KISS1; KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor (1q32)

Gene Summary

Gene:KISS1; KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor
Aliases: HH13, KiSS-1
Summary:This gene is a metastasis suppressor gene that suppresses metastases of melanomas and breast carcinomas without affecting tumorigenicity. The encoded protein may inhibit chemotaxis and invasion and thereby attenuate metastasis in malignant melanomas. Studies suggest a putative role in the regulation of events downstream of cell-matrix adhesion, perhaps involving cytoskeletal reorganization. A protein product of this gene, kisspeptin, stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced gonadotropin secretion and regulates the pubertal activation of GnRH nuerons. A polymorphism in the terminal exon of this mRNA results in two protein isoforms. An adenosine present at the polymorphic site represents the third position in a stop codon. When the adenosine is absent, a downstream stop codon is utilized and the encoded protein extends for an additional seven amino acid residues. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2012]
Databases:OMIM, VEGA, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:metastasis-suppressor KiSS-1
Updated:14 December, 2014


What does this gene/protein do?
KISS1 is implicated in:
- cytoskeleton organization
- extracellular region
- G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway
- protein binding
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1989-2014)
Graph generated 14 December 2014 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 14 December, 2014 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Notable (5)

Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Entity Topic PubMed Papers
Breast CancerKISS1 and Breast Cancer View Publications21
MelanomaKISS1 and Melanoma View Publications12
Kidney CancerKISS1 and Renal Cell Carcinoma View Publications6
Colorectal CancerKISS1 and Colorectal Cancer View Publications6
Eye CancerKISS1 and Uveal Neoplasms View Publications2

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Related Links

Latest Publications: KISS1 (cancer-related)

Papaoiconomou E, Lymperi M, Petraki C, et al.
Kiss-1/GPR54 protein expression in breast cancer.
Anticancer Res. 2014; 34(3):1401-7 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have shown that the Kiss-1 gene countervails the metastatic aptitude of several cancer cell lines and solid-tumor neoplasias. However, there still remains ambiguity regarding its role in breast cancer and literature has arisen asserting that Kiss-1 expression may be linked to an aggressive phenotype and malignant progression. Herein, we investigated the protein expression of Kiss-1 and its receptor GPR54 in breast cancer tissues compared to non-cancerous mammary tissues.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Paraffin-fixed cancer tissues from 43 women with resected breast adenocarcinomas and 11 specimens derived from women suffering from fibrocystic disease, serving as controls, were immunostained with Kiss-1 and GPR54 antibodies.
RESULTS: Kiss-1 and GPR54 protein expression levels were significantly higher in breast cancer compared to fibrocystic tissues (p<0.05). No significant correlation was established between Kiss-1 or GRP54 expression and tumor grade, tumor size, lymph node positivity, histological type or ER status. Kiss-1 expression significantly and positively correlated with GPR54 expression in both breast cancer and fibrocystic disease specimens.
CONCLUSION: Kiss-1/GPR54 expression was found to be significantly higher in breast cancer compared to non-malignant mammary tissues.

Related: Breast Cancer

Liu W, Beck BH, Vaidya KS, et al.
Metastasis suppressor KISS1 seems to reverse the Warburg effect by enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis.
Cancer Res. 2014; 74(3):954-63 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Cancer cells tend to utilize aerobic glycolysis even under normoxic conditions, commonly called the "Warburg effect." Aerobic glycolysis often directly correlates with malignancy, but its purpose, if any, in metastasis remains unclear. When wild-type KISS1 metastasis suppressor is expressed, aerobic glycolysis decreases and oxidative phosphorylation predominates. However, when KISS1 is missing the secretion signal peptide (ΔSS), invasion and metastasis are no longer suppressed and cells continue to metabolize using aerobic glycolysis. KISS1-expressing cells have 30% to 50% more mitochondrial mass than ΔSS-expressing cells, which are accompanied by correspondingly increased mitochondrial gene expression and higher expression of PGC1α, a master coactivator that regulates mitochondrial mass and metabolism. PGC1α-mediated downstream pathways (i.e., fatty acid synthesis and β-oxidation) are differentially regulated by KISS1, apparently reliant upon direct KISS1 interaction with NRF1, a major transcription factor involved in mitochondrial biogenesis. Since the downstream effects could be reversed using short hairpin RNA to KISS1 or PGC1α, these data appear to directly connect changes in mitochondria mass, cellular glucose metabolism, and metastasis.

Related: Mitochondrial Mutations in Cancer Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Yuan TZ, Zhang HH, Tang QF, et al.
Prognostic value of kisspeptin expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Laryngoscope. 2014; 124(5):E167-74 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The KiSS-1 gene has been reported to serve as a metastasis suppressor gene in various human malignancies. However, no information is available regarding the role of the KiSS-1 gene or its gene product kisspeptin in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study.
METHODS: Kisspeptin and its receptor AXOR12 expression were assessed using immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tumor tissues from 140 patients diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Immunoreactivity was quantified, and its relationships with patients' clinical parameters and survival were analyzed.
RESULTS: Using a 50% cutoff level, the immunoreactivities of kisspeptin and AXOR12 were divided into low and high expression. The expression levels of kisspeptin and AXOR12 in nasopharyngeal carcinoma were well correlated with each other (rs = 19.31, P < 0.01). Low expression of kisspeptin in nasopharyngeal carcinoma was correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.01), N stage (P = 0.03), and metastasis (P = 0.02). Patients with low kisspeptin expression had poorer distant metastasis-free survival than those with high kisspeptin expression (75.32% vs. 83.79%, P = 0.02). Although neither kisspeptin nor AXOR12 were found to be prognostic factors for overall survival, kisspeptin was determined to be an independent prognostic factor for distant metastasis-free survival (P = 0.03) using multivariate analysis.
CONCLUSION: In this study, we report for the first time that low kisspeptin expression in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is correlated with poor clinical outcome; kisspeptin could serve as an independent prognostic marker for metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Related: Nasopharyngeal Cancer

Kostakis ID, Agrogiannis G, Vaiopoulos AG, et al.
KISS1 expression in colorectal cancer.
APMIS. 2013; 121(10):1004-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Kisspeptins, the products of the KISS1 gene, are involved in cancer invasion, migration, metastasis and angiogenesis, while they induce apoptosis in various cancers. Herein, we studied KISS1 expression in colorectal cancer. We analyzed KISS1 expression using immunohistochemistry and image analysis in normal and malignant tissue samples from 60 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma. The results correlated with various clinicopathological parameters. The expression of KISS1 was much higher in normal than in malignant colonic mucosa. However, among malignant tissues, KISS1 expression was higher in larger tumors (>4 cm) than in smaller ones (≤4 cm) and in stages III and IV than in stages I and II. In addition, it was higher in patients with lymph node metastases. Moreover, KISS1 levels in the normal mucosa and their difference from those in the malignant mucosa were higher in the right part of the large intestine than in the left one. KISS1 expression is reduced during the malignant transformation of the colonic mucosa and there is a difference in the expression pattern between the right and the left part of the large intestine. However, larger and advanced colorectal tumors express higher KISS1 levels than smaller and localized ones.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Ji K, Ye L, Mason MD, Jiang WG
The Kiss-1/Kiss-1R complex as a negative regulator of cell motility and cancer metastasis (Review).
Int J Mol Med. 2013; 32(4):747-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis is a complex multistep process that involves the impairment of cell-cell adhesion in the neoplastic epithelium, invasion into adjacent tissues and the dissemination of cancer cells through the lymphatic and haematogenous routes. The inhibition of the metastatic process at an early stage has become a hot topic in cancer research. The Kiss-1 gene, initially described as a suppressor of metastasis in malignant melanoma, encodes the Kiss-1 protein which can be processed to other peptides, e.g., Kisspeptin-10, Kisspeptin-13, Kisspeptin-14 and Kisspeptin-54. These peptides are endogenous ligands of the Kiss‑1 receptor (Kiss-1R), a G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) also known as hOT7T175, AXOR12 or GPR54. The Kiss-1 gene has been suggested as a suppressor of metastasis in a various types of cancer, including gastric cancer, oesophageal carcinoma, pancreatic, ovarian, bladder and prostate cancer, through the regulation of cellular migration and invasion. In the current review, we summarise the current understanding of the role of Kiss‑1 and Kiss‑1R in cancer and cancer metastasis.

Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction

Song GQ, Zhao Y
Different therapeutic effects of distinct KISS1 fragments on breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(4):1219-27 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. In these studies, a metastasis suppressor gene, KISS1 and its truncated fragment, were overexpressed in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. In addition, KISS1 expression was downregulated in MDA-MB-157 cell line using a KISS1-specific siRNA. The effects of KISS1 on breast cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro were then identified. Our results indicate that KISS1 can induce apoptosis and inhibit mobility of breast cancer cells. Moreover, the expression of KISS1 in established xenografted tumors was associated with a decrease in tumor size and weight. Accordingly, the survival rate of these mice was significantly higher compared to that of mice bearing tumors that did not express KISS1. We also confirm that KISS1 could decrease the number of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The plasma levels of metastin and the number of CTCs were significantly positively correlated. Furthermore, we found that KISS1 can inactivate p-MEK and p-ERK. Overall, these studies demonstrate the antitumor activity of KISS1 in the breast cancer cell lines and provide insight into relevant mechanisms that may lead to novel treatments for breast cancer.

Related: Apoptosis Breast Cancer

Witchel SF, Tena-Sempere M
The Kiss1 system and polycystic ovary syndrome: lessons from physiology and putative pathophysiologic implications.
Fertil Steril. 2013; 100(1):12-22 [PubMed] Related Publications
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a highly prevalent heterogeneous disease characterized by ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism, and metabolic alterations. Women with PCOS commonly display dysregulated gonadotropin secretion with higher LH pulsatility and perturbed LH-FSH ratios, which likely contributes to the ovarian phenotype and might be indicative of disrupted GnRH secretory activity. Although the involvement of altered androgen and insulin levels in the pathogenesis of the neuroendocrine alterations of PCOS has been explored in various experimental and clinical settings, the ultimate mechanisms whereby such neurohormonal perturbations take place remain partially unknown. In recent years, kisspeptins, the products of the Kiss1 gene that operate via the surface receptor Gpr54, have emerged as essential elements of the reproductive brain that play an indispensable role in the control of gonadotropin secretion and ovulation. In addition, Kiss1 neurons in the brain are targets and transmitters of the regulatory actions of sex steroids and metabolic cues on the reproductive axis during early organizing periods and adulthood. Furthermore, Kiss1/kisspeptin expression has been documented in the ovary in various species, including humans; yet clear evidence for the involvement of kisspeptin signaling in the control of ovulation, or its alterations, is still pending. Based on these physiologic features, we discuss the putative pathophysiologic implications of alterations of the Kiss1 system in the generation of PCOS and summarize the scarce experimental and clinical evidence that might support such a role.

Related: Signal Transduction

Okugawa Y, Inoue Y, Tanaka K, et al.
Loss of the metastasis suppressor gene KiSS1 is associated with lymph node metastasis and poor prognosis in human colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(3):1449-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Cancer research is currently focused on blocking the metastatic process at its early steps. Some particularly attractive targets are metastasis suppressor genes, which control cancer cell dissemination. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the expression of KiSS1, a metastasis suppressor gene, and disease progression in colorectal cancer patients. One-hundred and seventy-five patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer were enrolled in this study. We analyzed KiSS1 mRNA expression by real-time reverse transcription PCR in colorectal cancer tissue and paired adjacent normal mucosa. KiSS1 protein expression in early- and advanced-stage colorectal cancer samples was determined by immunohistochemical analysis. Decreased KiSS1 expression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and was an independent prognostic factor. Logistic regression analysis revealed that decreased KiSS1 expression was an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that KiSS1 was highly expressed in the cell cytoplasm of early-stage colorectal cancer cells. The loss of KiSS1 appears to correlate with the progression of lymph node metastasis. An assessment of KiSS1 expression may assist in the accurate colorectal cancer diagnosis and may contribute to predict clinical outcomes.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Mardin WA, Haier J, Mees ST
Epigenetic regulation and role of metastasis suppressor genes in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:264 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is distinguished by rapid dissemination. Thus, genetic and/or epigenetic deregulation of metastasis suppressor genes (MSG) is a likely event during early pancreatic carcinogenesis and a potential diagnostic marker for the disease. We investigated 9 known MSGs for their role in the dissemination of PDAC and examined their promoters for methylation and its use in PDAC detection.
METHODS: MRNA expression of 9 MSGs was determined in 18 PDAC cell lines by quantitative RT-PCR and promoter methylation was analyzed by Methylation Specific PCR and validated by Bisulfite Sequencing PCR. These data were compared to the cell lines' in vivo metastatic and invasive potential that had been previously established. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 20 using 2-tailed Spearman's correlation with P < 0.05 being considered significant.
RESULTS: Complete downregulation of MSG-mRNA expression in PDAC cell lines vs. normal pancreatic RNA occurred in only 1 of 9 investigated genes. 3 MSGs (CDH1, TIMP3 and KiSS-1) were significantly methylated. Methylation only correlated to loss of mRNA expression in CDH1 (P < 0.05). Bisulfite Sequencing PCR showed distinct methylation patterns, termed constant and variable methylation, which could distinguish methylation-regulated from non methylation-regulated genes. Higher MSG mRNA-expression did not correlate to less aggressive PDAC-phenotypes (P > 0.14).
CONCLUSIONS: Genes with metastasis suppressing functions in other tumor entities did not show evidence of assuming the same role in PDAC. Inactivation of MSGs by promoter methylation was an infrequent event and unsuitable as a diagnostic marker of PDAC. A distinct methylation pattern was identified, that resulted in reduced mRNA expression in all cases. Thus, constant methylation patterns could predict regulatory significance of a promoter's methylation prior to expression analysis and hence present an additional tool during target gene selection.

Related: Cancer of the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer

Sun YB, Xu S
Expression of KISS1 and KISS1R (GPR54) may be used as favorable prognostic markers for patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2013; 43(2):521-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide. Loss of KISS1 expression has been associated with progression and poor prognosis of various cancers, however, the precise role of KISS1 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not well defined. KISS1 receptor (KISS1R, also named GPR54) coupled to KISS1, has been shown to play a pivotal role in suppressing cancer metastasis. In this study, 56 NSCLC specimens were divided into stage IIIB (locally advanced) and stage IV (metastatic). The mRNA and protein levels of KISS1 and KISS1R in cancer tissues were found to be lower compared to that in normal tissues using RT-PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. In addition, the expression of both KISS1 and KISS1R in stage IV NSCLC was lower compared to that in stage IIIB stage NSCLC. The cumulative survival rate of the patients with KISS1 or KISS1R expression was significantly higher compared to that without expression. KISS1 or KISS1R expression in NSCLC can be used to indicate favorable prognosis for disease outcome. Metastin, the product of the KISS1 gene, was lower in the serum of patients with stage IV NSCLC compared to that in stage IIIB NSCLC.

Related: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Lung Cancer

Dillenburg-Pilla P, Maria AG, Reis RI, et al.
Activation of the kinin B1 receptor attenuates melanoma tumor growth and metastasis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64453 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Melanoma is a very aggressive tumor that does not respond well to standard therapeutic approaches, such as radio- and chemotherapies. Furthermore, acquiring the ability to metastasize in melanoma and many other tumor types is directly related to incurable disease. The B1 kinin receptor participates in a variety of cancer-related pathophysiological events, such as inflammation and angiogenesis. Therefore, we investigated whether this G protein-coupled receptor plays a role in tumor progression. We used a murine melanoma cell line that expresses the kinin B1 receptor and does not express the kinin B2 receptor to investigate the precise contribution of activation of the B1 receptor in tumor progression and correlated events using various in vitro and in vivo approaches. Activation of the kinin B1 receptor in the absence of B2 receptor inhibits cell migration in vitro and decreases tumor formation in vivo. Moreover, tumors formed from cells stimulated with B1-specific agonist showed several features of decreased aggressiveness, such as smaller size and infiltration of inflammatory cells within the tumor area, higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines implicated in the host anti-tumor immune response, lower number of cells undergoing mitosis, a poorer vascular network, no signs of invasion of surrounding tissues or metastasis and increased animal survival. Our findings reveal that activation of the kinin B1 receptor has a host protective role during murine melanoma tumor progression, suggesting that the B1 receptor could be a new anti-tumor GPCR and provide new opportunities for therapeutic targeting.

Related: Melanoma

Cvetkovic D, Dragan M, Leith SJ, et al.
KISS1R induces invasiveness of estrogen receptor-negative human mammary epithelial and breast cancer cells.
Endocrinology. 2013; 154(6):1999-2014 [PubMed] Related Publications
Kisspeptins (KPs), peptide products of the KISS1 metastasis-suppressor gene, are endogenous ligands for a G protein-coupled receptor (KISS1R). KISS1 acts as a metastasis suppressor in numerous human cancers. However, recent studies have demonstrated that an increase in KISS1 and KISS1R expression in patient breast tumors correlates with higher tumor grade and metastatic potential. We have shown that KP-10 stimulates invasion of estrogen receptor α (ERα)-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Here, we report that either KP-10 treatment of ERα-negative nonmalignant mammary epithelial MCF10A cells or expression of KISS1R in MCF10A cells induced a mesenchymal phenotype and stimulated invasiveness. Similarly, exogenous expression of KISS1R in ERα-negative SKBR3 breast cancer cells was sufficient to trigger invasion and induced extravasation in vivo. In contrast, KP-10 failed to transactivate EGFR or stimulate invasiveness in the ERα-positive MCF7 and T47D breast cancer cells. This suggested that ERα negatively regulates KISS1R-dependent breast cancer cell migration, invasion, and EGFR transactivation. In support of this, we found that these KP-10-induced effects were ablated upon exogenous expression of ERα in the MDA-MB-231 cells, by down-regulating KISS1R expression. Lastly, we have identified IQGAP1, an actin cytoskeletal binding protein as a novel binding partner of KISS1R, and have shown that KISS1R regulates EGFR transactivation in breast cancer cells in an IQGAP1-dependent manner. Overall, our data strongly suggest that the ERα status of mammary cells dictates whether KISS1R may be a novel clinical target for treating breast cancer metastasis.

Related: Breast Cancer

Teng Y, Mei Y, Hawthorn L, Cowell JK
WASF3 regulates miR-200 inactivation by ZEB1 through suppression of KISS1 leading to increased invasiveness in breast cancer cells.
Oncogene. 2014; 33(2):203-11 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
The WASF3 gene promotes invasion and metastasis in breast cancer cells, which have undergone epithelial-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT). Overexpression of WASF3 in cells that do not show EMT increases their invasion potential as a result of increased ZEB1/2 levels, which specifically suppress the anti-invasion chromosome 1 miR-200a/200b/429 cluster. ZEB1/2 upregulation by WASF3 results from downregulation of KISS1, leading to the release of inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)κB by IκBα. We further show that ZEB1 expression is regulated by the NFκB transcription factor. Knockdown of WASF3 in breast cancer cells leads to reduced ZEB1 levels and increased miR-200 and E-cadherin levels, resulting in loss of invasion potential. The central regulation of this interactive pathway by WASF3 accounts for the increased invasion associated with increased WASF3 expression seen in aggressive breast cancer cells. WASF3, therefore, is a potential target to suppress invasion and metastasis in breast cancer cells.

Related: Breast Cancer

Shoji S, Nakano M, Tomonaga T, et al.
Value of metastin receptor immunohistochemistry in predicting metastasis after radical nephrectomy for pT1 clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2013; 30(5):607-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
KISS-1 is a metastasis-suppressor gene of human melanoma, and encodes metastin, which was identified as the ligand of a G-protein-coupled receptor (metastin receptor). The precursor protein is cleaved to 54 amino acids, which may be further truncated into carboxy-terminal fragments. Previous studies showed that lack of metastin receptor in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is associated with tumor progression, but the prediction of metastasis in patients with pT1 clear cell RCC after radical nephrectomy is difficult. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of metastin receptor immunohistochemistry in predicting metastasis after nephrectomy for pT1 clear cell RCC. After verification of the correlation between immunostaining and mRNA expression, we evaluated the clinical value of metastin receptor immunohistochemistry. Fifty-four patients were enrolled in this study; following radical nephrectomy, seven patients were found to have lung metastasis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value with negative immunostaining of metastin receptor were 85.7, 97.6, 46.2, and 97.6 %, respectively. Metastasis-free survival rates were significantly higher in patients with positive staining (97.6 %) than in patients with negative staining (53.8 %) (P < 0.001). In univariate analysis for metastasis-free survival, negative immunostaining of metastin receptor was a significant risk factor for metastasis (P = 0.001). Furthermore, negative immunostaining of metastin receptor was an independent predictor for metastasis in multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 3.735; 95 % CI 0.629-22.174; P = 0.002). In conclusion, our study suggests that negative expression of metastin receptor in clear cell RCC is significantly related to metastasis.

Related: Kidney Cancer

Zhang H, Guo Y, Shang C, et al.
miR-21 downregulated TCF21 to inhibit KISS1 in renal cancer.
Urology. 2012; 80(6):1298-302.e1 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the microRNA-21 gene (miR-21) could regulate renal cancer cells invasion by downregulation of TFC21 and KISS1.
METHODS: Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was applied to evaluate the expression level of miRNA-21 in renal cancer and normal renal cell samples. The regulated effects of miR-21 to TCF21 were detected by Western blot after pre/anti-miR-21 was transfected to Caki-1 cells. The luciferase activity assay was used to reveal the predicted target gene of miR-21 was direct and specific. Small interfering RNA-TCF21 was transfected to Caki-1 cells to inhibit the expression of the TCF21 gene. Next, the expression of the KISS1 gene was detected by Western blot in Caki-1 cells with TCF21 gene silencing. The expression vector, pcDNA3.1-KISS1, was transfected to Caki-1 cells to upregulate the expression of the KISS1 gene. The invasion ability of Caki-1 cells with KISS1 overexpression was analyzed using the Transwell assay.
RESULTS: Our study showed that miR-21 was upregulated in human renal cell carcinoma specimens compared with its expression in normal renal cell specimens. Pre-miR-21 could upregulate the expression of miR-21 and downregulate the expression of TCF21, and anti-miR-21 showed the opposite effects. siRNA-TCF21 decreased the expression of the TCF21 protein, and the expression of KISS1 was downregulated in Caki-1 cells with TCF21 gene silencing. pcDNA3.1-KISS1 transfection upregulated the expression of the KISS1 protein, and the invasion ability of Caki-1 cells with KISS1 overexpression decreased markedly.
CONCLUSION: Aberrantly expressed miR-21 might regulate the TCF21-KISS1-associated renal cell carcinoma cell invasion pathway, and this miRNA signature could offer a novel potential therapeutic strategy for renal cell carcinoma.

Related: Kidney Cancer miR-21

Ziegler E, Olbrich T, Emons G, Gründker C
Antiproliferative effects of kisspeptin‑10 depend on artificial GPR54 (KISS1R) expression levels.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 29(2):549-54 [PubMed] Related Publications
Kisspeptins are peptides derived from the metastasis suppressor gene KISS1 interacting with GPR54 as their corresponding receptor. The KISS1/GPR54 system is one regulator of cellular motility mechanisms leading to decreased migration and invasion. Its role in cell proliferation processes is not clearly understood. In this study, breast cancer cell lines, T47D, ZR75-1, MDA‑MB‑231, MDA‑MB‑435s, MDA‑MB‑453, HCC 70, HCC 1806, HCC 1937 and MCF‑7, were investigated for their endogenous GPR54 expression by immunocytochemistry, RT‑PCR and western blot analysis. The effect of kisspeptin‑10 on proliferation was measured in MDA‑MB‑231, MDA‑MB‑435s, HCC 1806 and MCF‑7 cells. Further experiments on proliferation were carried out with cells transfected with GPR54. All of the tested breast cancer cell lines expressed GPR54 in different amounts. No effects on proliferation were detected in the breast cancer cells expressing the receptor endogenously. In transfected neuronal cells overexpressing GPR54, proliferation was significantly inhibited by kisspeptin‑10. The results indicate that the antiproliferative action of kisspeptin depends on the nature of GPR54 expression. The effect was detected in an artificial system of cells transfected with GPR54 and not in cells expressing the receptor endogenously. Thus, the antiproliferative action of kisspeptin seems not to be important for pathophysiological processes.

Related: Breast Cancer

Moya P, Esteban S, Fernandez-Suarez A, et al.
KiSS-1 methylation and protein expression patterns contribute to diagnostic and prognostic assessments in tissue specimens for colorectal cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2013; 34(1):471-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
KISS1 is a metastasis suppressor lost in several solid malignancies. We evaluated the clinical relevance of KiSS-1 methylation and its protein expression in colorectal cancer. The epigenetic silencing of KiSS-1 by hypermethylation was tested in colon cancer cells (n = 5) before and after azacytidine treatment. KiSS-1 methylation was evaluated by methylation-specific PCR in colorectal cancer cells, and normal, benign, and tumor tissues (n = 352) were grouped in a training set (n = 62) and two independent validation cohorts (n = 100 and n = 190). KiSS-1 protein expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays. KiSS-1 hypermethylation correlated with transcript and protein expression loss, being increased in vitro by azacytidine. Methylation rates were 53.1, 70.0, and 80.0 % in the training and validation sets, respectively. In the training set, KiSS-1 methylation rendered a diagnostic accuracy of 72.7 % (p = 0.002). Combination of KiSS-1 methylation and serum CEA (p = 0.001) increased the prognostic utility of CEA alone (p = 0.022). In the first validation set, KiSS-1 methylation correlated with tumor grade (p = 0.011), predicted recurrence (p = 0.009), metastasis (p = 0.004), disease-free (p = 0.034), and overall survival (p = 0.015). In the second validation cohort, KiSS-1 methylation predicted disease-specific survival (p = 0.030). In the training set, cytoplasmic KiSS-1 expression was significantly higher in nonneoplastic biopsies as compared to colorectal tumors (p < 0.0005). In the validation set, loss of cytoplasmic expression correlated with tumor stage (p = 0.007), grade (p = 0.035), recurrence (p = 0.017), and disease-specific survival (p = 0.022). KiSS-1 was revealed epigenetically modified in colorectal cancer. The diagnostic and prognostic utility of KiSS-1 methylation and expression patterns suggests their assessment for the clinical management of colorectal cancer patients.

Related: Azacitidine Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Vasiljevic A, Champier J, Figarella-Branger D, et al.
Molecular characterization of central neurocytomas: potential markers for tumor typing and progression.
Neuropathology. 2013; 33(2):149-61 [PubMed] Related Publications
Central neurocytomas (CNs) are rare intraventricular tumors presenting a favorable prognosis after surgery. Their transcriptomic profile is poorly characterized. We performed a microarray transcriptomic study to search for molecular markers that might improve diagnostic accuracy. Microarray analysis was performed on five CNs (3 primary and 2 recurrent CNs) using CodeLink human whole genome bioarrays, and the gene expression in CNs was compared with that in four pineal parenchymal tumors, consisting of two pineocytomas (PCs) and two pineoblastomas (PBs), other periventricular tumors which may present neuronal differentiation. We identified genes that were highly expressed in CNs compared to normal brain and might be candidates for the molecular typing of CNs. Several genes are part of the Wnt/β-catenin and sonic hedgehog signaling pathways or mainly linked to calcium function or maintenance of neural progenitors. Moreover, several genes are overexpressed in both CNs and PCs and/or PBs such as INSM1 and NEUROD4, involved in neural or neuroendocrine differentiation. The overexpression of eight candidate genes in CNs (CHRDL2, IGF2, KiSS-1, CAL2, NTS, NHLH1, RGS16 and SCGN) was confirmed by real-time RT-PCR. Of the genes overexpressed in the recurrent CNs compared to the primary CNs, AQP5, KiSS-1, FZD7, AURKB, UBE2C and PTTG1 are genes which may be involved in tumor progression. Our study shows the potential involvement of various genes in the pathogenesis of CNs. These genes could be potential candidate markers for improving the characterization of CNs and some could be involved in CN tumorigenesis.

Li N, Wang HX, Zhang J, et al.
KISS-1 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of gastric carcinoma cells.
World J Gastroenterol. 2012; 18(15):1827-33 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
AIM: To investigate the function of the KISS-1 gene in gastric carcinoma cells and to explore its potential mechanism.
METHODS: A KISS-1 eukaryotic expression vector was constructed and transfected into BGC-823 cells. Resistant clones were obtained through G418 selection. reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to detect KISS-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in transfected cells. The growth of transfected cells was investigated by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) proliferation assays, and the cells' invasive potential was analyzed by basement membrane (Matrigel) invasion assays. The anti-tumor effects of KISS-1 were tested in vivo using allografts in nude mice.
RESULTS: The expression level of KISS-1 mRNA and protein in BGC-823/KISS-1 transfected cells were significantly higher than in BGC-823/pcDNA3.1 transfected cells (P < 0.05) or the parental BGC-823 cell line (P < 0.05). The expression level of MMP-9 mRNA and protein in BGC-823/KISS-1 were significantly less than in BGC-823/pcDNA3.1 (P < 0.05) or BGC-823 cells (P < 0.05). MTT growth assays show the proliferation of BGC-823/KISS-1 cells at 48 h (0.642 ± 0.130) and 72 h (0.530 ± 0.164) were significantly reduced compared to BGC-823/pcDNA3.1 (0.750 ± 0.163, 0.645 ± 0.140) (P < 0.05) and BGC-823 cells (0.782 ± 0.137, 0.685 ± 0.111) (P < 0.05). Invasion assays indicate the invasive potential of BGC-823/KISS-1 cells (16.50 ± 14.88) is significantly reduced compared to BGC-823/pcDNA3.1 (20.22 ± 14.87) (P < 0.05) and BGC-823 cells after 24 h (22.12 ± 16.12) (P < 0.05). In vivo studies demonstrate the rate of pcDNA3.1-KISS-1 tumor growth is significantly slower than pcDNA3.1 and control cell tumor growth in nude mice. Furthermore, tumor volume of pcDNA3.1-KISS-1 tumors (939.38 ± 82.08 mm(3)) was significantly less than pcDNA3.1 (1250.46 ± 44.36 mm(3)) and control tumors (1284.36 ± 55.26 mm(3)) (P < 0.05). Moreover, the tumor mass of pcDNA3.1-KISS-1 tumors (0.494 ± 0.84 g) was significantly less than pcDNA3.1 (0.668 ± 0.55 g) and control tumors (0.682 ± 0.38 g) (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: KISS-1 may inhibit the proliferation and invasion of gastric carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo through the downregulation of MMP-9.

Related: MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9 Stomach Cancer Gastric Cancer

Canbay E, Ergen A, Bugra D, et al.
Kisspeptin-54 levels are increased in patients with colorectal cancer.
World J Surg. 2012; 36(9):2218-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that Kisspeptin, the product of the metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1, could have a role in tumor progression and invasion. In this pilot study, we investigated the association of plasma Kisspeptin-54 level with colorectal cancer (CRC).
METHODS: Plasma Kisspeptin-54 levels were quantified using enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) kits from blood samples of 81 patients with CRC at their initial staging and 59 age-matched healthy controls.
RESULTS: Plasma Kisspeptin-54 levels were significantly higher in CRC patients (86.2 ± 20.5) than in controls (49 ± 12.7; p < 0.005). The cutoff value for Kisspeptin-54 detection was determined as 46 ng/ml, and area under curve (AUC) value was 0.766 with sensitivity 63 %, specificity 81.4 %, positive predictive value 82.2 %, negative predictive value 61.5 %, positive likelihood ratio 3.38, and negative likelihood ratio 0.46. Increased plasma Kisspeptin-54 levels were significantly correlated with nodal involvement of CRC (Spearman, rs = 0.345, p = 0.002). Kisspeptin-54 was also found to be an independent predictive marker for lymph node metastases of CRC (p = 0; Exp(B): 2.053; 95 % CI, 1.255-2.851).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results reveal that plasma Kisspeptin-54 measurement could be a useful diagnostic and prognostic parameter for CRC. Further prospective evaluation is needed to validate these findings and to establish the clinical usefulness of Kisspeptin-54 for CRC diagnostics.

Related: Colorectal (Bowel) Cancer

Takeda T, Kikuchi E, Mikami S, et al.
Prognostic role of KiSS-1 and possibility of therapeutic modality of metastin, the final peptide of the KiSS-1 gene, in urothelial carcinoma.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2012; 11(4):853-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
The KiSS-1 gene has been reported to be a metastasis suppressor gene in human melanoma. The gene product was isolated from human placenta as the ligand of GPR54, a G protein-coupled receptor, and the C-terminally amidated peptide of 54 amino acids is called metastin. The binding of metastin to GPR54 has been shown to inhibit tumor metastasis in some tumor cells; however, its function remains unclear in urothelial carcinoma. We first evaluated KiSS-1 expression and GPR54 expression in 151 patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma to determine their prognostic significance. Next, we examined the role of metastin in the invasiveness and lung metastasis of MBT-2 variant (MBT-2V), which is a highly metastatic murine bladder cancer cell. Multivariate analysis revealed that KiSS-1 expression was an independent predictor of metastasis and overall survival. However, GPR54 expression was not selected. Hematogeneous metastasis had a significantly lower level of KiSS-1 expression compared with lymph node metastasis. Metastin treatment significantly reduced the invasiveness of MBT-2V cells and inhibited the DNA-binding activity of NF-κB by blocking its nuclear translocation, leading to a reduction in the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Metastin treatment dramatically prevented the occurrence of lung metastatic nodules (6.3 ± 2.3, n = 15) compared with controls (30.4 ± 5.1, n = 15; P < 0.01), as well as had survival benefit. KiSS-1 plays an important role in the prognosis of upper tract urothelial carcinoma and metastin may be an effective inhibitor of metastasis in urothelial carcinoma through its blockade of NF-κB function.

Related: Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9 Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology

Isaksson HS, Sorbe B, Nilsson TK
Whole blood RNA expression profiles in ovarian cancer patients with or without residual tumors after primary cytoreductive surgery.
Oncol Rep. 2012; 27(5):1331-5 [PubMed] Related Publications
Significant improvements in the treatment results of ovarian cancer have been achieved during the last decades, but further improvements require additional methods identifying signs of the disease and its biological behavior, preferably by a simple blood test. We hypothesized that peripheral blood leukocytes may express genes that carry such clinical information. Therefore, we studied the relative gene expressions of 168 cancer- and metastasis-specific genes in blood samples from ovarian cancer patients with different prognoses after primary cytoreductive surgery. Total RNA was extracted from whole blood and the relative gene expression profile of 168 genes were analyzed using real-time qPCR assays. Two groups of patients were analyzed; one group with residual tumor mass after primary surgery, and one group where the tumor was macroscopically radically resected, resulting in no visible tumor mass left behind. The group with the remaining tumor mass after surgery showed significantly different gene expression profiles compared to the group with no remaining tumor mass. Differences were noted for the metastasis associated 1 family, member 2 gene (MTA2), the TNF, α-catenin, interleukin 1β, the KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor and the matrix metallo-proteinase 10 genes. All genes were downregulated with a fold-change between 1.15 to 1.57; there were no upregulated genes. Thus, a signature of genes involved in metastasis, invasion and inflammation was found to be significantly downregulated in native unstimulated blood leukocytes from ovarian cancer patients with a poor prognosis. Preoperatively it may serve as a guide to the biology of the tumor and postoperatively in the optimization of adjuvant treatment of ovarian cancer patients.

Related: Ovarian Cancer

Mooez S, Malik FA, Kayani MA, et al.
Expressional alterations and transcript isoforms of metastasis suppressor genes (KAI1 and KiSS1) in breast cancer patients.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12(10):2785-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Metastasis suppressor genes are involved in the inhibition of a cancer cell's ability to metastasize. Down expression of such genes may contribute to pathogenesis of breast cancer. The aim of current study was firstly to evaluate expression of two examples, KAI1 and KISS1, and then to determine relationships with stages of breast cancer in a Pakistani population.
METHODOLOGY: Fresh biopsy tissues were collected from different hospitals and oncology research institutes. The semi quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate KAI1 and KISS1 expression in 25 breast tumor tissues and 25 normal tissues. Statistical analysis was performed to explore its association with breast cancer risk.
RESULTS: The present study revealed that KAI1 and KISS1 mRNA expression was markedly reduced in tissues of breast cancer compared to adjacent normal tissue. In present study a splice variant of KAI1 during a screen for its expression analysis was also observed. This splice variant has not been reported previously.
CONCLUSIONS: Metastasis suppressor genes demonstrate reduced expression in breast cancers in Pakistan.

Related: CD82 Breast Cancer

Nazir M, Kayani MR, Malik FA, et al.
Lack of germ line changes in KISS1 and KAI1 genes in sporadic head and neck cancer patients of Pakistani origin.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2011; 12(10):2767-71 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer is included among the top five most commonly prevailing cancers worldwide. Abnormalities of either genetic or epigenetic factors are found responsible for the development and progression of head and neck cancer. Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with head and neck cancer. Down regulation of metastasis suppressor genes (MSGs) expression have been frequently observed in advanced tumours.
METHODOLOGY: The present study was designed to screen two of the most frequently down-regulated MSGs (KISS1 and KAI1) for mutations in 120 diagnosed head and neck cancer affected Pakistani patients. The questionnaire was filled for basic information about age, gender, smoking habits and area of cancer affected and other relevant details. Primers for both genes were designed using "Primer 3" software in such a way that both intron exon boundaries were included in this region. DNA isolation and estimation was done by using organic method and agarose gel electrophoresis. Single Strand conformational polymorphism technique was used after amplification of the respective genes. Mobility patterns were analyzed using BioDoc Analyzer.
RESULTS: Data of patients were analyzed on the basis of age, sex and type of cancer as variables. The mean age of patients and controls was 44 years. There were 53% females and 47% males in this group of study, 63% nonsmokers and 37% smokers and larynx cancer was found to be most frequent type of cancer with a percentage of 64. Lack of germ line mutation was observed in the entire coding region in both coding regions as well as splice sites of the respective genes.
CONCLUSION: Germ line mutations in KISS1 and KAI1 are thus considered to be a less frequent event in head and neck cancer patients. However, two polymorphisms in intronic region of exon 3 and exon 9 of KAI1 gene were observed in 1% of patients. In non coding region downstream of exon 3 (KAI1), there was a C 29166 T substitution and in intronic region upstream exon 9 of KAI1 gene, a C 52840 A substitution was observed. Both patients were females with ages 47 and 50 years respectively. A detailed analysis of regulatory mechanism is required to explore the genetic basis of down regulation of these MSGs for a better understanding of head and neck cancer progression.

Related: CD82 Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology

Ruiz MT, Galbiatti AL, Pavarino EC, et al.
Q36R polymorphism of KiSS-1 gene in Brazilian head and neck cancer patients.
Mol Biol Rep. 2012; 39(5):6029-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor gene (KiSS-1) product (metastin, kisspeptin) is reported to act after binding with the natural ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor and this gene product inhibits chemotaxis, invasion, and metastasis of cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Q36R polymorphism of KiSS-1 in patients with head and neck cancer and to compare the results with healthy individuals and its association with clinicopathological parameters. Gender, age, smoking and alcohol consumption were analyzed for 744 individual (252 head and neck cancer patients and in 522 control individuals). The molecular analysis of these individuals was made after extraction of genomic DNA using the SSCP-PCR technique. This study did not reveal any significant differences in genotype frequencies between healthy individuals and patients with head and neck cancer or with the clinical parameters. This study showed an increase frequency of the Q36R polymorphism in pharyngeal cancer.

Related: Head and Neck Cancers Head and Neck Cancers - Molecular Biology

Cho SG, Wang Y, Rodriguez M, et al.
Haploinsufficiency in the prometastasis Kiss1 receptor Gpr54 delays breast tumor initiation, progression, and lung metastasis.
Cancer Res. 2011; 71(20):6535-46 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activation of KISS1 receptor (KISS1R or GPR54) by its ligands (Kisspeptins) regulates a diverse function both in normal physiology and pathophysiology. In cancer, KISS1R has been implicated in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, but a broader evaluation of KISS1R in tumorigenesis and tumor progression is yet to be conducted. In this study, we used mouse models of Kiss1r gene knockout and mouse mammary tumor virus-polyoma virus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyMT)-induced breast cancer to conduct such an evaluation. Kiss1r heterozygosity in MMTV-PyMT mice was sufficient to attenuate breast cancer initiation, growth, latency, multiplicity, and lung metastasis. To confirm these effects and assess possible contributions of endogenous ligands, we isolated primary tumor cells from PyMT/Kiss1r(+/+) and PyMT/Kiss1r(+/-) mice and compared their phenotypes by in vitro and in vivo assays. Kiss1r loss attenuated in vitro tumorigenic properties as well as tumor growth in vivo in immunocompromised NOD.SCID/NCr mice. Kiss1r activation in these cells, resulting from the addition of its ligand Kisspeptin-10, resulted in RhoA activation and RhoA-dependent gene expression through the Gαq-p63RhoGEF signaling pathway. Anchorage-independent growth was tightly linked to dose-dependent regulation of RhoA by Kiss1r. In support of these results, siRNA-mediated knockdown of KISS1R or inactivation of RhoA in human MCF10A breast epithelial cells overexpressing H-RasV12 was sufficient to reduce Ras-induced anchorage-independent growth. In summary, we concluded that Kiss1r attenuation was sufficient to delay breast tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis through inhibitory effects on the downstream Gαq-p63RhoGEF-RhoA signaling pathway.

Arab K, Smith LT, Gast A, et al.
Epigenetic deregulation of TCF21 inhibits metastasis suppressor KISS1 in metastatic melanoma.
Carcinogenesis. 2011; 32(10):1467-73 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Metastatic melanoma is a fatal disease due to the lack of successful therapies and biomarkers for early detection and its incidence has been increasing. Genetic studies have defined recurrent chromosomal aberrations, suggesting the location of either tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Transcription factor 21 (TCF21) belongs to the class A of the basic helix-loop-helix family with reported functions in early lung and kidney development as well as tumor suppressor function in the malignancies of the lung and head and neck. In this study, we combined quantitative DNA methylation analysis in patient biopsies and in their derived cell lines to demonstrate that TCF21 expression is downregulated in metastatic melanoma by promoter hypermethylation and TCF21 promoter DNA methylation is correlated with decreased survival in metastatic skin melanoma patients. In addition, the chromosomal location of TCF21 on 6q23-q24 coincides with the location of a postulated metastasis suppressor in melanoma. Functionally, TCF21 binds the promoter of the melanoma metastasis-suppressing gene, KiSS1, and enhances its gene expression through interaction with E12, a TCF3 isoform and with TCF12. Loss of TCF21 expression results in loss of KISS1 expression through loss of direct interaction of TCF21 at the KISS1 promoter. Finally, overexpression of TCF21 inhibits motility of C8161 melanoma cells. These data suggest that epigenetic downregulation of TCF21 is functionally involved in melanoma progression and that it may serve as a biomarker for aggressive tumor behavior.

Related: FISH Melanoma Skin Cancer

Zajac M, Law J, Cvetkovic DD, et al.
GPR54 (KISS1R) transactivates EGFR to promote breast cancer cell invasiveness.
PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e21599 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
Kisspeptins (Kp), peptide products of the Kisspeptin-1 (KISS1) gene are endogenous ligands for a G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54). Previous findings have shown that KISS1 acts as a metastasis suppressor in numerous cancers in humans. However, recent studies have demonstrated that an increase in KISS1 and GPR54 expression in human breast tumors correlates with higher tumor grade and metastatic potential. At present, whether or not Kp signaling promotes breast cancer cell invasiveness, required for metastasis and the underlying mechanisms, is unknown. We have found that kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), the most potent Kp, stimulates the invasion of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells using Matrigel-coated Transwell chamber assays and induces the formation of invasive stellate structures in three-dimensional invasion assays. Furthermore, Kp-10 stimulated an increase in matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-9 activity. We also found that Kp-10 induced the transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Knockdown of the GPCR scaffolding protein, β-arrestin 2, inhibited Kp-10-induced EGFR transactivation as well as Kp-10 induced invasion of breast cancer cells via modulation of MMP-9 secretion and activity. Finally, we found that the two receptors associate with each other under basal conditions, and FRET analysis revealed that GPR54 interacts directly with EGFR. The stability of the receptor complex formation was increased upon treatment of cells by Kp-10. Taken together, our findings suggest a novel mechanism by which Kp signaling via GPR54 stimulates breast cancer cell invasiveness.

Related: Breast Cancer MMP9: matrix metallopeptidase 9

Cebrian V, Fierro M, Orenes-Piñero E, et al.
KISS1 methylation and expression as tumor stratification biomarkers and clinical outcome prognosticators for bladder cancer patients.
Am J Pathol. 2011; 179(2):540-6 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/02/2015 Related Publications
KISS1 is a metastasis suppressor gene that is lost in several malignancies, including bladder cancer. We tested the epigenetic silencing hypothesis and evaluated the biological influence of KISS1 methylation on its expression and clinical relevance in bladder cancer. KISS1 hypermethylation was frequent in bladder cancer cells analyzed by methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing and was associated with low gene expression, being restored in vitro by demethylating azacytidine. Hypermethylation was also frequently observed in a large series of bladder tumors (83.1%, n = 804). KISS1 methylation was associated with increasing stage (P = 0.001) and tumor grade (P = 0.010). KISS1 methylation was associated with low KISS1 transcript expression by quantitative RT-PCR (P = 0.037). KISS1 transcript expression was also associated with histopathological tumor stage (P < 0.0005). Low transcript expression alone (P = 0.003) or combined with methylation (P = 0.019) was associated with poor disease-specific survival (n = 205). KISS1 transcript expression remained an independent prognosticator in multivariate analyses (P = 0.017). KISS1 hypermethylation was identified in bladder cancer, providing a potential mechanistic explanation (epigenetic silencing) for the observed loss of KISS1 in uroepithelial malignancies. Associations of KISS1 methylation and its expression with histopathological variables and poor survival suggest the utility of incorporating KISS1 measurement using paraffin-embedded material for tumor stratification and clinical outcome prognosis of patients with uroepithelial neoplasias.

Related: Bladder Cancer Bladder Cancer - Molecular Biology

Fernandes BF, Di Cesare S, Neto Belfort R, et al.
Imatinib mesylate alters the expression of genes related to disease progression in an animal model of uveal melanoma.
Anal Cell Pathol (Amst). 2011; 34(3):123-30 [PubMed] Related Publications
Imatinib mesylate (IM) is a compound that inhibits both BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase and c-kit receptors. Tyrosine kinases are important in cellular signaling and mediate major cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, attachment, and migration. Twenty-six albino rabbits were injected with 1 × 10(6) human uveal melanoma (UM) cells (92.1) into the suprachoroidal space. Animals were immunosuppressed (cyclosporin A) over the course of the 12-week experiment and divided into two groups (n = 13). The experimental group received IM once daily by gavage while the control group received a placebo. One animal per group was sacrificed every week after the 2nd week. Upon necropsy, organs were harvested for histopathological examination. Cells from the primary tumors were recultured and tested in proliferation and invasion assays. A PCR array was used to investigate the differences in expression of 84 genes related to tumor metastasis. In the treated group, 4 rabbits developed intraocular tumors, with an average largest tumor dimension (LTD) of 2.5 mm and 5 animals reported metastatic disease. Whereas 6 rabbits in the control group developed intraocular tumors, with an average LTD of 5.8 mm and 6 animals reported metastatic disease. The recultured cells from the treated group demonstrated lower proliferation rates and were less invasive (p < 0.001). The PCR array showed differences in expression of genes related to metastasis. Notably, there was 290-fold increase in SERPINB5, a tumor suppressor gene, and a 10-fold higher expression of KISS1, a metastasis suppressor gene, in the treated group. Proangiogenic genes such as VEGFA, PDGFA and PDGFB were downregulated in the treated group. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report detailing the altered expression of specific genes in UM cells after treatment with IM.

Related: Melanoma Ocular Melanoma IntraOcular Melanoma Imatinib (Glivec)


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Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. KISS1, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancerindex.org/geneweb/KISS1.htm Accessed: date

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