Gene Summary

Gene:PIM1; Pim-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase
Aliases: PIM
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Ser/Thr protein kinase family, and PIM subfamily. This gene is expressed primarily in B-lymphoid and myeloid cell lines, and is overexpressed in hematopoietic malignancies and in prostate cancer. It plays a role in signal transduction in blood cells, contributing to both cell proliferation and survival, and thus provides a selective advantage in tumorigenesis. Both the human and orthologous mouse genes have been reported to encode two isoforms (with preferential cellular localization) resulting from the use of alternative in-frame translation initiation codons, the upstream non-AUG (CUG) and downstream AUG codons (PMIDs:16186805, 1825810).[provided by RefSeq, Aug 2011]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:serine/threonine-protein kinase pim-1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (17)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Translocation
  • Apoptosis
  • Spindle Apparatus
  • Transcriptional Regulator ERG
  • Proto-Oncogenes
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Phosphorylation
  • Transfection
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • Mutation
  • RT-PCR
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Tissue Kallikreins
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Young Adult
  • Tumor Burden
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • Vacuoles
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • STAT5 Transcription Factor
  • Signal Transduction
  • Ubiquitination
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1
  • Up-Regulation
  • MicroRNAs
  • Messenger RNA
  • Urea
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Tristetraprolin
  • Chromosome 6
  • rho GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Acute Myeloid Leukaemia
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Viral Proteins
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PIM1 (cancer-related)

Ai J, Li W, Zeng R, et al.
Blockage of SSRP1/Ets-1/Pim-3 signalling enhances chemosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma to docetaxel in vitro.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2016; 83:1022-1031 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare cancer in most parts of the world, but is prevalent in South China area. Besides, therapeutic outcome is still unsatisfactory for patients with refractory and relapsed NPC, even though receiving a second line of docetaxel-based chemotherapy. These reasons require a better understanding of mechanisms underlying the carcinogenesis, malignancy and chemoresistance. In the basis of our previous finding of SSRP1 over-expression in NPC cell lines, this study continuously discovered up-regulated Ets-1, phosphor-Ets-1 and Pim-3 in NPC tissues with immunohistochemistry assay and revealed a close correlation of these up-regulated proteins with NPC proliferation and invasion. Using gene-silencing technology followed by western blot and immunocytochemistry detections, SSRP1 was found to facilitate the translocation of phosphor-Ets-1 from cytoplasm to cell nucleus, but have marginal effect on Ets-1 expression and phosphorylation. Pim-3 was positively regulated by Ets-1. In NPC HNE-1 cells, all SSRP1, Ets-1 and Pim-3 knockdown diminished the cell proliferation, enhanced the apoptosis, as well as inhibited the autophagy, invasion and clonogenicity in the presence or absence of docetaxel at IC25. Exposure of HNE-1 cells to docetaxel (IC25) alone had modest effect on cell proliferation and autophagy, and was not as effective as docetaxel treatment after knockdown of SSRP1, Ets-1 or Pim-3 on induction of the apoptosis and on inhibition of the invasion and clonogenicity. Our data indicate that SSRP1/Ets-1/Pim-3 signalling is tightly associated with the proliferation, apoptosis, autophagy, invasion and clonogenicity of NPC cells, and blockage of this signalling facilitates chemosensitivity of the cells to docetaxel.

Chang W, Liu M, Xu J, et al.
MiR-377 inhibits the proliferation of pancreatic cancer by targeting Pim-3.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(11):14813-14824 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of various tumor biological processes including proliferation and apoptosis. MiR-377 has been implicated in many types of cancer, whereas its expressional feature and potential biological function in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains unclear. In this study, we scanned the global miRNA expression profiles in PDAC from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and found miR-377 was down-regulated significantly in PDAC. Then, its expression was measured in both pancreatic cancer tissues and cells; the data showed that miR-377 was de-regulated and inversely correlated with pathologic parameters of tumor growth or metastasis. We generated PDAC cell lines with stable overexpression or inhibition of miR-377, and our results indicated that miR-377 up-regulation significantly promoted cell viability, proliferation, and migration in PDAC cells, and also induced cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest simultaneously. Binding-site predictions by bioinformatics showed that Pim-3 might be a potential target of miR-377. Luciferase reporter assay ulteriorly identified that miR-377 suppressed Pim-3 expression by binding the 3'-UTR. In tumor tissues, we also showed that the Pim-3 expression was inversely correlated with that of miR-377. Furthermore, stable ectopic miR-377 expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines suppressed Pim-3 expression, leading to the attenuation of Bad phosphorylation level at its Ser(112) and promoting cell apoptosis. Overall, these results reveal that miR-377 may have tumor growth suppression function by down-regulating Pim-3 kinase expression to inhibit both pancreatic tumor growth and migration, and induce cell apoptosis. Hence, miR-377 may be a potential diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.

Deng D, Wang L, Chen Y, et al.
MicroRNA-124-3p regulates cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, and bioenergetics by targeting PIM1 in astrocytoma.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(7):899-907 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The PIM1 protein is an important regulator of cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, and metabolism in various human cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are powerful post-transcriptional gene regulators that function through translational repression or transcript destabilization. Therefore, we aimed to identify whether a close relationship exists between PIM1 and miRNAs. PIM1 protein levels and mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in astrocytoma tissues, indicating the oncogenic role of PIM1 in astrocytoma. Further bioinformatics analysis indicated that miR-124-3p targeted the 3'-UTR of PIM1. We also observed an inverse correlation between the miR-124-3p levels and PIM1 protein or mRNA levels in astrocytoma samples. Next, we experimentally confirmed that miR-124-3p directly recognizes the 3'-UTR of the PIM1 transcript and regulates PIM1 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels. Furthermore, we examined the biological consequences of miR-124-3p targeting PIM1 in vitro. We showed that the repression of PIM1 in astrocytoma cancer cells by miR-124-3p suppressed proliferation, invasion, and aerobic glycolysis and promoted apoptosis. We observed that the restoration or inhibition of PIM1 activity resulted in effects that were similar to those induced by miR-124-3p inhibitors or mimics in cancer cells. Finally, overexpression of PIM1 rescued the inhibitory effects of miR-124-3p. In summary, these findings aid in understanding the tumor-suppressive role of miR-124-3p in astrocytoma pathogenesis through the inhibition of PIM1 translation.

Sera Y, Yamasaki N, Oda H, et al.
Identification of cooperative genes for E2A-PBX1 to develop acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Cancer Sci. 2016; 107(7):890-8 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
E2A-PBX1 is a chimeric gene product detected in t(1;19)-bearing acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with B-cell lineage. To investigate the leukemogenic process, we generated conditional knock-in (cKI) mice for E2A-PBX1, in which E2A-PBX1 is inducibly expressed under the control of the endogenous E2A promoter. Despite the induced expression of E2A-PBX1, no hematopoietic disease was observed, strongly suggesting that additional genetic alterations are required to develop leukemia. To address this possibility, retroviral insertional mutagenesis was used. Virus infection efficiently induced T-cell, B-cell, and biphenotypic ALL in E2A-PBX1 cKI mice. Inverse PCR identified eight retroviral common integration sites, in which enhanced expression was observed in the Gfi1, Mycn, and Pim1 genes. In addition, it is of note that viral integration and overexpression of the Zfp521 gene was detected in one tumor with B-cell lineage; we previously identified Zfp521 as a cooperative gene with E2A-HLF, another E2A-involving fusion gene with B-lineage ALL. The cooperative oncogenicity of E2A-PBX1 with overexpressed Zfp521 in B-cell tumorigenesis was indicated by the finding that E2A-PBX1 cKI, Zfp521 transgenic compound mice developed B-lineage ALL. Moreover, upregulation of ZNF521, the human counterpart of Zfp521, was found in several human leukemic cell lines bearing t(1;19). These results indicate that E2A-PBX1 cooperates with additional gene alterations to develop ALL. Among them, enhanced expression of ZNF521 may play a clinically relevant role in E2A fusion genes to develop B-lineage ALL.

Chen XY, Wang Z, Li B, et al.
Pim-3 contributes to radioresistance through regulation of the cell cycle and DNA damage repair in pancreatic cancer cells.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016; 473(1):296-302 [PubMed] Related Publications
Resistance of cancer cells to chemoradiotherapy is a major clinical problem in pancreatic cancer treatment. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of cellular resistance and identifying novel targets are essential for improving treatment efficacy for pancreatic cancer patients. Previous studies have demonstrated a significant role for Pim-3 in pancreatic cancer survival against gemcitabine-induced genotoxic stress. Here, we observed that radiation treatment enhanced Pim-3 expression in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. Stable overexpression of Pim-3 in pancreatic cancer cells significantly protected cells against radiation treatment by attenuating G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and DNA damage response. Silencing of Pim-3 expression significantly elevated the phosphorylation of histone variant H2AX, a marker of DNA double strand breaks, and decreased the activation of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase, along with its downstream targets, eventually enhancing the radiosensitivity of human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Hence, we demonstrated a novel function for Pim-3 in human pancreatic cancer cell survival against radiation. Targeting Pim-3 may be a promising way to improve treatment efficacy in combination with radiotherapy in human pancreatic cancer.

Gu H, Liu M, Ding C, et al.
Hypoxia-responsive miR-124 and miR-144 reduce hypoxia-induced autophagy and enhance radiosensitivity of prostate cancer cells via suppressing PIM1.
Cancer Med. 2016; 5(6):1174-82 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cancer cells in hypoxia usually make adaptive changes in cellular metabolism, such as altered autophagy. This might be a cause of enhanced radioresistance in some types of cancer. In this study, we investigated hypoxia-responsive miRNAs in two prostate cancer cell lines (DU145 and PC3). This study firstly reported that hypoxia induces further downregulation of miR-124 and miR-144, which might be a result of impaired dicer expression. These two miRNAs can simultaneously target 3'UTR of PIM1. Functional study showed that miR-124 or miR-144 overexpression can inhibit hypoxia-induced autophagy and enhance radiosensitivity at least via downregulating PIM1. Therefore, hypoxia induced miR-124 and miR-144 downregulation may contribute to a prosurvival mechanism of prostate cancer cells to hypoxia and irradiation at least through attenuated suppressing of PIM1. This finding presents a potential therapeutic target for prostate cancer.

Liu Y, Fei T, Zheng X, et al.
An Integrative Pharmacogenomic Approach Identifies Two-drug Combination Therapies for Personalized Cancer Medicine.
Sci Rep. 2016; 6:22120 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
An individual tumor harbors multiple molecular alterations that promote cell proliferation and prevent apoptosis and differentiation. Drugs that target specific molecular alterations have been introduced into personalized cancer medicine, but their effects can be modulated by the activities of other genes or molecules. Previous studies aiming to identify multiple molecular alterations for combination therapies are limited by available data. Given the recent large scale of available pharmacogenomic data, it is possible to systematically identify multiple biomarkers that contribute jointly to drug sensitivity, and to identify combination therapies for personalized cancer medicine. In this study, we used pharmacogenomic profiling data provided from two independent cohorts in a systematic in silico investigation of perturbed genes cooperatively associated with drug sensitivity. Our study predicted many pairs of molecular biomarkers that may benefit from the use of combination therapies. One of our predicted biomarker pairs, a mutation in the BRAF gene and upregulated expression of the PIM1 gene, was experimentally validated to benefit from a therapy combining BRAF inhibitor and PIM1 inhibitor in lung cancer. This study demonstrates how pharmacogenomic data can be used to systematically identify potentially cooperative genes and provide novel insights to combination therapies in personalized cancer medicine.

Amatya VJ, Mawas AS, Kushitani K, et al.
Differential microRNA expression profiling of mesothelioma and expression analysis of miR-1 and miR-214 in mesothelioma.
Int J Oncol. 2016; 48(4):1599-607 [PubMed] Related Publications
Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive cancer with poor prognosis and refractory to currently available therapies. Most of the patients with advanced invasive nature are not amenable to surgical resection and/or available anticancer therapy, thus development of novel effective therapeutic regimes is needed. Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been proposed to contribute to carcinogenesis and aggressiveness of mesothelioma. We analyzed miRNA expression in mesothelioma cell lines using TaqMan miRNA expression array and found significant number of miRNAs, which showed increased or lost expression. We validated the increased expression of miR-182, and miR-183 in mesothelioma cell lines by individual miRNA assays and SmartFlare miRNA probes. We further investigated the miR-1, and miR-214, which were not expressed in mesothelioma cells by real-time RT-PCR. Transfection of mesothelioma cells, ACC-Meso-1 and CRL5915, with miRNA mimic (hsa-miR-1 mimic and hsa-miR-214 mimic) led to inhibition of cell growth, invasion and migration. We paid attention to PIM1, the target gene of both miR-1 and miR-214 miRNAs and which was found overexpressed in mesothelioma cells, and miR-1 and miR-214 mimic transfection of mesothelioma cell lines showed downregulation of PIM1 by western blot analysis. The miRNAs, miR-1 and miR-214, may play a role in carcinogenesis of mesothelioma thus might be considered as candidate therapeutic targets in mesothelioma.

Zhou Z, Zhang R, Wang R, et al.
Expression of Pim-3 in colorectal cancer and its relationship with prognosis.
Tumour Biol. 2016; 37(7):9151-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
There is increasing evidence suggesting that the establishment of Pim-3 is involved in tumorigenesis. This study aimed to investigate the expression and clinicopathological significance of Pim-3 in colorectal cancer (CRC). Clinical pathology data were collected from 410 CRC patients who received radical resection and were pathologically confirmed at the Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center between October 2002 and December 2008. We compared the expression Pim-3 in the primary focus and liver metastasis and investigated the correlations with other clinical-pathological factors. Multivariate analysis showed that perioperative blood transfusion, local invasion, lymph node and liver metastasis, and Pim-3 expression were independent prognostic factors. The expression of Pim-3 in CRC was higher than that in normal tissues. Patients with positive expression had significant decreases in 5-year survival. Pim-3 expression showed a positive correlation with tumor cell differentiation, local infiltration, and lymph node and liver metastasis. In conclusion, Pim-3 might serve as a novel target and prognosis factor for colorectal cancer.

Kreuz S, Holmes KB, Tooze RM, Lefevre PF
Loss of PIM2 enhances the anti-proliferative effect of the pan-PIM kinase inhibitor AZD1208 in non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
Mol Cancer. 2015; 14:205 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: A promising therapeutic approach for aggressive B-cell Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is to target kinases involved in signal transduction and gene regulation. PIM1/2 serine/threonine kinases are highly expressed in activated B-cell-like DLBCL (ABC-DLBCL) with poor prognosis. In addition, both PIM kinases have a reported synergistic effect with c-MYC in mediating tumour development in several cancers, c-MYC gene being translocated to one of the immunoglobulin loci in nearly all BLs.
METHODS: For these reasons, we tested the efficiency of several PIM kinase inhibitors (AZD1208, SMI4a, PIM1/2 inhibitor VI and Quercetagetin) in preventing proliferation of aggressive NHL-derived cell lines and compared their efficiency with PIM1 and/or PIM2 knockdown.
RESULTS: We observed that most of the anti-proliferative potential of these inhibitors in NHL was due to an off-target effect. Interestingly, we present evidence of a kinase-independent function of PIM2 in regulating cell cycle. Moreover, combining AZD1208 treatment and PIM2 knockdown additively repressed cell proliferation.
CONCLUSION: Taken together, this study suggests that at least a part of PIM1/2 oncogenic potential could be independent of their kinase activity, justifying the limited anti-tumorigenic outcome of PIM-kinase inhibitors in NHL.

Albertson DJ, Schmidt RL, Bearss JJ, et al.
Patterns and Significance of PIM Kinases in Urothelial Carcinoma.
Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2015 Nov-Dec; 23(10):717-23 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The Provirus integrating site Moloney murine leukemia virus (Pim) family are proteins with serine/threonine kinase activity. Studies have demonstrated overexpression of Pims in cancer. To our knowledge, only a single study has examined Pim-1 in urothelial carcinoma. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3 in urothelial carcinoma and assess for expression that may contribute to disease progression and serve as a site for targeted therapy.
METHODS: This retrospective study included 137 cases taken from specimens from the University of Utah, Department of Pathology (2008 to 2011). Tissue was stained with antibodies against Pim-1, Pim-2, and Pim-3. Cases were classified into 3 groups, based upon current World Health Organization criteria (invasive high-grade urothelial carcinoma [IHG] [n=84], noninvasive high-grade urothelial carcinoma/carcinoma in situ [n=32], and noninvasive low-grade urothelial carcinoma [NILG] [n=21]). Cases were scored and recorded as positive or negative on the basis of the percentage of cells with cytoplasmic and/or nuclear staining.
RESULTS: NILG showed higher expression of Pim-1 (relative expression rate [RER]=2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.183-0.764) and Pim-3 (RER=3.06; 95% CI, 0.423-0.816) compared with other lesions. IHG had lower expression of Pim-1 (RER=0.31; 95% CI, 0.401-0.844) and Pim-3 (RER=0.354; 95% CI, 0.322-0.816) and noninvasive high-grade urothelial carcinoma (NIHG) demonstrated increased expression of Pim-1 and (RER=2.09; 95% CI, 0.124-0.739) and Pim-2 (RER=1.70; 95% CI, 0.151-0.591). At least 1 Pim kinase protein was expressed at the following rates: 49% in IHG, 66% in NIHG, and 76% in NILG.
CONCLUSION: A high percentage of urothelial carcinomas express Pim kinases. Pim expression differs in NILG, NIHG, and IHG lesions.

Adam K, Lambert M, Lestang E, et al.
Control of Pim2 kinase stability and expression in transformed human haematopoietic cells.
Biosci Rep. 2015; 35(6) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The oncogenic Pim2 kinase is overexpressed in several haematological malignancies, such as multiple myeloma and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and constitutes a strong therapeutic target candidate. Like other Pim kinases, Pim2 is constitutively active and is believed to be essentially regulated through its accumulation. We show that in leukaemic cells, the three Pim2 isoforms have dramatically short half-lives although the longer isoform is significantly more stable than the shorter isoforms. All isoforms present a cytoplasmic localization and their degradation was neither modified by broad-spectrum kinase or phosphatase inhibitors such as staurosporine or okadaic acid nor by specific inhibition of several intracellular signalling pathways including Erk, Akt and mTORC1. Pim2 degradation was inhibited by proteasome inhibitors but Pim2 ubiquitination was not detected even by blocking both proteasome activity and protein de-ubiquitinases (DUBs). Moreover, Pyr41, an ubiquitin-activating enzyme (E1) inhibitor, did not stabilize Pim2, strongly suggesting that Pim2 was degraded by the proteasome without ubiquitination. In agreement, we observed that purified 20S proteasome particles could degrade Pim2 molecule in vitro. Pim2 mRNA accumulation in UT7 cells was controlled by erythropoietin (Epo) through STAT5 transcription factors. In contrast, the translation of Pim2 mRNA was not regulated by mTORC1. Overall, our results suggest that Pim2 is only controlled by its mRNA accumulation level. Catalytically active Pim2 accumulated in proteasome inhibitor-treated myeloma cells. We show that Pim2 inhibitors and proteasome inhibitors, such as bortezomib, have additive effects to inhibit the growth of myeloma cells, suggesting that Pim2 could be an interesting target for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

Čokić VP, Mitrović-Ajtić O, Beleslin-Čokić BB, et al.
Proinflammatory Cytokine IL-6 and JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms.
Mediators Inflamm. 2015; 2015:453020 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The recent JAK1/2 inhibitor trial in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) showed that reducing inflammation can be more beneficial than targeting gene mutants. We evaluated the proinflammatory IL-6 cytokine and JAK-STAT signaling pathway related genes in circulating CD34(+) cells of MPNs. Regarding laboratory data, leukocytosis has been observed in polycythemia vera (PV) and JAK2V617F mutation positive versus negative primary myelofibrosis (PMF) patients. Moreover, thrombocytosis was reduced by JAK2V617F allele burden in essential thrombocythemia (ET) and PMF. 261 significantly changed genes have been detected in PV, 82 in ET, and 94 genes in PMF. The following JAK-STAT signaling pathway related genes had augmented expression in CD34(+) cells of MPNs: CCND3 and IL23A regardless of JAK2V617F allele burden; CSF3R, IL6ST, and STAT1/2 in ET and PV with JAK2V617F mutation; and AKT2, IFNGR2, PIM1, PTPN11, and STAT3 only in PV. STAT5A gene expression was generally reduced in MPNs. IL-6 cytokine levels were increased in plasma, as well as IL-6 protein levels in bone marrow stroma of MPNs, dependent on JAK2V617F mutation presence in ET and PMF patients. Therefore, the JAK2V617F mutant allele burden participated in inflammation biomarkers induction and related signaling pathways activation in MPNs.

Li H, Li J, Jia S, et al.
miR675 upregulates long noncoding RNA H19 through activating EGR1 in human liver cancer.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(31):31958-84 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in multicellular organisms by affecting both the stability and translation of mRNAs. miR675, embedded in H19's first exon, had been linked to the development of human cancers. Herein, we demonstrate miR675 overexpression promotes and silencing miR675 attenuated liver cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, miR675 inhibits the heterochromatin1 isoform HP1α expression in human liver cancer cells which causes a dramatically decrease of the total histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) , histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and a increase of histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation(H3K27Ac).Notably, a significant reduction of the H3K9me3 and H3K27me3 and the increment of H3K27Ac occupancy on the promoter region of EGR1 triggers EGR1 transcription, translation, sumoylation and activation which upregulates lincRNA H19. Strikingly, H19 may induce and activate tumor-specific pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) which is essential for the Warburg effect in its dimer and for gene expression in its teramer during tumorigenesis. Our results imply that miR675 is involved in the epigenetic regulation of H3K9me3, H3k27me3 and H3K27Ac for gene expression and function during hepatocarcinogenesis (e.g.C-myc,Pim1,Ras,CyclinD1,RB1).These findings sheds light on the significance of miR675-HP1α-EGR1-H19-PKM2 cascade signaling pathway in liver cancer.

Curi DA, Beauchamp EM, Blyth GT, et al.
Pre-clinical evidence of PIM kinase inhibitor activity in BCR-ABL1 unmutated and mutated Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemias.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(32):33206-16 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
We investigated the efficacy of targeting the PIM kinase pathway in Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) leukemias. We provide evidence that inhibition of PIM, with the pan-PIM inhibitor SGI-1776, results in suppression of classic PIM effectors and also elements of the mTOR pathway, suggesting interplay between PIM and mTOR signals. Our data demonstrate that PIM inhibition enhances the effects of imatinib mesylate on Ph+ leukemia cells. We also found that PIM inhibition results in suppression of leukemic cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis of Ph+ leukemia cells, including those resistant to imatinib mesylate. Importantly, inhibition of PIM results in enhanced suppression of primary leukemic progenitors from patients with CML. Altogether these findings suggest that pharmacological PIM targeting may provide a unique therapeutic approach for the treatment of Ph+ leukemias.

Pinti M, Gibellini L, Liu Y, et al.
Mitochondrial Lon protease at the crossroads of oxidative stress, ageing and cancer.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015; 72(24):4807-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lon protease is a nuclear DNA-encoded mitochondrial enzyme highly conserved throughout evolution, involved in the degradation of damaged and oxidized proteins of the mitochondrial matrix, in the correct folding of proteins imported in mitochondria, and in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. Lon expression is induced by various stimuli, including hypoxia and reactive oxygen species, and provides protection against cell stress. Lon down-regulation is associated with ageing and with cell senescence, while up-regulation is observed in tumour cells, and is correlated with a more aggressive phenotype of cancer. Lon up-regulation contributes to metabolic reprogramming observed in cancer, favours the switch from a respiratory to a glycolytic metabolism, helping cancer cell survival in the tumour microenvironment, and contributes to epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Silencing of Lon, or pharmacological inhibition of its activity, causes cell death in various cancer cells. Thus, Lon can be included in the growing class of proteins that are not responsible for oncogenic transformation, but that are essential for survival and proliferation of cancer cells, and that can be considered as a new target for development of anticancer drugs.

Wang Y, Zhou X, Shan B, et al.
Downregulation of microRNA‑33a promotes cyclin‑dependent kinase 6, cyclin D1 and PIM1 expression and gastric cancer cell proliferation.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(5):6491-500 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although microRNA‑33 (miR‑33) family members are known to be involved in the regulation and balancing of cholesterol metabolism, fatty acid oxidation and insulin signaling, their functions in carcinogenesis are controversial and the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world; however, the dysregulation and function of miR‑33 family members in gastric cancer have not been extensively studied. The present study reported that a miR‑33 family member, miR‑33a, was significantly downregulated in gastric cancer tissues and gastric cancer cell lines. Of note, the expression of miR‑33a was inversely correlated with pathological differentiation and metastasis as well as gastric cancer biomarker CA199. A cell‑counting kit‑8 assay showed that transfection of the SGC‑7901 gastric cell line with miR‑33a‑overexpression plasmid inhibited the capability of the cells to proliferate. Furthermore, overexpression of miR‑33a led to cell cycle arrest of SGC‑7901 cells in G1 phase. In addition, a luciferase reporter assay showed that miR‑33a directly targeted cyclin‑dependent kinase 6 (CDK6), cyclin D1 (CCND1) and serine/threonine kinase PIM‑1. In gastric cancer specimens, the reduced expression of miR‑33a was associated with increased expression of CDK‑6, CCND1 and PIM1. However, only PIM1 expression was significantly increased in cancer tissues compared with that in their adjacent tissues. The present study revealed that miR‑33a was downregulated in gastric cancer tissues and cell lines, while forced overexpression of miR‑33a decreased CDK‑6, CCND1 and PIM1 expression to inhibit gastric cancer cell proliferation by causing G1 phase arrest. miR‑33a overexpression may therefore resemble an efficient strategy for gastric cancer therapy.

Hnit SS, Xie C, Yao M, et al.
p27(Kip1) signaling: Transcriptional and post-translational regulation.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015; 68:9-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
p27(Kip1) is an inhibitor of a broad spectrum of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), and the loss of a single p27(Kip1) allele is thereby sufficient to increase tumor incidence via CDK-mediated cell cycle entry. As such, down-regulation of p27(Kip1) protein levels, in particular nuclear expressed p27(Kip1), is implicated in both disease progression and poor prognosis in a variety of cancers. p27(Kip1) expression is positively regulated by the transcription factor MENIN, and inhibited by oncogenic transcription factors MYC and PIM. However, regulation of p27(Kip1) protein expression and function is predominantly through post-translational modifications that alter both the cellular localization and the extent of E3 ubiquitin ligase-mediated degradation. Phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) at Thr(187) and Ser(10) is a prerequisite for its degradation via the E3 ubiquitin ligases SKP2 (nuclear) and KPC (cytoplasmic), respectively. Additionally, Ser(10) phosphorylated p27(Kip1) is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm due to the nuclear export protein CRM1. Another E3 ubiquitin ligase, PIRH2, degrades p27(Kip1) in both the cytoplasm and nucleus independent of phosphorylation state. As such, inhibition of cell cycle entry and progression in a variety of cancers may be achieved with therapies designed to correct p27(Kip1) localization and/or block its degradation.

Du J, Zheng X, Cai S, et al.
MicroRNA‑506 participates in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis by targeting PIM3.
Mol Med Rep. 2015; 12(4):5121-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
MicroRNA (miRNA) is a type of short non-coding RNA that suppresses the expression of protein coding genes by partial complementary binding to the 3'‑untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs. miRNA expression alterations are involved in the initiation, progression and metastasis of human cancer and it has been suggested that miRNAs function as tumor suppressors as well as oncogenes in cancer development. PIM-3 is a member of the proto-oncogene PIM family, the aberrant expression of which exists in human pancreatic cancer tissues. There are reports indicating that overexpression of PIM3 is associated with the promotion of pancreatic cancer cell proliferation. The aim of the present study was to identify micro (mi)RNAs that regulate the expression of the oncogene PIM3 in PC. It was confirmed that the expression of PIM3 was regulated by miRNAs through an AGO2 knockout experiment. Subsequently, a dual luciferase assay system was constructed and used to screen 13 selected miRNAs that may target the PIM3 3'UTR directly. The results indicated that miR‑15a/b, miR‑16, miR‑33a/b, miR‑124, miR‑195 and miR‑506 repressed the luciferase activity by targeting the PIM3 3'UTR. However, only the expression of miR‑506 was negatively correlated with PIM3 expression in PC tissues (r=‑0.38, P=0.017). Furthermore, a biological functional study indicated that miR‑506 functioned as a tumor suppressor by repressing PC cell proliferation, which was partially reversed by PIM3 overexpression. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to reveal the tumor suppressor function of miR‑506 in PC, which has the potential to be employed in the diagnosis and treatment of PC.

Keane NA, Reidy M, Natoni A, et al.
Targeting the Pim kinases in multiple myeloma.
Blood Cancer J. 2015; 5:e325 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy that remains incurable. Novel treatment strategies to improve survival are urgently required. The Pims are a small family of serine/threonine kinases with increased expression across the hematological malignancies. Pim-2 shows highest expression in MM and constitutes a promising therapeutic target. It is upregulated by the bone marrow microenvironment to mediate proliferation and promote MM survival. Pim-2 also has a key role in the bone destruction typically seen in MM. Additional putative roles of the Pim kinases in MM include trafficking of malignant cells, promoting oncogenic signaling in the hypoxic bone marrow microenvironment and mediating resistance to therapy. A number of Pim inhibitors are now under development with lead compounds entering the clinic. The ATP-competitive Pim inhibitor LGH447 has recently been reported to have single agent activity in MM. It is anticipated that Pim inhibition will be of clinical benefit in combination with standard treatments and/or with novel drugs targeting other survival pathways in MM.

Zhang XH, Yu HL, Wang FJ, et al.
Pim-2 Modulates Aerobic Glycolysis and Energy Production during the Development of Colorectal Tumors.
Int J Med Sci. 2015; 12(6):487-93 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Tumor cells have higher rates of glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis to meet energy demands for proliferation and metastasis. The characteristics of increased glucose uptake, accompanied with aerobic glycolysis, has been exploited for the diagnosis of cancers. Although much progress has been made, the mechanisms regulating tumor aerobic glycolysis and energy production are still not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that Pim-2 is required for glycolysis and energy production in colorectal tumor cells. Our results show that Pim-2 is highly expressed in colorectal tumor cells, and may be induced by nutrient stimulation. Activation of Pim-2 in colorectal cells led to increase glucose utilization and aerobic glycolysis, as well as energy production. While knockdown of Pim-2 decreased energy production in colorectal tumor cells and increased their susceptibility to apoptosis. Moreover, the effects of Pim-2 kinase on aerobic glycolysis seem to be partly dependent on mTORC1 signaling, because inhibition of mTORC1 activity reversed the aerobic glycolysis mediated by Pim-2. Our findings suggest that Pim-2-mediated aerobic glycolysis is critical for monitoring Warburg effect in colorectal tumor cells, highlighting Pim-2 as a potential metabolic target for colorectal tumor therapy.

Liang C, Yu XJ, Guo XZ, et al.
MicroRNA-33a-mediated downregulation of Pim-3 kinase expression renders human pancreatic cancer cells sensitivity to gemcitabine.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(16):14440-55 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers, with less than 5% of patients surviving 5 years beyond diagnosis. Systemic therapies, particularly gemcitabine, have a modest clinical benefit, but chemoresistance limits their efficacy. Here, we demonstrate that plasma miR-33a levels positively correlated with miR-33a levels in tumor tissues of patients with PDAC and are a good prognostic indicator of overall survival. Overexpression of miR-33a inhibited tumor cell proliferation and increased the chemosensitivity to gemcitabine both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, miR-33a targets Pim-3 directly in PDAC. Pim-3 expression was a prognostic indicator related to poor survival in pancreatic cancer patients. Plasma miR-33a levels were significantly lower in pancreatic cancer patients with high Pim-3 protein expression than in healthy controls. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-33a in pancreatic cancer cell lines suppressed Pim-3 expression, leading to downregulation of the AKT/Gsk-3β/β-catenin pathway. Overall, these results indicate that miR-33a functions as a tumor suppressor that downregulates Pim-3 kinase expression to inhibit both pancreatic tumor growth and gemcitabine resistance via the AKT/β-catenin pathway. Hence, detection of plasma miR-33a may be a simple and convenient method of predicting therapeutic responses.

Zhuang H, Zhao MY, Hei KW, et al.
Aberrant expression of pim-3 promotes proliferation and migration of ovarian cancer cells.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2015; 16(8):3325-31 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pim kinase-3(Pim-3), a member of serine/threonine protein kinases, has been implicated in multiple human cancers and involved in Myc-induced tumorigenesis. However, little is known regarding its expression and biological function in human ovarian cancer. In this study we showed that the clinical significance and biological functions of Pim-3 in ovarian cancer and found that higher Pim-3 mRNA level are detected in ovarian cancer tissues than those in normal ovarian tissues. There are significant correlations between higher Pim-3 expression levels with the FIGO stage, histopathological subtypes, and distant metastasis in ovarian cancer patients. Lentivirus-mediated gene overexpression of Pim-3 significantly promotes the proliferation and migration of SKOV3 cell lines. Furthermore, MACC1 and Pim-3 expression were significantly correlated in human ovarian cancer cells, and overexpression of Pim-3 in ovary cancer cells increased MACC1 mRNA and protein expression. The data indicate that Pim-3 acts as a putative oncogene in ovary cancer and could be a viable diagnostic and therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.

Kros JM, Huizer K, Hernández-Laín A, et al.
Evidence-Based Diagnostic Algorithm for Glioma: Analysis of the Results of Pathology Panel Review and Molecular Parameters of EORTC 26951 and 26882 Trials.
J Clin Oncol. 2015; 33(17):1943-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
PURPOSE: With the rapid discovery of prognostic and predictive molecular parameters for glioma, the status of histopathology in the diagnostic process should be scrutinized. Our project aimed to construct a diagnostic algorithm for gliomas based on molecular and histologic parameters with independent prognostic values.
METHODS: The pathology slides of 636 patients with gliomas who had been included in EORTC 26951 and 26882 trials were reviewed using virtual microscopy by a panel of six neuropathologists who independently scored 18 histologic features and provided an overall diagnosis. The molecular data for IDH1, 1p/19q loss, EGFR amplification, loss of chromosome 10 and chromosome arm 10q, gain of chromosome 7, and hypermethylation of the promoter of MGMT were available for some of the cases. The slides were divided in discovery (n = 426) and validation sets (n = 210). The diagnostic algorithm resulting from analysis of the discovery set was validated in the latter.
RESULTS: In 66% of cases, consensus of overall diagnosis was present. A diagnostic algorithm consisting of two molecular markers and one consensus histologic feature was created by conditional inference tree analysis. The order of prognostic significance was: 1p/19q loss, EGFR amplification, and astrocytic morphology, which resulted in the identification of four diagnostic nodes. Validation of the nodes in the validation set confirmed the prognostic value (P < .001).
CONCLUSION: We succeeded in the creation of a timely diagnostic algorithm for anaplastic glioma based on multivariable analysis of consensus histopathology and molecular parameters.

Leung CO, Wong CC, Fan DN, et al.
PIM1 regulates glycolysis and promotes tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(13):10880-92 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characteristically one of the most rapidly proliferating tumors which outgrows functional blood supply and results in regional oxygen deprivation. Overexpression of PIM1, a serine/threonine kinase, has been identified recently in human cancers. Knowledge on PIM1 in HCC is however, scarce. By immunohistochemical analysis on 56 human primary HCC samples, we observed overexpression of PIM1 in 39% of the cases. In two independent cohorts of paired primary and extra-hepatic metastatic HCC tissues, PIM1 expression was higher (p=0.002) in the extra-hepatic metastatic HCC tissues as compared with the corresponding primary HCCs. PIM1 was markedly up-regulated in multiple HCC cell lines in hypoxic condition (1% O2) versus normoxia (20% O2). Silencing of PIM1 suppressed HCC cell invasion in vitro as compared to non-target control, and decreased HCC cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth and metastatic potential in vivo. Knockdown of PIM1 significantly reduced glucose uptake by HCC cells and was associated with decreased levels of p-AKT and key molecules in the glycolytic pathway. Taken together, PIM1 is up-regulated by hypoxia in HCC and promotes tumor growth and metastasis through facilitating cancer cell glycolysis. Targeting PIM1 may have potential role in the management of HCC.

Quan J, Zhou L, Qu J
Knockdown of Pim-3 suppresses the tumorigenicity of glioblastoma by regulating cell cycle and apoptosis.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2015; 61(1):42-50 [PubMed] Related Publications
Products of the Pim (the proviral integration site for the Moloney murine leukemia virus) family of proto—oncogenes possess serine/threonine kinase activity and belong to the Ca2+/calmodulin—dependent protein kinase group. Pim—3, a member of the Pim family is closely linked to the development of a variety of tumors. However, the role of Pim—3 in human glioblastoma remains unknown. In this study, we elucidated the role of Pim—3 in the growth and apoptosis of glioblastoma cells. Western blotting was used for determination of protein levels, and shRNA was used for Pim—3 knockdown. The MTT assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation and flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle status and the number of apoptotic cells. A mouse xenograft model was established by injecting nude mice with Pim—3—depleted glioblastoma cells in order to determine tumor growth in vivo. We demonstrated that Pim—3 was highly expressed in human glioblastoma cell lines. We also found that knockdown of Pim—3 by specific shRNA slowed decreased proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, and increased apoptosis in glioblastoma cells. Pim—3 knockdown potently inhibited the growth of subcutaneously implanted glioblastoma cells in vivo. We further revealed that Pim—3 knockdown induced growth inhibition by reducing the levels of the anti—apoptotic protein Bcl—xl and cell cycle regulatory proteins, including cyclin D1 and Cdc25C, and increasing the levels of the pro—apoptotic protein Bax.

Carneiro BA, Altman JK, Kaplan JB, et al.
Targeted therapy of acute myeloid leukemia.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2015; 15(4):399-413 [PubMed] Related Publications
Advances in the understanding of the genetic underpinnings of acute myeloid leukemia are rapidly being translated into novel treatment strategies. Genomic profiling has highlighted the importance of the epigenetic machinery for leukemogenesis by identifying recurrent somatic mutations involving chromatin-modifier proteins. These genetic alterations function as dynamic regulators of gene expression and involve DNA-methyltransferase 3A, methyltransferase DOT1L, enhancer of zeste homologue 2, isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 and bromodomain-containing proteins. New therapeutic targets are also emerging from further delineation of cell signaling networks in acute myeloid leukemia blasts mediated by PIM kinases, polo-like kinase 1, cell surface protein CD98 and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling receptors, among others. Early results of targeted therapies directed at these molecular mechanisms are discussed in this review and their potential to improve the outcomes of patients by allowing the use of more effective and less toxic treatments.

Mazzocca A, Dituri F, De Santis F, et al.
Lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPAR6 supports the tumorigenicity of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Cancer Res. 2015; 75(3):532-43 [PubMed] Related Publications
The aberrant processes driving hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are not fully understood. Lysophosphatidic acid receptors (LPAR) are commonly overexpressed in HCC, but their contributions to malignant development are not well established. In this report, we show that aberrant expression of LPAR6 sustains tumorigenesis and growth of HCC. Overexpression of LPAR6 in HCC specimens associated with poor survival in a cohort of 128 patients with HCC. We took a genetic approach to elucidate how LPAR6 sustains the HCC tumorigenic process, including through an expression profiling analysis to identify genes under the control of LPAR6. RNAi-mediated attenuation of LPAR6 impaired HCC tumorigenicity in tumor xenograft assays. Expression profiling and mechanistic analyses identified Pim-3 as a pathophysiologically relevant LPAR6 target gene. In nonmalignant cells where LPAR6 overexpression was sufficient to drive malignant character, Pim-3 was upregulated at the level of transcription initiation through a STAT3-dependent mechanism. A further analysis of HCC clinical specimens validated the connection between overexpression of LPAR6 and Pim-3, high proliferation rates, and poorer survival outcomes. Together, our findings establish LPAR6 as an important theranostic target in HCC tumorigenesis.

Ouhtit A, Muzumdar S, Gupta I, et al.
Understanding the functional discrepancy of Pim-1 in cancer.
Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2015; 7:208-14 [PubMed] Related Publications
The Pim-1 gene encodes for a proto-oncogenic serine/threonine protein kinase and is generally involved in cytokine signaling as well as in various signaling pathways regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. Pim-1 kinase plays a role in the development of various tumors mainly, prostate cancer, Burkitt's lymphoma, oral cancer and various other hematopoietic lymphomas. This review will focus on the importance and mechanisms of Pim-1 in prostate cancer and the potential clinical relevance of its various inhibitors.

Zhu X, Xu JJ, Hu SS, et al.
Pim-1 acts as an oncogene in human salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:114 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Pim-1 (Provirus integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1) belongs to the Ser/Thr kinase family and plays a pivotal role in occurrence and development of oncogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that Pim-1 phosphorylates RUNX3 and alters its subcellular localization. However, few studies have concerned the implications of Pim-1 in the salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). In this study, we aimed to clarify the function of Pim-1 in ACC in vitro. Meanwhile, we measured the levels of Pim-1 and RUNX3 in the ACC tissues. The correlations between Pim-1/RUNX3 levels and clinical parameters were also analyzed.
METHODS: SACC-83 and SACC-LM cells were transfected with the Pim-1 siRNA. Pim-1 mRNA and protein expression were measured using real-time PCR and immnuoblot, respectively. Cell proliferation was analyzed by CCK-8 assay. Cell cycle, apoptosis, and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by flow cytometry. Effects of Pim-1 on cells' invasion were evaluated by transwell migration assay. Pim-1 and RUNX3 levels in ACC tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS: Pim-1 siRNA reduces cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, causes cell cycle arrest through cell cycle related proteins (Cyclin D1 and CDK4), mitochondrial depolarization, and decreases invasive ability in SACC-83 and SACC-LM cells. Pim-1 and RUNX3 levels are significantly relevant and associated with T-stage and nerve invasion in the ACC tissues.
CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the oncogenic role of Pim-1 in ACC. The findings also suggest that Pim-1 may serve as a neoteric therapeutic target and potential prognostic marker for ACC cancer.

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