Gene Summary

Gene:KISS1; KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor
Aliases: HH13, KiSS-1
Summary:This gene is a metastasis suppressor gene that suppresses metastases of melanomas and breast carcinomas without affecting tumorigenicity. The encoded protein may inhibit chemotaxis and invasion and thereby attenuate metastasis in malignant melanomas. Studies suggest a putative role in the regulation of events downstream of cell-matrix adhesion, perhaps involving cytoskeletal reorganization. A protein product of this gene, kisspeptin, stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced gonadotropin secretion and regulates the pubertal activation of GnRH nuerons. A polymorphism in the terminal exon of this mRNA results in two protein isoforms. An adenosine present at the polymorphic site represents the third position in a stop codon. When the adenosine is absent, a downstream stop codon is utilized and the encoded protein extends for an additional seven amino acid residues. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:metastasis-suppressor KiSS-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (4)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Breast Cancer
  • Cell Movement
  • Receptors, Kisspeptin-1
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Transfection
  • Kisspeptins
  • Uveal Neoplasms
  • Staging
  • Messenger RNA
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • DNA Methylation
  • Melanoma
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • CXCR4
  • ROC Curve
  • Securin
  • Kidney Cancer
  • Angiogenesis
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Smoking
  • rhoC GTP-Binding Protein
  • KISS1
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
  • Lymphatic Metastasis
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Oncolytic Virotherapy
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Eye Cancer
  • Survival Rate
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Disease Progression
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Tumor Burden
  • Chromosome 1
  • Proteins
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Down-Regulation
  • Signal Transduction
  • DNA Sequence Analysis
  • Colorectal Cancer
Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: KISS1 (cancer-related)

Branavan U, Muneeswaran K, Wijesundera WSS, et al.
Association of Kiss1 and GPR54 Gene Polymorphisms with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome among Sri Lankan Women.
Biomed Res Int. 2019; 2019:6235680 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. Its aetiology, though yet unclear, is presumed to have an oligogenic basis interacting with environmental factors. Kisspeptins are peptide products of Kiss1 gene that control the hypothalamic pituitary (HPG) axis by acting via G protein-coupled receptor known as GPR54. There is paucity of data on the role of Kiss1 and GPR54 gene in PCOS. We aimed to identify the polymorphisms in Kiss1 and GPR54 genes and explore their association with serum kisspeptin levels among Sri Lankan women with well-characterized PCOS. Consecutive women with PCOS manifesting from adolescence (n=55) and adult controls (n=110) were recruited. Serum kisspeptin and testosterone levels were determined by ELISA method. Whole gene sequencing was performed to identify the polymorphisms in Kiss1 and GPR54 genes. Serum kisspeptin and testosterone concentrations were significantly higher in women with PCOS than controls: kisspeptin 4.873nmol/L versus 4.127nmol/L; testosterone 4.713nmol/L versus 3.415 nmol/L, p<0.05. Sequencing the GPR54 gene revealed 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10407968, rs1250729403, rs350131, chr19:918686, and chr19:918735, with two novel SNPs (chr19:918686 and chr19:918735), while sequencing the Kiss1 gene revealed 2 SNPs, rs5780218 and rs4889. All identified SNPs showed no significant difference in frequency between patients and controls. GPR54 gene rs350131 polymorphism (G/T) was detected more frequently in our study population. The heterozygous allele (AG) of GPR54 gene novel polymorphism chr19:918686 showed a marginal association with serum kisspeptin levels (p=0.053). Genetic variations in GPR54 and Kiss1 genes are unlikely to be associated with PCOS among Sri Lankan women manifesting from adolescence. Meanwhile the heterozygous allele of chr19:918686 is probably associated with serum kisspeptin concentrations, which suggests a potential role in the aetiology of PCOS.

Corno C, Perego P
KiSS1 in regulation of metastasis and response to antitumor drugs.
Drug Resist Updat. 2019; 42:12-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastatic dissemination of tumor cells represents a major obstacle towards cancer cure. Tumor cells with metastatic capacity are often resistant to chemotherapy. Experimental efforts revealed that the metastatic cascade is a complex process that involves multiple positive and negative regulators. In this respect, several metastasis suppressor genes have been described. Here, we review the role of the metastasis suppressor KiSS1 in regulation of metastasis and in response to antitumor agents. Physiologically, KiSS1 plays a key role in the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis regulating puberty and reproductive functions. KiSS1-derived peptides i.e., kisspeptins, signal through the G-protein coupled receptor GPR54. In cancer, KiSS1 signaling suppresses metastases and maintains dormancy of disseminated malignant cells, by interfering with cell migratory and invasive abilities. Besides, KiSS1 modulates glucose and lipid metabolism, by reprogramming energy production towards oxidative phosphorylation and β-oxidation. Loss or reduced expression of KiSS1, in part through promoter hypermethylation, is related to the development of metastases in various cancer types, with some conflicting reports. The poorly understood role of KiSS1 in response to chemotherapeutic agents appears to be linked to stimulation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and inhibition of cell defense factors (e.g., glutathione S-transferase-π) as well as autophagy modulation. Deciphering the molecular basis underlying regulation of the metastatic potential is crucial for the establishment of novel treatment strategies.

Celik N, Aydin S, Ugur K, et al.
Patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3-gene (adiponutrin), preptin, kisspeptin and amylin regulates oocyte developmental capacity in PCOS.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2018; 64(15):7-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
This study was planned to test whether follicular fluid (FF) levels of patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3-gene (PNPLA3:adiponutrin), preptin, kisspeptin, and amylin change in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). A total of 40 infertile volunteers undergoing IVF/ICSI were included in the study. They were divided into two groups as PCOS (n=20) and control group without PCOS (n=20). The controls were recruited from subjects with a poor ovarian response. The PCOS and control participants were matched according to their body mass index (BMI). Each group of participants underwent ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonist protocol. Blood and FF samples of one dominant follicle were obtained from each subject during the oocyte pick-up. FF and serum levels of PNPLA3, preptin, kisspeptin and amylin were measured through ELISA. Amylin and adiponutrin median values were not different according to study groups (p>0.05). FF-preptin median values in the control group were similar to the serum preptin values of control and PCOS groups (Z=0.970, p=1.000 and Z=2.631, p=0.051, respectively). Medians of the serum preptin in control and PCOS groups were the same (Z=1.649; p=0.595). FF-preptin median values of PCOS group were significantly lower than the preptin median values of the control group. Serum preptin levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR, but not with pregnancy rates and the number of retrieved oocytes. Serum kisspeptin levels were negatively correlated with the number of retrieved oocytes and pregnancy rates. While amylin and adiponutrin have no role in the folliculogenesis, kisspeptin and preptin work together for regulating follicle developmental capacity in PCOS.

Blasco V, Pinto FM, Fernández-Atucha A, et al.
Altered expression of the kisspeptin/KISS1R and neurokinin B/NK3R systems in mural granulosa and cumulus cells of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome.
J Assist Reprod Genet. 2019; 36(1):113-120 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
PURPOSE: The neurokinin B (NKB)/NK
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in 46 healthy women and 43 PCOS women undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. MGCs and CCs were collected from pre-ovulatory follicles after transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval and the expression of the genes encoding NKB (TAC3), NK3R (TACR3), KISS1, and its receptor (KISS1R) was analyzed using real-time quantitative RT-PCR.
RESULTS: TAC3, TACR3, and KISS1 mRNA levels were decreased in MGCs and CCs of PCOS women. TAC3 positively correlated with KISS1 in MGCs of healthy women and TACR3 was positively associated with KISS1R in CCs from healthy women. These associations were not observed in PCOS women.
CONCLUSION: The NKB/NK3R and KISS1/KISS1R systems are dysregulated in MGCs and CCs of PCOS women. The lower expression of these systems in GCs could contribute to the abnormal follicle development and defective ovulation that characterize the pathogenesis of PCOS.

Amorim PVGH, Grande IPP, Batista RL, et al.
Association between KISS1 rs5780218 promoter polymorphism and onset of growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma.
Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2019; 80(2):96-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the KISS1 c.-145delA (rs5780218) promoter polymorphism in a cohort of patients with growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma (somatotropinoma) and controls, to investigate its role in the incidence of acromegaly and to assess patient/tumor characteristics. Material and methods rs5780218 allelic and genotypic distributions were compared between 49 somatotropinoma patients and 167 healthy controls. rs5780218 was also assessed in relation to patient characteristics and tumor aggressiveness, as characterized by tumor invasion and resistance to conventional therapy. The relationship between KISS1 mRNA expression and the rs5780218 genotype was also assessed in available pituitary tumor samples.
RESULTS: The homozygous -/- variant genotype was associated with high rates of somatotropinoma (P<0.01), but not with tumor invasiveness, patient characteristics or hormonal remission. KISS1 mRNA expression was much lower in somatotropinomas carrying the deleted allele than in homozygous wild type AA.
CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, the rs5780218 promoter polymorphism was evaluated in pituitary adenoma, and showed a possible association with the incidence of somatotropinoma but not with tumor progression.

Kim JN, Kim TH, Yoon JH, Cho SG
Kisspeptin Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Cell Invasiveness by Activating PKR and PP2A.
Anticancer Res. 2018; 38(10):5791-5798 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism through which kisspeptin inhibits colorectal cancer metastasis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Colorectal cancer cells were treated with kisspeptin and then subjected to assays for cell viability, migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. Kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) requirement was examined by siRNA-based gene silencing followed by western blot and invasion assays. Kisspeptin regulation of PKR and PP2A was examined by treating cells with inhibitors for PKR or PP2A.
RESULTS: Kisspeptin inhibited colorectal cancer cell invasiveness without affecting cell proliferation. Kisspeptin required activation of KISS1R and resulted in activation of PKR and PP2A. PKR inhibitor blocked kisspeptin-induced PP2A phosphorylation, while PP2A inhibitor failed to block kisspeptin-induced PKR phosphorylation.
CONCLUSION: Kisspeptin-mediated activation of PKR-PP2A inhibited colorectal cancer cell invasiveness.

Liu G, Zhao X, Zhou J, et al.
LncRNA TP73-AS1 Promotes Cell Proliferation and Inhibits Cell Apoptosis in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Through Repressing KISS1 Expression and Inactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway.
Cell Physiol Biochem. 2018; 48(1):371-384 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Emerging evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a vital regulatory role in the pathogenesis and progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We aim to determine lncRNA profiles in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and investigate key lncRNAs involved in ccRCC tumorigenesis and progression.
METHODS: RNA sequencing technique and qPCR were used to determine the candidate lncRNAs in ccRCC tissues. The correlations between lncRNA P73 antisense RNA 1T (TP73-AS1) levels and survival outcomes were analyzed to elucidate its clinical significance. The underlying mechanisms of TP73-AS1 in ccRCC were analyzed through in vitro functional assays.
RESULTS: We found TP73-AS1 was upregulated in 40 ccRCC tissues compared with adjacent normal renal tissues and increased TP73-AS1 was correlated to aggressive clinicopathologic features and unfavorable prognosis. Knockdown of TP73-AS1 suppressed cell proliferation, invasion and induced cell apoptosis. We also identified KISS-1 metastasis-suppressor (KISS1) was significantly upregulated in TP73-AS1 knockdown cells. Further, we revealed that TP73-AS1 suppressed KISS1 expression through the interaction with Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and the specific binding to KISS1 gene promoter region. Knockdown of KISS1 partly reversed TP73-AS1 knockdown-induced inhibition of cell proliferation and promotion of apoptosis. We further determined that TP73-AS1 knockdown activated PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, while overexpression of TP73-AS1 induced inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and these effects could be partly abolished by overexpression of KISS1.
CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we identified that TP73-AS1 as an oncogenic lncRNA in the development of ccRCC and a potential target for human renal carcinoma treatment.

Ren YM, Duan YH, Sun YB, et al.
Exploring the key genes and pathways of side population cells in human osteosarcoma using gene expression array analysis.
J Orthop Surg Res. 2018; 13(1):153 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human osteosarcoma (OS) is one of the most common primary bone sarcoma, because of early metastasis and few treatment strategies. It has been reported that the tumorigenicity and self-renewal capacity of side population (SP) cells play roles in human OS via regulating of target genes. This study aims to complement the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that regulated between the SP cells and the non-SP cells from primary human OS and identify their functions and molecular pathways associated with OS.
METHODS: The gene expression profile GSE63390 was downloaded, and bioinformatics analysis was made.
RESULTS: One hundred forty-one DEGs totally were identified. Among them, 72 DEGs (51.06%) were overexpressed, and the remaining 69 DEGs (48.94%) were underexpressed. Gene ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analysis of target genes were performed. We furthermore identified some relevant core genes using gene-gene interaction network analysis such as EIF4E, FAU, HSPD1, IL-6, and KISS1, which may have a relationship with the development process of OS. We also discovered that EIF4E/mTOR signaling pathway could be a potential research target for therapy and tumorigenesis of OS.
CONCLUSION: This analysis provides a comprehensive understanding of the roles of DEGs coming from SP cells in the development of OS. However, these predictions need further experimental validation in future studies.

Taniguchi-Ponciano K, Ribas-Aparicio RM, Marrero-Rodríguez D, et al.
The KISS1 gene overexpression as a potential molecular marker for cervical cancer cells.
Cancer Biomark. 2018; 22(4):709-719 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Similarities between the pathologic progression of cancer and the physiologic process of placentation have been recognized for many years proposing that both present similar mechanisms and processes. Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most frequent neoplasia among Mexican women turning it into an important health problem.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the degree of the involvement of pregnancy related genes and in cancer progression by in-silico analysis and validated in CC samples.
RESULTS: The data mining analysis resulted in the identification of genes expressed in term placenta, first trimester placenta and normal cervical tissues. Finally, we selected KISS1 for the involvement of pregnancy related gene and also in cancer process. In order to explore KISS1 in CC, we analyzed Copy Number Variation (CNV) and gene expression using microarray experiments. KISS1 showed 20% genomic gain in 1q32.1 on CC samples. Furthermore, microarray analysis showed KISS1 as up-regulated genes. Results were validated showing an overexpression of 85% of KISS1 in CC samples.
CONCLUSIONS: Data suggest KISS1 as a great candidate for CC molecular markers or as a therapeutic target for CC. Also, HPV presence does not seem to alter the KISS1 expression in CC.

Chen Y, Zhang C, Chen J, et al.
Expression of Transcription Factor 21 (TCF21) and Upregulation Its Level Inhibits Invasion and Metastasis in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:4128-4136 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND Transcription factor 21 (TCF21), a member of the class A of basic helix-loop-helix family, has been widely identified as a tumor suppressor. Growing evidence has demonstrated the downregulation of TCF21 in distinct cancers. The aim of this study was to explore the expression and biological functions of TCF21 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). MATERIAL AND METHODS TCF21 expression in esophageal cancer cell lines and carcinomas tissues were detected, and its associations with clinical characteristics were analyzed. We carried out this study of biological functions and underlying mechanisms using TE10 and KYSE510 cell lines. RESULTS TCF21 mRNA and protein expression were both downregulated in esophageal cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Low expression of TCF21 was closely correlated with N stage. In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, patients with lower TCF21 expression had poorer prognosis. Overexpression of TCF21 greatly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion in both TE10 and KYSE510 cell lines. Furthermore, mechanistic studies showed that with TCF21 gene overexpressed, the expression of tumor suppressor Kiss-1 was upregulated and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) related proteins (E-cadherin, N-cadherin, Snail, Twist, and Vimentin) which participate in cancer cell invasion and metastasis, were reversed. CONCLUSIONS TCF21 is downregulated in ESCC, and its low expression is closely correlated with N stage and predicts a poor prognosis. TCF21 functions as a tumor suppressor in ESCC progression, and enhancement of its expression levels may be partly through promoting Kiss-1 expression to reverse EMT by modulating EMT-related gene expression. Thus, TCF21 can potentially be used as a treatment target for ESCC.

Albalawi FS, Daghestani MH, Daghestani MH, et al.
rs4889 polymorphism in KISS1 gene, its effect on polycystic ovary syndrome development and anthropometric and hormonal parameters in Saudi women.
J Biomed Sci. 2018; 25(1):50 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Kisspeptin is involved in female reproduction. This study was designed to i- estimate kisspeptin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), in comparison with controls, ii- study the correlations between kisspeptin and PCOS-related reproductive hormones, and iii- investigate the relation between KISS1 gene polymorphisms and hormone levels in women suffering from PCOS.
METHODS: The investigation was a clinically designed study on 28 women with PCOS, and 30 normal, healthy women with no signs of PCOS as controls. Blood samples were collected between day 3 and day 6 of the menstrual cycle in both groups at 8:00 a.m., and circulating levels of LH, FSH and kisspeptin were estimated. DNA was extracted from whole blood and all coding exons of KISS1 gene were sequenced.
RESULTS: Women with PCOS had higher LH levels and BMI compared to controls. Plasma kisspeptin levels were positively correlated with LH levels. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of kisspeptin and FSH levels. The SNP rs4889 C/G, a non-synonymous SNP, was investigated in the PCOS group. The frequency of GG genotype was significantly higher in the PCOS compared to the controls. These patients were more obese, had higher kisspeptin and FSH levels.
CONCLUSION: The results of the study show that the genetic variation of KISS1 gene may be a factor contributing to PCOS development. The association between the gene and the gene variation and PCOS need further validation in large-scaled and functional studies.

Kostakis ID, Agrogiannis G, Vaiopoulos AG, et al.
KISS1 and KISS1R expression in gastric cancer.
J BUON. 2018 Jan-Feb; 23(1):79-84 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Kisspeptins, which are derived from the gene KISS1, supress tumor progression. We intended to investigate the production of KISS1 and its receptor (KISSR) in gastric cancer.
METHODS: The expression of KISS1 and KISS1R in both normal and cancer tissue was examined with immunohistochemistry in tissue specimens of 40 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma.
RESULTS: KISS1 expression in normal gastric mucosa was much higher than in malignant mucosa. KISS1 expression was higher in early stages (stage I or II) than in advanced stages (stage III or IV), in tumors with intestinal histological type than in those with diffuse histological type, in tumors without lymphovascular invasion than in those with and in cancers of older patients (≥70 years) than in younger patients. No significant differences were found regarding other clinicopathological parameters. There was no KISS1R expression in cancer tissues, while only low levels of KISS1R were detected in normal gastric epithelium.
CONCLUSIONS: KISS1 expression is decreased during carcinogenesis in gastric mucosa. More advanced tumors and more aggressive histological types produce lower KISS1 levels. In addition, no KISS1R is produced in malignant gastric epithelium, while KISS1R is only weakly expressed in normal gastric epithelium.

Platonov ME, Borovjagin AV, Kaverina N, et al.
KISS1 tumor suppressor restricts angiogenesis of breast cancer brain metastases and sensitizes them to oncolytic virotherapy in vitro.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 417:75-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
KISS1 tumor suppressor protein regulates cancer cell invasion via MMP9 metalloproteinase. Downregulation of KISS1 gene expression promotes progression of breast cancer and melanoma, resulting in the development of distant metastases. In the current study, we investigated whether restoration of KISS1 expression in KISS1-deficient human metastatic breast cancer cells holds potential as an advanced anticancer strategy. To this end we engineered an infectivity-enhanced conditionally-replicative human adenovirus type 5 encoding KISS1 as an "arming" transgene in the Ad5 E3 region for an ectopic KISS1 expression in transduced cancer cells. The oncolytic potential of the vector was examined using brain-invading metastatic clones of CN34 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, which supported high levels of AdKISS1 replication, correlating with a robust CRAd-mediated cytotoxicity. Secretion of cellular factors responsible for tumor angiogenesis, cell-to-cell communication and anti-tumoral immune responses upon KISS1 expression in breast cancer cells was analyzed by a RayBiotech Kiloplex Quantibody array. Overall, our results indicate that KISS1 transgene expression provides an important benefit for CRAd-mediated cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells and holds potential as an anticancer treatment in conjunction with oncolytic virotherapy of breast and other metastatic cancers.

Song WW, Gui AP, Li W, et al.
Expressions of HIF-1α and KISS-1 in patients with liver cancer and correlation analysis.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2017; 21(18):4058-4063 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To study the expressions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and tumor metastasis suppressor gene (KISS-1) in patients with liver cancer and to analyze the correlation between HIF-1α and KISS-1 and liver cancer.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: 20 normal liver tissues and 30 liver cancer tissues in our hospital were selected. The expressions of HIF-1α and KISS-1 in normal liver tissues and liver cancer tissues were detected via immunofluorescence assay. The mRNA expressions of HIF-1α and KISS-1 in normal liver tissues and liver cancer tissues were detected via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The protein expressions of HIF-1α and KISS-1 in normal liver tissues and liver cancer tissues were detected via Western blotting. Differences of HIF-1α and KISS-1 expressions in normal liver tissues and liver cancer tissues were analyzed using SPSS 17.0 statistical software.
RESULTS: Immunofluorescence assay, RT-PCR, and Western blotting, showed that HIF-1α was highly expressed in liver cancer tissues, and its expression level was significantly higher than that in normal liver tissues. However, the expression of KISS-1 in normal liver tissues was significantly higher than that in liver cancer tissues. The results of analysis of variance showed that the differences of HIF-1α and KISS-1 expressions in normal liver tissues and liver cancer tissues were statistically significant (p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: The abnormal expressions of HIF-1α and KISS-1 are closely related to the development and progression of liver cancer, indicating that HIF-1α and KISS-1 have important research values in liver cancer, and the expressions of HIF-1α and KISS-1 can be used as the index of deterioration degree of liver cancer, providing a new clinical basis for diagnosis and treatment.

Tian J, Al-Odaini AA, Wang Y, et al.
KiSS1 gene as a novel mediator of TGFβ-mediated cell invasion in triple negative breast cancer.
Cell Signal. 2018; 42:1-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
The invasive and metastatic phenotypes of breast cancer correlate with high recurrence rates and poor survival outcomes. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) promotes tumor progression and metastasis in aggressive breast cancer. Here, we identified the kisspeptin KiSS1 as a downstream target of canonical TGFβ/Smad2 pathway in triple negative breast cancer cells. We also found KiSS1 expression to be required for TGFβ-induced cancer cell invasion. Indeed, knockdown expression of KiSS1 blocked TGFβ-mediated cancer cell invasion as well as metalloproteinase (MMP9) expression and activity. Interestingly, Kisspeptin-10 (KP-10), the smallest active form of kisspeptin also stimulates cancer cell invasive behavior through activation of MAPK/Erk pathway. We described a positive feedback loop between KiSS1 and p21 downstream of TGFβ, further contributing to TGFβ-induced cancer cell invasion. Lastly, we explored both the clinical utility of KiSS1 as a lymph node involvement predictive tool and its potential as a therapeutic target. We found KiSS1 high expression to correlate with lymph node positive status. Furthermore, blocking KiSS1 using a specific small peptide antagonist (p234) impaired TGFβ-mediated cell invasion and MMP9 induction. Together, our results define an essential role of KiSS1 in regulating TGFβ pro-invasive effects and define KiSS1 as a therapeutic new target for triple negative breast cancer.

Kaverina N, Borovjagin AV, Kadagidze Z, et al.
Astrocytes promote progression of breast cancer metastases to the brain via a KISS1-mediated autophagy.
Autophagy. 2017; 13(11):1905-1923 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Formation of metastases, also known as cancer dissemination, is an important stage of breast cancer (BrCa) development. KISS1 expression is associated with inhibition of metastases development. Recently we have demonstrated that BrCa metastases to the brain exhibit low levels of KISS1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels. By using multicolor immunofluorescence and coculture techniques here we show that normal adult astrocytes in the brain are capable of promoting metastatic transformation of circulating breast cancer cells localized to the brain through secretion of chemokine CXCL12. The latter was found in this study to downregulate KISS1 expression at the post-transcriptional level via induction of microRNA-345 (MIR345). Furthermore, we demonstrated that ectopic expression of KISS1 downregulates ATG5 and ATG7, 2 key modulators of autophagy, and works concurrently with autophagy inhibitors, thereby implicating autophagy in the mechanism of KISS1-mediated BrCa metastatic transformation. We also found that expression of KISS1 in human breast tumor specimens inversely correlates with that of MMP9 and IL8, implicated in the mechanism of metastatic invasion, thereby supporting the role of KISS1 as a potential regulator of BrCa metastatic invasion in the brain. This conclusion is further supported by the ability of KISS1, ectopically overexpressed from an adenoviral vector in MDA-MB-231Br cells with silenced expression of the endogenous gene, to revert invasive phenotype of those cells. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that human adult astrocytes can promote brain invasion of the brain-localized circulating breast cancer cells by upregulating autophagy signaling pathways via the CXCL12-MIR345- KISS1 axis.

Kim TH, Cho SG
Kisspeptin inhibits cancer growth and metastasis via activation of EIF2AK2.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(5):7585-7590 [PubMed] Related Publications
Kisspeptin is a protein encoded by the KISS1 gene, which has been reported to suppress the metastatic capabilities of various types of cancer cells, through the activation of its G‑protein coupled receptor GPR54. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of kisspeptin‑mediated signaling in the inhibition of cancer cell migration and invasion have yet to be elucidated. The present in vitro cell proliferation, migration and invasion assays and in vivo experimental metastasis studies demonstrated that kisspeptin‑induced eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α kinase 2 (EIF2AK2) activation suppressed the metastatic capabilities of several types of cancer cells. Kisspeptin was revealed to inhibit the migratory and invasive abilities of highly metastatic breast SK‑BR‑3, prostatic PC‑3 and colorectal adenocarcinoma LoVo human cancer cell lines, whereas its inhibitory effects were abolished following the silencing of EIF2AK2 expression using RNA interference. Similarly, kisspeptin failed to inhibit the migration and invasion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts following the deletion of the EIF2AK2 gene. Furthermore, kisspeptin was demonstrated to activate Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)‑dependent signaling, and to phosphorylate EIF2AK2 via RhoA‑mediated pathways in various cancer cells. In addition, results obtained from nude mice bearing LoVo‑derived xenograft tumors revealed that kisspeptin inhibited tumor growth through an EIF2AK2‑dependent mechanism, and an in vivo metastasis assay identified kisspeptin‑activated EIF2AK2 signaling as critical for the suppression of distant metastasis. The present study concluded that kisspeptin represses cancer metastasis via EIF2AK2 signaling, thus clarifying the role of kisspeptin signaling in complicated cancer metastasis signaling network. Therefore, kisspeptin treatment may be a choice for blocking metastases.

Blake A, Dragan M, Tirona RG, et al.
G protein-coupled KISS1 receptor is overexpressed in triple negative breast cancer and promotes drug resistance.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:46525 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) lacks the expression of estrogen receptor α, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). TNBC patients lack targeted therapies, as they fail to respond to endocrine and anti-HER2 therapy. Prognosis for this aggressive cancer subtype is poor and survival is limited due to the development of resistance to available chemotherapies and resultant metastases. The mechanisms regulating tumor resistance are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that the G protein-coupled kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) promotes drug resistance in TNBC cells. KISS1R binds kisspeptins, peptide products of the KISS1 gene and in numerous cancers, this signaling pathway plays anti-metastatic roles. However, in TNBC, KISS1R promotes tumor invasion. We show that KISS1 and KISS1R mRNA and KISS1R protein are upregulated in TNBC tumors, compared to normal breast tissue. KISS1R signaling promotes drug resistance by increasing the expression of efflux drug transporter, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and by inducing the activity and transcription of the receptor tyrosine kinase, AXL. BCRP and AXL transcripts are elevated in TNBC tumors, compared to normal breast, and TNBC tumors expressing KISS1R also express AXL and BCRP. Thus, KISS1R represents a potentially novel therapeutic target to restore drug sensitivity in TNBC patients.

Wang H, Schaefer T, Konantz M, et al.
Prominent Oncogenic Roles of EVI1 in Breast Carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2017; 77(8):2148-2160 [PubMed] Related Publications
Overexpression of the EVI1 oncogene is associated typically with aggressive myeloid leukemia, but is also detectable in breast carcinoma where its contributions are unexplored. Analyzing a tissue microarray of 608 breast carcinoma patient specimens, we documented EVI1 overexpression in both estrogen receptor-positive (ER

Mousavi Ardehaie R, Hashemzadeh S, Behrouz Sharif S, et al.
Aberrant methylated EDNRB can act as a potential diagnostic biomarker in sporadic colorectal cancer while KISS1 is controversial.
Bioengineered. 2017; 8(5):555-564 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Cancers are among the most serious threats of human health worldwide. Survival and mortality rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) strongly depend on the early diagnosis. The aberrant methylation pattern of genes as a diagnostic biomarker can serve as a practical option for timely detection and contribute subsequently to the enhancement of survival rate in CRC patients, since methylation changes are not only frequent but also can occur in initial tumorogenesis stages. It has been indicated that EDNRB and KISS1 genes are hypermethylated through progression and development of CRC. In current study, after extraction of genomic DNA from 45 paired tumor and adjacent non-cancerous tissue samples and treatment with bisulfite conversion, the methylation status of EDNRB and KISS1 CpG rich regions were assessed quantitatively using MS-HRM assay to determine practicability of these aberrant methylations for diagnosis of sporadic CRC and its discrimination from corresponding normal tissues. The results showed that the methylation distribution differences, comparing tumor tissues with their adjacent non-cancerous tissues, were statistically significant in all selected locations within EDNRB gene promoter (P < 0.001); they had also some correlations with tumor stage and grade. Nonetheless, methylation distribution in KISS1 gene CpG rich region revealed no statistically significant differences between CRC and adjacent non-cancerous tissues (P = 0.060). Overall, it can be concluded that aberrant methylated EDNRB can be a promising potential diagnostic biomarker for CRC, while KISS1 is controversial and needs to be more investigated.

Yin Y, Tang L, Shi L
The metastasis suppressor gene KISS-1 regulates osteosarcoma apoptosis and autophagy processes.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 15(3):1286-1290 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
The expression of the metastasis suppressor gene KISS-1 in osteosarcoma cells during apoptosis and autophagy was evaluated. MG-63 osteosarcoma cells were transfected with either KISS-1 overexpression or KISS-1 knockdown expression vector in vitro, and compared with cell lines transfected with empty vector. After 12, 24, 48 and 72 h of cell culture, the cell proliferation was examined. The MTT method was used to detect apoptosis by flow cytometry, and the mRNA levels of apoptosis and autophagy markers caspase-3, Bcl-2, Bax, LC3 and Beclin1 were assessed by RT-PCR. Our results showed that cells in the control and low expression group kept proliferating during the cell culture period of 72 h, while the cells in the overexpression group progressively decreased in number. Also, the proliferation rate of the low expression group was significantly higher than that of the control group. The relative mRNA expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax mRNA in the control and low expression group showed no change (the expression was lowest in the low expression group). Moreover, the mRNA level of Bcl-2 increased in both cell groups. The mRNA expression levels of caspase-3 and Bax in the overexpression group were increased, and the level of Bcl-2 was reduced significantly. At the same time, the relative expression level of LC3 and Beclin1 mRNA in the control and low expression groups remained the same, and that of the overexpression group increased. The mRNA levels of LC3 and Beclin1 in the overexpression group were the highest, and that of the low expression group the lowest. The differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). Based on these results, we showed that KISS-1 inhibited the proliferation of osteosarcoma in vitro, probably by accelerating the processes of apoptosis and autophagy in the cells.

Zhou Z, Li Y, Wang H, et al.
Biological Features of a Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Line Derived from Spinal Metastasis.
DNA Cell Biol. 2017; 36(2):168-176 [PubMed] Related Publications
The establishment of a metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) cell line can facilitate the search for molecular mechanisms involved in RCC metastasis. A novel human mRCC cell line, designated RCC96, was established from an mRCC of the spine from a 65-year-old Chinese man. Morphology, cell cycle phase, chromosome number, cell capability of migration, tumorigenicity in nude mice, and cytogenetic features of RCC96 were investigated. Cell growth curve was detected and the cell number doubling time was 52 h. Karyotype analysis showed that these cells were polyploidy. Transmission electron microscope showed that cells were with large atypical nuclei, well-developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, rich Golgi complex, and mitochondria, as well as visible microacinar in the cytoplasm. PCR and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that the expression of some genes such as KISS-1, MMP2, and VEGF in RCC96 was not entirely consistent with that in other RCC cell lines, indicating the differences between primary and metastatic RCC cell lines. The RCC96 cell line may serve as a useful tool for studying the molecular pathogenesis and testing new therapeutic reagents for mRCC.

Cao F, Chen L, Liu M, et al.
Expression of preoperative KISS1 gene in tumor tissue with epithelial ovarian cancer and its prognostic value.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2016; 95(46):e5296 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Our study aimed to elucidate the role of Kisspeptin (KISS1) in tumor tissues of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) and investigate the prognostic value of this biomarker.Forty EOC patients and 20 uterine fibroids female patients with healthy ovaries undergoing cytoreductive surgery between January 2010 and January 2014 in our hospital were enrolled in this study. KISS1 expression in tumor and normal tissues was detected. Correlations between clinic-pathologic variables and KISS1 expression in EOC tissues and the prognostic value of KISS1 for overall survival were evaluated.During the follow-up of 11.2 to 62.1 months, the overall survival rate and mean survival time were 28.9% (11/38) and 38.35 ± 2.84 months. Preoperative KISS1 mRNA was higher in tumor tissue than in normal tissue (P <0.001), and it was associated with histologic grade of tumor, surgical FIGO stage, metastasis, and residual tumor size (all P <0.05). Multivariate survival analysis indicated significant influence of residual tumor size (HR = 2.357, P = 0.039) and preoperative KISS1 mRNA (HR = 0.0001, P <0.001) on mean survival time. Patients with low KISS1 mRNA expression had shorter survival time than those with high expression (P = 0.001).Preoperative KISS1 mRNA was a potential prognostic biomarker for EOC, and high preoperative KISS1 expression indicated a favorable prognosis.

Alhosin M, Omran Z, Zamzami MA, et al.
Signalling pathways in UHRF1-dependent regulation of tumor suppressor genes in cancer.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 35(1):174 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) through DNA methylation and histone changes is a main hallmark of cancer. Ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING Finger domains 1 (UHRF1) is a potent oncogene overexpressed in various solid and haematological tumors and its high expression levels are associated with decreased expression of several TSGs including p16

Airoldi I, Cocco C, Sorrentino C, et al.
Interleukin-30 Promotes Breast Cancer Growth and Progression.
Cancer Res. 2016; 76(21):6218-6229 [PubMed] Related Publications
The inflammatory tissue microenvironment that promotes the development of breast cancer is not fully understood. Here we report a role for elevated IL30 in supporting the breast cancer cell viability and invasive migration. IL30 was absent in normal mammary ducts, ductules, and acini of histologically normal breast and scanty in the few stromal infiltrating leukocytes. In contrast, IL30 was expressed frequently in breast cancer specimens where it was associated with triple-negative and HER2

Matsuzaki T, Tungalagsuvd A, Iwasa T, et al.
Kisspeptin mRNA expression is increased in the posterior hypothalamus in the rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Endocr J. 2017; 64(1):7-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
Hypersecretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) is a common endocrinological finding of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This derangement might have a close relationship with hypothalamic kisspeptin expression that is thought to be a key regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). We evaluated the relationship between the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) and kisspeptin using a rat model of PCOS induced by letrozole. Letrozole pellets (0.4 mg/day) and control pellets were placed subcutaneously onto the backs of 3-week-old female Wistar rats. Body weight, vaginal opening and vaginal smear were checked daily. Blood and tissues of ovary, uterus and brain were collected at 12-weeks of age. An hypothalamic block was cut into anterior and posterior blocks, which included the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC), respectively, in order to estimate hypothalamic kisspeptin expression in each area. The letrozole group showed a similar phenotype to human PCOS such as heavier body weight, heavier ovary, persistent anovulatory state, multiple enlarged follicles with no corpus luteum and higher LH and testosterone (T) levels compared to the control group. Kisspeptin mRNA expression in the posterior hypothalamic block including ARC was higher in the letrozole group than in the control group although its expression in the anterior hypothalamic block was similar between groups. These results suggest that enhanced KNDy neuron activity in ARC contributes to hypersecretion of LH in PCOS and might be a therapeutic target to rescue ovulatory disorder of PCOS in the future.

Roberts MR, Sucheston-Campbell LE, Zirpoli GR, et al.
Single nucleotide variants in metastasis-related genes are associated with breast cancer risk, by lymph node involvement and estrogen receptor status, in women with European and African ancestry.
Mol Carcinog. 2017; 56(3):1000-1009 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/01/2020 Related Publications
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pathways influencing lymph node (LN) metastasis and estrogen receptor (ER) status in breast cancer may partially explain inter-patient variability in prognosis. We examined 154 SNPs in 12 metastasis-related genes for associations with breast cancer risk, stratified by LN and ER status, in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) women. Two-thousand six hundred and seventy-one women enrolled in the Women's Circle of Health Study were genotyped. Pathway analyses were conducted using the adaptive rank truncated product (ARTP) method, with p

Uthaisar K, Vaeteewoottacharn K, Seubwai W, et al.
Establishment and characterization of a novel human cholangiocarcinoma cell line with high metastatic activity.
Oncol Rep. 2016; 36(3):1435-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a highly metastatic tumor, and the lung is a common site of metastasis. A greater understanding of the biology of metastases is needed to improve treatment outcomes. Herein, a highly metastatic human CCA subline, KKU-213L5 from an original cell line, KKU-213 that has marginally metastatic ability, was established and characterized. KKU-213L5 was selected in vivo through the fifth serial passage of pulmonary metastasized tissues via tail-vein injection in NOD/scid/Jak3 mice. The metastatic abilities of the KKU-213L5 cells were compared with the parental line in vitro and in vivo. The expression profile of this metastatic cell line was determined using real-time PCR. KKU-213L5 cells were found to possess higher metastatic phenotypes, i.e., growth rates, stem cell surface markers (CD133), migration and invasion characteristics when compared with the parental cells. Compared to the KKU-213 cells, KKU-213L5 cells formed larger tumors in subcutaneous xenografted mice and had a >10-fold increase in lung metastases in the tail-vein injected metastatic mouse model. Mice injected intravenously with KKU-213L5 cells had a significantly shorter survival. Analysis of the expressed genes related to progression of cancer revealed significant upregulation of anterior gradient protein-2 (AGR2) and suppression of KiSS-1 in the KKU-213L5 cells. The association of these two genes with metastasis was affirmed in CCA patient tissues since increased AGR2 expression and decreased KiSS-1 expression were found in higher stage patient tumors. In conclusion, a highly metastatic human CCA cell line was established and characterized. It is plausible that the differential expression between the parental KKU-213 and highly metastatic KKU-213L5 cells may be beneficial to classify novel genes associated with metastasis. The KKU-213L5 cell line should serve as a valued device for discovering the molecular mechanisms of CCA metastasis and enabling the search for an effective therapy for the unmet clinical need in CCA.

Lam K, Pan K, Linnekamp JF, et al.
DNA methylation based biomarkers in colorectal cancer: A systematic review.
Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016; 1866(1):106-20 [PubMed] Related Publications
Since genetic and epigenetic alterations influence the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), huge potential lies in the use of DNA methylation as biomarkers to improve the current diagnosis, screening, prognosis and treatment prediction. Here we performed a systematic review on DNA methylation-based biomarkers published in CRC, and discussed the current state of findings and future challenges. Based on the findings, we then provide a perspective on future studies. Genome-wide studies on DNA methylation revealed novel biomarkers as well as distinct subgroups that exist in CRC. For diagnostic purposes, the most independently validated genes to study further are VIM, SEPT9, ITGA4, OSM4, GATA4 and NDRG4. These hypermethylated biomarkers can even be combined with LINE1 hypomethylation and the performance of markers should be examined in comparison to FIT further to find sensitive combinations. In terms of prognostic markers, myopodin, KISS1, TMEFF2, HLTF, hMLH1, APAF1, BCL2 and p53 are independently validated. Most prognostic markers published lack both a multivariate analysis in comparison to clinical risk factors and the appropriate patient group who will benefit by adjuvant chemotherapy. Methylation of IGFBP3, mir148a and PTEN are found to be predictive markers for 5-FU and EGFR therapy respectively. For therapy prediction, more studies should focus on finding markers for chemotherapeutic drugs as majority of the patients would benefit. Translation of these biomarkers into clinical utility would require large-scale prospective cohorts and randomized clinical trials in future. Based on these findings and consideration we propose an avenue to introduce methylation markers into clinical practice in near future. For future studies, multi-omics profiling on matched tissue and non-invasive cohorts along with matched cohorts of adenoma to carcinoma is indispensable to concurrently stratify CRC and find novel, robust biomarkers. Moreover, future studies should examine the timing and heterogeneity of methylation as well as the difference in methylation levels between epithelial and stromal tissues.

Singh R, Bhatt ML, Singh SP, et al.
Evaluation of KiSS1 as a Prognostic Biomarker in North Indian Breast Cancer Cases.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016; 17(4):1789-95 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the commonest female cancer worldwide and its propensity to metastasize negatively impacts on therapeutic outcome. Several clinicopathological parameters with prognostic/predictive significance have been associated with metastatic suppressor expression levels. The role of metastatic suppressor gene (MSG) KiSS1 in breast cancer remains unclear. Our goal was to investigate the possible clinical significance of KiSS1 breast cancer.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 87 histologically proven cases of breast cancer and background normal tiisue. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to investigate KiSS1 at gene and protein levels, respectively, for correlation with several patient characteristics including age, family history, hormonal receptor status, stage, tumor size, nodal involvement and metastatic manifestation and finally with median overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Our study revealed (i) KiSS1 levels were generally elevated in breast cancer vs normal tissue (< 0.05). (ii) however, a statistically significant lower expression of KiSS1 was observed in metastatic vs non metastatic cases (P = 0.04). (iii) KiSS1 levels strongly correlated with T,N,M category, histological grade and advanced stage (<0.001) but not other studied parameters. (iv) Lastly, a significant correlation between expression of KiSS1 and median OS was found (P = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: Conclusively, less elevated KiSS1 expression is a negative prognostic factor for OS, advancing tumor stage, axillary lymph node status, metastatic propensity and advancing grade of the breast cancer patient. Patients with negative KiSS1 expression may require a more intensive therapeutic strategy.

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