|Gene:||MIR128-2; microRNA 128-2|
|Aliases: || MIR128B, MIRN128B, mir-128b, MIRN128-2, mir-128-2 |
|Summary:||microRNAs (miRNAs) are short (20-24 nt) non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miRNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase II as part of capped and polyadenylated primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) that can be either protein-coding or non-coding. The primary transcript is cleaved by the Drosha ribonuclease III enzyme to produce an approximately 70-nt stem-loop precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA), which is further cleaved by the cytoplasmic Dicer ribonuclease to generate the mature miRNA and antisense miRNA star (miRNA*) products. The mature miRNA is incorporated into a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which recognizes target mRNAs through imperfect base pairing with the miRNA and most commonly results in translational inhibition or destabilization of the target mRNA. The RefSeq represents the predicted microRNA stem-loop. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009]|
|Databases:||miRBase, OMIM, HGNC, GeneCard, Gene|
|Source:||NCBIAccessed: 06 August, 2015|
Research IndicatorsGraph generated 06 August 2015 using data from PubMed using criteria.
Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic. Tag cloud generated 06 August, 2015 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex
Numbers shown below represent number of publications held in OncomiRDB database for Oncogenic and Tumor-Suppressive MicroRNAs.
|Tissue||Target Gene(s)||Regulator(s)||MIR128-2 Function in Cancer||Effect|
-breast cancer stem-like cells (1)
|BMI1 (1)||ZEB1 (1)|
|inhibit cancer stem cell growth (1)||tumor-suppressive
-MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia (1)
|increase glucocorticoids sensitivity (1)||tumor-suppressive
Source: OncomiRDB Wang D. et al. Bioinformatics 2014, 30(15):2237-2238.
miRBase, University of Manchester
Annotated database entry including the location and sequence of the mature miRNA sequence.
miRCancer, East Carolina University
Search miRCancer for miR-128b associations with cancer and associated genes.
OMIM, Johns Hopkin University
Referenced article focusing on the relationship between phenotype and genotype.
COSMIC, Sanger Institute
Somatic mutation information and related details
Search the Epigenomics database and view relevant gene tracks of samples.
Latest Publications: MIR128-2 (cancer-related)
Li XL, Jones MF, Subramanian M, Lal AMutant p53 exerts oncogenic effects through microRNAs and their target gene networks.
FEBS Lett. 2014; 588(16):2610-5 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs are potent regulators of gene expression and modulate multiple cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. A number of microRNAs have been shown to be regulated by p53, the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. It is has been demonstrated that some mutant p53 proteins not only lose tumor suppressor activity, but also acquire novel oncogenic functions that are independent of wild-type p53. In this review, we highlight recent evidences suggesting that some mutant p53 proteins regulate the expression of specific microRNAs to gain oncogenic functions and identify a gene network regulated by the microRNAs downstream of mutant p53.
Qian P, Banerjee A, Wu ZS, et al.Loss of SNAIL regulated miR-128-2 on chromosome 3p22.3 targets multiple stem cell factors to promote transformation of mammary epithelial cells.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(22):6036-50 [PubMed
] Related Publications
A discontinuous pattern of LOH at chromosome 3p has been reported in 87% of primary breast cancers. Despite the identification of several tumor suppressor genes in this region, there has yet to be a detailed analysis of noncoding RNAs including miRNAs in this region. In this study, we identified 16 aberrant miRNAs in this region and determined several that are frequently lost or amplified in breast cancer. miR-128-2 was the most commonly deleted miRNA. Embedded in the intron of the ARPP21 gene at chromosome 3p22.3, miR-128-2 was frequently downregulated along with ARPP21 in breast cancer, where it was negatively associated with clinicopathologic characteristics and survival outcome. Forced expression of miR-128 impeded several oncogenic traits of mammary carcinoma cells, whereas depleting miR-128-2 expression was sufficient for oncogenic transformation and stem cell-like behaviors in immortalized nontumorigenic mammary epithelial cells, both in vitro and in vivo. miR-128-2 silencing enabled transforming capacity partly by derepressing a cohort of direct targets (BMI1, CSF1, KLF4, LIN28A, NANOG, and SNAIL), which together acted to stimulate the PI3K/AKT and STAT3 signaling pathways. We also found that miR-128-2 was directly downregulated by SNAIL and repressed by TGF-β signaling, adding 2 additional negative feedback loops to this network. In summary, we have identified a novel TGF-β/SNAIL/miR-128 axis that provides a new avenue to understand the basis for oncogenic transformation of mammary epithelial cells.
Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are a highly tumorigenic cell type present as a minority population in developmentally diverse tumors and cell lines. Using a genetic screen in an inducible model of CSC formation in a breast cell line, we identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that inhibit CSC growth and are down-regulated in CSCs. Aside from the previously identified miR-200 family, these include the miR-15/16 (miR-16, miR-15b) and miR-103/107 (miR-103, miR-107) families as well as miR-145, miR-335, and miR-128b. Interestingly, these miRNAs affect common target genes that encode the Bmi1 and Suz12 components of the polycomb repressor complexes as well as the DNA-binding transcription factors Zeb1, Zeb2, and Klf4. Conversely, expression of the CSC-modulating miRNAs is inhibited by Zeb1 and Zeb2. There is an inverse relationship between the levels of CSC-regulating miRNAs and their respective targets in samples from triple-negative breast cancer patients, providing evidence for the relevance of these interactions in human cancer. In addition, combinatorial overexpression of these miRNAs progressively attenuates the growth of CSCs derived from triple-negative breast cancers. These observations suggest that CSC formation and function are reinforced by an integrated regulatory circuit of miRNAs, transcription factors, and chromatin-modifying activities that can act as a bistable switch to drive cells into either the CSC or the nonstem state within the population of cancer cells.
Chan LW, Wang FF, Cho WCGenomic sequence analysis of EGFR regulation by microRNAs in lung cancer.
Curr Top Med Chem. 2012; 12(8):920-6 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Lung cancer is known as the top cancer killer in most developed countries. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is frequently found to be activated by mutation or amplification in lung cancer. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a new class of small molecules that has emerged as important markers of lung cancer development and therapeutic target. There are queries on which miRNAs can regulate EGFR and it is important to predict the candidate miRNAs that target EGFR by bioinformatics and to investigate on the availability of these candidate miRNA regulators in lung cancer. Systematic and rigorous searches for miRNAs targeting EGFR were performed on 10 representative databases. The identified miRNAs that target EGFR were formulated into a conditional regulation matrix and then hierarchical clustering algorithm was applied for the analysis. The systematic search came up with 138 miRNAs that potentially target EGFR. Among them, 11 miRNAs including miR-7 and miR-128b were confirmed by published experimental data or literatures. There were 14 candidate miRNAs predicted by at least 3 prediction pipelines in this study which have never been previously reported to target EGFR. Further studies of these novel identified miRNAs may provide insight on the regulation of EGFR in lung cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first bioinformatic study applying genomic sequence analysis for the prediction of miRNAs that target EGFR in lung cancer. This new strategy that integrates computational and published data approaches provides a fast and effective prediction of miRNAs in specific target genes involved in various diseases.
p53 mutations have profound effects on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistance to chemotherapeutic treatments. Mutant p53 proteins are usually expressed at high levels in tumors, where they exert oncogenic functions. Here we show that p53R175H, a hotspot p53 mutant, induces microRNA (miRNA)-128-2 expression. Mutant p53 binds to the putative promoter of miR128-2 host gene, ARPP21, determining a concomitant induction of ARPP21 mRNA and miR-128-2. miR-128-2 expression in lung cancer cells inhibits apoptosis and confers increased resistance to cisplatin, doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracyl treatments. At the molecular level, miR-128-2 post-transcriptionally targets E2F5 and leads to the abrogation of its repressive activity on p21(waf1) transcription. p21(waf1) protein localizes to the cytoplasmic compartment, where it exerts an anti-apoptotic effect by preventing pro-caspase-3 cleavage. This study emphasizes miRNA-128-2 role as a master regulator in NSCLC chemoresistance.
Kotani A, Ha D, Schotte D, et al.A novel mutation in the miR-128b gene reduces miRNA processing and leads to glucocorticoid resistance of MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia cells.
Cell Cycle. 2010; 9(6):1037-42 [PubMed
] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia has a poor prognosis, and the mechanisms by which these leukemias develop are not understood despite intensive research based on well-known concepts and methods. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a new class of small noncoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of target mRNA transcripts. We recently reported that ectopic expression of miR-128b together with miR-221, two of the miRNAs downregulated in MLL-AF4 ALL, restores glucocorticoid resistance through downregulation of the MLL-AF4 chimeric fusion proteins MLL-AF4 and AF4-MLL that are generated by chromosomal translocation t(4;11). Here we report the identification of new mutations in miR-128b in RS4;11 cells, derived from MLL-AF4 ALL patient. One novel mutation significantly reduces the processing of miR-128b. Finally, this base change occurs in a primary MLL-AF4 ALL sample as an acquired mutation. These results demonstrate that the novel mutation in miR-128b in MLL-AF4 ALL alters the processing of miR-128b and that the resultant downregulation of mature miR-128b contributes to glucocorticoid resistance through the failure to downregulate the fusion oncogenes.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ( approximately 22 nucleotide) non-coding RNAs whose altered expression has been associated with various types of cancers, including leukemia. In the present study, we conducted a quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis of expression of 23 human precursor miRNAs in bone marrow specimens of 85 Chinese primary leukemia patients, including 53 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 32 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases. We show that 16 miRNAs were differentially expressed between AMLs and ALLs. Of them, eight were previously reported (i.e., miR-23a, miR-27a/b, miR-128a, miR-128b, miR-221, miR-222, miR-223, and let-7b) and eight were newly identified (i.e., miR-17, miR-20a, miR-29a/c, miR-29b, miR-146a, miR-150, miR-155, and miR-196b). More importantly, through correlating miRNA expression signatures with outcome of patients, we further show that expression signatures of a group of miRNAs are associated with overall survival of patients. Of them, three (i.e., miR-146a, miR-181a/c, and miR-221), five (i.e., miR-25, miR-26a, miR-29b, miR-146a, and miR-196b), and three (i.e., miR-26a, miR-29b, and miR-146a) miRNAs are significantly associated with overall survival (P<0.05) of the 32 ALL, 53 AML, and 40 non-M3 AML patients, respectively. Particularly, the expression signature of miR-146a is significantly inversely correlated with overall survival of both ALL and AML patients. The prognostic significance of miR-146a in AML has been confirmed further in an independent study of 61 Chinese new AML patient samples. We also identified 622 putative target genes of miR-146a that are predicted by at least three out of the five major prediction programs (i.e., TragetScan, PicTar, miRanda, miRBase Targets, and PITA). Through gene ontology analysis, we found that these genes were particularly enriched (2- to 9-fold higher than expected by chance) in the GO categories of "negative regulation of biology processes," "negative regulation of cellular processes," "apoptosis," and "cell cycle," which may be related to the association of miR-146a with poor survival.
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in malignancies, and regulations in the progress of adult leukemia. The role of miRNAs in pediatric leukemia still needs to be established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the aberrantly expressed miRNAs in pediatric acute leukemia and demonstrate miRNA patterns that are pediatric-specific and prognostic parameter-associated.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 111 pediatric bone marrow samples, including 99 patients and 12 normal donors, were enrolled in this study. Of those samples, 36 patients and 7 normal samples were used as a test cohort for the evaluation of miRNA profiling; 63 pediatric patients and 5 normal donors were used as a validation cohort to confirm the miRNA differential expression. Pediatric ALL- and AML-specific microRNA expression patterns were identified in this study. The most highly expressed miRNAs in pediatric ALL were miR-34a, miR-128a, miR-128b, and miR-146a, while the highly expressed miRNAs in pediatric AML were miR-100, miR-125b, miR-335, miR-146a, and miR-99a, which are significantly different from those reported for adult CLL and AML. miR-125b and miR-126 may serve as favorable prognosticators for M3 and M2 patients, respectively. Importantly, we identified a "miRNA cascade" associated with central nervous system (CNS) relapse in ALL. Additionally, miRNA patterns associated with prednisone response, specific risk group, and relapse of ALL were also identified.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are existing pediatric-associated and prognostic parameter-associated miRNAs that are independent of cell lineage and could provide therapeutic direction for individual risk-adapted therapy for pediatric leukemia patients.
MLL-AF4 acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) has a poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small noncoding RNAs that posttranscriptionally regulate expression of target mRNAs. Our analysis of previously published data showed that expression of miR-128b and miR-221 is down-regulated in MLL-rearranged ALL relative to other types of ALL. Reexpression of these miRNAs cooperatively sensitizes 2 cultured lines of MLL-AF4 ALL cells to glucocorticoids. Target genes down-regulated by miR-128b include MLL, AF4, and both MLL-AF4 and AF4-MLL fusion genes; miR-221 down-regulates CDKN1B. These results demonstrate that down-regulation of miR-128b and miR-221 is implicated in glucocorticoid resistance and that restoration of their levels is a potentially promising therapeutic in MLL-AF4 ALL.
Katada T, Ishiguro H, Kuwabara Y, et al.microRNA expression profile in undifferentiated gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2009; 34(2):537-42 [PubMed
] Related Publications
Prognosis of patients with undifferentiated gastric cancer is generally poor. The expression of various microRNAs (miRNAs) has not been comprehensively investigated in undifferentiated gastric cancer. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens of 42 undifferentiated gastric cancer tissues and paired normal gastric tissue. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed for a set of 72 miRNAs. The expression of each miRNA relative to the internal control RNA was determined using the 2-DeltaCt method. The expression levels of 3 miRNAs (mir-34b, mir-34c and mir-128a) were significantly upregulated and those of 3 miRNAs (mir-128b, mir-129 and mir-148) were downregulated in undifferentiated gastric cancer tissue when compared with those of the paired normal tissues. The probability of survival was significantly lower in patients with high expression levels of mir-20b or 150. There was a correlation between mir-27a and lymph node metastasis. Our investigation provides a list of candidate miRNAs that may be associated with the prognosis in undifferentiated gastric cancer patients. Further study is warranted to identify the target genes of these miRNAs and their function.
Navarro A, Gaya A, Martinez A, et al.MicroRNA expression profiling in classic Hodgkin lymphoma.
Blood. 2008; 111(5):2825-32 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are negative regulators of gene expression that play an important role in hematopoiesis and tumorigenesis. We analyzed miRNA expression in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) and the influence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection on the miRNA expression profiles. The expression of 157 miRNAs in lymph nodes from 49 cHL patients and 10 reactive lymph nodes (RLNs) was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Hierarchic clustering revealed 3 well-defined groups: nodular sclerosis cHL, mixed cellularity cHL, and RLNs. A distinctive signature of 25 miRNAs differentiated cHL from RLNs, and 36 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the nodular sclerosis and mixed cellularity subtypes. These results were validated in a set of 30 cHLs and 5 RLNs, and in 3 cHL cell lines. miR-96, miR-128a, and miR-128b were selectively down-regulated in cHL with EBV. Our findings suggest that miRNAs play an important role in the biology of cHL and may be useful in developing therapies targeting miRNAs.
Zanette DL, Rivadavia F, Molfetta GA, et al.miRNA expression profiles in chronic lymphocytic and acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Braz J Med Biol Res. 2007; 40(11):1435-40 [PubMed
] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small endogenous RNAs that play important regulatory roles by targeting mRNAs for cleavage or translational repression. miRNAs act in diverse biological processes including development, cell growth, apoptosis, and hematopoiesis, suggesting their association with cancer. We determined the miRNA expression profile of chronic and acute lymphocytic leukemias (CLL and ALL) using the TaqMan MicroRNA Assays Human Panel (Applied Biosystems). Pooled leukemia samples were compared to pooled CD19+ samples from healthy individuals (calibrator) by the 2-DD Ct method. Total RNA input was normalized based on the Ct values obtained for hsa-miR-30b. The five most highly expressed miRNAs were miR-128b, miR-204, miR-218, miR-331, and miR-181b-1 in ALL, and miR-331, miR-29a, miR-195, miR-34a, and miR-29c in CLL. To our knowledge, this is the first report associating miR-128b, miR-204 and miR-331 to hematological malignancies. The miR-17-92 cluster was also found to be up-regulated in ALL, as previously reported for some types of lymphomas. The differences observed in gene expression levels were validated for miR-331 and miR-128b in ALL and CD19+ samples. These miRNAs were up-regulated in ALL, in agreement with our initial results. A brief target analysis was performed for miR-331. One of its putative targets, SOCS1, promotes STAT activation, which is a known mediator of cell proliferation and survival, suggesting the possibility of an association between miR-331 and these processes. This initial screening provided information on miRNA differentially expressed in normal and malignant B-cells that could suggest the potential roles of these miRNAs in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis.