Gene Summary

Gene:OLFM4; olfactomedin 4
Aliases: GC1, OLM4, OlfD, GW112, hGC-1, hOLfD, UNQ362, bA209J19.1
Summary:This gene was originally cloned from human myeloblasts and found to be selectively expressed in inflammed colonic epithelium. This gene encodes a member of the olfactomedin family. The encoded protein is an antiapoptotic factor that promotes tumor growth and is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein that facilitates cell adhesion. [provided by RefSeq, Mar 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Source:NCBIAccessed: 11 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
OLFM4 is implicated in:
- cell adhesion
- extracellular space
- mitochondrion
Data from Gene Ontology via CGAP

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 11 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Taiwan
  • Epithelial Cells
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Circulating Cancer Cells
  • Recurrence
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Stem Cells
  • Messenger RNA
  • Apoptosis
  • Staging
  • Signal Transduction
  • Chromosome 13
  • Cell Movement
  • Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • Pancreatic Cancer
  • Receptors, Polymeric Immunoglobulin
  • Survival Rate
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
  • Disease Progression
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Gene Expression
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma
  • MicroRNAs
  • Vulvar Cancer
  • Western Blotting
  • Cancer Stem Cells
  • Colorectal Cancer
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Phenotype
  • Up-Regulation
  • Gastric Mucosa
  • Triple Negative Breast Cancer
  • Transduction
  • Gene Deletion
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Wnt Signaling Pathway
Tag cloud generated 11 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (5)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: OLFM4 (cancer-related)

Liu Y, Wang F, Xu P
miR-590 accelerates lung adenocarcinoma migration and invasion through directly suppressing functional target OLFM4.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2017; 86:466-474 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA-590 (miR-590) shows oncogenic functions in various tumor types, but little is known about biological functions of miR-590 in lung adenocarcinoma. In this study, we observe that miR-590 is not only overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and metastatic lymph nodes, but also significantly increased in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Moreover, gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies show miR-590 serve as a tumor suppressor regulating lung adenocarcinoma cells migration and invasion. Furthermore, OLFM4 is proved to as a functional target for miR-590 to regulate lung adenocarcinoma cells migration and invasion. In conclusion, miR-590 regulates lung adenocarcinoma metastasis through directly modulating functional target OLFM4.

Mihara N, Chiba T, Yamaguchi K, et al.
Minimal essential region for krüppel-like factor 5 expression and the regulation by specificity protein 3-GC box binding.
Gene. 2017; 601:36-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) transcriptionally controls the proliferation-differentiation balance of epithelium and is overexpressed in carcinomas. Although genomic region modifying KLF5 expression is widespread in different types of cells, the region that commonly regulates basal expression of the genes across cell-types is uncertain. In this study we determined the minimal essential region for the expression and its regulatory transcription factors using oral carcinoma cells. A reporter assay defined a 186bp region downstream of the transcription start site and a cluster of six GC boxes (GC1-GC6) as the minimal essential region. Mutation in the GC1 or GC6 regions but not other GC boxes significantly decreased the reporter expression. The decrease by the GC1 mutation was reproduced in the 2kbp full-length promoter, but not by the GC6 mutation. Additionally, specificity proteins (Sp) that can be expressed in epithelial cells and bind GC box, Sp3 co-localized with KLF5 in oral epithelium and carcinomas and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses showed Sp3 as the prime GC1-binding protein. Inhibition of Sp-GC box binding by mithramycin A and knockdown of Sp3 by the short interfering RNA decreased expression of the reporter gene and endogenous KLF5. These data demonstrate that a 186bp region is the minimal essential region and that Sp3-GC1 binding is essential to the basal expression of KLF5.

Liu W, Rodgers GP
Olfactomedin 4 expression and functions in innate immunity, inflammation, and cancer.
Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2016; 35(2):201-12 [PubMed] Related Publications
Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) is an olfactomedin domain-containing glycoprotein. Multiple signaling pathways and factors, including NF-κB, Wnt, Notch, PU.1, retinoic acids, estrogen receptor, and miR-486, regulate its expression. OLFM4 interacts with several other proteins, such as gene associated with retinoic-interferon-induced mortality 19 (GRIM-19), cadherins, lectins, nucleotide oligomerization domain-1 (NOD1) and nucleotide oligomerization domain-2 (NOD2), and cathepsins C and D, known to regulate important cellular functions. Recent investigations using Olfm4-deficient mouse models have provided important clues about its in vivo biological functions. Olfm4 inhibited Helicobacter pylori-induced NF-κB pathway activity and inflammation and facilitated H. pylori colonization in the mouse stomach. Olfm4-deficient mice exhibited enhanced immunity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus infection. Olfm4 deletion in a chronic granulomatous disease mouse model rescued them from S. aureus infection. Olfm4 deletion in mice treated with azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate led to robust intestinal inflammation and intestinal crypt hyperplasia. Olfm4 deletion in Apc (Min/+) mice promoted intestinal polyp formation as well as adenocarcinoma development in the distal colon. Further, Olfm4-deficient mice spontaneously developed prostatic epithelial lesions as they age. OLFM4 expression is correlated with cancer differentiation, stage, metastasis, and prognosis in a variety of cancers, suggesting its potential clinical value as an early-stage cancer marker or a therapeutic target. Collectively, these data suggest that OLFM4 plays important roles in innate immunity against bacterial infection, gastrointestinal inflammation, and cancer. In this review, we have summarized OLFM4's initial characterization, expression, regulation, protein interactions, and biological functions.

Ma H, Tian T, Liang S, et al.
Estrogen receptor-mediated miR-486-5p regulation of OLFM4 expression in ovarian cancer.
Oncotarget. 2016; 7(9):10594-605 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Estrogen signaling influences the development and progression of ovarian tumors, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In a previous study we demonstrated that impairment of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-mediated olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) expression promotes the malignant progression of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and we identified OLFM4 as a potential target of miR-486-5p. In this study we investigated the role of OLFM4 in ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. Ovarian serous adenocarcinoma tissues had reduced OLFM4 expression. Expression of OLFM4 was positively correlated with ERα expression, and estrogen (E2) treatment in ovarian cancer cells induced OLFM4 expression in an ERα-dependent manner. In contrast to ERα, miR-486-5p levels were inversely correlated with OLFM4 expression in ovarian serous adenocarcinoma. Ovarian cancer cells transfected with miR-486-5p mimics showed decreased OLFM4 mRNA expression, and ovarian cancer cells treated with E2 showed reduced cellular miR-486-5p levels. OLFM4 knockdown enhanced proliferation, migration, and invasion by ovarian cancer cells. Low expression of OLFM4 was also associated with high tumor FIGO stage and poor tumor differentiation. These results suggest OLFM4 is downregulated by miR-486-5p, which contributes to ovarian cancer tumorigenesis. Conversely, estrogen receptor signaling downregulates miR-486-5p and upregulates OLFM4 expression, slowing the development and progression of ovarian cancer.

Hardingham JE, Grover P, Winter M, et al.
Detection and Clinical Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Colorectal Cancer--20 Years of Progress.
Mol Med. 2015; 21 Suppl 1:S25-31 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Circulating tumor cells (CTC) may be defined as tumor- or metastasis-derived cells that are present in the bloodstream. The CTC pool in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients may include not only epithelial tumor cells, but also tumor cells undergoing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and tumor stem cells. A significant number of patients diagnosed with early stage CRC subsequently relapse with recurrent or metastatic disease despite undergoing "curative" resection of their primary tumor. This suggests that an occult metastatic disease process was already underway, with viable tumor cells being shed from the primary tumor site, at least some of which have proliferative and metastatic potential and the ability to survive in the bloodstream. Such tumor cells are considered to be responsible for disease relapse in these patients. Their detection in peripheral blood at the time of diagnosis or after resection of the primary tumor may identify those early-stage patients who are at risk of developing recurrent or metastatic disease and who would benefit from adjuvant therapy. CTC may also be a useful adjunct to radiological assessment of tumor response to therapy. Over the last 20 years many approaches have been developed for the isolation and characterization of CTC. However, none of these methods can be considered the gold standard for detection of the entire pool of CTC. Recently our group has developed novel unbiased inertial microfluidics to enrich for CTC, followed by identification of CTC by imaging flow cytometry. Here, we provide a review of progress on CTC detection and clinical significance over the last 20 years.

Li H, Liu W, Chen W, et al.
Olfactomedin 4 deficiency promotes prostate neoplastic progression and is associated with upregulation of the hedgehog-signaling pathway.
Sci Rep. 2015; 5:16974 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Loss of olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) gene expression is associated with the progression of human prostate cancer, but its role and the molecular mechanisms involved in this process have not been completely understood. In this study, we found that Olfm4-knockout mice developed prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and prostatic adenocarcinoma. Importantly, we found that the hedgehog-signaling pathway was significantly upregulated in the Olfm4-knockout mouse model. We also found that restoration of OLFM4 in human prostate-cancer cells that lack OLFM4 expression significantly downregulated hedgehog signaling-pathway component expression. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the OLFM4 protein interacts with sonic hedgehog protein, as well as significantly inhibits GLI-reporter activity. Bioinformatic and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that decreased OLFM4 and increased SHH expression was significantly associated with advanced human prostate cancer. Thus, olfactomedin 4 appears to play a critical role in regulating progression of prostate cancer, and has potential as a new biomarker for prostate cancer.

Song KA, Yang SD, Hwang J, et al.
The full-length DNA sequence of Epstein Barr virus from a human gastric carcinoma cell line, SNU-719.
Virus Genes. 2015; 51(3):329-37 [PubMed] Related Publications
The consistent presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in malignant cells of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) suggests it plays an important role during the development of EBVaGC. However, the entire genomic sequence of EBV from EBVaGC has yet to be determined. This study first determined, annotated, and analyzed the full genomic sequence of EBV from the naturally infected gastric carcinoma cell line SNU-719 using next-generation sequencing and comparative analyses. In consistent with the notion that EBV sequence isolates better reflect their geographic area than tissue origin, the SNU-719 EBV (named as GC1) was categorized as an East Asian type I EBV. Compared with the prototype B95.8 sequence, SNU-719 EBV contained 1372 variations, with 937 and 435 within coding and non-coding regions, respectively. Of the 937 variations, 465 were non-synonymous changes, while 472 synonymous changes included partial internal deletions in the coding regions of LMP1 and gp350. The RNAseq transcriptome revealed that multiple BART transcripts comprised the majority of EBV RNA reads. The SNU-719 EBV expressed high levels of BART, LF3, BHLF1, and BNLF2. Evidence of RNA editing at multiple sites in the host chromosome was found; however, no evidence of genome integration was seen. The annotated SNU-719 EBV sequence will be a useful reference in future EBVaGC studies.

Clemmensen SN, Glenthøj AJ, Heebøll S, et al.
Plasma levels of OLFM4 in normals and patients with gastrointestinal cancer.
J Cell Mol Med. 2015; 19(12):2865-73 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) is a secreted glycoprotein predominantly expressed in bone marrow and gastrointestinal tissues. Aberrant expression of OLFM4 has been shown in several cancers. However, the clinical significance hereof is currently controversial. OLFM4 has been proposed as a candidate biomarker of gastrointestinal cancers. To address this, we developed monoclonal antibodies against synthetic peptides representing various segments of OLFM4. We examined expression of OLFM4 in epithelial cells by immunohistochemistry and found that OLFM4 is highly expressed in proliferating benign epithelial cells and in some carcinoma cells. We developed an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for OLFM4 and investigated whether plasma levels of OLFM4 reflect colorectal malignancies, but were unable to see any such association. Instead, we observed two populations of individuals with respect to OLFM4 levels in plasma, the majority with OLFM4 in plasma between 0 and 0.1 μg/ml, mean 0.028 μg/ml while 10% of both normals and patients with cancers had OLFM4 between 4 and 60 μg/ml, mean 15 μg/ml. The levels were constant over time. The background for this high plasma level is not known, but must be taken into account if OLFM4 is used as biomarker for GI cancers.

Ran X, Xu X, Yang Y, et al.
A quantitative proteomics study on olfactomedin 4 in the development of gastric cancer.
Int J Oncol. 2015; 47(5):1932-44 [PubMed] Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC) is now one of the most common malignancies with a relatively high incidence and high mortality rate. The prognosis is closely related to the degree of tumor metastasis. The mechanism of metastasis is still unclear. Proteomics analysis is a powerful tool to study and evaluate protein expression in tumor tissues. In the present study, we collected 15 gastric cancer and adjacent normal gastric tissues and used the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method to identify differentially expressed proteins. A total of 134 proteins were differentially expressed between the cancerous and non-cancerous samples. Azurocidin 1 (AZU1), CPVL, olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) and Villin 1 (VIL1) were upregulated and confirmed by western blot analysis, real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical analyses. These results were in accordance with iTRAQ. Furthermore, silencing the OLFM4 expression suppressed the migration, invasion and proliferation of the GC cells in vitro. The present study represents a successful application of the iTRAQ method in analyzing the expression levels of thousands of proteins. Overexpression of OLFM4 in gastric cancer may induce the development of gastric cancer. Overall, suppression of OLFM4 expression may be a promising strategy in the development of novel cancer therapeutic drugs.

Guo LL, He ZC, Yang CQ, et al.
Epigenetic silencing of olfactomedin-4 enhances gastric cancer cell invasion via activation of focal adhesion kinase signaling.
BMB Rep. 2015; 48(11):630-5 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Downregulation of olfactomedin-4 (OLFM4) is associated with tumor progression, lymph node invasion and metastases. However, whether or not downregulation of OLFM4 is associated with epigenetic silencing remains unknown. In this study, we investigate the role of OLFM4 in gastric cancer cell invasion. We confirm the previous result that OLFM4 expression is increased in gastric cancer tissues and decreases with an increasing number of metastatic lymph nodes, which are associated with OLFM4 promoter hypermethylation. Overexpression of OLFM4 in gastric cancer cells had an inhibitory effect on cell invasion. Furthermore, we found that focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was negatively correlated with OLFM4 in regards to lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer tissues. Also, inhibition of FAK induced by OLFM4 knockdown resulted in a decrease in cell invasion. Thus, our study demonstrates that epigenetic silencing of OLFM4 enhances gastric cancer cell invasion via activation of FAK signaling.

Oue N, Sentani K, Sakamoto N, Yasui W
Clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics of gastric cancer showing gastric and intestinal mucin phenotype.
Cancer Sci. 2015; 106(8):951-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric cancer (GC), one of the most common human cancers, can be classified into gastric or intestinal phenotype according to mucin expression. TP53 mutation, allelic deletion of the APC gene and nuclear staining of β-catenin are frequently detected in the intestinal phenotype of GC, whereas CDH1 gene mutation, microsatellite instability and DNA hypermethylation of MLH1 are common events in the gastric phenotype of GC. Our Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) and Escherichia coli ampicillin secretion trap (CAST) analyses revealed that CDH17, REG4, OLFM4, HOXA10, DSC2, TSPAN8 and TM9SF3 are upregulated in GC and that CLDN18 is downregulated in GC. Expression of CDH17, REG4, HOXA10 and DSC2 and downregulation of CLDN18 are observed in the intestinal phenotype of GC. In contrast, OLFM4 is expressed in the gastric phenotype of GC. Expression of TSPAN8, TM9SF3 and HER2 are not associated with either gastric or intestinal phenotypes. Ectopic CDX2 expression plays a key function in the GC intestinal phenotype. MUC2, CDH17, REG4, DSC2 and ABCB1 are direct targets of CDX2. Importantly, these genes encode transmembrane/secretory proteins, indicating that the microenvironment as well as cancer cells are also different between gastric and intestinal phenotypes of GC.

Chen H, Wu Q
Expression of GW112 and GRIM-19 in colorectal cancer tissues.
J BUON. 2015 Mar-Apr; 20(2):438-42 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: To investigate the expression of GW112 and GRIM-19 in colorectal cancer tissues.
METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative PCR were used to simultaneously detect the levels of expression of GW112 and GRIM-19 in colorectal cancer tissues and normal colorectal tissues in 39 cases.
RESULTS: Expression of GW112 protein and mRNA were significantly higher in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal tissues (p<0.05). Expression of GRIM-19 protein and mRNA were significantly lower in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal tissues (p<0.05). GW112 gene mRNA copy number(GAPDH gene mRNA copy number were 0.53 ± 0.21 and 1.81 ± 0.65 in normal colorectal tissues and colorectal cancer tissues respectively, and GRIM-19 gene mRNA copy number/GAPDH gene mRNA copy number were 1.15 ± 0.29 and 1.74 ± 0.0.44 in colorectal cancer tissues and normal colorectal tissues, respectively. Expression of GW112 gene mRNA was significantly higher in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal tissues (p<0.05), and expression of GRIM- 19 gene mRNA was significantly lower in colorectal cancer tissues than in normal tissues (p<0.05).
CONCLUSION: High expression of GW112 in colorectal cancer tissues and reduced expression of GRIM-19 in colorectal cancer tissues may be associated with abnormal proliferation of cancer cells and are possibly one of the reasons for development of colorectal cancer, which can provide effective targets for clinical treatment of this disease.

Jang BG, Lee BL, Kim WH
Intestinal Stem Cell Markers in the Intestinal Metaplasia of Stomach and Barrett's Esophagus.
PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0127300 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is a highly prevalent preneoplastic lesion; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating its development remain unclear. We have previously shown that a population of cells expressing the intestinal stem cell (ISC) marker LGR5 increases remarkably in IM. In this study, we further investigated the molecular characteristics of these LGR5+ cells in IM by examining the expression profile of several ISC markers. Notably, we found that ISC markers-including OLFM4 and EPHB2-are positively associated with the CDX2 expression in non-tumorous gastric tissues. This finding was confirmed in stomach lesions with or without metaplasia, which demonstrated that OLFM4 and EPHB2 expression gradually increased with metaplastic progression. Moreover, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that LGR5+ cells coexpress several ISC markers and remained confined to the base of metaplastic glands, reminiscent to that of normal intestinal crypts, whereas those in normal antral glands expressed none of these markers. Furthermore, a large number of ISC marker-expressing cells were diffusely distributed in gastric adenomas, suggesting that these markers may facilitate gastric tumorigenesis. In addition, Barrett's esophagus (BE)-which is histologically similar to intestinal metaplasia-exhibited a similar distribution of ISC markers, indicating the presence of a stem cell population with intestinal differentiation potential. In conclusion, we identified that LGR5+ cells in gastric IM and BE coexpress ISC markers, and exhibit the same expression profile as those found in normal intestinal crypts. Taken together, these results implicate an intestinal-like stem cell population in the pathogenesis of IM, and provide an important basis for understanding the development and maintenance of this disease.

Su W, Luo L, Wu F, et al.
Low expression of olfactomedin 4 correlates with poor prognosis in smoking patients with non-small cell lung cancer.
Hum Pathol. 2015; 46(5):732-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) has been demonstrated to serve an important function in tumor progression. This study aims to analyze the correlation between OLFM4 expression and clinicopathological features and the prognostic significance of OLFM4 in the context of smoking status of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A total of 218 NSCLC patients, who were histopathologically diagnosed from 2001 to 2013, were reviewed in the study. OLFM4 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining of tissue samples. The association of OLFM4 with clinicopathological parameters was evaluated. Overall survival and disease-specific survival were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that OLFM4 was highly expressed in 64.2% of NSCLC patients. OLFM4 expression level in NSCLC lesions was strongly correlated with pathologic grade (P = .017), lymph node metastasis (P = .012), peritumor intravascular cancer emboli (P = .03), and smoking status (P < .001). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that, among smoking patients, those with low OLFM4 expression had shorter survival time (overall survival and disease-specific survival) than those with high OLFM4 (P < .05). Conclusively, although low OLFM4 expression is not an independent prognostic biomarker, it might indicate worse prognosis for smoking patients with NSCLC, thereby identifying patients who might benefit from targeting OLFM4 therapy.

Yamanoi K, Arai E, Tian Y, et al.
Epigenetic clustering of gastric carcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles at the precancerous stage: its correlation with tumor aggressiveness and patient outcome.
Carcinogenesis. 2015; 36(5):509-20 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during gastric carcinogenesis. Single-CpG resolution genome-wide DNA methylation analysis using the Infinium assay was performed on 109 samples of non-cancerous gastric mucosa (N) and 105 samples of tumorous tissue (T). DNA methylation alterations in T samples relative to N samples were evident for 3861 probes. Since N can be at the precancerous stage according to the field cancerization concept, unsupervised hierarchical clustering based on DNA methylation levels was performed on N samples (βN) using the 3861 probes. This divided the 109 patients into three clusters: A (n = 20), B1 (n = 20), and B2 (n = 69). Gastric carcinomas belonging to Cluster B1 showed tumor aggressiveness more frequently than those belonging to Clusters A and B2. The recurrence-free and overall survival rates of patients in Cluster B1 were lower than those of patients in Clusters A and B2. Sixty hallmark genes for which βN characterized the epigenetic clustering were identified. We then focused on DNA methylation levels in T samples (βT) of the 60 hallmark genes. In 48 of them, including the ADAM23, OLFM4, AMER2, GPSM1, CCL28, DTX1 and COL23A1 genes, βT was again significantly correlated with tumor aggressiveness, and the recurrence-free and/or overall survival rates. Multivariate analyses revealed that βT was a significant prognostic factor, being independent of clinicopathological parameters. These data indicate that DNA methylation profiles at the precancerous stage may be inherited by gastric carcinomas themselves, thus determining tumor aggressiveness and patient outcome.

Guette C, Valo I, Vétillard A, Coqueret O
Olfactomedin-4 is a candidate biomarker of solid gastric, colorectal, pancreatic, head and neck, and prostate cancers.
Proteomics Clin Appl. 2015; 9(1-2):58-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Olfactomedin-4 (OLFM4, OLM4) is a 72 kDa secreted glycoprotein belonging to the olfactomedin family. The OLFM4 gene expression is regulated by the transcription factors NF-kappa B and AP-1, and the OLM4 functions are poorly understood. OLM4 has been described as being able to interact with cell surface proteins such as lectins and concanavalin-A suggesting that one function of OLM4 is to regulate cell adhesion and migration. OLM4 is a marker for intestinal stem cells and is expressed at the bottom of the intestinal crypts. Expression of OLM4 during tumor development showed that OLM4 expression is increased in the early stages of tumor initiation. As OLM4 is a secreted protein, it is a prime candidate for biomarker research for tumor detection or progression. Levels of circulating OLM4 were significantly higher in patients with gastric, colorectal, and pancreatic cancers than in healthy subjects.

Nicastri A, Gaspari M, Sacco R, et al.
N-glycoprotein analysis discovers new up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue.
J Proteome Res. 2014; 13(11):4932-41 [PubMed] Related Publications
Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death due to cancer worldwide. Therefore, the identification of high-specificity and -sensitivity biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal cancer is urgently needed. Post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, are known to play an important role in cancer progression. In the present work, we used a quantitative proteomic technique based on (18)O stable isotope labeling to identify differentially expressed N-linked glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue samples compared with healthy colorectal tissue from 19 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. We identified 54 up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer samples, therefore potentially involved in the biological processes of tumorigenesis. In particular, nine of these (PLOD2, DPEP1, SE1L1, CD82, PAR1, PLOD3, S12A2, LAMP3, OLFM4) were found to be up-regulated in the great majority of the cohort, and, interestingly, the association with colorectal cancer of four (PLOD2, S12A2, PLOD3, CD82) has not been hitherto described.

Karagiannis GS, Pavlou MP, Saraon P, et al.
In-depth proteomic delineation of the colorectal cancer exoproteome: Mechanistic insight and identification of potential biomarkers.
J Proteomics. 2014; 103:121-36 [PubMed] Related Publications
UNLABELLED: Systemic mining of cancer exoproteome/secretome has emerged as a pivotal strategy for delineation of molecular pathways with mechanistic importance in cancer development, as well as the discovery of diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers. Although major advances in diagnostic and therapeutic management of colorectal cancer have been underscored in the last decade, this cancer still remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the developed world. Despite previous studies on deciphering the colorectal cancer exoproteome, such studies lack adequate depth and robustness due to technological limitations. Here, using a well-established LC-MS/MS method on an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer, we extensively delineated the exoproteome of 12 colon cancer cell lines. In total, 2979 non-redundant proteins were identified with a minimum of two peptides, of which ~62% were extracellular or cell membrane-bound, based on prediction software. To further characterize this dataset and identify clinical opportunities, first, we investigated overrepresented molecular concepts of interest via enrichment map analysis and second, we demonstrated translational importance of certain proteins, such as olfactomedin-4 and kallikrein-related peptidases-6 and -10, by investigating their expression levels in patient tissues and/or fluids. Overall, the present study details a comprehensive colorectal cancer exoproteome dataset, and may be used as future platform for biomarker discovery, and hypothesis-generating studies.
BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This article represents one of the most extensive and comprehensive proteomic datasets regarding the secreted/extracellular proteome of colorectal cancer cell lines. The reported datasets may form a platform for a plethora of future, discovery-based or hypothesis-generating studies, attempting to either delineate putative cancer biomarkers for CRC, or elucidate questions of mechanistic importance (e.g. investigation of deregulated pathways for CRC progression).

Guezguez A, Paré F, Benoit YD, et al.
Modulation of stemness in a human normal intestinal epithelial crypt cell line by activation of the WNT signaling pathway.
Exp Cell Res. 2014; 322(2):355-64 [PubMed] Related Publications
The small intestine consists of two histological compartments composed of the crypts and the villi. The function of the adult small intestinal epithelium is mediated by four different types of mature cells: enterocytes, goblet, enteroendocrine and Paneth. Undifferentiated cells reside in the crypts and produce these four types of mature cells. The niche-related Wnt and Bmp signaling pathways have been suggested to be involved in the regulation and maintenance of the stem cell microenvironment. In our laboratory, we isolated the first normal human intestinal epithelial crypt (HIEC) cell model from the human fetal intestine and in this study we investigated the expression of a panel of intestinal stem cell markers in HIEC cells under normal culture parameters as well as under conditions that mimic the stem cell microenvironment. The results showed that short term stimulation of HIEC cells with R-spondin 1 and Wnt-3a±SB-216763, a glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) inhibitor, induced β-catenin/TCF activity and expression of the WNT target genes, cyclin D2 and LGR5. Treatment of HIEC cells with noggin, an antagonist of BMP signaling, abolished SMAD2/5/8 phosphorylation. Inducing a switch from inactive WNT/active BMP toward active WNT/inactive BMP pathways was sufficient to trigger a robust intestinal primordial stem-like cell signature with predominant LGR5, PHLDA1, PROM1, SMOC2 and OLFM4 expression. These findings demonstrate that even fully established cultures of intestinal cells can be prompted toward a CBC stem cell-like phenotype. This model should be useful for studying the regulation of human intestinal stem cell self-renewal and differentiation.

Duan C, Liu X, Liang S, et al.
Oestrogen receptor-mediated expression of Olfactomedin 4 regulates the progression of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
J Cell Mol Med. 2014; 18(5):863-74 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Endometrial adenocarcinoma is the most common tumour of the female genital tract in developed countries, and oestrogen receptor (ER) signalling plays a pivotal role in its pathogenesis. When we used bioinformatics tools to search for the genes contributing to gynecological cancers, the expression of Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) was found by digital differential display to be associated with differentiation of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Aberrant expression of OLFM4 has been primarily reported in tumours of the digestive system. The mechanism of OLFM4 in tumuorigenesis is elusive. We investigated OLFM4 expression in endometrium, analysed the association of OLFM4 with ER signalling in endometrial adenocarcinoma, and examined the roles of OLFM4 in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Expression of OLFM4 was increased during endometrial carcinogenesis, linked to the differentiation of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and positively related to the expression of oestrogen receptor-α (ERα) and progesterone receptor. Moreover, ERα-mediated signalling regulated expression of OLFM4, and knockdown of OLFM4 enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion of endometrial carcinoma cells. Down-regulation of OLFM4 was associated with decreased cumulative survival rate of patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Our data suggested that impairment of ERα signal-mediated OLFM4 expression promoted the malignant progression of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, which may have significance for the therapy of this carcinoma.

Hasselbalch HC, Skov V, Stauffer Larsen T, et al.
Transcriptional profiling of whole blood identifies a unique 5-gene signature for myelofibrosis and imminent myelofibrosis transformation.
PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e85567 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Identifying a distinct gene signature for myelofibrosis may yield novel information of the genes, which are responsible for progression of essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera towards myelofibrosis. We aimed at identifying a simple gene signature - composed of a few genes - which were selectively and highly deregulated in myelofibrosis patients. Gene expression microarray studies have been performed on whole blood from 69 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms. Amongst the top-20 of the most upregulated genes in PMF compared to controls, we identified 5 genes (DEFA4, ELA2, OLFM4, CTSG, and AZU1), which were highly significantly deregulated in PMF only. None of these genes were significantly regulated in ET and PV patients. However, hierarchical cluster analysis showed that these genes were also highly expressed in a subset of patients with ET (n = 1) and PV (n = 4) transforming towards myelofibrosis and/or being featured by an aggressive phenotype. We have identified a simple 5-gene signature, which is uniquely and highly significantly deregulated in patients in transitional stages of ET and PV towards myelofibrosis and in patients with PMF only. Some of these genes are considered to be responsible for the derangement of bone marrow stroma in myelofibrosis. Accordingly, this gene-signature may reflect key processes in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of myelofibrosis development.

Sawada T, Yashiro M, Sentani K, et al.
New molecular staging with G-factors (VEGF-C and Reg IV) by supplementing TNM classification in colorectal cancers.
Oncol Rep. 2013; 30(6):2609-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Staging classification of colorectal cancers is performed by the UICC/TNM classification system, which is the global gold standard. However, we often experience in clinical practice that there are considerable differences in prognoses between patients who have the same classification particularly in stage II and III cancers. The aim of this study was to propose a new TNM-G classification to predict prognosis and recurrence by supplementing the conventional TNM classification. A total of 220 cases of colorectal cancer, including 77 at stage II and 143 at stage III, were registered from four independent facilities. Immunohistochemical staining for 7 molecules, such as p53, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, regenerating islet-derived family, member 4 (Reg IV), olfactomedin 4, Claudin-18 and matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP‑7), was performed to investigate the correlation between clinicopathological factors and expression of each molecule. Based on the results, no significant correlation was observed between the immunostaining expression of these 7 factors and recurrence in total colorectal cancer. Recurrence in stage II (77 cases) was significantly higher in cases positive for Reg IV expression (P=0.042). On analysis of overall survival (OS) and disease‑free survival (DFS), VEGF-C and Reg IV expression had a correlation with poor prognosis, therefore, these factors were selected and applied to G-factor classifications so that cases negative for both could be classified as G0, cases positive for either of the factors could be classified as G1, and cases positive for both factors could be classified as G2. While no significant correlation was observed in the recurrence rates between G0 and G2, OS and DFS in stage II cases were significantly poorer for G2 cases in comparison with G0 or G1 cases. The survival curves of OS and DFS in stage II G2 were similar to that of stage III cases. According to these results, prognosis of VEGF-C/Reg IV both positive G2 cases in stage II colorectal cancer was found to be almost equal to the poor survival in stage III cases, and the advancement of one stage up migration based on G-factors may be supposed to be highly feasible for clinical application. In conclusion, the combination of VEGF-C and Reg IV may be a promising factor for clinical staging to supplement the classical TNM classification system, and it may suggest a good indication of adjuvant chemotherapy for G2 cases in stage II colorectal cancers.

Li H, Rodriguez-Canales J, Liu W, et al.
Deletion of the olfactomedin 4 gene is associated with progression of human prostate cancer.
Am J Pathol. 2013; 183(4):1329-38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) gene is located on chromosome 13q14.3, which frequently is deleted in human prostate cancer. However, direct genetic evidence of OLFM4 gene alteration in human prostate cancer has not yet been obtained. In this study, we investigated the genetics, protein expression, and functions of the OLFM4 gene in human prostate cancer. We found overall 25% deletions within the OLFM4 gene in cancerous epithelial cells compared with adjacent normal epithelial cells that were microdissected from 31 prostate cancer specimens using laser-capture microdissection and genomic DNA sequencing. We found 28% to 45% hemizygous and 15% to 57% homozygous deletions of the OLFM4 gene via fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis from 44 different prostate cancer patient samples. Moreover, homozygous deletion of the OLFM4 gene significantly correlated with advanced prostate cancer. By using immunohistochemical analysis of 162 prostate cancer tissue array samples representing a range of Gleason scores, we found that OLFM4 protein expression correlated inversely with advanced prostate cancer, consistent with the genetic results. We also showed that a truncated mutant of OLFM4 that lacks the olfactomedin domain eliminated suppression of PC-3 prostate cancer cell growth. Together, our findings indicate that OLFM4 is a novel candidate tumor-suppressor gene for chromosome 13q and may shed new light on strategies that could be used for the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of prostate cancer patients.

Staibano S, Ilardi G, Leone V, et al.
Critical role of CCDC6 in the neoplastic growth of testicular germ cell tumors.
BMC Cancer. 2013; 13:433 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: DNA damage response has been clearly described as an anti-cancer barrier in early human tumorigenesis. Moreover, interestingly, testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) have been reported to lack the DNA Damage Response (DDR) pathway activation. CCDC6 is a pro-apoptotic phosphoprotein substrate of the kinase ataxia telangectasia mutated (ATM) able to sustain DNA damage checkpoint in response to genotoxic stress and is commonly rearranged in malignancies upon fusion with different partners. In our study we sought to determine whether CCDC6 could have a role in the patho-genesis of testicular germ cell tumors.
METHODS: To achieve this aim, analysis for CCDC6 expression has been evaluated on serial sections of the mouse testis by immunohistochemistry and on separate populations of murine testicular cells by western blot. Next, the resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis and the production of reactive oxygen species has been investigated in GC1 cells, derived from immortalized type B murine germ cells, following CCDC6 silencing. Finally, the CCDC6 expression in normal human testicular cells, in Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia Unclassified (IGCNU), in a large series of male germ cell tumours and in the unique human seminoma TCam2 cell line has been evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by Western Blot analyses.
RESULTS: The analysis of the CCDC6 expression revealed its presence in Sertoli cells and in spermatogonial cells. CCDC6 loss was the most consistent feature among the primary tumours and TCam2 cells. Interestingly, following treatment with low doses of H₂O₂, the silencing of CCDC6 in GC1 cells caused a decrease in the oxidized form of cytochrome c and low detection of Bad, PARP-1 and Caspase 3 proteins. Moreover, in the silenced cells, upon oxidative damage, the cell viability was protected, the γH2AX activation was impaired and the Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) release was decreased.
CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, our results suggest that the loss of CCDC6 could aid the spermatogonial cells to be part of a pro-survival pathway that helps to evade the toxic effects of endogenous oxidants and contributes to testicular neoplastic growth.

Siemens H, Jackstadt R, Kaller M, Hermeking H
Repression of c-Kit by p53 is mediated by miR-34 and is associated with reduced chemoresistance, migration and stemness.
Oncotarget. 2013; 4(9):1399-415 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase is commonly over-expressed in different types of cancer. p53 activation is known to result in the down-regulation of c-Kit. However, the underlying mechanism has remained unknown. Here, we show that the p53-induced miR-34 microRNA family mediates repression of c-Kit by p53 via a conserved seed-matching sequence in the c-Kit 3'-UTR. Ectopic miR-34a resulted in a decrease in Erk signaling and transformation, which was dependent on the down-regulation of c-Kit expression. Furthermore, ectopic expression of c-Kit conferred resistance of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells to treatment with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), whereas ectopic miR-34a sensitized the cells to 5-FU. After stimulation with c-Kit ligand/stem cell factor (SCF) Colo320 CRC cells displayed increased migration/invasion, whereas ectopic miR-34a inhibited SCF-induced migration/invasion. Activation of a conditional c-Kit allele induced several stemness markers in DLD-1 CRC cells. In primary CRC samples elevated c-Kit expression also showed a positive correlation with markers of stemness, such as Lgr5, CD44, OLFM4, BMI-1 and β-catenin. On the contrary, activation of a conditional miR-34a allele in DLD-1 cells diminished the expression of c-Kit and several stemness markers (CD44, Lgr5 and BMI-1) and suppressed sphere formation. MiR-34a also suppressed enhanced sphere-formation after exposure to SCF. Taken together, our data establish c-Kit as a new direct target of miR-34 and demonstrate that this regulation interferes with several c-Kit-mediated effects on cancer cells. Therefore, this regulation may be potentially relevant for future diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

Micci F, Panagopoulos I, Haugom L, et al.
Genomic aberration patterns and expression profiles of squamous cell carcinomas of the vulva.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2013; 52(6):551-63 [PubMed] Related Publications
Little is known about the genomic abnormalities of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the vulva and how they correlate with gene expression. We determined the genomic and expression profiles of 15 such SCC using karyotyping, DNA ploidy analysis, arrayCGH, and expression arrays. Four of the five cases with clonal chromosomal aberrations found by G-banding showed highly abnormal karyotypes with multiple rearrangements. The imbalances scored by arrayCGH mapped to different chromosomes with losses being more common than gains. Frequent losses were scored from 3p and 8p whereas gains were frequent from 3q and 8q (loss of 8p with concomitant gain of 8q mostly occurred via 8q isochromosome formation). This is the first study of vulvar tumors using arrayCGH, and some frequent imbalances could be defined precisely. Of particular note were the sometimes large, sometimes small deletions of 3p and 9p which had minute areas in 3p14 and 9p23 as minimal commonly deleted regions. FHIT (3p14) and PTPRD (9p23) are the only genes here. They were both lost in seven cases, including homozygous losses of PTPRD in four tumors. Using qPCR we could demonstrate deregulation of the FHIT gene in tumor cells. Hence, this gene is likely to play a pathogenetic role in vulvar SCC tumorigenesis. Expression array analyses also identified a number of other genes whose expression profile was altered. Notable among the downregulated genes were MAL (in 2q11), KRT4 (in 12q13), and OLFM4 (in 13q14), whereas upregulated genes included SPRR2G (in 1q21.3) and S100A7A (in 1q21.3).

Park KS, Kim KK, Piao ZH, et al.
Olfactomedin 4 suppresses tumor growth and metastasis of mouse melanoma cells through downregulation of integrin and MMP genes.
Mol Cells. 2012; 34(6):555-61 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) is highly expressed in gastrointestinal cancers and has an anti-apoptotic function. The roles of OLFM4 in tumor growth and metastasis and how it functions in these processes remain elusive. We investigated the function of OLFM4 in tumor growth and metastasis using B16F10 mouse melanoma cells as an experimental system. Our results showed that OLFM4 had no positive effect on cell viability or cell cycle progression in B16F10 cells. However, it significantly suppressed the tumorigenicity of B16F10 cells, i.e., intradermal primary tumor growth and lung metastasis. OLFM4 also suppressed the migration and invasion of B16F10 cells in vitro. For further insight into the mechanisms underlying OLFM4-mediated suppression of tumor progression, we examined the effect of OLFM4 on the expression of integrin and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), both of which are involved in tumor progression. Overexpression of OLFM4 clearly reduced the expression levels of integrin α1, integrin α4, integrin α5, integrin α6, and MMP9. Moreover, forced expression of MMP9 attenuated the inhibitory activity of OLFM4 on migration and invasiveness. Our findings provide the experimental evidence that OLFM4 may function as a tumor suppressor and an anti-metastatic gene during tumor progression.

Ziskin JL, Dunlap D, Yaylaoglu M, et al.
In situ validation of an intestinal stem cell signature in colorectal cancer.
Gut. 2013; 62(7):1012-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
OBJECTIVE: Wnt/Tcf, Lgr5, Ascl2 and/or Bmi1 signalling is believed to define the mouse intestinal stem cell niche(s) from which adenomas arise. The aim of this study was to determine the relevance of these putative intestinal stem cell markers to human colorectal cancer.
DESIGN: 19 putative intestinal stem cell markers, including Ascl2 and Lgr5, were identified from published data and an evaluation of a human colorectal gene expression database. Associations between these genes were assessed by isotopic in situ hybridisation (ISH) in 57 colorectal adenocarcinomas. Multiplex fluorescent ISH and chromogenic non-isotopic ISH were performed to confirm expression patterns. The prognostic significance of Lgr5 was assessed in 891 colorectal adenocarcinomas.
RESULTS: Ascl2 and Lgr5 were expressed in 85% and 74% of cancers respectively, and expression was positively correlated (p=0.003). Expression of Bmi1 was observed in 47% of cancers but was very weak in 98% of cases with expression. Both Ascl2 and/or Lgr5 were positively correlated with the majority of genes in the signature but neither was correlated with Cdk6, Gpx2, Olfm4 or Tnfrsf19. Lgr5 did not have prognostic significance.
CONCLUSION: These data suggest that 74-85% of colorectal cancers express a Lgr5/Ascl2 associated signature and support the hypothesis that they derive from Lgr5(+)/Ascl2(+) crypt stem cells, not Bmi1(+) stem cells. However, Olfm4 was not found to be a useful marker of Lgr5(+) cells in normal colon or tumours. In this large series, Lgr5 expression is not associated with increased tumour aggressiveness, as might be expected from a cancer stem cell marker.

Liu RH, Yang MH, Xiang H, et al.
Depletion of OLFM4 gene inhibits cell growth and increases sensitization to hydrogen peroxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced-apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.
J Biomed Sci. 2012; 19:38 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Human olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) gene is a secreted glycoprotein more commonly known as the anti-apoptotic molecule GW112. OLFM4 is found to be frequently up-regulated in many types of human tumors including gastric cancer and it was believed to play significant role in the progression of gastric cancer. Although the function of OLFM4 has been indicated in many studies, recent evidence strongly suggests a cell or tissue type-dependent role of OLFM4 in cell growth and apoptosis. The aim of this study is to examine the role of gastric cancer-specific expression of OLFM4 in cell growth and apoptosis resistance.
METHODS: OLFM4 expression was eliminated by RNA interference in SGC-7901 and MKN45 cells. Cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, cell cycle and apoptosis were characterized in vitro. Tumorigenicity was analyzed in vivo. The apoptosis and caspase-3 activation in response to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF α) were assessed in the presence or absence of caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk.
RESULTS: The elimination of OLFM4 protein by RNA interference in SGC-7901 and MKN45 cells significantly inhibits tumorigenicity both in vitro and in vivo by induction of cell G1 arrest (all P < 0.01). OLFM4 knockdown did not trigger obvious cell apoptosis but increased H2O2 or TNF α-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity (all P < 0.01). Treatment of Z-VAD-fmk attenuated caspase-3 activity and significantly reversed the H(2)O(2) or TNF α-induced apoptosis in OLFM4 knockdown cells (all P < 0.01).
CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that depletion of OLFM4 significantly inhibits tumorigenicity of the gastric cancer SGC-7901 and MKN45 cells. Blocking OLFM4 expression can sensitize gastric cancer cells to H2O2 or TNF α treatment by increasing caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. A combination strategy based on OLFM4 inhibition and anticancer drugs treatment may provide therapeutic potential in gastric cancer intervention.

Esposito F, Boscia F, Gigantino V, et al.
The high-mobility group A1-estrogen receptor β nuclear interaction is impaired in human testicular seminomas.
J Cell Physiol. 2012; 227(12):3749-55 [PubMed] Related Publications
It is well established that estrogens participate in the control of normal spermatogenesis and endogenous or environmental estrogens are involved in pathological germ cell proliferation including testicular germ cell tumors. The effects of estrogen are now known to be mediated by estrogen receptor-α (ERα) and ERβ subtypes, but only ERβ has been found in human germ cells of normal testis. However, its expression was markedly diminished in human testicular seminomas. The expression and the possible interaction of ERβ and HMGA1 were studied in normal germ cells and in human testicular seminomas. GC1 and TCam-2 germ cell lines, were used; in addition, a tissue micro-array (TMA) was built using the most representative areas from 35 cases of human testicular seminomas. The expression and the interaction of ERβ and HMGA1 were observed by using immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses in combination with immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence analyses. Here, we show that ERβ interacts with HMGA1 in normal germ cells, while down regulation of ERβ associates with transcriptional co-regulator HMGA1 over-expression and cytoplasmic localization both in human testicular seminomas and in TCam-2 cell line. In addition, we show that 17β-oestradiol induces an HMGA1 increased cytoplasmic expression associated to an ERβ down-regulation in TCam-2 cell line. Taken together, our results suggest that exposure to estrogens or estrogen-mimics, in some as of yet undefined manner, diminishes the ERβ-mediated growth restraint in human testicular seminoma, probably due to the HMGA1 cytoplasmic delocalization associated with ERβ down-regulation.

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