaling participates in the onset and progression of glioma at least partially through modulating acetylation of H4 at K16. KRas-ERK1/2 signaling mediates the acetylation of H4K16 via Sirt2 and MDM2-dependnet degeneration of TIP60.

Moustaka K, Maleskou E, Lambrianidou A, et al.
Docosahexaenoic Acid Inhibits Proliferation of EoL-1 Leukemia Cells and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Cell Differentiation.
Nutrients. 2019; 11(3) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Τhe effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid) upon the proliferation of EoL-1 (Eosinophilic leukemia) cell line was assessed, while additional cellular events during the antiproliferative action were recorded. DHA inhibited EoL-1 cells growth dose-dependently by inducing growth arrest at G0/1 phase of the cell cycle. After DHA addition to the cells, the expression of

Huang WS, Huang CY, Hsieh MC, et al.
Expression of PRDX6 Correlates with Migration and Invasiveness of Colorectal Cancer Cells.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 51(6):2616-2630 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. PRDXs are antioxidant enzymes that play an important role in cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis and have diverse functions in malignancy development. However, the mechanism of aberrant overexpression of PRDX6 in CRC remains unclear.
METHODS: Boyden chamber assay, flow cytometry and a lentiviral shRNA targeting PRDX6 and transient transfection with pCMV-6-PRDX6 plasmid were used to examine the role of PRDX6 in the proliferation capacity and invasiveness of CRC cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) with tissue array containing 40 paraffin- embedded CRC tissue specimens and Western blot assays were used to detect target proteins.
RESULTS: PRDX6 was significantly up-expressed in different comparisons of metastasis of colorectal adenomas in node-positive CRC (P = 0.03). In in vitro HCT-116, PRDX6 silencing markedly suppressed CRC cell migration and invasiveness while also inducing cell cycle arrest as well as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); specific overexpression of PRDX6 had the opposite effect. Mechanistically, the PRDX6 inactivation displayed decreased levels of PRDX6, N-cadherin, β-catenin, Vimentin, Slug, Snail and Twist-1 through the activation of the PI3K/ AKT/p38/p50 pathways, but they were also significantly inhibited by PRDX6 transfectants. There was also increased transcriptional activation of dimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) of PRDX6 promoter via the activation of the PI3K/Akt/NFkB pathways.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that PRDX6 expression plays a characteristic growth-promoting role in CRC metastasis. This study suggests that PRDX6 may serve as a biomarker of node-positive status and may have a role as an important endogenous regulator of cancer cell tumorigenicity in CRC. PRDX6 may also be an effective therapeutic target.

Su Y, Lu J, Chen X, et al.
Long non-coding RNA HOTTIP affects renal cell carcinoma progression by regulating autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/Atg13 signaling pathway.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2019; 145(3):573-588 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the urinary system, and it is a serious threat to human health. HOXA transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP), located at the 5' end of the HOXA locus, is a long non-coding RNA that has been newly discovered in recent years. It has been reported to promote the development of several types of tumors. Moreover, accumulating evidence has indicated that autophagy plays an important role in tumor cell survival or death. However, whether HOTTIP affects RCC development by regulating autophagy remains unknown.
METHODS: In this study, we first measured HOTTIP expression in 42 paired RCC and adjacent non-tumor tissues, as well as in 4 RCC cell lines and 1 normal renal tubular epithelial cell line. Then, we selected 2 RCC cell lines to silence HOTTIP expression and 1 RCC cell line to overexpress HOTTIP, and we measured their proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as autophagy, after pretreatment with an autophagy inhibitor or inducer. In addition, we assessed the growth, metastasis and autophagy of tumors in nude mice and explored the mechanism involved.
RESULTS: The results showed that HOTTIP expression was significantly upregulated in the RCC tissues and cell lines, and it was closely associated with TNM stage, histological grade, lymph node metastasis and patient prognosis. The in vitro and in vivo assays indicated that HOTTIP silencing inhibited RCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion and induced autophagy, and 3-MA (an autophagy inhibitor) reversed these effects. In contrast, HOTTIP overexpression and rapamycin (an autophagy inducer) yielded the opposite results. Further research revealed that HOTTIP modification could affect RCC cell autophagy via the PI3K/Akt/Atg13 signaling pathway.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study will help in finding a potential marker for RCC diagnosis and supply a target molecule for RCC treatment.

Yang L, Zhang H
Expression of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 Alpha in Glioblastoma Is Associated With Resistance to Chemotherapy.
Am J Med Sci. 2018; 356(4):391-398 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The clinical management of glioblastoma is still challenging despite aggressive surgery and radio-chemotherapy approaches. Better understanding of the molecules involved in glioblastoma chemoresistance is necessary to improve the treatment and predict prognosis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the expression and possible roles of cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha (cPLA2α) in human glioblastoma cell lines and patient samples using immunohistochemistry and cellular assays. We analyzed the signaling pathways that cPLA2α regulates in glioblastoma cells using western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Our work demonstrated that cPLA2α is upregulated in glioblastoma compared with normal neuron cells. The expression of cPLA2α varies in multiple glioblastoma cell lines and is associated with chemoresistance rather than tumor development. cPLA2α depletion moderately inhibits glioblastoma growth and survival but remarkably sensitizes chemo-resistant glioblastoma cells to several chemotherapeutic agents. Mechanistically, cPLA2α knockdown significantly suppresses the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway in glioblastoma cells.
CONCLUSIONS: We are the first to identify the important role of cPLA2α in glioblastoma in response to chemotherapy. Our data also suggest that cPLA2α may serve as a biomarker to indicate prognosis of glioblastoma patients with high level of cPLA2α to chemotherapy.

Wang Q, Wu G, Zhang Z, et al.
Long non-coding RNA HOTTIP promotes renal cell carcinoma progression through the regulation of the miR-615/IGF-2 pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(5):2278-2288 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emerging evidence has indicated that long non‑coding RNA (lncRNA) HOXA transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP) regulates cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis and cancer progression. However, the expression and function of HOTTIP in the progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of the lncRNA HOTTIP in RCC. The expression levels of HOTTIP in RCC tissues and cell lines were determined by RT‑qPCR. The association between HOTTIP expression and clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis was analyzed in patients with RCC from the TCGA database. Loss‑of‑ function assays were designed and conducted to verify the oncogenic function of HOTTIP in RCC progression. Luciferase assay was performed to explore the mechanisms of the miRNA‑lncRNA sponge. The results revealed that HOTTIP expression was upregulated in RCC. An increased HOTTIP expression in RCC was associated with a larger tumor size and a higher clinical stage, lymph node metastasis and vascular invasion. Additionally, patients RCC with a high HOTTIP expression had a significantly shorter overall survival (OS) and disease‑free survival (DFS). HOTTIP knockdown significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased the apoptosis of RCC cells in vitro. Mechanistic analyses revealed that HOTTIP functioned as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for hsa‑miR‑615‑3p, and led to the derepression of its endogenous target, insulin‑like growth factor-2 (IGF‑2), which is a protein hormone that exerts a stimulatory effect on tumor cell growth. miR‑615 inhibition reversed the suppressive effects of HOTTIP knockdown on RCC cell progression. HOTTIP regulated IGF‑2 expression in a miR‑615‑dependent manner in RCC cells. In addition, IGF‑2 expression was significantly upregulated in the RCC specimens and a positive association between the expression of HOTTIP and IGF‑2 in RCC tissues was detected. The effect of HOTTIP was abolished by the siRNA‑mediated silencing of IGF-2 in RCC cells. On the whole, this study demonstrates, for the first time, at least to the best of our knowledge, that the HOTTIP/miR‑615/IGF‑2 axis plays an important role in RCC progression and potentially contributes to the improvement of RCC diagnosis and therapy.

Lopes-Ventura S, Pojo M, Matias AT, et al.
The efficacy of HRAS and CDK4/6 inhibitors in anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines.
J Endocrinol Invest. 2019; 42(5):527-540 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATCs) are non-responsive to multimodal therapy, representing one of the major challenges in thyroid cancer. Previously, our group has shown that genes involved in cell cycle are deregulated in ATCs, and the most common mutations in these tumours occurred in cell proliferation and cell cycle related genes, namely TP53, RAS, CDKN2A and CDKN2B, making these genes potential targets for ATCs treatment. Here, we investigated the inhibition of HRAS by tipifarnib (TIP) and cyclin D-cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) by palbociclib (PD), in ATC cells.
METHODS: ATC cell lines, mutated or wild type for HRAS, CDKN2A and CDKN2B genes, were used and the cytotoxic effects of PD and TIP in each cell line were evaluated. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were determined for these drugs and its effects on cell cycle, cell death and cell proliferation were subsequently analysed.
RESULTS: Cell culture studies demonstrated that 0.1 µM TIP induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase (50%, p < 0.01), cell death, and inhibition of cell viability (p < 0.001), only in the HRAS mutated cell line. PD lowest concentration (0.1 µM) increased significantly cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase (80%, p < 0.05), but only in ATC cell lines with alterations in CDKN2A/CDKN2B genes; additionally, 0.5 µM PD induced cell death. The inhibition of cell viability by PD was more pronounced in cells with alterations in CDKN2A/CDKN2B genes (p < 0.05) and/or cyclin D1 overexpression.
CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that TIP and PD, which are currently in clinical trials for other types of cancer, may play a relevant role in ATC treatment, depending on the specific tumour molecular profile.

Wang LT, Wang SN, Chiou SS, et al.
TIP60-dependent acetylation of the SPZ1-TWIST complex promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis in liver cancer.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(4):518-532 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metastasis is the main cause of cancer mortality. However, the triggering mechanisms and regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) factors in the commitment of metastasis have not been well characterized. Spermatogenic Zip 1 (SPZ1) acts as a proto-oncogene and an upstream regulator of EMT during tumorigenesis. Here we report that the HIV-1 Tat-interacting protein 60 kDa (Tip60) acetyltransferase mediates acetylation at lysine residues of SPZ1 at positions 369 and 374, and of TWIST1 at positions 73 and 76, which are required for SPZ1-TWIST1 complex formation and cancer cell migration in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic SPZ1 and TWIST1 expression, but not that of TWIST1 alone, enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression via the recruitment of bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), thus enhancing RNA-Pol II-dependent transcription and inducing metastasis. Neutralization of VEGF using humanized monoclonal antibodies such as Avastin, effectively abrogated the EMT and oncogenesis induced by the acetylated SPZ1-TWIST1 complex. Our findings highlight the importance of acetylation signaling in the SPZ1-TWIST1-BRD4 axis in the mediation of EMT and its regulation during tumor initiation and metastasis.

Lin CY, Jan YJ, Kuo LK, et al.
Elevation of androgen receptor promotes prostate cancer metastasis by induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and reduction of KAT5.
Cancer Sci. 2018; 109(11):3564-3574 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Androgen receptor (AR), an androgen-activated transcription factor, belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily. AR plays an important role in the development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). However, the role of AR in PCa metastasis is not fully understood. To investigate the role of AR in PCa metastasis, we examined AR expression level in primary and metastatic PCa by analyzing gene array data of 378 primary prostate tumors and 120 metastatic prostate tumors from Oncomine, as well as carrying out immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of 56 prostate cancer samples. Expression of mRNA and protein of AR as well as its target gene prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was much higher in metastatic prostate tumors than in primary prostate tumors. Knockdown of AR with siRNA or treating with anti-androgen Casodex reduced migration and invasion ability of C4-2B PCa cells. Knockdown of AR increased protein expression of E-cadherin and AR coregulator KAT5 but reduced expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) marker proteins Slug, Snail, MMP-2, vimentin, and β-catenin. Knockdown of KAT5 increased migration of C4-2B cells, whereas overexpression of KAT5 suppressed cell migration. KAT5 knockdown rescues the suppressive effect of AR knockdown on migration of C4-2B cells. Gene expression level of AR and KAT5 showed a negative correlation. PCa patients with higher AR expression or lower KAT5 expression correlated with shorter recurrence-free survival. Our study suggested that elevation of AR expression and AR signaling in prostate tumors promotes PCa metastasis by induction of EMT and reduction of KAT5.

Li S, Hu X, Ye M, Zhu X
The prognostic values of the peroxiredoxins family in ovarian cancer.
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications

Zhao H, Diao C, Wang X, et al.
MiR-543 Promotes Migration, Invasion and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition of Esophageal Cancer Cells by Targeting Phospholipase A2 Group IVA.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(4):1595-1604 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of miR-543 and phospholipase A2 group IVA (PLA2G4A) in cell mobility and the invasiveness cascade in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and to validate the interactive relationship between miR-543 and PLA2G4A.
METHODS: Microarray analysis showed the different expression levels of PLA2G4A in two ESCC cell lines (KYSE30 and KYSE180). The expression levels of miR-543 and PLA2G4A in ESCC tissues were confirmed by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The targeted relationship between miR-543 and PLA2G4A was studied and verified by a luciferase activity assay. Then, the invasion and metastasis ability of ESCC cell lines transfected with miR-543 mimics, miR-543 inhibitor, or PLA2G4A and miR-543 mimics were analyzed separately by Transwell migration and invasion assays. In addition, the roles of miR-543 and PLA2G4A in the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin were also investigated.
RESULTS: PLA2G4A up-regulated the level of E-cadherin and down-regulated the level of vimentin, which curbed ESCC cell mobility and invasion. In ESCC cells, the expression of miR-543 was significantly higher, whereas the expression of PLA2G4A was markedly lower. MiR-543 facilitated ESCC cell mobility and invasion by repressing PLA2G4A.
CONCLUSIONS: MiR-543 enhanced the cell mobility and the invasiveness cascade in ESCC cells via the down-regulation of PLA2G4A expression.

Kim W, Son B, Lee S, et al.
Targeting the enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism to improve radiotherapy.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2018; 37(2-3):213-225 [PubMed] Related Publications
During radiotherapy, an inflammatory response might be induced by activating various enzymes involved in membrane lipid metabolism. The eicosanoid pathway associated with cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA

Ju H, Zhang L, Mao L, et al.
A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of the long noncoding RNA expression profile in metastatic lymph nodes of oral mucosal melanoma.
Gene. 2018; 675:44-53 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND & AIM: Oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) is a kind of malignancy with extremely rare morbidity. It exhibits a poorer biological behavior and clinical outcome compared with cutaneous melanoma. lncRNAs are endogenous cellular RNA transcripts with no protein-coding potential and are associated with oncogenesis through cis- or trans-acting mechanisms. Despite increased evidence that proved lncRNAs have vital roles in tumorigenesis of mucosal melanoma, little is known about their functions in the progress of lymph node dissemination of OMM.
METHOD: Here, we constructed a lncRNA and mRNA microarray using six metastatic lymph nodes and paired-matched non-metastatic lymph nodes. Then, we performed RT-PCR to validate the microarray data both in primary and metastases. We further constructed lncRNA and mRNA co-expressing networks and analyzed the biological functions by Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses for dysregulated lncRNAs and mRNAs. Cis- and trans-regulation analysis were also performed to explore the specific mechanism of lncRNAs in OMM.
RESULT: Our results showed that 570 lncRNAs were upregulated with 292 lncRNAs downregulated in the metastatic OMM tissues. The results of RT-PCR were consistent with our microarray dataset both in primary and metastases. Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway analyses indicated that they play an important role in the melanin biosynthetic process, new growing cell tip and lysosomes in metastatic OMM. In the cis-regulation analysis, we observed metastasis-associated gene, PLEKHA5, the cis gene of lnc-AEBP2-1_1 and lnc-AEBP2-2_1, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), the cis gene of SAMMSON_3, SAMMSON_5 and lnc-MITF-5_1. In the trans-regulation analysis, CTBP2 and SUZ12 regulated lncRNA expression in the core TF-lncRNA-gene network.
CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that lncRNAs may be involved in the metastasis of OMM, and further investigation is needed to focus on the biological functions and the underlining molecular mechanisms exerted by these dysregulated lncRNAs in OMM.

Masago K, Irie K, Fujita S, et al.
Relationship between Paronychia and Drug Concentrations of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.
Oncology. 2018; 95(4):251-256 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the site of paronychia in patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene activating mutation who were treated with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 55 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who were treated with an EGFR TKIs. Resulting all toxicities were graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 system. Drug concentrations were determined with use of a quantum triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer and dried blood spots testing.
RESULTS: Paronychia most commonly occurred in the thumb and the big toe. There was no correlation between the severity of paronychia and the drug concentration of each EGFR TKI at the site of paronychia. The mean penetration rates of the drug from plasma to the tip of the finger and toe were 74.1% (erlotinib), 82.2% (gefitinib), and 99.9% (afatinib).
CONCLUSIONS: High concentrations of an EGFR TKI at the affected site did not play a role in the onset mechanism of paronychia. Therefore, educating patients about ways to avoid compression may be a better approach to managing this adverse event than reducing the dose of the EGFR-TKI or stopping treatment.

Yang B, Gao G, Wang Z, et al.
Long non-coding RNA HOTTIP promotes prostate cancer cells proliferation and migration by sponging
Biosci Rep. 2018; 38(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a class of ncRNAs with >200 nts in length that regulate gene expression. The HOXA transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP) lncRNA plays an important role in carcinogenesis, however, the underlying role of HOTTIP in prostate cancer (PCa) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and function of HOTTIP in PCa. In the present study, we analyzed HOTTIP expression levels of 86 PCa patients in tumor and adjacent normal tissue by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Knockdown or overexpression of HOTTIP was performed to explore its roles in cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle. Furthermore, bioinformatics online programs predicted and luciferase reporter assay were used to validate the association of HOTTIP and

Tetzlaff F, Adam MG, Feldner A, et al.
MPDZ promotes DLL4-induced Notch signaling during angiogenesis.
Elife. 2018; 7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Angiogenesis is coordinated by VEGF and Notch signaling. DLL4-induced Notch signaling inhibits tip cell formation and vessel branching. To ensure proper Notch signaling, receptors and ligands are clustered at adherens junctions. However, little is known about factors that control Notch activity by influencing the cellular localization of Notch ligands. Here, we show that the multiple PDZ domain protein (MPDZ) enhances Notch signaling activity. MPDZ physically interacts with the intracellular carboxyterminus of DLL1 and DLL4 and enables their interaction with the adherens junction protein Nectin-2. Inactivation of the MPDZ gene leads to impaired Notch signaling activity and increased blood vessel sprouting in cellular models and the embryonic mouse hindbrain. Tumor angiogenesis was enhanced upon endothelial-specific inactivation of MPDZ leading to an excessively branched and poorly functional vessel network resulting in tumor hypoxia. As such, we identified MPDZ as a novel modulator of Notch signaling by controlling ligand recruitment to adherens junctions.

Chevillard-Briet M, Escaffit F
Methods for In Vivo Functional Studies of Chromatin-Modifying Enzymes in Early Steps of Colon Carcinogenesis.
Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1765:79-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since chromatin-modifying enzymes are involved in most processes needing to access the DNA fiber such as transcription, replication or DNA repair, their involvement in the regulation of gene expression in numerous physiopathological contexts is widely studied. Most of these enzymes are essential for cell growth and survival due to their pleiotropic roles and studying their impact in vivo on organ development or tissue physiopathology is challenging. In this chapter, we describe a chemically-mediated method to induce colorectal carcinogenesis that we have used to identify in vivo the role of two chromatin modifying enzymes belonging to the same multimolecular complex, the histone acetyltransferase Tip60 and the histone variant-incorporating ATPase p400.

Wang QS, Shen SQ, Sun HW, et al.
Interferon-gamma induces autophagy-associated apoptosis through induction of cPLA2-dependent mitochondrial ROS generation in colorectal cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2018; 498(4):1058-1065 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in females and the third in males. In this work, we aim to investigate the possible anti-cancer effects of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in CRC cells. We observed that IFN-γ induced mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a time-dependent manner in SW480 and HCT116 cell lines. The IFN-γ-induced mitochondrial ROS generation was dependent on the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). In addition, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SS31 and/or cPLA2 inhibitor AACOCF3 abolished the IFN-γ-induced ROS production and subsequent autophagy and apoptosis. Moreover, suppression of autophagy by CQ was able to reduce IFN-γ-induced cell apoptosis. Beclin-1 gene silencing resulted in caspase-3 inactivation, decreased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and less population of apoptotic cells. Collectively, our results suggested that IFN-γ induces autophagy-associated apoptosis in CRC cells via inducing cPLA2-dependent mitochondrial ROS production.

Li K, Zhang TT, Wang F, et al.
Metformin suppresses melanoma progression by inhibiting KAT5-mediated SMAD3 acetylation, transcriptional activity and TRIB3 expression.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(22):2967-2981 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metformin has beneficial effects of preventing and treating cancers on type 2 diabetic patients. However, the role of metformin in non-diabetic cancer patients and the precise molecular mechanisms against cancer have not yet been sufficiently elucidated. We recently reported that the pseudokinase protein TRIB3 acts as a stress sensor linking metabolic stressors to cancer promotion by inhibiting autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasomal degradation systems; genetically abrogating of TRIB3 expression reduces tumourigenesis and cancer progression. Thus, TRIB3 is a potential therapeutic target for diverse cancers. In this study, we found that metformin attenuates melanoma growth and metastasis by reducing TRIB3 expression in non-diabetic C57BL/6 mice and diabetic KK-Ay mice; overexpression of TRIB3 protects metformin from the activation of autophagic flux, the clearance of accumulated tumour-promoting factors and the attenuation of tumour progression. We further elucidated that TRIB3 acts as an adaptor to recruit lysine acetyltransferase 5 (KAT5) to SMAD3 and induce a phosphorylation-dependent K333 acetylation of SMAD3, which sustains transcriptional activity of SMAD3 and subsequently enhances TRIB3 transcription. Metformin suppresses SMAD3 phosphorylation and decreases the KAT5/SMAD3 interaction, to attenuate the KAT5-mediated K333 acetylation of SMAD3, reduce the SMAD3 transcriptional activity and subsequent TRIB3 expression, thereby antagonizes melanoma progression. Together, our study not only defines a molecular mechanism by which metformin protects against melanoma progression by disturbing the KAT5/TRIB3/SMAD3 positive feedback loop in diabetes and non-diabetes mice, but also suggests a candidate diverse utility of metformin in tumour prevention and therapy because of suppressing stress protein TRIB3 expression.

Wang KL, Ma SF, Pang LY, et al.
Sirolimus alternative to blood transfusion as a life saver in blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(8):e9453 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
RATIONALE: Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) is a rare disease characterized by multiple venous malformations. The gastrointestinal bleeding and secondary iron deficiency anemia are the most common complications. There are currently no effective treatments for BRBNS. Here, we report a case of successful treatment with a small dose of sirolimus of a BRBN patient with a de novo gene mutation.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 12-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with multiple hemangiomas for 12 years. The patient often displayed melena; she recently received transfusion of 2 units of red blood cells once every 2 weeks. Multiple fist-sized hemangiomas were piled up on both sides and back of the neck, and were also noted on the arms, legs, chest, back, and on the tip of the tongue. The laboratory findings demonstrated severe anemia. Blood sample sequencing detected a heterozygous de novo mutation c.2545C > Tin the TEK gene.
DIAGNOSES: Based on these findings, final diagnosis of Blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS) was made.
INTERVENTIONS: After the diagnosis, low-dose sirolimus was orally administered.
OUTCOMES: The patient's hemoglobin was increased after treatment with sirolimus for 1 month. Since the initial treatment with sirolimus, she had not received any blood transfusions. The skin and mucosal hemangioma decreased significantly, and new digestive tract hemorrhage, muscle hematoma, or adverse drug reactions were not observed.
LESSONS: we report a case of a mutation in exon 15 of the TEK gene leading to BRBN. It was successfully treated with a small dose of sirolimus as an alternative to blood transfusion in order to save the of BRBN patient's life.

Zhao Q, Eichten A, Parveen A, et al.
Single-Cell Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Endothelial Cell Heterogeneity in Tumors and Changes following Antiangiogenic Treatment.
Cancer Res. 2018; 78(9):2370-2382 [PubMed] Related Publications
Angiogenesis involves dynamic interactions between specialized endothelial tip and stalk cells that are believed to be regulated in part by VEGF and Dll4-Notch signaling. However, our understanding of this process is hampered by limited knowledge of the heterogeneity of endothelial cells and the role of different signaling pathways in specifying endothelial phenotypes. Here, we characterized by single-cell transcriptomics the heterogeneity of mouse endothelial cells and other stromal cells during active angiogenesis in xenograft tumors as well as from adult normal heart, following pharmacologic inhibition of VEGF and Dll4-Notch signaling. We classified tumor endothelial cells into three subpopulations that appeared to correspond with tip-like, transition, and stalk-like cells. Previously identified markers for tip and stalk cells were confirmed and several novel ones discovered. Blockade of VEGF rapidly inhibited cell-cycle genes and strongly reduced the proportion of endothelial tip cells in tumors. In contrast, blockade of Dll4 promoted endothelial proliferation as well as tip cell markers; blockade of both pathways inhibited endothelial proliferation but preserved some tip cells. We also phenotypically classified other tumor stromal cells and found that tumor-associated fibroblasts responded to antiangiogenic drug treatments by upregulating hypoxia-associated genes and producing secreted factors involved in angiogenesis. Overall, our findings better define the heterogeneity of tumor endothelial and other stromal cells and reveal the roles of VEGF and Dll4-Notch in specifying tumor endothelial phenotype, highlighting the response of stromal cells to antiangiogenic therapies.

Sun Y, Zeng C, Gan S, et al.
LncRNA HOTTIP-Mediated HOXA11 Expression Promotes Cell Growth, Migration and Inhibits Cell Apoptosis in Breast Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(2) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
As the most common cause of cancer death in women, the pathogenesis of breast cancer still remains unclear. Here, we reported a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), HOTTIP (HOXA transcript at the distal tip), that may play an important role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Using gain-and-loss-of experiments in vitro and in vivo, we observed the marked upregulation of HOTTIP/HOXA11 in the breast cancer cell line, MCF-7, and the downregulation of HOTTIP or HOXA11, which might inhibit cell proliferation and migration but promote cell apoptosis in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. In addition, by further rescue experiments with HOXA11 overexpression, we uncovered a novel potential regulatory mechanism between HOTTIP and one of its physical HOXA clusters, HOXA11. Hence, HOTTIP may mediate, at least partly, HOXA11 expression involved in cell growth, migration, and apoptosis of breast cancer MCF-7 cells.

Balcin O, Ak Aksoy S, Tunca B, et al.
Overexpression of the Long Noncoding RNA HomeoboxA Transcript at the Distal Tip Predicts Poor Prognosis in a KRAS-Independent Manner in Periampullary Region Tumors.
Pancreas. 2018; 47(2):213-220 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: Periampullary region tumors (PRTs) are the fifth highest cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although recent studies have highlighted the prognostic value of the long noncoding RNA HomeoboxA transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, the relationship between HOTTIP and clinical outcome of all PRTs remains obscure. The aim of this study was to clarify the prognostic significance of HOTTIP in patients with all PRTs related to KRAS mutational status.
METHODS: HomeoboxA transcript at the distal tip expression was detected in 100 PRT samples using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The associations between HOTTIP levels, clinicopathological factors, and patient prognosis were also analyzed.
RESULTS: The expression of HOTTIP was found to be significantly upregulated by 32-fold (P = 0.031) in tumor tissues compared with normal tissues. The over expression of HOTTIP was related with presence of invasion and metastasis (P = 0.0467, P = 0.0256). In addition, increased HOTTIP expression was associated with poor prognosis independent of KRAS mutation (P < 0.001; n = 72). Moreover, multivariate analysis showed that high HOTTIP expression was an unfavorable prognostic factor for overall survival.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that high levels of HOTTIP expression have the potential to be an independent, unfavorable prognostic factor for patients with PRT.

Fang X, Lu G, Ha K, et al.
Acetylation of TIP60 at K104 is essential for metabolic stress-induced apoptosis in cells of hepatocellular cancer.
Exp Cell Res. 2018; 362(2):279-286 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor cells often encounter hypoglycemic microenvironment due to rapid cell expansion. It remains elusive how tumors reprogram the genome to survive the metabolic stress. The tumor suppressor TIP60 functions as the catalytic subunit of the human NuA4 histone acetyltransferase (HAT) multi-subunit complex and is involved in many different cellular processes including DNA damage response, cell growth and apoptosis. Attenuation of TIP60 expression has been detected in various tumor types. The function of TIP60 in tumor development has not been fully understood. Here we found that suppressing TIP60 inhibited p53 K120 acetylation and thus rescued apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation in hepatocellular cancer cells. Excitingly, Lys-104 (K104), a previously identified lysine acetylation site of TIP60 with unknown function, was observed to be indispensable for inducing p53-mediated apoptosis under low glucose condition. Mutation of Lys-104 to Arg (K104R) impeded the binding of TIP60 to human NuA4 complex, suppressed the acetyltransferase activity of TIP60, and inhibited the expression of pro-apoptotic genes including NOXA and PUMA upon glucose starvation. These findings demonstrate the critical regulation of TIP60/p53 pathway in apoptosis upon metabolic stress and provide a novel insight into the down-regulation of TIP60 in tumor cells.

Park MH, Yun HM, Hwang CJ, et al.
Presenilin Mutation Suppresses Lung Tumorigenesis via Inhibition of Peroxiredoxin 6 Activity and Expression.
Theranostics. 2017; 7(15):3624-3637 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Some epidemiological studies suggest an inverse correlation between cancer incidence and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we demonstrated experimental evidences for this inverse relationship. In the co-expression network analysis using the microarray data and GEO profile of gene expression omnibus data analysis, we showed that the expression of peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6), a tumor promoting protein was significantly increased in human squamous lung cancer, but decreased in mutant presenilin 2 (PS2) containing AD patient. We also found in animal model that mutant PS2 transgenic mice displayed a reduced incidence of spontaneous and carcinogen-induced lung tumor development compared to wildtype transgenic mice. Agreed with network and GEO profile study, we also revealed that significantly reduced expression of PRDX6 and activity of iPLA2 in these animal models. PS2 mutations increased their interaction with PRDX6, thereby increasing iPLA2 cleavage via increased γ-secretase leading to loss of PRDX6 activity. However, knockdown or inhibition of γ-secretase abolished the inhibitory effect of mutant PSs. Moreover, PS2 mutant skin fibroblasts derived from patients with AD showed diminished iPLA2 activity by the elevated γ-secretase activity. Thus, the present data suggest that PS2 mutations suppress lung tumor development by inhibiting the iPLA2 activity of PRDX6 via a γ-secretase cleavage mechanism and may explain the inverse relationship between cancer and AD incidence.

Winter U, Nicolas M, Sgroi M, et al.
Assessment of retinoblastoma RNA reflux after intravitreal injection of melphalan.
Br J Ophthalmol. 2018; 102(3):415-418 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Intravitreal injection of chemotherapy in retinoblastoma eyes with vitreous seeds may lead to a risk of extraocular tumour dissemination that has not been assessed so far.
AIMS: To develop a sensitive and clinically feasible technique to assess for potential retinoblastoma cell reflux after intravitreal injection of melphalan.
METHODS: Filter papers were cut in 6 mm diameter circles and sterilised before use. Eyes with retinoblastoma vitreous seeds (group D, International Classification) received weekly intravitreal melphalan injections (20 µg or 30 µg/dose) followed by cryotherapy as part of local treatment. Immediately after finishing the injection and cryotherapy, filter papers were placed on the injection site and on the cryoprobe tip to assess for the expression of the cone-rod homeobox gene (CRX) by real-time qPCR as a surrogate of retinoblastoma RNA. The assay was developed and validated to determine sensitivity, linearity, recovery, repeatability and reproducibility.
RESULTS: The assay for quantitation of CRX expression was linear in the range of 1 to 1000 cells. The lowest limit of detection was one retinoblastoma cell and allowed to recover 100% of the cell load in external supplementation. A total of 14 eyes received 22 cycles of intravitreal melphalan and were evaluated for potential extraocular tumour cell dissemination using the developed technique. None of the cycles were positive for CRX in samples from the scar or from the cryoprobe tip.
CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive and simple method of tumour cell assessment has been developed that can be used in the clinics to assess for potential extraocular dissemination after intravitreal injections to assure its performance.

Rajagopalan D, Pandey AK, Xiuzhen MC, et al.
TIP60 represses telomerase expression by inhibiting Sp1 binding to the TERT promoter.
PLoS Pathog. 2017; 13(10):e1006681 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
HIV1-TAT interactive protein (TIP60) is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. However, the potential mechanisms endowing its tumor suppressor ability remain incompletely understood. It plays a vital role in virus-induced cancers where TIP60 down-regulates the expression of human papillomavirus (HPV) oncoprotein E6 which in turn destabilizes TIP60. This intrigued us to identify the role of TIP60, in the context of a viral infection, where it is targeted by oncoproteins. Through an array of molecular biology techniques such as Chromatin immunoprecipitation, expression analysis and mass spectrometry, we establish the hitherto unknown role of TIP60 in repressing the expression of the catalytic subunit of the human telomerase complex, TERT, a key driver for immortalization. TIP60 acetylates Sp1 at K639, thus inhibiting Sp1 binding to the TERT promoter. We identified that TIP60-mediated growth suppression of HPV-induced cervical cancer is mediated in part due to TERT repression through Sp1 acetylation. In summary, our study has identified a novel substrate for TIP60 catalytic activity and a unique repressive mechanism acting at the TERT promoter in virus-induced malignancies.

Pirro V, Llor RS, Jarmusch AK, et al.
Analysis of human gliomas by swab touch spray-mass spectrometry: applications to intraoperative assessment of surgical margins and presence of oncometabolites.
Analyst. 2017; 142(21):4058-4066 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Touch spray mass spectrometry using medical swabs is an ambient ionization technique (ionization of unprocessed sample in the open air) that has potential intraoperative application in quickly identifying the disease state of tissue and in better characterizing the resection margin. To explore this potential, we studied 29 human brain tumor specimens and obtained evidence that this technique can provide diagnostic molecular information that is relevant to brain cancer. Touch spray using medical swabs involves the physical sampling of tissue using a medical swab on a spatial scale of a few mm

Zhang Y, Rana A, Stratton Y, et al.
Sequence-Specific Detection of MicroRNAs Related to Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma at fM Concentration by an Electroosmotically Driven Nanopore-Based Device.
Anal Chem. 2017; 89(17):9201-9208 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRs) are small noncoding RNAs that play a critical role in gene regulation. Recently, traces of cancer-related miRs have been identified in body fluids, which make them remarkable noninvasive biomarkers. In this study, a new nanopore-based detection scheme utilizing a borosilicate micropipette and an assay of complementary γ-peptide nucleic acid (γ-PNA) probes conjugated to polystyrene beads have been reported for the detection of miR-204 and miR-210 related to the clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC). Electroosmotic flow (EOF) is induced as the driving force to transport PNA-beads harboring target miRs to the tip of the pore (sensing zone), which results in pore blockades with unique and easily distinguishable serrated shape electrical signals. The concentration detection limit is investigated to be 1 and 10 fM for miR-204 and miR-210, respectively. The EOF transport mechanism enables highly sensitive detection of molecules with low surface charge density with 97.6% detection accuracy compared to the conventional electrophoretically driven methods. Furthermore, resistive-pulse experiments are conducted to study the correlation of the particles' surface charge density with their translocation time and verify the detection principle.

Wu DC, Wang SSW, Liu CJ, et al.
Reprogramming Antagonizes the Oncogenicity of HOXA13-Long Noncoding RNA HOTTIP Axis in Gastric Cancer Cells.
Stem Cells. 2017; 35(10):2115-2128 [PubMed] Related Publications
Reprogramming of cancer cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is a compelling idea for inhibiting oncogenesis, especially through modulation of homeobox proteins in this reprogramming process. We examined the role of various long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs)-homeobox protein HOXA13 axis on the switching of the oncogenic function of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), which is significantly lost in the gastric cancer cell derived iPS-like cells (iPSLCs). BMP7 promoter activation occurred through the corecruitment of HOXA13, mixed-lineage leukemia 1 lysine N-methyltransferase, WD repeat-containing protein 5, and lncRNA HoxA transcript at the distal tip (HOTTIP) to commit the epigenetic changes to the trimethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 in cancer cells. By contrast, HOXA13 inhibited BMP7 expression in iPSLCs via the corecruitment of HOXA13, enhancer of zeste homolog 2, Jumonji and AT rich interactive domain 2, and lncRNA HoxA transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) to various cis-element of the BMP7 promoter. Knockdown experiments demonstrated that HOTTIP contributed positively, but HOTAIR regulated negatively to HOXA13-mediated BMP7 expression in cancer cells and iPSLCs, respectively. These findings indicate that the recruitment of HOXA13-HOTTIP and HOXA13-HOTAIR to different sites in the BMP7 promoter is crucial for the oncogenic fate of human gastric cells. Reprogramming with octamer-binding protein 4 and Jun dimerization protein 2 can inhibit tumorigenesis by switching off BMP7. Stem Cells 2017;35:2115-2128.

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