Gene Summary

Gene:MYOD1; myogenic differentiation 1
Aliases: PUM, MYF3, MYOD, bHLHc1
Summary:This gene encodes a nuclear protein that belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors and the myogenic factors subfamily. It regulates muscle cell differentiation by inducing cell cycle arrest, a prerequisite for myogenic initiation. The protein is also involved in muscle regeneration. It activates its own transcription which may stabilize commitment to myogenesis. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:myoblast determination protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (30)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 31 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Phenotype
  • Base Sequence
  • Soft Tissue Cancers
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Myogenin
  • Oncogene Fusion Proteins
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • MyoD Protein
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Chromosome 11
  • Epigenetics
  • Breast Cancer
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma, Embryonal
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Apoptosis
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Infant
  • CpG Islands
  • Bladder Cancer
  • Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • Rhabdomyosarcoma
  • Young Adult
  • DNA Methylation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Cancer DNA
  • Adolescents
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Messenger RNA
  • Childhood Cancer
  • Soft Tissue Sarcoma
  • Mutation
  • Forkhead Box Protein O1
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (6)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: MYOD1 (cancer-related)

Liu D, Qiao X, Ge Z, et al.
IMB0901 inhibits muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia through MSTN signaling pathway.
Skelet Muscle. 2019; 9(1):8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia as a metabolic syndrome can lead to at least 25% of cancer deaths. The inhibition of muscle atrophy is a main strategy to treat cancer cachexia. In this process, myostatin (MSTN) can exert a dual effect on protein metabolism, including inhibition of protein biosynthesis and enhancement of protein degradation. In this study, we will test the effect on muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia of IMB0901, a MSTN inhibitor.
METHODS: Two high-throughput screening models against MSTN were developed. By screening, IMB0901, 2-((1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d] pyrimidin-4-yl) amino) butan-1-ol, was picked out from the compound library. The in vitro cell model and the C26 animal model of muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia were used to determine the pharmacological activity of IMB0901. Whether IMB0901 could inhibit the aggravating effect of doxorubicin on muscle wasting was examined in vitro and in vivo.
RESULTS: IMB0901 inhibited the MSTN promoter activity, the MSTN signaling pathway, and the MSTN positive feedback regulation. In atrophied C2C12 myotubes, IMB0901 had a potent efficiency of decreasing MSTN expression and modulating MSTN signaling pathway which was activated by C26-conditioned medium (CM). In C2C12 myotubes, the expressions of three common myotube markers, myosin heavy chain (MyHC), myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD), and myogenin (MyoG), were downregulated by CM, which could be efficiently reversed by IMB0901 via reduction of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and enhancement of AKT/mTOR-mediated protein synthesis. In the C26 animal model, IMB0901 mitigated the weight loss of body, quadricep and liver, and protected the quadriceps cell morphology. Furthermore, IMB0901 decreased the expression of two E3 ligases Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1 in the quadriceps in vivo. At the cellular level, IMB0901 had no influence on anti-tumor effect of three chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin, doxorubicin, and gemcitabine) and lowered doxorubicin-induced upregulation of MSTN in C2C12 myotubes. IMB0901 did not affect the inhibitory effect of doxorubicin on C26 tumor and delayed the weight loss of muscle and adipose tissue caused by C26 tumor and doxorubicin.
CONCLUSIONS: IMB0901 inhibits muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia by suppressing ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and promoting protein synthesis. These findings collectively suggest that IMB0901 is a promising leading compound for the management of muscle atrophy induced by cancer cachexia.

Zhang L, Jiang Y, Lu X, et al.
Genomic characterization of cervical cancer based on human papillomavirus status.
Gynecol Oncol. 2019; 152(3):629-637 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: It is uncommon for cervical cancer patients to be diagnosed without a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. As prophylactic vaccines against high-risk HPV types are an ineffective preventive measure for these patients it is essential to identify differential biomarkers that may be associated with detection, prognosis and novel targeted therapies. The objective of this study was to compare the two entities, HPV+ and HPV- cervical cancers, based on TCGA public data.
METHODS: We collected and analyzed clinical information of 299 cervical cancer patients as the first step, then identified differential expressed genes and conducted downstream analyses to characterize this tumor based on HPV status, including functional annotation, pathway mapping, survival analysis and comparative somatic mutation landscapes. We further inferred the likelihood of responding to traditional treatment including radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
RESULTS: It was found that HPV- tumors were likely to occur at an older age and were often adenocarcinomas or adenosquamous carcinomas, and there was no significant overall survival difference between HPV+ vs. HPV- tumors. Gene expression profiles of HPV+ and HPV- tumors differed especially in ANKRD7, SERPINB3, EMX2, MEI1, RNF212, RP11-13 K12.5, RP11-325F22.2 and ZFR2 which were significantly relevant to cervical cancer prognosis. TP53, ARID5B, ARID1A, CTNNB1 and PTEN were significantly differentially mutated between HPV+ and HPV- tumors. Results of radiotherapy analyses demonstrated that CDO1, PCDHB2 and MYOD1 were different between the two subsets. In addition, RP11-299 L17.3, SLC14A2, FGF18 and OASL represented different drug-sensitivity to cisplatin between both.
CONCLUSIONS: These potential biomarkers may offer insights to further personalize therapeutic decision-making to improve survival in HPV- cervical cancer patients.

Kawa MP, Baumert B, Litwińska Z, et al.
Potential Leukemic Cells Engraftment After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation From Unrelated Donors With Undiagnosed Chronic Leukemia.
Transplant Proc. 2018; 50(10):3789-3796 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Donor-related neoplasms are a potential complication of treatment strategies involving stem cell transplantation. Although mechanisms for detection of short-term complications after these procedures are well developed, complications with delayed onset, notably transmission of chronic diseases such as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), have been difficult to assess. Consequently, we studied the potential of human CML cells to engraft hematopoietic tissues after intravenous implantation in mice.
METHODS: Human peripheral blood cells, collected from CML patients presenting with moderately increased white blood cells count before treatment, were transplanted into sub-lethally irradiated, immunodeficient mice. Five weeks after transplantation the nuclear cells were isolated from the murine bone marrow, spleen, and peripheral blood and were used to quantitatively detect human CD45 antigen by flow cytometry; qRT-PCR was used to detect the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, and the human or murine beta-glucuronidase housekeeping gene was used to examine human-murine chimerism.
RESULTS: We found that all evaluated animals had donor chimerism at the selected interval after transplant and the presence of a specific BCR-ABL1 fusion gene transcript was also detected.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the risk of neoplasm transmission cannot be eliminated during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from undiagnosed CML donors with borderline leukocytosis. The obtained data confirms the potential of leukemic cells to viably engraft the hematopoietic organs post-transplantation in an immunosuppressed recipient.

Ninfali C, Siles L, Darling DS, Postigo A
Regulation of muscle atrophy-related genes by the opposing transcriptional activities of ZEB1/CtBP and FOXO3.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018; 46(20):10697-10708 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple physiopathological and clinical conditions trigger skeletal muscle atrophy through the induction of a group of proteins (atrogenes) that includes components of the ubiquitin-proteasome and autophagy-lysosomal systems. Atrogenes are induced by FOXO transcription factors, but their regulation is still not fully understood. Here, we showed that the transcription factor ZEB1, best known for promoting tumor progression, inhibits muscle atrophy and atrogene expression by antagonizing FOXO3-mediated induction of atrogenes. Compared to wild-type counterparts, hindlimb immobilization in Zeb1-deficient mice resulted in enhanced muscle atrophy and higher expression of a number of atrogenes, including Atrogin-1/Fbxo32, MuRF1/Trim63, Ctsl, 4ebp1, Gabarapl1, Psma1 and Nrf2. Likewise, in the C2C12 myogenic cell model, ZEB1 knockdown augmented both myotube diameter reduction and atrogene upregulation in response to nutrient deprivation. Mechanistically, ZEB1 directly represses in vitro and in vivo Fbxo32 and Trim63 promoter transcription in a stage-dependent manner and in a reverse pattern with MYOD1. ZEB1 bound to the Fbxo32 promoter in undifferentiated myoblasts and atrophic myotubes, but not in non-atrophic myotubes, where it is displaced by MYOD1. ZEB1 repressed both promoters through CtBP-mediated inhibition of FOXO3 transcriptional activity. These results set ZEB1 as a new target in therapeutic approaches to clinical conditions causing muscle mass loss.

Dębniak T, Scott RJ, Górski B, et al.
BRCA1/2 mutations are not a common cause of malignant melanoma in the Polish population.
PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0204768 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The association of BRCA1/2 mutations with melanoma is not completely determined; the interpretation of variants of unknown significance is also problematic. To evaluate these issues we explored the molecular basis of melanoma risk by performing whole-exome sequencing on a cohort of 96 unrelated Polish early-onset melanoma patients and targeted sequencing of BRCA1/2 genes on additional 30 melanoma patients with familial aggregation of breast and other cancers. Sequencing was performed on peripheral blood. We evaluated MutationTaster, Polyphen2, SIFT, PROVEAN algorithms, analyzed segregation with cancer disease (in both families with identified BRCA2 variants) and in one family performed LOH (based on 2 primary tumors). We found neither pathogenic mutations nor variants of unknown significance within BRCA1. We identified two BRCA2 variants of unknown significance: c.9334G>A and c.4534 C>T. Disease allele frequency was evaluated by genotyping of 1230 consecutive melanoma cases, 5000 breast cancer patients, 3500 prostate cancers and 9900 controls. Both variants were found to be absent among unselected cancer patients and healthy controls. The MutationTaster, Polyphen2 and SIFT algorithms indicate that c.9334G>A is a damaging variant. Due to lack of tumour tissue LOH analysis could not be performed for this variant. The variant segregated with the disease. The c.4534 C>T variant did not segregate with disease, there was no LOH of the variant. The c.9334G>A variant, classified as a rare variant of unknown significance, on current evidence may predisposes to cancers of the breast, prostate and melanoma. Functional studies to describe how the DNA change affects the protein function and a large multi-center study to evaluate its penetrance are required.

Kelemen LE, Earp M, Fridley BL, et al.
rs495139 in the TYMS-ENOSF1 Region and Risk of Ovarian Carcinoma of Mucinous Histology.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(9) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Thymidylate synthase (TYMS) is a crucial enzyme for DNA synthesis. TYMS expression is regulated by its antisense mRNA, ENOSF1. Disrupted regulation may promote uncontrolled DNA synthesis and tumor growth. We sought to replicate our previously reported association between rs495139 in the

Simińska D, Kojder K, Jeżewski D, et al.
The Pathophysiology of Post-Traumatic Glioma.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(8) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Malignant glioma is a brain tumor with a very high mortality rate resulting from the specific morphology of its infiltrative growth and poor early detection rates. The causes of one of its very specific types, i.e., post-traumatic glioma, have been discussed for many years, with some studies providing evidence for mechanisms where the reaction to an injury may in some cases lead to the onset of carcinogenesis in the brain. In this review of the available literature, we discuss the consequences of breaking the blood⁻brain barrier and consequences of the influx of immune-system cells to the site of injury. We also analyze the influence of inflammatory mediators on the expression of genes controlling the process of apoptosis and the effect of chemical mutagenic factors on glial cells in the brain. We present the results of experimental studies indicating a relationship between injury and glioma development. However, epidemiological studies on post-traumatic glioma, of which only a few confirm the conclusions of experimental research, indicate that any potential relationship between injury and glioma, if any, is indirect.

Tahara S, Tahara T, Horiguchi N, et al.
DNA methylation accumulation in gastric mucosa adjacent to cancer after Helicobacter pylori eradication.
Int J Cancer. 2019; 144(1):80-88 [PubMed] Related Publications
Molecular irreversibleness with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection might have a role in gastric tumorigenesis after H. pylori eradication. We performed comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of gastric mucosa after H. pylori eradication with or without gastric cancer. Using four different groups of biopsies obtained from gastric body without history of H. pylori infection (Hp-), gastric body without cancer after H. pylori eradication (cancer-free body), gastric body with early gastric cancer diagnosed after H. pylori eradication (EGC body) and their paired samples from adjacent mucosa of cancer (EGC ADJ), methylation status of five candidate genes (MYOD1, SLC16A12, IGF2, RORA and PRDM5) was examined by the bisulfite pyrosequencing. An Infinium Methylation EPIC BeadChip array was also used to characterize the methylation status of greater than 850,000 CpG sites. The EGC ADJ group showed highest methylation levels of five candidate genes among the four groups of biopsies. In the gastric body (cancer-free body + EGC body), methylation levels were significantly decreased in patients with longer period after eradication, while such association was not observed in EGC ADJ group. Hyper methylated samples were associated with shorter telomere, an indicator for rapid cell turnover, and higher DNMT1 protein expression, an enzyme related to methyl transfer reaction. The genome-wide methylation analysis demonstrated strikingly higher methylation levels especially at CpG islands in the EGC ADJ group. Exclusively hypermethylated promoter CpG islands in the same group frequently coded zinc finger proteins. Our data show that DNA methylation accumulation is associated with molecular irreversibleness and gastric carcinogenesis after H. pylori eradication.

Sood S, Patel FD, Srinivasan R, Dhaliwal LK
Chemoradiation therapy induces
Indian J Med Res. 2018; 147(2):151-157 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background & objectives: Invasive cervical cancer patients are primarily treated with chemoradiation therapy. The overall and disease-free survival in these patients is variable and depends on the tumoral response apart from the tumour stage. This study was undertaken to assess whether in vivo changes in gene promoter methylation and transcript expression in invasive cervical cancer were induced by chemoradiation. Hence, paired pre- and post-treatment biopsy samples were evaluated for in vivo changes in promoter methylation and transcript expression of 10 genes (ESR1, BRCA1, RASSF1A, MYOD1, MLH1, hTERT, MGMT, DAPK1, BAX and BCL2L1) in response to chemoradiation therapy.
Methods: In patients with locally advanced invasive cervical cancer, paired pre- and post-treatment biopsies after 10 Gy chemoradiation were obtained. DNA/RNA was extracted and gene promoter methylation status was evaluated by custom-synthesized methylation PCR arrays, and the corresponding gene transcript expression was determined by absolute quantification method using quantitative reverse transcription PCR.
Results: Changes in the gene promoter methylation as well as gene expression following chemoradiation therapy were observed. BAX promoter methylation showed a significant increase (P< 0.01) following treatment. There was a significant increase in the gene transcript expression of BRCA1 (P< 0.01), DAPK1 and ESR1 (P< 0.05), whereas MYOD1 and MLH1 gene transcript expression was significantly decreased (P< 0.05) following treatment.
Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of our study show that chemoradiation therapy can induce epigenetic alterations as well as affect gene expression in tissues of invasive cervical cancer which may have implications in determining radiation response.

Dębniak T, Scott RJ, Lea RA, et al.
Founder Mutations for Early Onset Melanoma as Revealed by Whole Exome Sequencing Suggests That This is Not Associated with the Increasing Incidence of Melanoma in Poland.
Cancer Res Treat. 2019; 51(1):337-344 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Germline mutations within melanoma susceptibility genes are present only in minority of melanoma patients and it is expected that additional genes will be discovered with next generation sequence technology and whole-exome sequencing (WES).
Materials and Methods: Herein we performed WES on a cohort of 96 unrelated Polish patients with melanoma diagnosed under the age of 40 years who all screened negative for the presence of CDKN2Avariants. A replication study using a set of 1,200 melanoma patient DNA samples and similarly large series of healthy controls was undertaken.
RESULTS: We selected 21 potentially deleterious variants in 20 genes (VRK1, MYCT1, DNAH14, CASC3, MS4A12, PRC1, WWOX, CARD6, EXO5, CASC3, CASP8AP2, STK33, SAMD11, CNDP2, CPNE1, EFCAB6, CABLES1, LEKR1, NUDT17, and RRP15), which were identified by WES and confirmed by Sanger sequencing for an association study. Evaluation of the allele distribution among carriers and their relatives in available family trios revealed that these variants were unlikely to account for many familial cases of melanoma. Replication study revealed no statistically significant differences between cases and controls.
CONCLUSION: Although most of the changes seemed to be neutral we could not exclude an association between variants in VRK1, CREB3L3, EXO5, and STK33 with melanoma risk.

Zhang S, Li LH, Qiao HM, et al.
Regulation of the Antioxidant Response by MyoD Transcriptional Coactivator in Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer Cells.
Urology. 2019; 123:296.e9-296.e18 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: To reveal the potential role of the basic helix-loop-helix myogenic transcription regulator MyoD in the regulation of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
METHODS: Expression level of MyoD was assessed in prostate cancer tissues using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry and in experimentally induced castration-resistant LNCaP/R cells using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Effect of MyoD knockdown on LNCaP/R cell progression was determined by assessing cell proliferation, apoptosis, and colony formation rate. The effect of MyoD knockdown on the oxidative stress state in PC3 cells was determined by assessing antioxidant response gene expression and glutathione synthetase-to-glutathione ratio. Finally, the functional link between the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 1 (NRF1) and the regulation of antioxidant response element-driven transcription by MyoD was studied at both molecular and functional levels.
RESULTS: MyoD expression was significantly upregulated in hormone-refractory prostate cancer tissues and in experimentally induced castration-resistant LNCaP/R cells, and MyoD knockdown effectively impaired LNCaP/R cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis under androgen-depleted condition. Moreover, MyoD enhanced the glutathione production and protected against oxidative stress by positively regulating a cluster of antioxidant genes known to be the downstream targets of NRF1. Mechanistically, MyoD could augment the antioxidant response element-driven transcription in an NRF1-dependent manner, and the stimulatory effect of MyoD on the antioxidant response was substantially compromised in the presence of NRF1 small interfering RNA treatment.
CONCLUSION: We have identified an unexpected collaboration between MyoD and NRF1 under androgen-depleted condition, which may serve as an important adaptive mechanism during the pathogenesis of castration-resistant prostate cancer.

Salazar-Degracia A, Busquets S, Argilés JM, et al.
Effects of the beta
Biochimie. 2018; 149:79-91 [PubMed] Related Publications
Muscle mass loss and wasting are characteristic features of patients with chronic conditions including cancer. Beta-adrenoceptors attenuate muscle wasting. We hypothesized that specific muscle atrophy signaling pathways and altered metabolism may be attenuated in cancer cachectic animals receiving treatment with the beta

Folpe AL, Graham RP, Martinez A, et al.
Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas showing immunohistochemical evidence of rhabdomyoblastic differentiation: a potential diagnostic pitfall.
Hum Pathol. 2018; 77:28-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
The diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, a distinctive biphasic malignant neoplasm harboring the HEY1-NCOA2 gene fusion and consisting of primitive round to spindled cells admixed with foci of relatively mature hyaline cartilage, is usually straightforward by morphologic evaluation alone. However, in the setting of a limited biopsy, specimens lacking cartilage generate a broad differential diagnosis, encompassing a variety of other primitive sarcomas, including spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma. Although a small number of cases of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with aberrant skeletal muscle marker expression have been reported, pathologists are largely unaware of this potential diagnostic pitfall. We report 6 additional cases of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma showing expression of multiple skeletal muscle markers, including one case initially misdiagnosed as "spindle cell/sclerosing rhabdomyosarcoma" on needle biopsy. Awareness of this phenomenon and judicious application of molecular diagnostic testing for the HEY1-NCOA2 fusion are critical to avoid misclassification of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma as rhabdomyosarcoma, with potentially adverse patient impact.

Zhou Z, Ai H, Li K, et al.
Prohibitin 2 localizes in nucleolus to regulate ribosomal RNA transcription and facilitate cell proliferation in RD cells.
Sci Rep. 2018; 8(1):1479 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Prohibitin 2 (PHB2), as a conserved multifunctional protein, is traditionally localized in the mitochondrial inner membrane and essential for maintenance of mitochondrial function. Here, we investigated the role of PHB2 in human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) RD cells and found substantial localization of PHB2 in the nucleolus. We demonstrated that PHB2 knockdown inhibited RD cell proliferation through inducing cell cycle arrest and suppressing DNA synthesis. Meanwhile, down-regulation of PHB2 also induced apoptosis and promoted differentiation in fractions of RD cells. In addition, PHB2 silencing led to altered nucleolar morphology, as observed by transmission electron microscopy, and impaired nucleolar function, as evidenced by down-regulation of 45S and 18S ribosomal RNA synthesis. Consistently, upon PHB2 knockdown, occupancy of c-Myc at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) promoter was attenuated, while more myoblast determination protein 1 (MyoD) molecules bound to the rDNA promoter. In conclusion, our findings suggest that nucleolar PHB2 is involved in maintaining nucleolar morphology and function in RD cells by regulating a variety of transcription factors, which is likely to be one of the underlying mechanisms by which PHB2 promotes tumor proliferation and represses differentiation. Our study provides new insight into the pathogenesis of RMS and novel characterizations of the highly conserved PHB2 protein.

Wang R, Bhat-Nakshatri P, Padua MB, et al.
Pharmacological Dual Inhibition of Tumor and Tumor-Induced Functional Limitations in a Transgenic Model of Breast Cancer.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(12):2747-2758 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Breast cancer progression is associated with systemic effects, including functional limitations and sarcopenia without the appearance of overt cachexia. Autocrine/paracrine actions of cytokines/chemokines produced by cancer cells mediate cancer progression and functional limitations. The cytokine-inducible transcription factor NF-κB could be central to this process, as it displays oncogenic functions and is integral to the Pax7:MyoD:Pgc-1β:miR-486 myogenesis axis. We tested this possibility using the MMTV-PyMT transgenic mammary tumor model and the NF-κB inhibitor dimethylaminoparthenolide (DMAPT). We observed deteriorating physical and functional conditions in PyMT

Arbajian E, Köster J, Vult von Steyern F, Mertens F
Inflammatory leiomyosarcoma is a distinct tumor characterized by near-haploidization, few somatic mutations, and a primitive myogenic gene expression signature.
Mod Pathol. 2018; 31(1):93-100 [PubMed] Related Publications
Inflammatory leiomyosarcoma is a soft-tissue tumor resembling conventional leiomyosarcoma, but with a prominent intrinsic inflammatory component. Previous studies have suggested that inflammatory leiomyosarcoma differs genetically from leiomyosarcoma, but in-depth analyses are lacking. Here we provide a comprehensive picture of the genome and transcriptome of inflammatory leiomyosarcoma by combining cytogenetic, single-nucleotide polymorphism array, mRNA-sequencing, and whole-exome sequencing data. The results show that inflammatory leiomyosarcoma has a specific genetic profile characterized by near-haploidization with or without subsequent whole-genome doubling. Consistently, both parental copies of chromosomes 5 and 22 are preserved. Apart from recurrent mutation of the NF1 gene, additional somatic events that could serve as driver mutations were not found at either the nucleotide or the genome level. Furthermore, no fusion transcripts were identified. Global gene expression profiling revealed particularly prominent differential expression of genes, including ITGA7, MYF5, MYF6, MYOD1, MYOG, and PAX7, involved in muscle development and function, providing strong argument for grouping inflammatory leiomyosarcoma with myogenic sarcomas, rather than with myofibroblastic lesions. Combined with previously published data, there are now 10 cases of inflammatory leiomyosarcoma with confirmed near-haploid genotype. These patients differ from leiomyosarcoma patients in being younger (median 41 years), showing a male predominance (9:1), and few relapses (1 of 8 informative patients). Thus, the clinical, morphological, and genetic data provide compelling support for inflammatory leiomyosarcoma being a distinct subtype of myogenic tumors.

Rotterova P, Martinek P, Alaghehbandan R, et al.
High-grade renal cell carcinoma with emperipolesis: Clinicopathological, immunohistochemical and molecular-genetic analysis of 14 cases.
Histol Histopathol. 2018; 33(3):277-287 [PubMed] Related Publications
Emperipolesis has recently been described as a constant feature of "biphasic squamoid" papillary renal cell carcinoma (BPRCC). We also noticed this in some high-grade (HG) RCC, which promoted the present study to estimate the incidence of emperipolesis in RCCs and to describe them in further detail. 14 cases of HGRCC showing emperipolesis were retrieved from our registry. Microscopic examination of filed slides was supplemented with immunohistochemical and molecular-genetic analyses using paraffin embedded tissue. 12 of 14 patients were males with a mean age of 58.6 years (range 41-72 years). Tumor size ranged from 6-16.5 cm (mean of 8.8 cm). Follow up data were available for 8/14 patients (range 0.5-10 years). Metastases were documented in 6 cases. All tumors showed solid-alveolar growth patterns with focal pseudopapillary features, and were composed of large cells with bizarre nuclei and eosinophilic rhabdoid-like cytoplasm. Emperipolesis was a constant and prominent feature in large bizarre cells. All cases were positive for OSCAR, CANH 9, vimentin, cyclin D1, INI-1, and myoD1, while negative for melanocytic markers, CK 7, myoglobin, cathepsin K, and TFE3. VHL gene abnormalities were found in 6/9 analyzable cases, of which 2 demonstrated polysomy of chromosomes 7, 17. Emperipolesis is a rare histomorphologic feature which can be seen not only in BPRCCs but also in highgrade CCRCCs. All RCC cases with prominent emperipolesis fulfilled both morphologic and immunohistochemical diagnostic criteria of high-grade CCRCC. The majority of patients with available follow up information developed metastases.

Zhang Q, Liu XY, Li S, et al.
Repression of ESR1 transcription by MYOD potentiates letrozole-resistance in ERα-positive breast cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017; 492(3):425-433 [PubMed] Related Publications
Transcriptional silencing of estrogen receptor α (ERα) expression is an important etiology contributing to the letrozole-resistance in ERα-positive breast cancer (BCa) cells, but the transcription factors responsible for this transcriptional repression remain largely unidentified. Here we report that the expression of the basic helix-loop-helix myogenic regulatory factor MYOD was abnormally up-regulated in letrozole-resistant BCa tissues and in experimentally-induced letrozole-resistant BCa cells. Overexpression of the exogenous MYOD impaired ERα expression and potentiated letrozole-resistance in letrozole-sensitive MCF7 cells, whereas MYOD knockdown could effectively restore ERα expression and thereby promote letrozole-sensitivity in letrozole-resistant MCF-7/LR cells. Mechanistically, MYOD was shown to be a potent corepressor of ESR1 transcription, and this transcriptional repression was significantly enhanced in the presence of letrozole treatment. Thus, targeted inhibition of MYOD may restore ERα level and lead to resensitization to letrozole-based hormone therapy, providing a novel therapeutic strategy for relapsed ERα-positive BCa patients. Our data also underscore an unexpected chemotherapeutic facet of MYOD, which may operate as a novel regulator of BCa biology.

Tarnowski M, Tkacz M, Zgutka K, et al.
Picropodophyllin (PPP) is a potent rhabdomyosarcoma growth inhibitor both in vitro and in vivo.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):532 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factors and insulin are important factors promoting cancer growth and metastasis. The molecules act through IGF1 (IGF1R) and insulin (InsR) receptors. Rhambodmyosarcomas (RMS) overproduce IGF2 - a potent ligand for IGF1R and, at the same time, highly express IGF1 receptor. The purpose of the study was to evaluate possible application of picropodophyllin (PPP) - a potent IGF1R inhibitor.
METHODS: In our study we used a number of in vitro assays showing influence of IGF1R blockage on RMS cell lines (both ARMS and ERMS) proliferation, migration, adhesion, cell cycling and signal transduction pathways. Additionally, we tested possible concomitant application of PPP with commonly used chemotherapeutics (vincristine, actinomycin-D and cisplatin). Moreover, we performed an in vivo study where PPP was injected intraperitoneally into RMS tumor bearing SCID mice.
RESULTS: We observed that PPP strongly inhibits RMS proliferation, chemotaxis and adhesion. What is more, application of the IGF1R inhibitor attenuates MAPK phosphorylation and cause cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. PPP increases sensitivity of RMS cell lines to chemotherapy, specifically to vincristine and cisplatin. In our in vivo studies we noted that mice treated with PPP grew smaller tumors and displayed significantly decreased seeding into bone marrow.
CONCLUSIONS: The cyclolignan PPP effectively inhibits RMS tumor proliferation and metastasis in vitro and in an animal model.

Emmett RA, Davidson KL, Gould NJ, Arasaradnam RP
DNA methylation patterns in ulcerative colitis-associated cancer: a systematic review.
Epigenomics. 2017; 9(7):1029-1042 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Evidence points to the role of DNA methylation in ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated cancer (UCC), the most serious complication of ulcerative colitis. A better understanding of the etiology of UCC may facilitate the development of new therapeutic targets and help to identify biomarkers of the disease risk.
METHODS: A search was performed in three databases following PRISMA protocol. DNA methylation in UCC was compared with sporadic colorectal cancer (SCRC), and individual genes differently methylated in UCC identified.
RESULTS: While there were some similarities in the methylation patterns of UCC compared with SCRC, generally lower levels of hypermethylation in promoter regions of individual genes was evident in UCC. Certain individual genes are, however, highly methylated in colitis-associated cancer: RUNX3, MINT1, MYOD and p16 exon1 and the promoter regions of EYA4 and ESR.
CONCLUSION: Patterns of DNA methylation differ between UCC and SCRC. Seven genes appear to be promising putative biomarkers.

Tahara S, Tahara T, Tuskamoto T, et al.
Morphologic characterization of residual DNA methylation in the gastric mucosa after Helicobacter pylori eradication.
Cancer Med. 2017; 6(7):1730-1737 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Residual DNA methylation in the gastric mucosa after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication may have a role in gastric carcinogenesis. We examined the association between morphologic features and promoter methylation status of non-neoplastic gastric mucosa especially after H. pylori eradication. A total of 140 gastric specimens from 99 participants who had at least 6 months of post-eradication period were examined. The magnifying narrow-band imaging (NBI) endoscopic feature of gastric mucosa was divided into two types: restored-small, round pits, accompanied with honeycomb-like subepithelial capillary networks; atrophic-well-demarcated oval or tubulovillous pits with clearly visible coiled or wavy vessels. Methylation status of five candidate genes (MYOD1, SLC16A12, IGF2, RORA, and PRDM5) were examined by bisulfite pyrosequencing. The atrophic type, informative endoscopic features of intestinal metaplasia, demonstrated higher methylation levels in all five genes compared to the restored type (all P < 0.0001). In the restored type, methylation levels were significantly lower among the samples with longer post-eradication period (for all genes, P < 0.0001), which was not observed in atrophic type (for all genes, P > 0.1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that atrophic type or presence of intestinal held an independent factor for hyper methylation (odds ratio: 24.69, 95% confidence interval: 6.95-87.76, P < 0.0001). The atrophic type by the magnifying NBI and presence of intestinal metaplasia are the morphologic characteristics of residual DNA methylation of after H. pylori eradication, regardless of the post-eradication period and it might be considered as the epigenetic irreversible point with H. pylori eradication.

Sambuudash O, Kim HS, Cho MY
Lack of Aberrant Methylation in an Adjacent Area of Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer.
Yonsei Med J. 2017; 58(4):749-755 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: The molecular nature and the rate-limiting step of epigenetic field defects in the evolution of left-sided colorectal cancer (LCA) remain uncertain.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The methylation status of 27 candidate field defect markers, six classic CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) markers, and LINE-1 were determined in LCA and adjacent normal mucosas (ADJs) from 33 LCA patients and in left normal colorectal mucosa (LNM) from 33 age- and sex-matched controls. Hotspot mutation analyses in KRAS codons 12 and 13 and BRAF V600E were performed by genomic PCR and pyrosequencing using DNA extracted from endoscopically biopsied tissues.
RESULTS: Among the 27 candidate genes tested, we confirmed 15 differentially methylated genes in cancer (15 DMGs; ER, SFRP1, MYOD1, MGMT, CD8a, SPOCK2, ABHD9, BNIP3, IGFBP3, WIF1, MAL, GDNF, ALX4, DOK5, and SLC16A12) in comparison to ADJ samples. We further compared the methylation status of 15 DMGs of ADJs to LNM and found only methylation levels of SLC16A12 in ADJs of LCA patients to be significantly higher than that in LNM (17.3% vs. 11.5%, p=0.002). Based on the CIMP, no significant differences in methylation levels of the 15 DMGs were found between ADJs in CIMP positive LCA cases and those without CIMP. In mutation analyses, no mutation was found in ADJs, while significant KRAS mutations (6/33, 18%) were noted in LCA samples.
CONCLUSION: Epigenetic field defect marked by aberrant methylation is uncommon in normal-appearing ADJs of LCA, indicating the critical rate-limiting change of methylation is likely to occur with morphological alterations in the evolution of LCA.

Clarke MA, Luhn P, Gage JC, et al.
Discovery and validation of candidate host DNA methylation markers for detection of cervical precancer and cancer.
Int J Cancer. 2017; 141(4):701-710 [PubMed] Related Publications
Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing has been recently introduced as an alternative to cytology for cervical cancer screening. However, since most HPV infections clear without causing clinically relevant lesions, additional triage tests are required to identify women who are at high risk of developing cancer. We performed DNA methylation profiling on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from women with benign HPV16 infection and histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3, and cancer using a bead-based microarray covering 1,500 CpG sites in over 800 genes. Methylation levels in individual CpG sites were compared using a t-test, and results were summarized by computing p-values. A total of 12 candidate genes (ADCYAP1, ASCL1, ATP10, CADM1, DCC, DBC1, HS3ST2, MOS, MYOD1, SOX1, SOX17 and TMEFF2) identified by DNA methylation profiling, plus an additional three genes identified from the literature (EPB41L3, MAL and miR-124) were chosen for validation in an independent set of 167 liquid-based cytology specimens using pyrosequencing and targeted, next-generation bisulfite sequencing. Of the 15 candidate gene markers, 10 had an area under the curve (AUC) of ≥ 0.75 for discrimination of high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or worse (HSIL+) from

Gryder BE, Yohe ME, Chou HC, et al.
PAX3-FOXO1 Establishes Myogenic Super Enhancers and Confers BET Bromodomain Vulnerability.
Cancer Discov. 2017; 7(8):884-899 [PubMed] Related Publications
Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma is a life-threatening myogenic cancer of children and adolescent young adults, driven primarily by the chimeric transcription factor PAX3-FOXO1. The mechanisms by which PAX3-FOXO1 dysregulates chromatin are unknown. We find PAX3-FOXO1 reprograms the

Zhao L, Liu Y, Tong D, et al.
MeCP2 Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression Through Regulating FOXF1/Wnt5a/β-Catenin and MYOD1/Caspase-3 Signaling Pathways.
EBioMedicine. 2017; 16:87-100 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) has recently been characterized as an oncogene frequently amplified in several types of cancer. However, its precise role in gastric cancer (GC) and the molecular mechanism of MeCP2 regulation are still largely unknown. Here we report that MeCP2 is highly expressed in primary GC tissues and the expression level is correlated with the clinicopathologic features of GC. In our experiments, knockdown of MeCP2 inhibited tumor growth. Molecular mechanism of MeCP2 regulation was investigated using an integrated approach with combination of microarray analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq). The results suggest that MeCP2 binds to the methylated CpG islands of FOXF1 and MYOD1 promoters and inhibits their expression at the transcription level. Furthermore, we show that MeCP2 promotes GC cell proliferation via FOXF1-mediated Wnt5a/β-Catenin signaling pathway and suppresses apoptosis through MYOD1-mediated Caspase-3 signaling pathway. Due to its high expression level in GC and its critical function in driving GC progression, MeCP2 represents a promising therapeutic target for GC treatment.

Tenente IM, Hayes MN, Ignatius MS, et al.
Myogenic regulatory transcription factors regulate growth in rhabdomyosarcoma.
Elife. 2017; 6 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric malignacy of muscle with myogenic regulatory transcription factors MYOD and MYF5 being expressed in this disease. Consensus in the field has been that expression of these factors likely reflects the target cell of transformation rather than being required for continued tumor growth. Here, we used a transgenic zebrafish model to show that Myf5 is sufficient to confer tumor-propagating potential to RMS cells and caused tumors to initiate earlier and have higher penetrance. Analysis of human RMS revealed that MYF5 and MYOD are mutually-exclusively expressed and each is required for sustained tumor growth. ChIP-seq and mechanistic studies in human RMS uncovered that MYF5 and MYOD bind common DNA regulatory elements to alter transcription of genes that regulate muscle development and cell cycle progression. Our data support unappreciated and dominant oncogenic roles for MYF5 and MYOD convergence on common transcriptional targets to regulate human RMS growth.

Arnold MA, Barr FG
Molecular diagnostics in the management of rhabdomyosarcoma.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn. 2017; 17(2):189-194 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
INTRODUCTION: A classification of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) with prognostic relevance has primarily relied on clinical features and histologic classification as either embryonal or alveolar RMS. The PAX3-FOXO1 and PAX7-FOXO1 gene fusions occur in 80% of cases with the alveolar subtype and are more predictive of outcome than histologic classification. Identifying additional molecular hallmarks that further subclassify RMS is an active area of research. Areas Covered: The authors review the current state of the PAX3-FOXO1 and PAX7-FOXO1 fusions as prognostic biomarkers. Emerging biomarkers, including mRNA expression profiling, MYOD1 mutations, RAS pathway mutations and gene fusions involving NCOA2 or VGLL2 are also reviewed. Expert commentary: Strategies for modifying RMS risk stratification based on molecular biomarkers are emerging with the potential to transform the clinical management of RMS, ultimately improving patient outcomes by tailoring therapy to predicted patient risk and identifying targets for novel therapies.

Phelps MP, Bailey JN, Vleeshouwer-Neumann T, Chen EY
CRISPR screen identifies the NCOR/HDAC3 complex as a major suppressor of differentiation in rhabdomyosarcoma.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(52):15090-15095 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Dysregulated gene expression resulting from abnormal epigenetic alterations including histone acetylation and deacetylation has been demonstrated to play an important role in driving tumor growth and progression. However, the mechanisms by which specific histone deacetylases (HDACs) regulate differentiation in solid tumors remains unclear. Using pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) as a paradigm to elucidate the mechanism blocking differentiation in solid tumors, we identified HDAC3 as a major suppressor of myogenic differentiation from a high-efficiency Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based phenotypic screen of class I and II HDAC genes. Detailed characterization of the HDAC3-knockout phenotype in vitro and in vivo using a tamoxifen-inducible CRISPR targeting strategy demonstrated that HDAC3 deacetylase activity and the formation of a functional complex with nuclear receptor corepressors (NCORs) were critical in restricting differentiation in RMS. The NCOR/HDAC3 complex specifically functions by blocking myoblast determination protein 1 (MYOD1)-mediated activation of myogenic differentiation. Interestingly, there was also a transient up-regulation of growth-promoting genes upon initial HDAC3 targeting, revealing a unique cancer-specific response to the forced transition from a neoplastic state to terminal differentiation. Our study applied modifications of CRISPR/CRISPR-associated endonuclease 9 (Cas9) technology to interrogate the function of essential cancer genes and pathways and has provided insights into cancer cell adaptation in response to altered differentiation status. Because current pan-HDAC inhibitors have shown disappointing results in clinical trials of solid tumors, therapeutic targets specific to HDAC3 function represent a promising option for differentiation therapy in malignant tumors with dysregulated HDAC3 activity.

Tanaka N, Kosaka T, Miyazaki Y, et al.
Acquired platinum resistance involves epithelial to mesenchymal transition through ubiquitin ligase FBXO32 dysregulation.
JCI Insight. 2016; 1(18):e83654 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
To identify the molecules involved in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in urothelial carcinoma (UC) after acquisition of platinum resistance, here we examined the changes in global gene expression before and after platinum treatment. Four invasive UC cell lines, T24, 5637, and their corresponding sublines T24PR and 5637PR with acquired platinum resistance, were assessed by microarray, and the ubiquitin E3 ligase FBXO32 was newly identified as a negative regulator of EMT in UC tumors after acquisition of platinum resistance. In vitro and in vivo studies showed an intimate relationship between FBXO32 expression and EMT, demonstrating that FBXO32 dysregulation in T24PR cells results in elevated expression of the mesenchymal molecules SNAIL and vimentin and decreased expression of the epithelial molecule E-cadherin. The association between FBXO32 expression and EMT was further validated using clinical samples. Knockdown of MyoD expression, a specific target of FBXO32 polyubiquitination, revealed upregulation of E-cadherin expression and downregulation of SNAIL and vimentin expression in T24PR cells. Comparative genomic hybridization array analysis demonstrated loss of heterozygosity at 8q24.13 in T24PR cells, which harbors FBXO32. Our findings suggest the importance of the association between EMT and ubiquitin-proteasome regulation when tumors develop acquired platinum resistance.

Andresini O, Ciotti A, Rossi MN, et al.
A cross-talk between DNA methylation and H3 lysine 9 dimethylation at the KvDMR1 region controls the induction of Cdkn1c in muscle cells.
Epigenetics. 2016; 11(11):791-803 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The cdk inhibitor p57

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