Research IndicatorsGraph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Specific Cancers (7)
Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.
Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
International Cancer Genome Consortium.
Summary of gene and mutations by cancer type from ICGC
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, NCI
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
GEO Profiles, NCBI
Search the gene expression profiles from curated DataSets in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository.
Latest Publications: LOXL2 (cancer-related)
Extracellular ATP has been shown to play an important role in invasion and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process in breast cancer; however, the mechanism is unclear. Here, by using a cDNA microarray, we demonstrated that extracellular ATP could stimulate hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) signaling and upregulate hypoxia-inducible factor 1/2α (HIF-1/2α) expression. After knocking down HIF-1/2α using siRNA, we found that ATP-driven invasion and EMT were significantly attenuated via HIF2A-siRNA in breast cancer cells. By using ChIP assays, we revealed that the biological function of extracellular ATP in invasion and EMT process depended on HIF-2α direct targets, among which lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) mediated ATP-driven invasion, and E-cadherin and Snail mediated ATP-driven EMT, respectively. In addition, using silver staining and mass spectrometry, we found that phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) could interact with HIF-2α and mediate ATP-driven HIF-2α upregulation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that expressions of HIF-2α and its target proteins could be regulated via ATP by AKT-PGK1 pathway. Using a Balb/c mice model, we illustrated the function of HIF-2α in promoting tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Moreover, by exploring online databases, we found that molecules involved in ATP-HIF-2α signaling were highly expressed in human breast carcinoma tissues and were associated with poor prognosis. Altogether, these findings suggest that extracellular ATP could promote breast carcinoma invasion and EMT via HIF-2α signaling, which may be a potential target for future anti-metastasis therapy.
Zheng B, Yang S, Tian Q, et al.Delivery of Antisense Oligonucleotide LOR-2501 Using Transferrin-conjugated Polyethylenimine-based Lipid Nanoparticle.
Anticancer Res. 2019; 39(4):1785-1793 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND/AIM: Efficient delivery of antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) by nanoparticle vectors is critical for its clinical application. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a novel ASO vector TPSH-LP consisting of a reduction-sensitive cationic polymer PEI-SS-HA (PSH), lipids and transferrin (Tf) as a targeting ligand.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: PSH was synthesized based on PEI 25 kDa. Nanoparticles containing PSH and Tf (TPSH-LP) were prepared and used to deliver an ASO LOR-2501 targeting ribonucleotide reductase R1. The physical and chemical properties of TPSH-LP and cellular uptake in HepG2 cells were studied.
RESULTS: TPSH-LP formed a complex with LOR-2501 (L-TPSH-LP) which showed suitable particle size (267.77±16.20 nm) and zeta potential (4.87±0.52 mV). TPSH-LP showed lower cytotoxicity and higher transfection efficiency than PEI 25 kDa in HepG2 cells. The addition of Tf enhanced the targeting and delivery efficiency of PSH-LP. TPSH-LP transported LOR-2501 and down-regulated the levels of R1 protein efficiently by 64.15%.
CONCLUSION: Data demonstrated the potential utility of TPSH-LP for oligonucleotide delivery in cancer therapy.
Hong X, Yu JJSilencing of lysyl oxidase‑like 2 inhibits the migration, invasion and epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition of renal cell carcinoma cells through the Src/FAK signaling pathway.
Int J Oncol. 2019; 54(5):1676-1690 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of lysyl oxidase‑like 2 (LOXL2) on the invasion, migration and epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells through the steroid receptor coactivator (Src)/focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling pathway. RCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were collected from 80 patients with RCC. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the positive expression rate of the LOXL2 protein. The expression levels of LOXL2 in the HK‑2, 786‑O, ACHN, Caki1 and A498 cell lines were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR). The high LOXL2‑expressing 786‑O cells were selected for gene silencing experiments, whereas Caki1 cells, which exhibited low LOXL2 expression, were used for overexpression experiments. RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis were applied to determine the expression of LOXL2, FAK, Src, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)‑9, epithelial (E)‑cadherin, neuronal (N)‑cadherin and vimentin. A MTT assay, a Transwell assay, a wound healing assay and flow cytometry were performed to detect cell proliferation, invasion, migration, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis, respectively. The protein expression rate of LOXL2 in RCC tissues was higher compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. Compared with adjacent normal tissues, the mRNA and protein expression levels of LOXL2, FAK, Src, MMP‑9, N‑cadherin and vimentin and the levels of FAK and Src phosphorylation were increased, while the mRNA and protein expression levels of E‑cadherin were decreased in RCC tissues. Following the transfection of 786‑O cells with small interfering (si) RNA against LOXL2, the mRNA and protein expression levels of FAK, Src, MMP‑9, N‑cadherin and vimentin and the levels of phosphorylated FAK and Src were notably decreased in the si‑LOXL2 and PP2 inhibitor treated groups, while that of E‑cadherin was substantially increased. Additionally, cell proliferation, invasion, migration and the percentage of RCC cells in the G1 phase were reduced, and cell apoptosis was increased. Additionally, Caki1 cells transfected with LOXL2 exhibited an opposite trend. In summary, these results indicate that LOXL2 silencing inhibits the invasion, migration and EMT in RCC cells through inhibition of the Src/FAK signaling pathway.
Introduction: Radiotherapy is the mainstay in the treatment of prostate cancer. However, significant radioresistance of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) cells constitutes a main obstacle in the treatment of this disease. By using bioinformatic data mining methods, LOXL2 was found to be upregulated in both androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines and radioresistant tumor samples collected from patients with prostate cancer. We speculate that LOXL2 may play an important role in the radioresistance of CRPC cells.
Methods: The effect of LOXL2 knockdown on the radiosensitivity of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells lines was measured by the clonogenic assay and xenograft tumor experiments under in vitro and in vivo conditions, respectively. In studies on the mechanism, we focused on the EMT phenotype changes and cell apoptosis changes induced by LOXL2 knockdown in DU145 cells. The protein levels of three EMT biomarkers, namely, E-cadherin, vimentin, and N-cadherin, were measured by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Cell apoptosis after irradiation was measured by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay. Salvage experiment was also conducted to confirm the possible role of EMT in the radiosensitization effect of LOXL2 knockdown in CRPC cells.
Results: LOXL2 knockdown in CRPC cells enhanced cellular radiosensitivity under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. A significant reversal of EMT was observed in LOXL2-silenced DU145 cells. Cell apoptosis after irradiation was significantly enhanced by LOXL2 knockdown in DU145 cells. Results from the salvage experiment confirmed the key role of EMT process reversal in the radiosensitization effect of LOXL2 knockdown in DU145 cells.
Conclusions: LOXL2 plays an important role in the development of cellular radioresistance in CRPC cells. Targeting LOXL2 may be a rational avenue to overcome radioresistance in CRPC cells. A LOXL2-targeting strategy for CRPC treatment warrants detailed investigation in the future.
Overexpression of lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is associated with several hepatic and vascular fibrotic diseases and tumor progression in some aggressive cancers. Secreted LOXL2 promotes extracellular matrix cross-linking by catalyzing the oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine. A great deal remains to be learned about the post-translational modifications of LOXL2, including whether such modifications modulate enzymatic and disease-promoting activities; such knowledge would inform the development of potential therapies. We discovered that upon secretion in cell culture, LOXL2 undergoes proteolytic processing of the first two of four scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains at the N-terminus. A similar pattern of processing was also evident in tissue extracts from an invasive ductal carcinoma patient. Processing occurred at
Wang H, Shao X, He Q, et al.Quantitative Proteomics Implicates Rictor/mTORC2 in Cell Adhesion.
J Proteome Res. 2018; 17(10):3360-3369 [PubMed
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The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) plays critical roles in various biological processes. To better understand the functions of mTORC2 and the underlying molecular mechanisms, we established a stable cell line with reduced Rictor, a specific component in mTORC2, and investigated the quantitative changes of the cellular proteome. As a result, we observed that 101 proteins were down-regulated and 50 proteins were up-regulated in Rictor knockdown cells. A protein-protein interaction network regulated by Rictor/mTORC2 was established, showing that Rictor/mTORC2 was involved in various cellular processes. Intriguingly, gene ontology analysis indicated that the proteome regulated by Rictor/mTORC2 was significantly involved with cell adhesion. Rictor knockdown affected the expressions of multiple cell adhesion associated molecules, e.g. integrin α-5 (ITGA5), transforming growth factor beta-1-induced transcript 1 protein (TGFB1I1), lysyl oxidase homologue 2 (LOXL2), etc. Further study suggested that Rictor/mTORC2 may regulate cell adhesion and invasion by modulating the expressions of these cell adhesion molecules through AKT. Taken together, this study maps the proteome regulated by Rictor/mTORC2 and reveals its role in promoting renal cancer cell invasion through modulating cell adhesion and migration.
Lange CAK, Lehnert P, Boneva SK, et al.Increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and its impact on transcriptional changes and prognosis in malignant tumours of the ocular adnexa.
Eye (Lond). 2018; 32(11):1772-1782 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression profile of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor-1α (HIF-1α) and its downstream targets in malignancies of the ocular adnexa and to determine its relevance as a prognostic factor for clinical outcome.
METHODS: We included 49 subjects with malignant tumours (25 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 15 non-Hodgkin lymphomas, 9 melanomas) and 30 patients with benign tumours of the ocular adnexa (13 papillomas, 7 reactive lymphoid hyperplasias (RLHs) and 10 nevi) as controls. We quantified HIF-1α protein expression by immunohistochemistry and assessed the association between HIF-1α and clinical outcome via Kaplan-Meier analysis. Furthermore, we assessed the expression of HIF-1α downstream factors by transcriptional sequencing using the MACE (massive analysis of cDNA ends) technology.
RESULTS: SCCs revealed a strong HIF-1α expression in 61% of tumour cells in comparison with only 22% in papillomas (p < 0.0001). In contrast, malignant melanomas and lymphomas revealed a similar HIF-1α expression compared with nevi and RLHs. Transcriptional sequencing and Gene Ontology Cluster analysis demonstrated 37 hypoxia-associated factors, including HIF-1α, VEGF, SFRP1 and LOXL2 that are significantly increased in SCC and may contribute to tumour proliferation, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Association analysis between HIF-1α immunoreactivity and clinical outcome revealed a trend towards an unfavourable prognosis in malignant tumours with increased HIF-1α expression.
CONCLUSIONS: HIF-1α protein is increased in malignant tumours of the ocular adnexa, which is associated with an increase in multiple HIF-1α-downstream factors and a trend towards an unfavourable clinical outcome.
Background/Aims: Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a collagen-modifying enzyme, has been implicated in cancer invasiveness and metastasis.
Methods: We evaluated the expression of LOXL2 protein, in addition to carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), keratin 19, epithelial cell adhesion molecule, and interleukin 6, in 105 resected hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) by immunohistochemistry.
Results: LOXL2 positivity was found in 14.3% (15/105) of HCCs, and it was significantly associated with high serum α-fetoprotein levels, poor differentiation, fibrous stroma, portal vein invasion, and advanced TNM stage (p＜0.05 for all). Additionally, LOXL2 positivity was significantly associated with CAIX (p=0.005) and stromal interleukin 6 expression (p=0.001). Survival analysis of 99 HCC patients revealed LOXL2 positivity to be a poor prognostic factor; its prognostic impact appeared in progressed HCCs. Furthermore, LOXL2 positivity was shown to be an independent predictor of overall survival and disease-specific survival (p＜0.05 for all). Interestingly, co-expression of LOXL2 and CAIX was also an independent predictor for overall survival, disease-specific survival, disease-free survival, and extrahepatic recurrence-free survival (p＜0.05 for all).
Conclusions: LOXL2 expression represents a subgroup of HCCs with more aggressive behavior and is suggested to be a poor prognostic marker in HCC patients.
Cui X, Wang G, Shen W, et al.Lysyl oxidase-like 2 is highly expressed in colorectal cancer cells and promotes the development of colorectal cancer.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 40(2):932-942 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer. In the present study, the expression and intracellular localization of lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) protein in CRC were examined. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis of LOXL2 mRNA and protein expression was performed for 40 pairs of CRC tumor and normal mucosa tissue samples. The immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays was performed to detect LOXL2 protein expression. LOXL2 was highly expressed in the extracellular matrix and CRC cells. The positive expression of LOXL2 in CRC cells was significantly associated with the tumor tumor-node metastasis stage and distant metastasis, while elevated LOXL2 expression within the CRC cells was an independent prognostic factor in patients with CRC. The knockdown of LOXL2 impaired the proliferative and migratory abilities of CRC cells in vitro and in vivo, and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. These findings indicated that LOXL2 might have an important role in CRC.
Wu S, Zheng Q, Xing X, et al.Matrix stiffness-upregulated LOXL2 promotes fibronectin production, MMP9 and CXCL12 expression and BMDCs recruitment to assist pre-metastatic niche formation.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2018; 37(1):99 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Higher matrix stiffness affects biological behavior of tumor cells, regulates tumor-associated gene/miRNA expression and stemness characteristic, and contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the linkage between higher matrix stiffness and pre-metastatic niche in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still largely unknown.
METHODS: We comparatively analyzed the expressions of LOX family members in HCC cells grown on different stiffness substrates, and speculated that the secreted LOXL2 may mediate the linkage between higher matrix stiffness and pre-metastatic niche. Subsequently, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanism by which matrix stiffness induced LOXL2 expression in HCC cells, and explored the effects of LOXL2 on pre-metastatic niche formation, such as BMCs recruitment, fibronectin production, MMPs and CXCL12 expression, cell adhesion, etc. RESULTS: Higher matrix stiffness significantly upregulated LOXL2 expression in HCC cells, and activated JNK/c-JUN signaling pathway. Knockdown of integrin β1 and α5 suppressed LOXL2 expression and reversed the activation of above signaling pathway. Additionally, JNK inhibitor attenuated the expressions of p-JNK, p-c-JUN, c-JUN and LOXL2, and shRNA-c-JUN also decreased LOXL2 expression. CM-LV-LOXL2-OE and rhLOXL2 upregulated MMP9 expression and fibronectin production obviously in lung fibroblasts. Moreover, activation of Akt pathway contributed to LOXL2-induced fibronectin upregulation. LOXL2 in CM as chemoattractant increased motility and invasion of BMCs, implicating a significant role of LOXL2 in BMCs recruitment. Except that, CM-LV-LOXL2-OE as chemoattractant also increased the number of migrated HCC cells, and improved chemokine CXCL12 expression in lung fibroblasts. The number of HCC cells adhered to surface of lung fibroblasts treated with CM-LV-LOXL2-OE was remarkably higher than that of the control cells. These results indicated that the secreted LOXL2 facilitated the motility of HCC cells and strengthened CTCs settlement on the remodeled matrix "soil".
CONCLUSION: Integrin β1/α5/JNK/c-JUN signaling pathway participates in higher matrix stiffness-induced LOXL2 upregulation in HCC cells. The secreted LOXL2 promotes fibronectin production, MMP9 and CXCL12 expression and BMDCs recruitment to assist pre-metastatic niche formation.
Ninomiya G, Yamada S, Hayashi M, et al.Significance of Lysyl oxidase‑like 2 gene expression on the epithelial‑mesenchymal status of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncol Rep. 2018; 39(6):2664-2672 [PubMed
] Related Publications
In the present study, we investigated the role of lysyl oxidase‑like 2 (LOXL2), the correlation between LOXL2 and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the effects of using β‑aminopropionitrile (BAPN) to inhibit LOXL2 with the aim of reducing tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression level of LOXL2 was evaluated in HCC and adjacent non‑cancerous tissues using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and clinicopathological analyses. The effects of BAPN on cell proliferation, migration and invasion were investigated in vitro. Additionally, LOXL2 expression was assessed in the culture supernatants of HCC cell lines. Our results revealed that LOXL2 expression was higher in HCC cell lines and tissues. There was a significant correlation between EMT status and LOXL2 levels (P=0.004). BAPN reduced migration and invasion in HCC cells. HCC patients with high levels of LOXL2 expression had relatively shorter disease‑free survival (P=0.009) and overall survival (P=0.035). The expression level of LOXL2 was similar between cell supernatants and HCC cell lines. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that portal vein invasion (P=0.015), venous invasion (P=0.026), serum AFP (α‑fetoprotein) levels (P=0.019) and LOXL2 expression (P=0.009) were independent prognostic factors. Our results indicated that a higher level of LOXL2 may contribute to tumor progression, indicating that LOXL2 has clinical value as a therapeutic target in HCC.
Metastasis is a multi-step process in which direct crosstalk between cancer cells and their microenvironment plays a key role. Here, we assessed the effect of paired tumor-associated and normal lung tissue mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the growth and dissemination of primary human lung carcinoma cells isolated from the same patients. We show that the tumor microenvironment modulates MSC gene expression and identify a four-gene MSC signature that is functionally implicated in promoting metastasis. We also demonstrate that tumor-associated MSCs induce the expression of genes associated with an aggressive phenotype in primary lung cancer cells and selectively promote their dissemination rather than local growth. Our observations provide insight into mechanisms by which the stroma promotes lung cancer metastasis.
The lysyl oxidase-like protein LOXL2 has been suggested to contribute to tumor progression and metastasis, but
Zhan XH, Jiao JW, Zhang HF, et al.A three-gene signature from protein-protein interaction network of LOXL2- and actin-related proteins for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma prognosis.
Cancer Med. 2017; 6(7):1707-1719 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Current staging is inadequate for predicting clinical outcome of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Aberrant expression of LOXL2 and actin-related proteins plays important roles in ESCC. Here, we aimed to develop a novel molecular signature that exceeds the power of the current staging system in predicting ESCC prognosis. We found that LOXL2 colocalized with filamentous actin in ESCC cells, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) showed that LOXL2 is related to the actin cytoskeleton. An ESCC-specific protein-protein interaction (PPI) network involving LOXL2 and actin-related proteins was generated based on genome-wide RNA-seq in 15 paired ESCC samples, and the prognostic significance of 14 core genes was analyzed. Using risk score calculation, a three-gene signature comprising LOXL2, CDH1, and FN1 was derived from transcriptome data of patients with ESCC. The high-risk three-gene signature strongly correlated with poor prognosis in a training cohort of 60 patients (P = 0.003). In mRNA and protein levels, the prognostic values of this signature were further validated in 243 patients from a testing cohort (P = 0.001) and two validation cohorts (P = 0.021, P = 0.007). Furthermore, Cox regression analysis revealed that the signature was an independent prognostic factor. Compared with using the signature or TNM stage alone, the combined model significantly enhanced the accuracy in evaluating ESCC prognosis. In conclusion, our data reveal that the tumor-promoting role of LOXL2 in ESCC is mediated by perturbing the architecture of actin cytoskeleton through its PPIs. We generated a novel three-gene signature (PPI interfaces) that robustly predicts poor clinical outcome in ESCC patients.
BACKGROUND: The incidence and mortality rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have steadily increased in recent years. A hypoxic microenvironment is one of the most important characteristics of solid tumors which has been shown to promote tumor metastasis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and angiogenesis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and vasculogenic mimicry have been regarded as crucial contributing factors to cancer progression. HIF-1α functions as a master transcriptional regulator in the adaptive response to hypoxia. Lysyl oxidases like 2 (LOXL2) is a member of the lysyl oxidase family, which main function is to catalyze the covalent cross-linkages of collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix. Recent work has demonstrated that HIF-1α promotes the expression of LOXL2, which is believed to amplify tumor aggressiveness. LOXL2 has shown to promote metastasis and is correlated with poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of our study is to explore the role of HIF-1α in progression and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by promoting the expression of LOXL2 as well as the potential regulatory mechanism.
METHODS: HIF-1α, LOXL2 expression and CD31/periodic acid-Schiff double staining in HCC patient samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining. shRNA plasmids against HIF-1α was used to determine whether LOXL2 been increased by HIF-1α. We monitored a series of rescue assays to demonstrate our hypothesis that LOXL2 is required and sufficient for HIF-1α induced EMT and VM formation, which mediates cellular transformation and takes effect in cellular invasion. Then we performed GeneChip® Human Transcriptome Array (HTA) 2.0 in HepG2 cells, HepG2 cells overexpressed LOXL2 and HepG2 cells treated with CoCl
RESULTS: In clinical HCC tissues, it confirmed a positive relationship between HIF-1α and LOXL2 protein. Importantly, HIF-1α and LOXL2 high expression and the presence of vasculogenic mimicry were correlated to poor prognosis. HIF-1α was found to induce EMT, HCC cell migration, invasion and VM formation by regulating LOXL2. The results of microarray assays were analyzed.
CONCLUSION: HIF-1α plays an important role in the development of HCC by promoting HCC metastasis, EMT and VM through up-regulating LOXL2. This study highlights the potential therapeutic value of targeting LOXL2 for suppression of HCC metastasis and progression.
Familial Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC) has been described as a hereditary predisposition cancer syndrome associated with mutations in candidate genes including HABP2. Two of 20 probands from families with history of PTC and breast carcinoma (BC) were evaluated by whole exome sequencing (WES) revealing HABP2 p.G534E. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm the involvement of this variant in three families (F1: 7 relatives; F2: 3 and F3: 3). The proband and his sister (with no malignant tumor so far) from F1 were homozygous for the variant whereas one relative with PTC from F2 was negative for the variant. Although the proband of the F3 with PTC was HABP2 wild type, three relatives presented the variant. Five of 170 healthy Brazilian individuals with no family history of BC or PTC and three of 50 sporadic PTC presented the p.G534E. These findings suggested no association of this variant with our familial PTC cases. Genes potentially associated with deregulation of the extracellular matrix organization pathway (CTSB, TNXB, COL4A3, COL16A1, COL24A1, COL5A2, NID1, LOXL2, MMP11, TRIM24 and MUSK) and DNA repair function (NBN and MSH2) were detected by WES, suggesting that other cancer-associated genes have pathogenic effects in the risk of familial PTC development.
Recent studies have shown that vanillin has anti-cancer, anti-mutagenic, and anti-metastatic activity; however, the precise molecular mechanism whereby vanillin inhibits metastasis and cancer progression is not fully elucidated. In this study, we examined whether vanillin has anti-cancer and anti-metastatic activities via inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in A2058 and A375 human malignant melanoma cells. Immunoblotting and quantitative real time (RT)-PCR analysis revealed that vanillin down-regulates HIF-1α protein accumulation and the transcripts of HIF-1α target genes related to cancer metastasis including fibronectin 1 (
Lysyl Oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2), a member of the lysyl oxidase family of amine oxidases is known to be important in normal tissue development and homeostasis, as well as the onset and progression of solid tumors. Here we tested the anti-tumor properties of two generations of novel small molecule LOXL2 inhibitor in the MDA-MB-231 human model of breast cancer. We confirmed a functional role for LOXL2 activity in the progression of primary breast cancer. Inhibition of LOXL2 activity inhibited the growth of primary tumors and reduced primary tumor angiogenesis. Dual inhibition of LOXL2 and LOX showed a greater effect and also led to a lower overall metastatic burden in the lung and liver. Our data provides the first evidence to support a role for LOXL2 specific small molecule inhibitors as a potential therapy in breast cancer.
Rajajeyabalachandran G, Kumar S, Murugesan T, et al.Therapeutical potential of deregulated lysine methyltransferase SMYD3 as a safe target for novel anticancer agents.
Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2017; 21(2):145-157 [PubMed
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INTRODUCTION: SET and MYND domain containing-3 (SMYD3) is a member of the lysine methyltransferase family of proteins, and plays an important role in the methylation of various histone and non-histone targets. Proper functioning of SMYD3 is very important for the target molecules to determine their different roles in chromatin remodeling, signal transduction and cell cycle control. Due to the abnormal expression of SMYD3 in tumors, it is projected as a prognostic marker in various solid cancers. Areas covered: Here we elaborate on the general information, structure and the pathological role of SMYD3 protein. We summarize the role of SMYD3-mediated protein interactions in oncology pathways, mutational effects and regulation of SMYD3 in specific types of cancer. The efficacy and mechanisms of action of currently available SMYD3 small molecule inhibitors are also addressed. Expert opinion: The findings analyzed herein demonstrate that aberrant levels of SMYD3 protein exert tumorigenic effects by altering the epigenetic regulation of target genes. The partial involvement of SMYD3 in some distinct pathways provides a vital opportunity in targeting cancer effectively with fewer side effects. Further, identification and co-targeting of synergistic oncogenic pathways is suggested, which could provide much more beneficial effects for the treatment of solid cancers.
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a critical step in the acquisition of the migratory and invasive capabilities associated with metastatic competence. Cysteine-rich protein 61 (CCN1/Cyr61) has been implicated as an important mediator in the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer. Hence, Cyr61 and associated pathways are attractive targets for therapeutic interventions directed against the EMT. In the present study, we report that baicalein significantly inhibits the expression of Cyr61 and migration and invasion of MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cells. Exposure to baicalein led to increased E-cadherin expression, possibly due to the ubiquitination of Snail and Slug, which was mediated by the Cyr61/Akt/glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) pathway. Further analysis revealed that baicalein inhibited the expression of lysyl oxidase like-2 (LOXL-2), which is a functional collaborator of Snail and Slug, and subsequently attenuated the direct interaction between LOXL-2 and Snail or Slug, thereby enhancing GSK3β-dependent Snail and Slug degradation. Our findings provide new insights into the antimetastatic mechanism of baicalein and may contribute to its beneficial use in breast cancer therapies.
Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has poor prognosis and rapid recurrence because of widespread dissemination of peritoneal metastases at diagnosis. Multiple pathways contribute to the aggressiveness of ovarian cancer, including hypoxic signaling mechanisms. In this study, we have determined that the hypoxia-inducible histone demethylase KDM4B is expressed in ∼60% of EOC tumors assayed, including primary and matched metastatic tumors. Expression of KDM4B in tumors is positively correlated with expression of the tumor hypoxia marker CA-IX, and is robustly induced in EOC cell lines exposed to hypoxia. KDM4B regulates expression of metastatic genes and pathways, and loss of KDM4B increases H3K9 trimethylation at the promoters of target genes like LOXL2, LCN2 and PDGFB. Suppressing KDM4B inhibits ovarian cancer cell invasion, migration and spheroid formation in vitro. KDM4B also regulates seeding and growth of peritoneal tumors in vivo, where its expression corresponds to hypoxic regions. This is the first demonstration that a Jumonji-domain histone demethylase regulates cellular processes required for peritoneal dissemination of cancer cells, one of the predominant factors affecting prognosis of EOC. The pathways regulated by KDM4B may present novel opportunities to develop combinatorial therapies to improve existing therapies for EOC patients.
Zhan P, Lv XJ, Ji YN, et al.Increased lysyl oxidase-like 2 associates with a poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Clin Respir J. 2018; 12(2):712-720 [PubMed
] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is a member of the lysyl oxidase family and is associated with invasiveness and metastasis in breast cancer. However, its relevance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remained largely unknown.
METHODS: LOXL2 protein levels in a cohort of NSCLC and adjacent normal lung tissues were evaluated and analyzed their clinicopathologic and prognostic significance.
RESULTS: It was found that cytoplasmic and nuclear LOXL2 levels were higher in lung adenocarcinoma (AD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues than in paired adjacent normal tissues. High LOXL2 levels were associated with p-TNM stage, and cytoplasmic, but not nuclear, LOXL2 levels were an independent prognostic factor in lung AD and SCC patients.
CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that elevated LOXL2 levels are positively associated with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. LOXL2 might, therefore, serve as a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target in NSCLC patients.
Ezzoukhry Z, Henriet E, Piquet L, et al.TGF-β1 promotes linear invadosome formation in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, through DDR1 up-regulation and collagen I cross-linking.
Eur J Cell Biol. 2016; 95(11):503-512 [PubMed
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Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important player in chronic liver diseases inducing fibrogenesis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. TGF-β1 promotes pleiotropic modifications at the cellular and matrix microenvironment levels. TGF-β1 was described to enhance production of type I collagen and its associated cross-linking enzyme, the lysyl oxidase-like2 (LOXL2). In addition, TGF-β1 and type I collagen are potent inducers of invadosomes. Indeed, type I collagen fibers induce the formation of active linear invadosomes through the discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1). The goal of our study was to address the role of TGF-β1 in collagen cross-linking and its impact on the formation of linear invadosomes in liver cancer cells. We first report a significant correlation between expressions of TGF-β1, and type I collagen, LOXL2, DDR1 and MT1-MMP in human HCCs. We demonstrate that TGF-β1 promotes a Smad4-dependent up-regulation of DDR1, together with LOXL2, in cultured HCC cells. Moreover, we show that LOXL2-induced collagen cross-linking enhances linear invadosome formation. Altogether, our data demonstrate that TGF-β1 favors linear invadosome formation through the expressions of both the inducers, such as collagen and LOXL2, and the components such as DDR1 and MT1-MMP of linear invadosomes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, our data uncover a new TGF-β1-dependent regulation of DDR1 expression.
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, primarily due to distant metastatic disease. Metastatic lung cancer cells can undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) regulated by various transcription factors, including a double-negative feedback loop between the microRNA-200 (miR-200) family and ZEB1, but the precise mechanisms by which ZEB1-dependent EMT promotes malignancy remain largely undefined. Although the cell-intrinsic effects of EMT are important for tumor progression, the reciprocal dynamic crosstalk between mesenchymal cancer cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) is equally critical in regulating invasion and metastasis. Investigating the collaborative effect of EMT and ECM in the metastatic process reveals increased collagen deposition in metastatic tumor tissues as a direct consequence of amplified collagen gene expression in ZEB1-activated mesenchymal lung cancer cells. In addition, collagen fibers in metastatic lung tumors exhibit greater linearity and organization as a result of collagen crosslinking by the lysyl oxidase (LOX) family of enzymes. Expression of the LOX and LOXL2 isoforms is directly regulated by miR-200 and ZEB1, respectively, and their upregulation in metastatic tumors and mesenchymal cell lines is coordinated to that of collagen. Functionally, LOXL2, as opposed to LOX, is the principal isoform that crosslinks and stabilizes insoluble collagen deposition in tumor tissues. In turn, focal adhesion formation and FAK/SRC signaling is activated in mesenchymal tumor cells by crosslinked collagen in the ECM. Our study is the first to validate direct regulation of LOX and LOXL2 by the miR-200/ZEB1 axis, defines a novel mechanism driving tumor metastasis, delineates collagen as a prognostic marker, and identifies LOXL2 as a potential therapeutic target against tumor progression.
Kamikawaji K, Seki N, Watanabe M, et al.Regulation of LOXL2 and SERPINH1 by antitumor microRNA-29a in lung cancer with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
J Hum Genet. 2016; 61(12):985-993 [PubMed
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive lung disease that is refractory to treatment and carries a high mortality rate. IPF is frequently associated with lung cancer. Identification of molecular targets involved in both diseases may elucidate novel molecular mechanisms contributing to their pathology. Recent studies of microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures showed that microRNA-29a (miR-29a) was downregulated in IPF and lung cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional significance of miR-29a in lung cancer cells (A549 and EBC-1) and lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) and to identify molecular targets modulated by miR-29a in these cells. We confirmed the downregulation of miR-29a in clinical specimens of IPF and lung cancer. Restoration of miR-29a suppressed cancer cell aggressiveness and fibroblast migration. A combination of gene expression data and in silico analysis showed that a total of 24 genes were putative targets of miR-29a. Among them, lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) and serpin peptidase inhibitor clade H, member 1 (SERPINH1) were direct targets of miR-29a by luciferase reporter assays. The functions of LOXL2 and SERPINH1 contribute significantly to collagen biosynthesis. Overexpression of LOXL2 and SERPINH1 was observed in clinical specimens of lung cancer and fibrotic lesions. Downregulation of miR-29a caused overexpression of LOXL2 and SERPINH1 in lung cancer and IPF, suggesting that these genes are involved in the pathogenesis of these two diseases.
Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is key in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor microenvironment and metastatic niche formation. However, its effect on proliferation and clinical parameters in HCC require further elucidation. The present study aimed to investigate LOXL2 expression in HCC from in vitro and clinical aspects. The present study constructed LOXL2‑small interfering RNA with a lentiviral vector, investigated the effect of LOXL2 on proliferation using HCC cell lines via a series of assays, including reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, cell counting, colony formation, assessment of cell cycle and apoptosis using flow cytometry, MTT and BrdU. Furthermore, 80 tissue samples from HCC patients at The First Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University (Dalian, China) from 2007 to 2010. Immunohistochemical staining was used to clinically verify LOXL2 expression. The results of the present study demonstrate that LOXL2 silencing decreased cell numbers, proliferation, colony formations and cell growth, induced cell cycle arrest and increased apoptosis. Clinically, expression levels of LOXL2 was markedly increased in matched adjacent non‑tumor tissue (ANT) samples compared with levels in tumor tissue (TT) samples, and this gradually increased with higher histological grade and more advanced TNM classification in the matched ANT and TT samples. LOXL2 was determined to promote proliferation of HCC and demonstrated to be highly expressed in HCC ANT samples compared with TT samples.
Bergeat D, Fautrel A, Turlin B, et al.Impact of stroma LOXL2 overexpression on the prognosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
J Surg Res. 2016; 203(2):441-50 [PubMed
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BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is associated with a poor prognosis related to early recurrence especially in the remnant liver after surgery. ICC exhibits a dense desmoplastic stroma which plays a pivotal role in ICC aggressiveness. Thus, analyzing gene deregulation in the stroma of ICC may help to identify new prognosis biomarkers and promising therapeutic targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of the matrix-remodeling enzyme lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) expression in ICC.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: LOXL2 messenger RNA levels were evaluated in microdissected tumoral stroma (TS) and in nontumoral fibrous tissue by gene expression profiling (testing set, n = 10) obtained from gene expression omnibus database and by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (validating set, n = 6). LOXL2 protein levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing 80 independent patients. The relationship between LOXL2 expression and survival was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses.
RESULTS: LOXL2 messenger RNA levels were increased in TS, both in the testing and the validating sets (P < 0.01). These results were confirmed at a protein level, with a significantly higher LOXL2 immunostaining in TS (P < 0.01). Univariate analysis revealed that LOXL2 expression was correlated with a poor overall survival and disease-free survival (P < 0.01). Importantly, high expression of LOXL2 was an independent prognostic factor of worst overall survival (hazard ratio = 5.29, confidence interval [CI] 95% = 1.71-16.3, P < 0.01) and disease-free survival (hazard ratio = 5.55, CI 95% = 2.14-14.37, P < 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides additional arguments for a role of extracellular matrix remodeling in ICC aggressiveness and identifies LOXL2 as a new prognostic marker and a promising therapeutic target in ICC.
Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is associated with invasiveness and metastasis in cancer. We analyzed the prognostic impact of LOXL2 in pancreatic cancer patients and investigated the role of LOXL2 in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed in samples from 80 patients and showed LOXL2 expression in 81.2% of patients with pancreatic cancer. Regarding recurrence patterns, LOXL2-positive tumors showed a significantly higher rate of distant recurrence. The 1-year and 3-year disease-free survival rates were 84.6% and 0.0%, respectively, for LOXL2-negative patients, and 27.8 % and 0.0 %, respectively, for LOXL2-positive patients. On univariate analysis, combined resection of major vessels, depth of invasion, tumor stage, and LOXL2- positive status were significant factors for poor prognosis. After identification of LOXL2 expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines, LOXL2-silenced and LOXL2-overexpressed cell lines were used to perform transwell invasion and transendothelial migration assays.In vitro studies indicated that LOXL2 silencing in MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells induced a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET)-like process associated with decreased invasive and migratory properties. LOXL2 overexpression in AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells enhanced the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-like process and increased migratory and invasive activity. These clinical and preclinical data confirm that higher LOXL2 expression is associated with the invasiveness of pancreatic cancer cells and the low survival rate of pancreatic cancer patients. Our results suggest the clinical value of LOXL2 as a therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.
Kato M, Kurozumi A, Goto Y, et al.Regulation of metastasis-promoting LOXL2 gene expression by antitumor microRNAs in prostate cancer.
J Hum Genet. 2017; 62(1):123-132 [PubMed
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Our recent studies of microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures of prostate cancer (PCa) showed that six miRNAs (specifically, miR-26a, miR-26b, miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-29c and miR-218) were markedly reduced in cancer tissues. Moreover, ectopic expression of these miRNAs suppressed PCa cell aggressiveness, indicating that these miRNAs acted in concert to regulate genes that promoted metastasis. Genome-wide gene expression analysis and in silico database analysis identified a total of 35 candidate genes that promoted metastasis and were targeted by these 6 miRNAs. Using luciferase reporter assays, we showed that the lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) gene was directly controlled by these tumor-suppressive miRNAs in PCa cells. Overexpression of LOXL2 was confirmed in PCa tissues and knockdown of the LOXL2 gene markedly inhibited the migration and invasion of PCa cells. Aberrant expression of LOXL2 enhanced migration and invasion of PCa cells. Downregulation of antitumor miRNAs might disrupt the tightly controlled RNA networks found in normal cells. New insights into the novel molecular mechanisms of PCa pathogenesis was revealed by antitumor miRNA-regulated RNA networks.
Zou HY, Lv GQ, Dai LH, et al.A truncated splice variant of human lysyl oxidase-like 2 promotes migration and invasion in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2016; 75:85-98 [PubMed
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Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is a member of the lysyl oxidase family, which plays an important role in extracellular matrix protein biosynthesis and tumor progression. In the present study, we identified a novel splice variant, LOXL2Δ72, which encodes a peptide having the same N- and C-termini as wild-type LOXL2 (LOXL2WT), but lacks 72 nucleotides encoding 24 amino acids. LOXL2Δ72 had dramatically reduced enzymatic activity, and was no longer secreted. However, LOXL2Δ72 promoted greater cell migration and invasion than LOXL2WT. Furthermore, a dual luciferase reporter assay indicated that LOXL2Δ72 activates distinct signal transduction pathways compared to LOXL2WT, consistent with cDNA microarray data showing different expression levels of cell migration- and invasion-related genes induced following over-expression of each LOXL2 isoform. In particular, LOXL2Δ72 distinctly promoted esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell migration via up-regulating the C-C motif chemokine ligand 28 (CCL28). Our results suggest that the new LOXL2 splice variant contributes to tumor progression by novel molecular mechanisms different from LOXL2WT.