Gene Summary

Gene:NEDD9; neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9
Aliases: CAS2, CASL, HEF1, CAS-L, CASS2
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the CRK-associated substrates family. Members of this family are adhesion docking molecules that mediate protein-protein interactions for signal transduction pathways. This protein is a focal adhesion protein that acts as a scaffold to regulate signaling complexes important in cell attachment, migration and invasion as well as apoptosis and the cell cycle. This protein has also been reported to have a role in cancer metastasis. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Aug 2012]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:enhancer of filamentation 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
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Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: NEDD9 (cancer-related)

Börnigen D, Tyekucheva S, Wang X, et al.
Computational Reconstruction of NFκB Pathway Interaction Mechanisms during Prostate Cancer.
PLoS Comput Biol. 2016; 12(4):e1004820 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular research in cancer is one of the largest areas of bioinformatic investigation, but it remains a challenge to understand biomolecular mechanisms in cancer-related pathways from high-throughput genomic data. This includes the Nuclear-factor-kappa-B (NFκB) pathway, which is central to the inflammatory response and cell proliferation in prostate cancer development and progression. Despite close scrutiny and a deep understanding of many of its members' biomolecular activities, the current list of pathway members and a systems-level understanding of their interactions remains incomplete. Here, we provide the first steps toward computational reconstruction of interaction mechanisms of the NFκB pathway in prostate cancer. We identified novel roles for ATF3, CXCL2, DUSP5, JUNB, NEDD9, SELE, TRIB1, and ZFP36 in this pathway, in addition to new mechanistic interactions between these genes and 10 known NFκB pathway members. A newly predicted interaction between NEDD9 and ZFP36 in particular was validated by co-immunoprecipitation, as was NEDD9's potential biological role in prostate cancer cell growth regulation. We combined 651 gene expression datasets with 1.4M gene product interactions to predict the inclusion of 40 additional genes in the pathway. Molecular mechanisms of interaction among pathway members were inferred using recent advances in Bayesian data integration to simultaneously provide information specific to biological contexts and individual biomolecular activities, resulting in a total of 112 interactions in the fully reconstructed NFκB pathway: 13 (11%) previously known, 29 (26%) supported by existing literature, and 70 (63%) novel. This method is generalizable to other tissue types, cancers, and organisms, and this new information about the NFκB pathway will allow us to further understand prostate cancer and to develop more effective prevention and treatment strategies.

Mariotti S, Barravecchia I, Vindigni C, et al.
MICAL2 is a novel human cancer gene controlling mesenchymal to epithelial transition involved in cancer growth and invasion.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(2):1808-25 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The MICAL (Molecules Interacting with CasL) proteins catalyze actin oxidation-reduction reactions destabilizing F-actin in cytoskeletal dynamics. Here we show for the first time that MICAL2 mRNA is significantly over-expressed in aggressive, poorly differentiated/undifferentiated, primary human epithelial cancers (gastric and renal). Immunohistochemistry showed MICAL2-positive cells on the cancer invasive front and in metastasizing cancer cells inside emboli, but not at sites of metastasis, suggesting MICAL2 expression was 'on' in a subpopulation of primary cancer cells seemingly detaching from the tissue of origin, enter emboli and travel to distant sites, and was turned 'off' upon homing at metastatic sites. In vitro, MICAL2 knock-down resulted in mesenchymal to epithelial transition, reduction of viability, and loss of motility and invasion properties of human cancer cells. Moreover, expression of MICAL2 cDNA in MICAL2-depleted cells induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Altogether our data indicate that MICAL2 over-expression is associated with cancer progression and metastatic disease. MICAL2 might be an important regulator of epithelial to mesenchymal transition and therefore a promising target for anti-metastatic therapy.

Pathak HB, Zhou Y, Sethi G, et al.
A Synthetic Lethality Screen Using a Focused siRNA Library to Identify Sensitizers to Dasatinib Therapy for the Treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0144126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Molecular targeted therapies have been the focus of recent clinical trials for the treatment of patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The majority have not fared well as monotherapies for improving survival of these patients. Poor bioavailability, lack of predictive biomarkers, and the presence of multiple survival pathways can all diminish the success of a targeted agent. Dasatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the Src-family kinases (SFK) and in preclinical studies shown to have substantial activity in EOC. However, when evaluated in a phase 2 clinical trial for patients with recurrent or persistent EOC, it was found to have minimal activity. We hypothesized that synthetic lethality screens performed using a cogently designed siRNA library would identify second-site molecular targets that could synergize with SFK inhibition and improve dasatinib efficacy. Using a systematic approach, we performed primary siRNA screening using a library focused on 638 genes corresponding to a network centered on EGFR, HER2, and the SFK-scaffolding proteins BCAR1, NEDD9, and EFS to screen EOC cells in combination with dasatinib. We followed up with validation studies including deconvolution screening, quantitative PCR to confirm effective gene silencing, correlation of gene expression with dasatinib sensitivity, and assessment of the clinical relevance of hits using TCGA ovarian cancer data. A refined list of five candidates (CSNK2A1, DAG1, GRB2, PRKCE, and VAV1) was identified as showing the greatest potential for improving sensitivity to dasatinib in EOC. Of these, CSNK2A1, which codes for the catalytic alpha subunit of protein kinase CK2, was selected for additional evaluation. Synergistic activity of the clinically relevant inhibitor of CK2, CX-4945, with dasatinib in reducing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis was observed across multiple EOC cell lines. This overall approach to improving drug efficacy can be applied to other targeted agents that have similarly shown poor clinical activity.

Syed P, Gupta S, Choudhary S, et al.
Autoantibody Profiling of Glioma Serum Samples to Identify Biomarkers Using Human Proteome Arrays.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:13895 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The heterogeneity and poor prognosis associated with gliomas, makes biomarker identification imperative. Here, we report autoantibody signatures across various grades of glioma serum samples and sub-categories of glioblastoma multiforme using Human Proteome chips containing ~17000 full-length human proteins. The deduced sets of classifier proteins helped to distinguish Grade II, III and IV samples from the healthy subjects with 88, 89 and 94% sensitivity and 87, 100 and 73% specificity, respectively. Proteins namely, SNX1, EYA1, PQBP1 and IGHG1 showed dysregulation across various grades. Sub-classes of GBM, based on its proximity to the sub-ventricular zone, have been reported to have different prognostic outcomes. To this end, we identified dysregulation of NEDD9, a protein involved in cell migration, with probable prognostic potential. Another subcategory of patients where the IDH1 gene is mutated, are known to have better prognosis as compared to patients carrying the wild type gene. On a comparison of these two cohorts, we found STUB1 and YWHAH proteins dysregulated in Grade II glioma patients. In addition to common pathways associated with tumourigenesis, we found enrichment of immunoregulatory and cytoskeletal remodelling pathways, emphasizing the need to explore biochemical alterations arising due to autoimmune responses in glioma.

Wang J, Yang WJ, Sun C, et al.
siRNA Suppression of NEDD9 Inhibits Proliferation and Enhances Apoptosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Oncol Res. 2014; 22(4):219-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal of all genitourinary malignancies. NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L is a member of the Cas protein family and is known as a biomarker in multiple cancer types. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that NEDD9 was upregulated in RCC tissue and cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis and quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed low expression of NEDD9 in normal renal tissues and high expression in RCC tissues. In addition, in vitro experiments show that expression of NEDD9 was upregulated in RCC cell lines. Through MTT assay, we observed that NEDD9 knockdown inhibited cell proliferation. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis showed that NEDD9 downregulation induced apoptosis. Together, our data suggest that abnormal NEDD9 protein expression may be a marker for RCC, and NEDD9 knockdown suppresses cell growth.

Zhang S, Wu L
Roles of neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 in tumor-associated cellular processes (Review).
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(5):6415-21 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9), a gene exclusively expressed in the brain during embryonic stages but not in brains of adult mice, is an important cytoskeletal protein and regarded as a 'router/hub' in cellular signal transduction processes connecting external stimulation signals with downstream target proteins that can directly promote tumor metastasis. Numerous studies showed that NEDD9 has an essential role in cell proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, migration and invasion. The roles of NEDD9, including the underlying mechanisms of its regulation of cell migration, its distinctive functions in various tumor stages and its association with other diseases, are required to be elucidated at large. Future studies of NEDD9 may provide a more profound understanding of the development of tumor invasiveness and NEDD9 may serve as a potential novel target for tumor therapy. The present review examined the significant roles of NEDD9 in the abovementioned processes.

Gu X, Wang Y, Wang H, et al.
Upregulated PFTK1 promotes tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in breast cancer.
Med Oncol. 2015; 32(7):195 [PubMed] Related Publications
PFTK1 was a cell division cycle 2-related serine/threonine protein kinase, which was up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and breast cancer lines. And up-regulated PFTK1 was highly associated with grade, axillary lymph node status, and Ki-67. Moreover, Kaplan-Meier curve showed that up-regulated PFTK1 was related to the poor breast carcinoma patients' overall survival. Here, we first discovered and confirmed that cyclin B was a new interacting protein of PFTK1, and the complex might increase the amount of DVL2, which triggers Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Furthermore, knockdown of PFTK1 attenuated cell proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, and cell migration and invasion by inhibiting the transcriptional activation of β-catenin for cyclin D1, MMP9, and HEF1, whereas exogenous expression of PFTK1 might promote MDA-MB-231 cells proliferation, migration, and invasion via promoting PFTK1-DVL2-β-catenin axis. Our findings supported the notion that up-regulated PFTK1 might promote breast cancer progression and metastasis by activating Wnt signaling pathway through the PFTK1-DVL2-β-catenin axis.

Rousseau B, Jacquot C, Le Palabe J, et al.
TP53 transcription factor for the NEDD9/HEF1/Cas-L gene: potential targets in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer treatment.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:10356 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer is a serious public health problem. Although there has been significant progress in chemotherapy, non-small cell lung cancer is still resistant to current treatments, primarily because of the slow rate of cell development. It is thus important to find new molecules directed against targets other than proliferation agents. Considering the high proportion of mutant proteins in tumor cells, and the high rate of mutation of the TP53 gene in all cancers, and in NSCLC in particular, this gene is a perfect target. Certain new molecules have been shown to restore the activity of mutated p53 protein, for example PRIMA-1, which reactivates the His273 mutant p53. In a previous study, we presented triazine A190, a molecule with a cytostatic activity that blocks cells in the G1 phase and induces apoptosis. Here, we show that A190 not only restores mutant p53 activity, but also induces an overexpression of the NEDD9 gene, leading to apoptotic death. These findings might offer hope for the development of new targeted therapies, specific to tumor cells, which spare healthy cells.

Shagisultanova E, Gaponova AV, Gabbasov R, et al.
Preclinical and clinical studies of the NEDD9 scaffold protein in cancer and other diseases.
Gene. 2015; 567(1):1-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer progression requires a significant reprogramming of cellular signaling to support the essential tumor-specific processes that include hyperproliferation, invasion (for solid tumors) and survival of metastatic colonies. NEDD9 (also known as CasL and HEF1) encodes a multi-domain scaffolding protein that assembles signaling complexes regulating multiple cellular processes relevant to cancer. These include responsiveness to signals emanating from the T and B cell receptors, integrins, chemokine receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases, as well as cytoplasmic oncogenes such as BCR-ABL and FAK- and SRC-family kinases. Downstream, NEDD9 regulation of partners including CRKL, WAVE, PI3K/AKT, ERK, E-cadherin, Aurora-A (AURKA), HDAC6, and others allow NEDD9 to influence functions as pleiotropic as migration, invasion, survival, ciliary resorption, and mitosis. In this review, we summarize a growing body of preclinical and clinical data that indicate that while NEDD9 is itself non-oncogenic, changes in expression of NEDD9 (most commonly elevation of expression) are common features of tumors, and directly impact tumor aggressiveness, metastasis, and response to at least some targeted agents inhibiting NEDD9-interacting proteins. These data strongly support the relevance of further development of NEDD9 as a biomarker for therapeutic resistance. Finally, we briefly discuss emerging evidence supporting involvement of NEDD9 in additional pathological conditions, including stroke and polycystic kidney disease.

Dehghan Esmatabadi MJ, Farhangi B, Safari Z, et al.
Dendrosomal curcumin inhibits metastatic potential of human SW480 colon cancer cells through Down-regulation of Claudin1, Zeb1 and Hef1-1 gene expression.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(6):2473-81 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-associated death worldwide. The prognosis for advanced colorectal cancers remains dismal, mainly due to the propensity for metastatic progression. Accordingly, there is a need for effective anti-metastasis therapeutic agents. Since a great body of research has indicated anticancer effects for curcumin, we investigated the effects of dendrosomal curcumin (DNC) on cellular migration and adhesion of human SW480 cells and possible molecular mechanisms involved. Different methods were applied in this study including MTT, Scratch and adhesion assays as well as real-time PCR and transwell chamber assays. Based on the results obtained, DNC inhibits metastasis by decreasing Hef 1, Zeb 1 and Claudin 1 mRNA levels and can reduce SW480 cell proliferation with IC50values of 15.9, 11.6 and 7.64 μM at 24, 48 and 72 h post-treatment. Thus it might be considered as a safe formulation for therapeutic purpose in colorectal cancer cases.

Lu P, Wang ZP, Dang Z, et al.
Expression of NEDD9 in hepatocellular carcinoma and its clinical significance.
Oncol Rep. 2015; 33(5):2375-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) plays an integral role in natural and pathological cell biology. Overexpression of NEDD9 protein has been correlated with poor prognosis in various types of cancer. However, few available data address the precise function of the NEDD9 gene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, we investigated NEDD9 expression in 40 primary human HCC tissues compared with matched adjacent non-tumor hepatic tissues using RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the correlations between NEDD9 expression and clinicopathological factors. Statistical analyses were applied to derive prognostic values of NEDD9 in HCC. The results showed that the NEDD9 mRNA and protein expression levels in HCC tissues were significantly higher than those in matched adjacent non-tumor hepatic tissues. High NEDD9 expression was correlated with larger tumor size, advanced tumor grade, metastasis, intrahepatic venous invasion and high UICC TNM stages in HCC patients. Patients with high NEDD9 expression levels exhibited poorer recurrence-free and overall survival than those with a low NEDD9 expression. Additionally, NEDD9 expression status was an independent prognostic factor for survival. This correlation remained significant in patients with early-stage HCC or with normal serum AFP levels. The results of this study suggest that NEDD9 may be a valuable prognostic biomarker for HCC, including early-stage and AFP-normal patients.

Han T, Yi XP, Liu B, et al.
MicroRNA-145 suppresses cell proliferation, invasion and migration in pancreatic cancer cells by targeting NEDD9.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 11(6):4115-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non‑coding RNAs regulating gene expression by inducing the degradation of RNA or interfering with translation. Aberrant miRNA expression has been described in several types of cancer in humans. In the present study, it was demonstrated that miR‑145 is downregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues and the Panc‑1 cell line. Restoration of miR‑145 inhibited cell proliferation, invasion and migration in Panc‑1 cells. Neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down‑regulated 9 (NEDD9) has been identified as a novel potential miR‑145 target using bioinformatics. Using luciferase reporter constructs, it was observed that the NEDD9 3'‑untranslated region is the location of the direct binding site for miR‑145. Additionally, it was identified that miR‑145 is inversely correlated with NEDD9 expression in pancreatic cancer tissues and that restoration of miR‑145 in Panc‑1 cells reduced NEDD9 mRNA and protein expression accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, invasion and migration. In conclusion, these findings indicate that miR‑145 may be an effective target for pancreatic cancer therapy.

Feng J, Zhao J, Xie H, et al.
Involvement of NEDD9 in the invasion and migration of gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2015; 36(5):3621-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Recent studies have demonstrated that neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) is highly expressed in various tumor tissues and cell lines. However, research on the role of NEDD9 in gastric cancer (GC) is rare, and the potential mechanism in tumor progression has not yet been explored. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of NEDD9 in GC. The expression of NEDD9 in GC tissues and cell lines was measured by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, and Western blot, respectively. Inhibiting NEDD9 expression was carried out by siRNA transfection, and upregulating of NEDD9 was via NEDD9 overexpression plasmid. The ability of proliferation, migration, and invasion was detected by MTT assay, scratch wound assay, and transwell assay, respectively. The expression of vimentin, E-cadherin, Zeb1, and Zeb2 was measured by Western blot and qRT-PCR. We found that NEDD9 expression was dramatically increased both in GC tissues and cell lines, and the expression was significantly related to GC development. Knockdown of NEDD9 in SGC-7901 strongly inhibited its malignant capacity in vitro. Meanwhile, upregulation of NEDD9 in GES-1 increased the malignant capacity. In addition, the expression of vimentin, Zeb1, and Zeb2 was positively correlated with NEDD9, while E-cadherin was opposite. Collectively, our findings suggest that NEDD9 acts as an oncogene and promotes GC metastasis via EMT.

Moore NL, Edwards DP, Weigel NL
Cyclin A2 and its associated kinase activity are required for optimal induction of progesterone receptor target genes in breast cancer cells.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2014; 144 Pt B:471-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
A role for the cell cycle protein cyclin A2 in regulating progesterone receptor (PR) activity is emerging. This study investigates the role of cyclin A2 in regulating endogenous PR activity in T47D breast cancer cells by depleting cyclin A2 expression and measuring PR target genes using q-RT-PCR. Targets examined included genes induced by the PR-B isoform more strongly than PR-A (SGK1, FKBP5), a gene induced predominantly by PR-A (HEF1), genes induced via PR tethering to other transcription factors (p21, p27), a gene induced in part via extra-nuclear PR signaling mechanisms (cyclin D1) and PR-repressed genes (DST, IL1R1). Progestin induction of target genes was reduced following cyclin A2 depletion. However, cyclin A2 depletion did not diminish progestin target gene repression. Furthermore, inhibition of the associated Cdk2 kinase activity of cyclin A2 also reduced progestin induction of target genes, while Cdk2 enhanced the interaction between PR and cyclin A2. These results demonstrate that cyclin A2 and its associated kinase activity are important for progestin-induced activation of endogenous PR target genes in breast cancer cells.

Beck TN, Chikwem AJ, Solanki NR, Golemis EA
Bioinformatic approaches to augment study of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in lung cancer.
Physiol Genomics. 2014; 46(19):699-724 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Bioinformatic approaches are intended to provide systems level insight into the complex biological processes that underlie serious diseases such as cancer. In this review we describe current bioinformatic resources, and illustrate how they have been used to study a clinically important example: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and is often diagnosed at advanced stages, leading to limited therapeutic success. While EMT is essential during development and wound healing, pathological reactivation of this program by cancer cells contributes to metastasis and drug resistance, both major causes of death from lung cancer. Challenges of studying EMT include its transient nature, its molecular and phenotypic heterogeneity, and the complicated networks of rewired signaling cascades. Given the biology of lung cancer and the role of EMT, it is critical to better align the two in order to advance the impact of precision oncology. This task relies heavily on the application of bioinformatic resources. Besides summarizing recent work in this area, we use four EMT-associated genes, TGF-β (TGFB1), NEDD9/HEF1, β-catenin (CTNNB1) and E-cadherin (CDH1), as exemplars to demonstrate the current capacities and limitations of probing bioinformatic resources to inform hypothesis-driven studies with therapeutic goals.

Chang JX, Gao F, Zhao GQ, Zhang GJ
Effects of lentivirus-mediated RNAi knockdown of NEDD9 on human lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo.
Oncol Rep. 2014; 32(4):1543-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological behavior of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells following transfection with NEDD9-specific lentiviral particles in vitro and in vivo. NEDD9-specific lentiviral particles were chemically synthesized and transfected into the human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cell line. NEDD9 mRNA and protein levels were determined by fluorescence quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. Cell proliferation was evaluated using soft agar colony formation assays and flow cytometric analysis. Migration and invasion were evaluated by wound-healing and transwell assays and xenograft animal models. Transfection was successful, and expression levels of NEDD9 mRNA and protein in the lentivirus-NEDD9-siRNA group were downregulated. As indicated by soft agar colony formation assays, the number of clones in the siRNA group were significantly lower than the number of colonies in the blank and negative control groups (P<0.01). In addition, the percentage of cells in the S phase in the siRNA group was significantly lower than the percentages in the blank and negative control groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, as detected by cell migration and invasion assays, values of wound healing were increased and the number of invading cells were decreased in the siRNA group (both P<0.05). We also showed that lentivirus-mediated NEDD9-siRNA decreased the growth potential of subcutaneous A549 xenografts in vivo. These data imply that knockdown of the NEDD9 gene results in suppression of tumor cell proliferation, migration, invasion and cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Lentivirus-mediated NEDD9-siRNA may have potential therapeutic utility for human lung adenocarcinoma.

Chou CP, Huang NC, Jhuang SJ, et al.
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2C is highly expressed in breast microcalcification lesions.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(4):e93934 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) contributes to ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer. Microcalcification (MC) is the most common mammographic feature of early breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether UBE2C could be a tumor marker of early breast cancer with MC found on screening mammography. UBE2C protein and mRNA expression were measured in breast core biopsy pairs of MC and adjacent non-MC breast tissue from each subject. Immunohistochemistry revealed UBE2C positivity in 69.4% of MC samples and 77.6% negativity in non-MC samples (p<0.0001). On RT-qPCR, 56.1% of malignant MC lesion samples showed high mRNA level of UBE2C and 80% of benign MC lesion samples showed a low level of UBE2C (p = 0.1766). We investigated the carcinogenic role of UBE2C in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with UBE2C knockdown; UBE2C knockdown downregulated cell proliferation and activated the cellular apoptosis pathway to inhibit cell colony formation. Furthermore, UBE2C expression was associated with that of carcinogenic genes human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), cellular c-Ki-ras2 proto-oncogene (KRAS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), C-C motif chemokine 5 (CCL5), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) and Ras homolog family member C (RhoC). UBE2C may be a marker for diagnosis of nonpalpable breast lesions but not benign or malignant tumors in mammography core biopsies. Suppression of UBE2C may be a potential therapy target in breast cancer.

Štajduhar E, Sedić M, Leniček T, et al.
Expression of growth hormone receptor, plakoglobin and NEDD9 protein in association with tumour progression and metastasis in human breast cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6425-34 [PubMed] Related Publications
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among female population worldwide. Metastases are the common cause of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer and can remain latent for several years after surgical removal of the primary tumour. Thus, the identification and functional characterisation of molecular factors that promote oncogenic signalling in mammary tumour development and progression could provide new entry points for designing targeted therapeutic strategies for metastatic breast cancer. In the present study, we investigated the expression of proteins involved in cell signalling (growth hormone receptor (GHR) and NEDD9) and cell-cell adhesion (plakoglobin) in epithelial and stromal compartments of primary ductal invasive breast carcinomas and their axillary lymph node metastases versus non-metastatic tumours. Obtained data revealed remarkable increase in the expression levels of GHR and NEDD9 proteins in both epithelial and stromal components of axillary lymph node metastases in comparison with those of non-metastatic tumours, suggesting that the expression of these two proteins may provide biomarkers for tumour aggressiveness.

Liu Y, Wang D, Zhao KL, et al.
NEDD9 overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in gastric cancer.
Tumour Biol. 2014; 35(7):6351-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
In this study, the expression of neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) in benign and malignant gastric tissues was investigated, and the significance of NEDD9 in gastric cancer prognosis was explored. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect NEDD9 expression in gastric cancer, nontumor gastric, and normal gastric tissues. The relationship between NEDD9 expression in gastric cancer tissues and the clinicopathologic factors was examined using the Mann-Whitney U test. The two factors between NEDD9 expression and tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage in gastric cancer patients were analyzed by Spearman rank correlation analysis. The Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test were used to compare the overall survival of NEDD9 negative, weak positive expression, and strong positive expression group. NEDD9 expression rates were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in gastric cancer tissues (162 out of 187, 86.6 %) compared with normal (2 out of 11, 18.2 %) and nontumor (11 out of 58, 19.0 %) gastric tissues. The upregulated NEDD9 expression in gastric cancer tissue was significantly correlated with high preoperative CEA level (P = 0.044), poor differentiation (P = 0.007), tissue invasion (P = 0.015), present lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and high TNM stage (P < 0.001). NEDD9 expression was positively correlated with clinical TNM stage. Advancing clinical TNM stage corresponded with higher NEDD9 expression (r s = 0.289, P < 0.001). The overall 5-year survival of gastric cancer patients with strong positive NEDD9 expression was significantly shorter compared with the survival of NEDD9 negative and weakly positive expression group. NEDD9 may be used as a biomarker in the clinical setting to predict the prognosis of gastric cancer patients.

Li L, Yu C, Ren J, et al.
Synergistic effects of eukaryotic coexpression plasmid carrying LKB1 and FUS1 genes on lung cancer in vitro and in vivo.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(6):895-907 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: LKB1 and FUS1 are two kinds of new tumor suppressor genes as well as early-stage genes in lung cancer. Recent studies showed that LKB1 and FUS1 play important roles in lung carcinogenesis process. We hypothesized that combined gene therapy with LKB1 and FUS1 could inhibit lung cancer growth and development synergistically.
METHODS: In this study, two kinds of tumor suppressor genes, LKB1 and FUS1, were constructed in an eukaryotic coexpression plasmid pVITRO(2), and then, we evaluated the synergistic effects of the two genes on anticancer activity and explored the relevant molecular mechanisms.
RESULTS: We defined coexpression of LKB1 and FUS1 could synergistically inhibited lung cancer cells growth,invasion and migration and induced the cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle in vitro. Intratumoral administration of liposomes: pVITRO(2)–LKB1–FUS1 complex (LPs–pVITRO(2)–LKB1–FUS1) into subcutaneous lung tumor xenograft resulted in more significant inhibition of tumor growth. Furthermore, intravenous injection of LPs–pVITRO(2)–LKB1–FUS1 into mice bearing experimental A549 lung metastasis demonstrated synergistic decrease in the number of metastatic tumor nodules. Finally, combined treatment with LKB1 and FUS1 prolonged overall survival in lung tumor-bearing mice. Further study showed tha tthe synergistic anti-lung cancer effects of coexpression ofLKB1 and FUS1 might be related to upregulation of p-p53, p-AMPK and downregulation of p-mTOR, p-FAK, MMPs, NEDD9, VEGF/R and PDGF/R.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that combined therapy with eukaryotic coexpression plasmid carrying LKB1 and FUS1 genes may be a novel and efficient treatment strategy for human lung cancer.

Okamoto T, Iwata S, Yamazaki H, et al.
CD9 negatively regulates CD26 expression and inhibits CD26-mediated enhancement of invasive potential of malignant mesothelioma cells.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e86671 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV is a cell surface glycoprotein which consists of multiple functional domains beside its ectopeptidase site. A growing body of evidence indicates that elevated expression of CD26 correlates with disease aggressiveness and invasive potential of selected malignancies. To further explore the molecular mechanisms involved in this clinical behavior, our current work focused on the interaction between CD26 and CD9, which were recently identified as novel markers for cancer stem cells in malignant mesothelioma. We found that CD26 and CD9 co-modulated and co-precipitated with each other in the malignant mesothelioma cell lines ACC-MESO1 and MSTO-211H. SiRNA study revealed that depletion of CD26 led to increased CD9 expression, while depletion of CD9 resulted in increased CD26 expression. Consistent with these findings was the fact that gene transfer of CD26 into CD26-negative MSTO-211H cells reduced CD9 expression. Cell invasion assay showed that overexpression of CD26 or gene depletion of CD9 led to enhanced invasiveness, while CD26 gene depletion resulted in reduced invasive potential. Furthermore, our work suggested that this enhanced invasiveness may be partly mediated by α5β1 integrin, since co-precipitation studies demonstrated an association between CD26 and α5β1 integrin. Finally, gene depletion of CD9 resulted in elevated protein levels and tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK and Cas-L, which are downstream of β1 integrin, while depletion of CD26 led to a reduction in the levels of these molecules. Collectively, our findings suggest that CD26 potentiates tumor cell invasion through its interaction with α5β1 integrin, and CD9 negatively regulates tumor cell invasion by reducing the level of CD26-α5β1 integrin complex through an inverse correlation between CD9 and CD26 expression. Our results also suggest that CD26 and CD9 serve as potential biomarkers as well as promising molecular targets for novel therapeutic approaches in malignant mesothelioma and other malignancies.

Wang H, Mu X, Zhou S, et al.
NEDD9 overexpression is associated with the progression of and an unfavorable prognosis in epithelial ovarian cancer.
Hum Pathol. 2014; 45(2):401-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Neural precursor cell-expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9 (NEDD9), a scaffolding protein, has been identified as a prometastatic and poor prognostic gene in multiple malignant tumors. However, the potential role of the NEDD9 protein in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the expression of NEDD9 and the correlation between NEDD9 expression and prognosis in EOC. NEDD9 expression was detected in 129 archived EOC specimens by immunohistochemical staining and in 28 freshly frozen EOC specimens by Western blotting. The expression of NEDD9 was evaluated in ovarian cancer cell lines by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. The association between the expression of NEDD9 and prognosis was determined by survival analysis. Results suggested that NEDD9 was overexpressed in EOC specimens compared with noninvasive epithelial ovarian tumors and normal ovarian specimens. A high level of NEDD9 expression significantly correlated with advanced-stage tumors (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics classes III-IV, P < .001), high-grade carcinoma (grades 2-3, P < .001), and suboptimal primary cytoreductive surgery (residual disease <1cm, P = .021). The expression level of NEDD9 varied in ovarian cancer cell lines. Multivariate analysis indicated that NEDD9 overexpression (P = .033), advanced stage (P < .001), and high-grade carcinoma (P = .01) were independent predictors of poor survival. In conclusion, NEDD9 is overexpressed and associated with an unfavorable prognosis in EOC. NEDD9 overexpression is an independent factor of poor prognosis and may serve as a potential biomarker in EOC.

Liu Z, Rebowe RE, Wang Z, et al.
KIF3a promotes proliferation and invasion via Wnt signaling in advanced prostate cancer.
Mol Cancer Res. 2014; 12(4):491-503 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is a critical event in advanced prostate cancer, but the genetic alterations that activate the Wnt signaling pathway in many other cancers are rarely observed in prostate cancer. Other molecular mechanisms that regulate the Wnt signaling pathway in prostate cancer remain to be identified. Here, it is demonstrated that KIF3a, a subunit of kinesin-II motor protein, functions as an agonist of the Wnt signaling pathway in prostate cancer. KIF3a is upregulated in the majority of human prostate cancer cell lines and primary tumor biopsies. The expression levels of KIF3a correlate with a higher Gleason score, tumor-node-metastasis stage, and metastatic status of prostate cancer. Moreover, exogenous expression of KIF3a promoted cell growth in the benign prostate cells, whereas silencing KIF3a in cancer cells decreased cell proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, and cell migration/invasion. Mechanistically, KIF3a increases CK1-dependent DVL2 phosphorylation and β-catenin activation in prostate cancer cells, leading to transactivation of the Wnt-signaling target genes such as cyclin D1, HEF1, and MMP9. These findings support the notion that upregulation of KIF3a is causal of aberrant activation of Wnt signaling in advanced prostate cancer through the KIF3a-DVL2-β-catenin axis.
IMPLICATIONS: Inactivation of KIF3a may improve survival of patients with advanced prostate cancer in which Wnt signaling is activated.

Lu R, Ji Z, Li X, et al.
miR-145 functions as tumor suppressor and targets two oncogenes, ANGPT2 and NEDD9, in renal cell carcinoma.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014; 140(3):387-97 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: Abnormal expression of miRNAs is closely related to a variety of human cancers. The purpose of this study is to identify new tumor suppressor miRNA and elucidate its physiological function and mechanism in renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
METHODS: The expression of miR-145 in 45 RCC and adjacent normal tissues was performed by quantitative RT-PCR. Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, apoptosis and cycle assays were carried out for functional analysis after miR-145 transfection. Two target genes of miR-145 were identified by luciferase reporter assay. The altered expression of 84 epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related genes after miR-145 transfection was detected by RT(2) Profiler EMT PCR array.
RESULTS: The expression of miR-145 was downregulated in RCC compared to their normal adjacent tissues. Restoring miR-145 expression in RCC cell lines dramatically suppressed cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and induced cell apoptosis and G2-phase arrest. We further validated those miR-145 targets two oncogenes, ANGPT2 and NEDD9 in RCC. In addition, miR-145 was found to regulate numerous genes involved in the EMT.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings demonstrate that miR-145 functions as tumor suppressor in RCC, suggesting that miR-145 may be a potential therapeutic target for RCC.

Jin Y, Li F, Zheng C, et al.
NEDD9 promotes lung cancer metastasis through epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(10):2294-304 [PubMed] Related Publications
Metastasis is the major cause for high mortality of lung cancer with the underlying mechanisms poorly understood. The scaffolding protein neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9 (NEDD9) has been identified as a pro-metastasis gene in several types of cancers including melanoma and breast cancer. However, the exact role and related mechanism of NEDD9 in regulating lung cancer metastasis still remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that NEDD9 knockdown significantly inhibits migration, invasion and metastasis of lung cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The pro-metastasis role of Nedd9 in lung cancer is further supported by studies in mice models of spontaneous cancer metastasis. Moreover, we find that NEDD9 promotes lung cancer cell migration and invasion through the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) potentially via focal adhesion kinase activation. More importantly, NEDD9 expression inversely correlates with E-cadherin expression in human lung cancer specimens, consistent with the findings from in vitro studies. Taken together, this study highlights that NEDD9 is an important mediator promotes lung cancer metastasis via EMT.

Sima N, Cheng X, Ye F, et al.
The overexpression of scaffolding protein NEDD9 promotes migration and invasion in cervical cancer via tyrosine phosphorylated FAK and SRC.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e74594 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
NEDD9, a focal adhesion scaffolding protein, has been recently proposed to regulate invasion and metastasis in some cancer types, but unknown in cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine if NEDD9 was involved in the progression and metastasis of cervical cancer. The experimental results showed NEDD9 protein was overexpressed in cervical cancer compared with normal cervical epithelium tissues. Overexpression of NEDD9 was correlated with histological grading, lymph node metastasis, and FIGO stage of cervical cancer. Silencing NEDD9 resulted in tyrosine dephosphorylation of FAK and SRC oncoproteins, and decreased cell migration and invasion in the cervical carcinoma SiHa and HeLa cells. Overexpression of NEDD9 led to tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK and SRC oncoproteins, and increased cell migration and invasion. Moreover, tyrosine phosphorylation of NEDD9 was significantly decreased via suppressing tyrosine phosphorylation of FAK or SRC, suggesting a positive feedback loop of tyrosine phosphorylation between NEDD9 and FAK or SRC. In addition, our data showed that silencing NEDD9 decreased Vimentin expression and increased E-cadherin expression in cervical cancer cells, and vice versa. E-cadherin was subject to regulation of NEDD9, FAK and SRC, but altered neither tyrosine-phosphorylated nor total NEDD9. Our findings suggest that NEDD9 is overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues and cells, and overexpressed NEDD9 promotes migration and invasion in cervical carcinoma cells, probably via a positive feedback loop of tyrosine phosphorylation between NEDD9 and FAK or SRC.

Ice RJ, McLaughlin SL, Livengood RH, et al.
NEDD9 depletion destabilizes Aurora A kinase and heightens the efficacy of Aurora A inhibitors: implications for treatment of metastatic solid tumors.
Cancer Res. 2013; 73(10):3168-80 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Aurora A kinase (AURKA) is overexpressed in 96% of human cancers and is considered an independent marker of poor prognosis. While the majority of tumors have elevated levels of AURKA protein, few have AURKA gene amplification, implying that posttranscriptional mechanisms regulating AURKA protein levels are significant. Here, we show that NEDD9, a known activator of AURKA, is directly involved in AURKA stability. Analysis of a comprehensive breast cancer tissue microarray revealed a tight correlation between the expression of both proteins, significantly corresponding with increased prognostic value. A decrease in AURKA, concomitant with increased ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation, occurs due to depletion or knockout of NEDD9. Reexpression of wild-type NEDD9 was sufficient to rescue the observed phenomenon. Binding of NEDD9 to AURKA is critical for AURKA stabilization, as mutation of S296E was sufficient to disrupt binding and led to reduced AURKA protein levels. NEDD9 confers AURKA stability by limiting the binding of the cdh1-substrate recognition subunit of APC/C ubiquitin ligase to AURKA. Depletion of NEDD9 in tumor cells increases sensitivity to AURKA inhibitors. Combination therapy with NEDD9 short hairpin RNAs and AURKA inhibitors impairs tumor growth and distant metastasis in mice harboring xenografts of breast tumors. Collectively, our findings provide rationale for the use of AURKA inhibitors in treatment of metastatic tumors and predict the sensitivity of the patients to AURKA inhibitors based on NEDD9 expression.

Rink L, Ochs MF, Zhou Y, et al.
ZNF-mediated resistance to imatinib mesylate in gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e54477 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although imatinib mesylate (IM) has transformed the treatment of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST), many patients experience primary/secondary drug resistance. In a previous study, we identified a gene signature, consisting mainly of Kruppel-associated box (KRAB) domain containing zinc finger (ZNF) transcriptional repressors that predict short-term response to IM. To determine if these genes have functional significance, a siRNA library targeting these genes was constructed and applied to GIST cells in vitro. These screens identified seventeen "IM sensitizing genes" in GIST cells (sensitization index (SI) <0.85 ratio of drug/vehicle) with a false discovery rate (FDR) <15%, including twelve ZNF genes, the majority of which are located within the HSA19p12-13.1 locus. These genes were shown to be highly specific to IM and another tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), sunitinib, in GIST cells. In order to determine mechanistically how these ZNFs might be modulating response to IM, RNAi approaches were used to individually silence genes within the predictive signature in GIST cells and expression profiling was performed. Knockdown of the 14 IM-sensitizing genes (10 ZNFs) universally led to downregulation of six genes, including TGFb3, periostin, and NEDD9. These studies implicate a role of KRAB-ZNFs in modulating response to TKIs in GIST.

Bradbury P, Fabry B, O'Neill GM
Occupy tissue: the movement in cancer metastasis.
Cell Adh Migr. 2012 Sep-Oct; 6(5):424-32 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The critical role of migration and invasion in cancer metastasis warrants new therapeutic approaches targeting the machinery regulating cell migration and invasion. While 2-dimensional (2D) models have helped identify a range of adhesion molecules, cytoskeletal components and regulators that are potentially important for cell migration, the use of models that better mimic the 3-dimensional (3D) environment has yielded new insights into the physiology of cell movement. For example, studying cells in 3D models has revealed that invading cancer cells may switch between heterogeneous invasion modes and thus evade pharmacological inhibition of invasion. Here we summarize published data in which the role of cell adhesion molecules in 2D vs. 3D migration have been directly compared and discuss mechanisms that regulate migration speed and persistence in 2D and 3D. Finally we discuss limits of 3D culture models to recapitulate the in vivo situation.

Feng Y, Wang Y, Wang Z, et al.
The CRTC1-NEDD9 signaling axis mediates lung cancer progression caused by LKB1 loss.
Cancer Res. 2012; 72(24):6502-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Somatic mutation of the tumor suppressor gene LKB1 occurs frequently in lung cancer where it causes tumor progression and metastasis, but the underlying mechanisms remain mainly unknown. Here, we show that the oncogene NEDD9 is an important downstream mediator of lung cancer progression evoked by LKB1 loss. In de novo mouse models, RNAi-mediated silencing of Nedd9 inhibited lung tumor progression, whereas ectopic NEDD9 expression accelerated this process. Mechanistically, LKB1 negatively regulated NEDD9 transcription by promoting cytosolic translocation of CRTC1 from the nucleus. Notably, ectopic expression of either NEDD9 or CRTC1 partially reversed the inhibitory function of LKB1 on metastasis of lung cancer cells. In clinical specimens, elevated expression of NEDD9 was associated with malignant progression and metastasis. Collectively, our results decipher the mechanism through which LKB1 deficiency promotes lung cancer progression and metastasis, and provide a mechanistic rationale for therapeutic attack of these processes.

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