Gene Summary

Gene:PIN1; peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1
Aliases: DOD, UBL5
Summary:Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) catalyze the cis/trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl peptide bonds. This gene encodes one of the PPIases, which specifically binds to phosphorylated ser/thr-pro motifs to catalytically regulate the post-phosphorylation conformation of its substrates. The conformational regulation catalyzed by this PPIase has a profound impact on key proteins involved in the regulation of cell growth, genotoxic and other stress responses, the immune response, induction and maintenance of pluripotency, germ cell development, neuronal differentiation, and survival. This enzyme also plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and many cancers. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.[provided by RefSeq, Jun 2011]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 30 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (27)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (1)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 30 August 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Hepatocellular Carcinoma
  • Down-Regulation
  • Transcriptional Activation
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Messenger RNA
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
  • Ubiquitin
  • RNA Stability
  • Signal Transduction
  • Cell Movement
  • Chromosome 19
  • Mutation
  • Up-Regulation
  • Stomach Cancer
  • Promoter Regions
  • Retinoic Acid
  • p300-CBP Transcription Factors
  • Smoking
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Liver Cancer
  • NIMA-Interacting Peptidylprolyl Isomerase
  • rab GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Cyclin D1
  • Y-Box-Binding Protein 1
  • Protein Binding
  • Cell Proliferation
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • RB1
  • Neoplastic Cell Transformation
  • Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins
  • fas Receptor
  • Cell Line
  • Apoptosis
  • Zinc Finger Protein GLI1
  • tau Proteins
  • Breast Cancer
  • Transfection
Tag cloud generated 30 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PIN1 (cancer-related)

Xue Y, Meehan B, Macdonald E, et al.
CDK4/6 inhibitors target SMARCA4-determined cyclin D1 deficiency in hypercalcemic small cell carcinoma of the ovary.
Nat Commun. 2019; 10(1):558 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inactivating mutations in SMARCA4 (BRG1), a key SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling gene, underlie small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT). To reveal its druggable vulnerabilities, we perform kinase-focused RNAi screens and uncover that SMARCA4-deficient SCCOHT cells are highly sensitive to the inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6). SMARCA4 loss causes profound downregulation of cyclin D1, which limits CDK4/6 kinase activity in SCCOHT cells and leads to in vitro and in vivo susceptibility to CDK4/6 inhibitors. SCCOHT patient tumors are deficient in cyclin D1 yet retain the retinoblastoma-proficient/p16

Nakada S, Kuboki S, Nojima H, et al.
Roles of Pin1 as a Key Molecule for EMT Induction by Activation of STAT3 and NF-κB in Human Gallbladder Cancer.
Ann Surg Oncol. 2019; 26(3):907-917 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Despite developments in multidisciplinary treatment, the prognosis for advanced gallbladder cancer (GBC) still is poor because of its rapid progression. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a central role in promoting tumor invasion and metastasis in malignancies thorough signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Whereas Pin1 mediates STAT3 and NF-κB activation, the involvement of Pin1 in GBC progression is unclear.
METHODS: Factors regulating Pin1-related STAT3 and NF-κB activation were evaluated using surgical specimens collected from 76 GBC patients, GBC cells, and orthotopic GBC xenograft mice.
RESULTS: In the patients with GBC, high Pin1 expression in GBC was associated with aggressive tumor invasion and increased tumor metastasis, and was an independent factor for a poor prognosis. Pin1 expression was correlated with phosphorylation of STAT3(Ser727) and NF-κB-p65(Ser276), thereby activating STAT3 and NF-κB in GBC. Pin1-mediated STAT3 and NF-κB activation induced EMT in GBC. When Pin1 knockdown was performed in GBC cells, the phosphorylation of STAT3(Ser727) and NF-κB-p65(Ser276) was inhibited, and STAT3 and NF-κB activation was suppressed. Inactivation of STAT3 and NF-κB in Pin1-depleted cells decreased snail and zeb-2 expression, thereby reducing the rate of mesenchymal-like cells, suggesting that EMT was inhibited in GBC cells. PiB, a Pin1-specific inhibitor, inhibited EMT and reduced tumor cell invasion by inactivating STAT3 and NF-κB in vitro. Moreover, PiB treatment inhibited lymph node metastasis and intrahepatic metastasis in orthotopic GBC xenograft tumor in vivo.
CONCLUSIONS: Pin1 accelerates GBC invasion and metastasis by activating STAT3 and NF-κB. Therefore, Pin1 inhibition by PiB is an excellent therapy for GBC by safely inhibiting its metastasis.

Negri A, Naponelli V, Rizzi F, Bettuzzi S
Molecular Targets of Epigallocatechin-Gallate (EGCG): A Special Focus on Signal Transduction and Cancer.
Nutrients. 2018; 10(12) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Green tea is a beverage that is widely consumed worldwide and is believed to exert effects on different diseases, including cancer. The major components of green tea are catechins, a family of polyphenols. Among them, epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant and biologically active. EGCG is widely studied for its anti-cancer properties. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms explaining its action have not been completely understood, yet. EGCG is effective in vivo at micromolar concentrations, suggesting that its action is mediated by interaction with specific targets that are involved in the regulation of crucial steps of cell proliferation, survival, and metastatic spread. Recently, several proteins have been identified as EGCG direct interactors. Among them, the trans-membrane receptor 67LR has been identified as a high affinity EGCG receptor. 67LR is a master regulator of many pathways affecting cell proliferation or apoptosis, also regulating cancer stem cells (CSCs) activity. EGCG was also found to be interacting directly with Pin1, TGFR-II, and metalloproteinases (MMPs) (mainly MMP2 and MMP9), which respectively regulate EGCG-dependent inhibition of NF-kB, epithelial-mesenchimal transaction (EMT) and cellular invasion. EGCG interacts with DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs), which modulates epigenetic changes. The bulk of this novel knowledge provides information about the mechanisms of action of EGCG and may explain its onco-suppressive function. The identification of crucial signalling pathways that are related to cancer onset and progression whose master regulators interacts with EGCG may disclose intriguing pharmacological targets, and eventually lead to novel combined treatments in which EGCG acts synergistically with known drugs.

Li X, Wang H, Ding J, et al.
Celastrol strongly inhibits proliferation, migration and cancer stem cell properties through suppression of Pin1 in ovarian cancer cells.
Eur J Pharmacol. 2019; 842:146-156 [PubMed] Related Publications
Ovarian cancer is one of the most serious diseases worldwide and the fifth-most common cancer among women. Celastrol, extracted from Thunder God Vine, exerts anti-cancer effects on various cancers; however, the mechanism underlying these anti-cancer effects in ovarian cancer needs further investigation. Herein, we investigated the anti-cancer efficacy of celastrol and its underlying mechanism in human ovarian cancer cell lines A2780, OVCAR3, and SKOV3. Celastrol significantly suppressed cell proliferation and migration in a dose-dependent manner. Celastrol resulted in a G2/M cell cycle arrest, accompanied with the down-regulation of Cyclin D1, CDK2, and CDK4. Celastrol induced apoptosis primarily via up-regulation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2. Celastrol treatment inhibited the expression of stem cell marker CD44, Nanog, Klf4, and Oct4, and reduced a portion of the CD44

Xiong G, Stewart RL, Chen J, et al.
Collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase 1 is essential for HIF-1α stabilization and TNBC chemoresistance.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4456 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Collagen prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) expression and collagen hydroxylation in cancer cells are necessary for breast cancer progression. Here, we show that P4H alpha 1 subunit (P4HA1) protein expression is induced in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and HER2 positive breast cancer. By modulating alpha ketoglutarate (α-KG) and succinate levels P4HA1 expression reduces proline hydroxylation on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1α, enhancing its stability in cancer cells. Activation of the P4HA/HIF-1 axis enhances cancer cell stemness, accompanied by decreased oxidative phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Inhibition of P4HA1 sensitizes TNBC to the chemotherapeutic agent docetaxel and doxorubicin in xenografts and patient-derived models. We also show that increased P4HA1 expression correlates with short relapse-free survival in TNBC patients who received chemotherapy. These results suggest that P4HA1 promotes chemoresistance by modulating HIF-1-dependent cancer cell stemness. Targeting collagen P4H is a promising strategy to inhibit tumor progression and sensitize TNBC to chemotherapeutic agents.

Modur V, Singh N, Mohanty V, et al.
Defective transcription elongation in a subset of cancers confers immunotherapy resistance.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4410 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nature and role of global transcriptional deregulations in cancers are not fully understood. We report that a large proportion of cancers have widespread defects in mRNA transcription elongation (TE). Cancers with TE defects (TE

Werwein E, Cibis H, Hess D, Klempnauer KH
Activation of the oncogenic transcription factor B-Myb via multisite phosphorylation and prolyl cis/trans isomerization.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2019; 47(1):103-121 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The oncogenic transcription factor B-Myb is an essential regulator of late cell cycle genes whose activation by phosphorylation is still poorly understood. We describe a stepwise phosphorylation mechanism of B-Myb, which involves sequential phosphorylations mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) and Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and Pin1-facilitated peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerization. Our data suggest a model in which initial Cdk-dependent phosphorylation of B-Myb enables subsequent Pin1 binding and Pin1-induced conformational changes of B-Myb. This, in turn, initiates further phosphorylation of Cdk-phosphosites, enabling Plk1 docking and subsequent Plk1-mediated phosphorylation of B-Myb to finally allow B-Myb to stimulate transcription of late cell cycle genes. Our observations reveal novel mechanistic hierarchies of B-Myb phosphorylation and activation and uncover regulatory principles that might also apply to other Myb family members. Strikingly, overexpression of B-Myb and of factors mediating its activation strongly correlates with adverse prognoses for tumor patients, emphasizing B-Myb's role in tumorigenesis.

Stifani S
The Multiple Roles of Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerases in Brain Cancer.
Biomolecules. 2018; 8(4) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Peptidyl prolyl isomerases (PPIases) are broadly expressed enzymes that accelerate the

Wu S, Fatkhutdinov N, Fukumoto T, et al.
SWI/SNF catalytic subunits' switch drives resistance to EZH2 inhibitors in ARID1A-mutated cells.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):4116 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Inactivation of the subunits of SWI/SNF complex such as ARID1A is synthetically lethal with inhibition of EZH2 activity. However, mechanisms of de novo resistance to EZH2 inhibitors in cancers with inactivating SWI/SNF mutations are unknown. Here we show that the switch of the SWI/SNF catalytic subunits from SMARCA4 to SMARCA2 drives resistance to EZH2 inhibitors in ARID1A-mutated cells. SMARCA4 loss upregulates anti-apoptotic genes in the EZH2 inhibitor-resistant cells. EZH2 inhibitor-resistant ARID1A-mutated cells are hypersensitive to BCL2 inhibitors such as ABT263. ABT263 is sufficient to overcome resistance to an EZH2 inhibitor. In addition, ABT263 synergizes with an EZH2 inhibitor in vivo in ARID1A-inactivated ovarian tumor mouse models. Together, these data establish that the switch of the SWI/SNF catalytic subunits from SMARCA4 to SMARCA2 underlies the acquired resistance to EZH2 inhibitors. They suggest BCL2 inhibition alone or in combination with EZH2 inhibition represents urgently needed therapeutic strategy for ARID1A-mutated cancers.

Griffith OL, Spies NC, Anurag M, et al.
The prognostic effects of somatic mutations in ER-positive breast cancer.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3476 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Here we report targeted sequencing of 83 genes using DNA from primary breast cancer samples from 625 postmenopausal (UBC-TAM series) and 328 premenopausal (MA12 trial) hormone receptor-positive (HR+) patients to determine interactions between somatic mutation and prognosis. Independent validation of prognostic interactions was achieved using data from the METABRIC study. Previously established associations between MAP3K1 and PIK3CA mutations with luminal A status/favorable prognosis and TP53 mutations with Luminal B/non-luminal tumors/poor prognosis were observed, validating the methodological approach. In UBC-TAM, NF1 frame-shift nonsense (FS/NS) mutations were also a poor outcome driver that was validated in METABRIC. For MA12, poor outcome associated with PIK3R1 mutation was also reproducible. DDR1 mutations were strongly associated with poor prognosis in UBC-TAM despite stringent false discovery correction (q = 0.0003). In conclusion, uncommon recurrent somatic mutations should be further explored to create a more complete explanation of the highly variable outcomes that typifies ER+ breast cancer.

Yochum ZA, Cades J, Wang H, et al.
Targeting the EMT transcription factor TWIST1 overcomes resistance to EGFR inhibitors in EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(5):656-670 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Patients with EGFR-mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have significantly benefited from the use of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, long-term efficacy of these therapies is limited due to de novo resistance (~30%) as well as acquired resistance. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors (EMT-TFs), have been identified as drivers of EMT-mediated resistance to EGFR TKIs, however, strategies to target EMT-TFs are lacking. As the third generation EGFR TKI, osimertinib, has now been adopted in the first-line setting, the frequency of T790M mutations will significantly decrease in the acquired resistance setting. Previously less common mechanisms of acquired resistance to first generation EGFR TKIs including EMT are now being observed at an increased frequency after osimertinib. Importantly, there are no other FDA approved targeted therapies after progression on osimertinib. Here, we investigated a novel strategy to overcome EGFR TKI resistance through targeting the EMT-TF, TWIST1, in EGFR-mutant NSCLC. We demonstrated that genetic silencing of TWIST1 or treatment with the TWIST1 inhibitor, harmine, resulted in growth inhibition and apoptosis in EGFR-mutant NSCLC. TWIST1 overexpression resulted in erlotinib and osimertinib resistance in EGFR-mutant NSCLC cells. Conversely, genetic and pharmacological inhibition of TWIST1 in EGFR TKI-resistant EGFR-mutant cells increased sensitivity to EGFR TKIs. TWIST1-mediated EGFR TKI resistance was due in part to TWIST1 suppression of transcription of the pro-apoptotic BH3-only gene, BCL2L11 (BIM), by directly binding to BCL2L11 intronic regions and promoter. As such, pan-BCL2 inhibitor treatment overcame TWIST1-mediated EGFR TKI resistance and were more effective in the setting of TWIST1 overexpression. Finally, in a mouse model of autochthonous EGFR-mutant lung cancer, Twist1 overexpression resulted in erlotinib resistance and suppression of erlotinib-induced apoptosis. These studies establish TWIST1 as a driver of resistance to EGFR TKIs and provide rationale for use of TWIST1 inhibitors or BCL2 inhibitors as means to overcome EMT-mediated resistance to EGFR TKIs.

Qin Y, Vasilatos SN, Chen L, et al.
Inhibition of histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 elicits breast tumor immunity and enhances antitumor efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade.
Oncogene. 2019; 38(3):390-405 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Immunotherapy strategies have been emerging as powerful weapons against cancer. Early clinical trials reveal that overall response to immunotherapy is low in breast cancer patients, suggesting that effective strategies to overcome resistance to immunotherapy are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated whether epigenetic reprograming by modulating histone methylation could enhance effector T lymphocyte trafficking and improve therapeutic efficacy of immune checkpoint blockade in breast cancer with focus on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype. In silico analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data shows that expression of histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is inversely associated with the levels of cytotoxic T cell-attracting chemokines (C-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 and 10 (CXCL9, CXCL10)) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) in clinical TNBC specimens. Tiling chromatin immunoprecipitation study showed that re-expression of chemokines by LSD1 inhibition is associated with increased H3K4me2 levels at proximal promoter regions. Rescue experiments using concurrent treatment with small interfering RNA or inhibitor of chemokine receptors blocked LSD1 inhibitor-enhanced CD8+ T cell migration, indicating a critical role of key T cell chemokines in LSD1-mediated CD8+ lymphocyte trafficking to the tumor microenvironment. In mice bearing TNBC xenograft tumors, anti-PD-1 antibody alone failed to elicit obvious therapeutic effect. However, combining LSD1 inhibitors with PD-1 antibody significantly suppressed tumor growth and pulmonary metastasis, which was associated with reduced Ki-67 level and augmented CD8+ T cell infiltration in xenograft tumors. Overall, these results suggest that LSD1 inhibition may be an effective adjuvant treatment with immunotherapy as a novel management strategy for poorly immunogenic breast tumors.

Carreño D, Corro N, Torres-Estay V, et al.
Fructose and prostate cancer: toward an integrated view of cancer cell metabolism.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2019; 22(1):49-58 [PubMed] Related Publications
Activation of glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1) gene expression is a molecular feature of cancer cells that increases glucose uptake and metabolism. Increased glucose uptake is the basis for the clinical localization of primary tumors using positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-deoxy-2-[18F]-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) as a radiotracer. However, previous studies have demonstrated that a considerable number of cancers, which include prostate cancer (CaP), express low to undetectable levels of Glut-1 and that FDG-PET has limited clinical applicability in CaP. This observation could be explained by a low metabolic activity of CaP cells that may be overcome using different hexoses, such as fructose, as the preferred energy source. However, these hypotheses have not been examined critically in CaP. This review article summarizes what is currently known about transport and metabolism of hexoses, and more specifically fructose, in CaP and provides experimental evidences indicating that CaP cells may have increased capacity to transport and metabolize fructose in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, this review highlights recent findings that allow better understanding of how metabolism of fructose may regulate cancer cell proliferation and how fructose uptake and metabolism, through the de novo lipogenesis pathway, may provide new opportunities for CaP early diagnosis, staging, and treatment.

Kozono S, Lin YM, Seo HS, et al.
Arsenic targets Pin1 and cooperates with retinoic acid to inhibit cancer-driving pathways and tumor-initiating cells.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):3069 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) combination safely cures fatal acute promyelocytic leukemia, but their mechanisms of action and efficacy are not fully understood. ATRA inhibits leukemia, breast, and liver cancer by targeting isomerase Pin1, a master regulator of oncogenic signaling networks. Here we show that ATO targets Pin1 and cooperates with ATRA to exert potent anticancer activity. ATO inhibits and degrades Pin1, and suppresses its oncogenic function by noncovalent binding to Pin1's active site. ATRA increases cellular ATO uptake through upregulating aquaporin-9. ATO and ATRA, at clinically safe doses, cooperatively ablate Pin1 to block numerous cancer-driving pathways and inhibit the growth of triple-negative breast cancer cells and tumor-initiating cells in cell and animal models including patient-derived orthotopic xenografts, like Pin1 knockout, which is substantiated by comprehensive protein and microRNA analyses. Thus, synergistic targeting of Pin1 by ATO and ATRA offers an attractive approach to combating breast and other cancers.

Sizemore GM, Balakrishnan S, Thies KA, et al.
Stromal PTEN determines mammary epithelial response to radiotherapy.
Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1):2783 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The importance of the tumor-associated stroma in cancer progression is clear. However, it remains uncertain whether early events in the stroma are capable of initiating breast tumorigenesis. Here, we show that in the mammary glands of non-tumor bearing mice, stromal-specific phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) deletion invokes radiation-induced genomic instability in neighboring epithelium. In these animals, a single dose of whole-body radiation causes focal mammary lobuloalveolar hyperplasia through paracrine epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation, and EGFR inhibition abrogates these cellular changes. By analyzing human tissue, we discover that stromal PTEN is lost in a subset of normal breast samples obtained from reduction mammoplasty, and is predictive of recurrence in breast cancer patients. Combined, these data indicate that diagnostic or therapeutic chest radiation may predispose patients with decreased stromal PTEN expression to secondary breast cancer, and that prophylactic EGFR inhibition may reduce this risk.

Sfanos KS, Markowski MC, Peiffer LB, et al.
Compositional differences in gastrointestinal microbiota in prostate cancer patients treated with androgen axis-targeted therapies.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2018; 21(4):539-548 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: It is well known that the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota can influence the metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and toxicity of cancer therapies. Conversely, the effect of cancer treatments on the composition of the GI microbiota is poorly understood. We hypothesized that oral androgen receptor axis-targeted therapies (ATT), including bicalutamide, enzalutamide, and abiraterone acetate, may be associated with compositional differences in the GI microbiota.
METHODS: We profiled the fecal microbiota in a cross-sectional study of 30 patients that included healthy male volunteers and men with different clinical states of prostate cancer (i.e., localized, biochemically recurrent, and metastatic disease) using 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. Functional inference of identified taxa was performed using PICRUSt.
RESULTS: We report a significant difference in alpha diversity in GI microbiota among men with versus without a prostate cancer diagnosis. Further analysis identified significant compositional differences in the GI microbiota of men taking ATT, including a greater abundance of species previously linked to response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy such as Akkermansia muciniphila and Ruminococcaceae spp. In functional analyses, we found an enriched representation of bacterial gene pathways involved in steroid biosynthesis and steroid hormone biosynthesis in the fecal microbiota of men taking oral ATT.
CONCLUSIONS: There are measurable differences in the GI microbiota of men receiving oral ATT. We speculate that oral hormonal therapies for prostate cancer may alter the GI microbiota, influence clinical responses to ATT, and/or potentially modulate the antitumor effects of future therapies including immunotherapy. Given our findings, larger, longitudinal studies are warranted.

Suenaga M, Schirripa M, Cao S, et al.
Potential role of PIN1 genotypes in predicting benefit from oxaliplatin-based and irinotecan-based treatment in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.
Pharmacogenomics J. 2018; 18(5):623-632 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PIN1-mediated substrate isomerization plays a role in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. We hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms in PIN1-related pathways may affect tumor sensitivity to oxaliplatin or irinotecan in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. We analyzed genomic DNA from five cohorts of mCRC patients (total 950) treated with different first-line treatments: oxaliplatin cohorts 1 (n = 146) and 2 (n = 70); irinotecan cohorts 1 (n = 228), and 2 (n = 276); and combination cohort (n = 230). Single nucleotide polymorphisms of candidate genes were analyzed by PCR-based direct sequencing. In the oxaliplatin cohort 1, patients carrying any PIN1 rs2233678 C allele had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than the G/G variant (PFS, 7.4 vs. 15.0 months, hazard ratio [HR] 3.24, P < 0.001; OS, 16.9 vs. 31.5 months, HR: 2.38, P = 0.003). In contrast, patients with C allele had longer median PFS than patients with G/G (11.9 vs. 9.4 months, HR: 0.64, 95%CI: 0.45-0.91, P = 0.009) in the irinotecan cohort 1. No significant differences were observed in the combination cohort. In comparison between the irinotecan cohort 1 and combination cohort, the patients carrying the G/G variant benefit greatly from the combination compared with irinotecan-based regimen (PFS, 11.6 vs. 9.4 months, HR 0.61, 95%CI: 0.47-0.78, P < 0.001; OS, 30.6 vs. 24.0 months, HR 0.79, 95%CI: 0.62-1.02, P = 0.060), while no significant difference was shown in any C allele. Germline PIN1 polymorphisms may predict clinical outcomes in mCRC patients receiving oxaliplatin-based or irinotecan-based therapy, and identify specific populations favorable to oxaliplatin plus irinotecan combination therapy.

Kim G, Kim JY, Lim SC, et al.
SUV39H1/DNMT3A-dependent methylation of the RB1 promoter stimulates PIN1 expression and melanoma development.
FASEB J. 2018; 32(10):5647-5660 [PubMed] Related Publications
Melanoma is among the most aggressive and treatment-resistant human cancers. Aberrant histone H3 methylation at Lys 9 (H3K9) correlates with carcinogenic gene silencing, but the significance of suppressor of variegation 3-9 homolog 1 (SUV39H1), an H3K9-specific methyltransferase, in melanoma initiation and progression remains unclear. Here, we show that SUV39H1-mediated H3K9 trimethylation facilitates retinoblastoma ( RB) 1 promoter CpG island methylation by interacting with DNA methyltransferase 3A and decreasing RB mRNA and protein in melanoma cells. Reduced RB abundance, in turn, impairs E2F1 transcriptional inhibition, leading to increased peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase never-in-mitosis A (NIMA)-interacting 1 (PIN1) levels, human keratinocyte neoplastic cell transformation, and melanoma tumorigenesis via enhanced rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma 1(RAF1)-MEK-ERK signaling pathway activation. In a synergistic model with B16-F1 murine melanoma cells, SUV39H1 and PIN1 overexpression increased melanoma growth, which was abrogated by their inhibition in SUV39H1-overexpressing B16-F1 mice. SUV39H1 also positively correlated with PIN1 expression in human melanoma. Our studies establish SUV39H1 as an oncogene in melanoma and underscore the role of chromatin factors in regulating tumorigenesis.-Kim, G., Kim, J.-Y., Lim, S.-C., Lee, K. Y., Kim, O., Choi, H. S. SUV39H1/DNMT3A-dependent methylation of the RB1 promoter stimulates PIN1 expression and melanoma development.

Russo Spena C, De Stefano L, Palazzolo S, et al.
Liposomal delivery of a Pin1 inhibitor complexed with cyclodextrins as new therapy for high-grade serous ovarian cancer.
J Control Release. 2018; 281:1-10 [PubMed] Related Publications
Pin1, a prolyl isomerase that sustains tumor progression, is overexpressed in different types of malignancies. Functional inactivation of Pin1 restrains tumor growth and leaves normal cells unaffected making it an ideal pharmaceutical target. Although many studies on Pin1 have focused on malignancies that are influenced by sex hormones, studies in ovarian cancer have lagged behind. Here, we show that Pin1 is an important therapeutic target in high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer. Knock down of Pin1 in ovarian cancer cell lines induces apoptosis and restrains tumor growth in a syngeneic mouse model. Since specific and non-covalent Pin1 inhibitors are still limited, the first liposomal formulation of a Pin1 inhibitor was designed. The drug was efficiently encapsulated in modified cyclodextrins and remotely loaded into pegylated liposomes. This liposomal formulation accumulates preferentially in the tumor and has a desirable pharmacokinetic profile. The liposomal inhibitor was able to alter Pin1 cancer driving-pathways trough the induction of proteasome-dependent degradation of Pin1 and was found to be effective in curbing ovarian tumor growth in vivo.

Wu K, He J, Pu W, Peng Y
The Role of Exportin-5 in MicroRNA Biogenesis and Cancer.
Genomics Proteomics Bioinformatics. 2018; 16(2):120-126 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are conserved small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in the regulation of gene expression and participate in a variety of biological processes. The biogenesis of miRNAs is tightly controlled at multiple steps, such as transcription of miRNA genes, processing by Drosha and Dicer, and transportation of precursor miRNAs (pre-miRNAs) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by exportin-5 (XPO5). Given the critical role of nuclear export of pre-miRNAs in miRNA biogenesis, any alterations of XPO5, resulting from either genetic mutation, epigenetic change, abnormal expression level or posttranslational modification, could affect miRNA expression and thus have profound effects on tumorigenesis. Importantly, XPO5 phosphorylation by ERK kinase and its cis/trans isomerization by the prolyl isomerase Pin1 impair XPO5's nucleo-to-cytoplasmic transport ability of pre-miRNAs, leading to downregulation of mature miRNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review, we focus on how XPO5 transports pre-miRNAs in the cells and summarize the dysregulation of XPO5 in human tumors.

Chen M, Xia Y, Tan Y, et al.
Downregulation of microRNA-370 in esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma is associated with cancer progression and promotes cancer cell proliferation via upregulating PIN1.
Gene. 2018; 661:68-77 [PubMed] Related Publications
PIN1 is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) that controls cell fate by regulating multiple signal transduction pathways and is found to be overexpressed in a variety of malignant tumors. Herein, we found the expression of PIN1 is up-regulated while miRNA-370 (miR-370) down-regulated in both esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues and cells. Transfection of miR-370 can significantly decrease PIN1 expression in targeting ESCC cells. Overexpression of miR-370 can induce decreased cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest, as well as increased apoptosis in ESCC cells, while this function can be significantly prevented by co-transfection of PIN1. Further experimental results demonstrated that β-catenin, cyclin D1, and caspase activation might be involved in miR-370/PIN1 induced growth inhibition and apoptosis. Besides, low miR-370 and high PIN1 expression significantly correlated with tumor diameter, poor differentiation, tumor invasion and lymph node metastasis in patients diagnosed with ESCC. In conclusion, downregulation of miR-370 in ESCC is associated with cancer progression and promotes cancer cell proliferation via upregulating PIN1, which might be a potential therapeutic target and adverse prognostic factor in the clinic.

Cooney KA
Inherited Predisposition to Prostate Cancer: From Gene Discovery to Clinical Impact.
Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc. 2017; 128:14-23 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Family history of prostate cancer is one of the three most important risk factors for the disease in addition to age and race. Yet despite the recognition of this significant heritable component, it has been challenging to identify the genes associated with prostate cancer predisposition. Initial approaches focused on the collection of multiplex prostate cancer families. However, despite more than 20 years of linkage studies, few genes have been identified that account for a significant number of hereditary prostate cancer families. Our research team studied a large number of families with linkage evidence to chromosome 17q21-22 and ultimately identified a recurrent mutation in the

Zeng L, Luo S, Li X, et al.
Functional PIN1 promoter polymorphisms associated with risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Southern Chinese populations.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):4593 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Our previous work reported the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PIN1 promoter and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) risk with a small sample size in a low incidence area. This study investigated the association between the two SNPs and NPC risk in 733 patients and 895 controls from a high incidence area. The results indicated the genotype and allele frequencies of -842G > C and -667C > T were both significantly different between patients and controls even using the resampling statistics. The -842GC and -667TT genotypes showed a significantly increased risk of NPC (OR = 1.977, 95% CI = 1.339-2.919, P = 0.001 and OR = 1.438, 95% CI = 1.061-1.922, P = 0.019, respectively). Compared to the most common -842G-667C haplotype, -842G-667T haplotype and -842C-667C haplotype showed a significantly increased risk of NPC (OR = 1.215, 95% CI = 1.053-1.402, P = 0.008 and OR = 2.268, 95% CI = 1.530-3.362, P = 0.001, respectively). Further reporter gene expression suggested that variant -842C-667C and -842G-667T were associated with an enhanced transcriptional activity. In conclusion, our findings suggest that -842G > C and -667C > T in PIN1 promoter are associated with NPC risk; as well as the promoter activity is mediated by functional PIN1 variants.

El-Aarag SA, Mahmoud A, Hashem MH, et al.
In silico identification of potential key regulatory factors in smoking-induced lung cancer.
BMC Med Genomics. 2017; 10(1):40 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide and is the most commonly diagnosed cancer. Like other cancers, it is a complex and highly heterogeneous disease involving multiple signaling pathways. Identifying potential therapeutic targets is critical for the development of effective treatment strategies.
METHODS: We used a systems biology approach to identify potential key regulatory factors in smoking-induced lung cancer. We first identified genes that were differentially expressed between smokers with normal lungs and those with cancerous lungs, then integrated these differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with data from a protein-protein interaction database to build a network model with functional modules for pathway analysis. We also carried out a gene set enrichment analysis of DEG lists using the Kinase Enrichment Analysis (KEA), Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) hubs, and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) databases.
RESULTS: Twelve transcription factors were identified as having potential significance in lung cancer (CREB1, NUCKS1, HOXB4, MYCN, MYC, PHF8, TRIM28, WT1, CUX1, CRX, GABP, and TCF3); three of these (CRX, GABP, and TCF) have not been previously implicated in lung carcinogenesis. In addition, 11 kinases were found to be potentially related to lung cancer (MAPK1, IGF1R, RPS6KA1, ATR, MAPK14, MAPK3, MAPK4, MAPK8, PRKCZ, and INSR, and PRKAA1). However, PRKAA1 is reported here for the first time. MEPCE, CDK1, PRKCA, COPS5, GSK3B, BRCA1, EP300, and PIN1 were identified as potential hubs in lung cancer-associated signaling. In addition, we found 18 pathways that were potentially related to lung carcinogenesis, of which 12 (mitogen-activated protein kinase, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Toll-like receptor, ErbB, and insulin signaling; purine and ether lipid metabolism; adherens junctions; regulation of autophagy; snare interactions in vesicular transport; and cell cycle) have been previously identified.
CONCLUSION: Our systems-based approach identified potential key molecules in lung carcinogenesis and provides a basis for investigations of tumor development as well as novel drug targets for lung cancer treatment.

Hu X, Dong SH, Chen J, et al.
Prolyl isomerase PIN1 regulates the stability, transcriptional activity and oncogenic potential of BRD4.
Oncogene. 2017; 36(36):5177-5188 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BRD4 has emerged as an important factor in tumorigenesis by promoting the transcription of genes involved in cancer development. However, how BRD4 is regulated in cancer cells remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the stability and functions of BRD4 are positively regulated by prolyl isomerase PIN1 in gastric cancer cells. PIN1 directly binds to phosphorylated threonine (T) 204 of BRD4 as revealed by peptide binding and crystallographic studies and enhances BRD4's stability by inhibiting its ubiquitination. PIN1 also catalyses the isomerization of proline 205 of BRD4 and induces its conformational change, which promotes its interaction with CDK9 and increases BRD4's transcriptional activity. Substitution of BRD4 with PIN1-binding-defective BRD4-T204A mutant in gastric cancer cells reduces BRD4's stability, attenuates BRD4-mediated gene expression by impairing its interaction with CDK9 and suppresses gastric cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and tumor formation. Our results identify BRD4 as a new target of PIN1 and suggest that interfering with their interaction could be a potential therapeutic approach for cancer treatment.

Suenaga M, Schirripa M, Cao S, et al.
Genetic variants of DNA repair-related genes predict efficacy of TAS-102 in patients with refractory metastatic colorectal cancer.
Ann Oncol. 2017; 28(5):1015-1022 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Background: Tri-phosphorylated trifluridine (FTD) incorporation into DNA is TAS-102's main anti-tumor action. We tested whether genetic polymorphisms in homologous recombination (HR) and cell cycle checkpoint pathway for DNA repair is associated with outcomes in refractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients treated with TAS-102.
Patients and methods: We analyzed genomic DNA extracted from 233 samples of three cohorts: an evaluation cohort of 52 patients receiving TAS-102, a validation cohort of 129 patients receiving TAS-102 and a control cohort of 52 patients receiving regorafenib. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of genes involved in HR (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, XRCC3, FANCD2, H2AX, RAD51) and cell cycle checkpoint (ATR, CHEK1, CHEK2, CDKN1A, TP53, CHE1, PIN1, PCNA) were analyzed by PCR-based direct sequencing.
Results: In univariate analysis for the evaluation cohort, patients with any G allele in ATM rs609429 had longer overall survival (OS) than those with the C/C variant (8.7 vs. 4.4 months, HR 0.37, 95% CI: 0.14-0.99, P = 0.022). Patients carrying any A allele in XRCC3 rs861539 had significantly longer progression-free survival (PFS) (3.8 vs. 2.3 months, HR 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.92, P = 0.024) and OS (15.6 vs. 6.3 months, HR 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.79, P = 0.012) than those with the G/G variant. In multivariable analysis, ATM rs609429 remained significant for OS (P = 0.020). In the validation cohort, patients having ATM rs609429 with any G allele showed longer OS and PFS; the G/A variant in XRCC3 rs861539 showed longer OS, though without statistical significance.
Conclusion: Genetic variants in the HR pathway may predict clinical outcome in mCRC patients receiving TAS-102.

Zheng M, Xu H, Liao XH, et al.
Inhibition of the prolyl isomerase Pin1 enhances the ability of sorafenib to induce cell death and inhibit tumor growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(18):29771-29784 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most common cancer, but is the second leading cause of cancer deaths, partially due to its heterogeneity and drug resistance. Sorafenib is the only medical treatment with a proven efficacy against advanced HCC, but its overall clinical efficacy is still modest. Therefore, a major challenge is how to improve its therapeutic efficacy. The unique prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates numerous cancer-driving pathways. Notably, Pin1 is overexpressed in about 70% HBV-positive HCC patients and contributes to HCC tumorigenesis. However, the role of Pin1 in the efficacy of sorafenib against HCC is unknown. Here we found that sorafenib down-regulated Pin1 mRNA and protein expression, likely through inhibition of Pin1 transcription by the Rb/E2F pathway. Importantly, Pin1 knockdown potently enhanced the ability of sorafenib to induce cell death in HCC, which was further supported by the findings that Pin1 knockdown led to stabilization of Fbxw7 and destabilization of Mcl-1. Furthermore, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), a known anticancer drug that inhibits and ultimately induces degradation of active Pin1 in cancer cells, also potently sensitized HCC cells to sorafenib-induced cell death at least in part through a caspase-dependent manner. Moreover, ATRA also synergistically enhanced the ability of sorafenib to reduce Pin1 and inhibit tumor growth of HCC in mouse xenograft models. Collectively, these results not only demonstrate that Pin1 down-regulation is a key event underlying the anti-tumor effects of sorafenib, but also uncover that Pin1 inhibitors offer a novel approach to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of sorafenib against HCC.

Yan X, Zhu Z, Xu S, et al.
MicroRNA-140-5p inhibits hepatocellular carcinoma by directly targeting the unique isomerase Pin1 to block multiple cancer-driving pathways.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:45915 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer related-death. As a major common regulator of numerous cancer-driving pathways and a unique therapeutic target, the prolyl isomerase Pin1 is overexpressed in a majority of HCCs, whereas the mechanism underlying Pin1 overexpression remains elusive. Here we find that miR-140-5p inhibits HCC by directly targeting Pin1 to block multiple cancer-driving pathways. Bioinformatics analysis, miRNA binding and functional assays identify that miR-140-5p directly interacts with the 3'UTR of Pin1 and inhibits Pin1 translation. Furthermore, like stable Pin1 knockdown, moderate overexpression of miR-140-5p not only eliminates Pin1, but also inhibits cells growth and metastasis. Importantly, these effects of miR-140-5p are largely rescued by reconstitution of Pin1. Moreover, miR-140-5p inhibits multiple Pin1-dependent cancer pathways and suppresses tumor growth in mice. The clinical significance of these findings has been substantiated by the demonstrations that miR-140-5p is frequently down-regulated and inversely correlated with Pin1 overexpression in HCC tissues and cell lines. Given prevalent miR-140-5p downregulation in other cancers and major impact of Pin1 overexpression on activating numerous cancer-driving pathways including global miRNA downregulation, the miR-140-5p/Pin1 axis may play a major role in tumorigenesis and offer promising therapeutic targets for HCC and other cancers.

Liao XH, Zhang AL, Zheng M, et al.
Chemical or genetic Pin1 inhibition exerts potent anticancer activity against hepatocellular carcinoma by blocking multiple cancer-driving pathways.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7:43639 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent and malignant cancers with high inter- and intra-tumor heterogeneity. A central common signaling mechanism in cancer is proline-directed phosphorylation, which is further regulated by the unique proline isomerase Pin1. Pin1 is prevalently overexpressed in human cancers including ~70% of HCC, and promotes tumorigenesis by activating multiple cancer-driving pathways. However, it was challenging to evaluate the significance of targeting Pin1 in cancer treatment until the recent identification of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) as a Pin1 inhibitor. Here we systematically investigate functions of Pin1 and its inhibitor ATRA in the development and treatment of HCC. Pin1 knockdown potently inhibited HCC cell proliferation and tumor growth in mice. ATRA-induced Pin1 degradation inhibited the growth of HCC cells, although at a higher IC50 as compared with breast cancer cells, likely due to more active ATRA metabolism in liver cells. Indeed, inhibition of ATRA metabolism enhanced the sensitivity of HCC cells to ATRA. Moreover, slow-releasing ATRA potently and dose-dependently inhibited HCC growth in mice. Finally, chemical or genetic Pin1 ablation blocked multiple cancer-driving pathways simultaneously in HCC cells. Thus, targeting Pin1 offers a promising therapeutic approach to simultaneously stop multiple cancer-driving pathways in HCC.

Leong KW, Cheng CW, Wong CM, et al.
miR-874-3p is down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma and negatively regulates PIN1 expression.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(7):11343-11355 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PIN1 is a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) that regulates multiple signaling pathways to control cell fate and is found to be over-expressed in cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the regulation of PIN1 in HCC remains poorly defined. Micro-RNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play a pivotal role in oncogenesis by targeting the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of mRNAs encoded by oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes, thereby suppressing the levels of both oncoproteins and tumour suppressors. In this report, we aimed to identify miRNAs that suppress PIN1 expression and to determine their role in HCC. By searching the TargetScan database, miR-874-3p was identified as a potential negative regulator of PIN1. miR-874-3p was demonstrated to bind the 3'UTR of PIN1 mRNA directly to suppress expression of PIN1. Functionally, over-expression of miR-874-3p in HCC cell line PLC/PRF/5 inhibited cell growth and colony formation in-vitro, and promoted cellular apoptosis. Furthermore, these tumour suppressive functions conferred by miR-874-3p were abrogated by over-expression of PIN1. Similarly, expression of miR-874-3p in PLC/PRF/5 with PIN1 knocked-down did not further suppress cellular proliferation, suggesting that PIN1 was a major target of miR-874-3p. More importantly, miR-874-3p was found to be down-regulated in HCC tissues and its expression was negatively correlated with that of PIN1. Down-regulation of miR-874-3p was also associated with poorly differentiated tumour cells, more advanced staging, and inferior patient outcomes. In addition, over-expression of miR-874-3p suppressed tumour growth in vivo. Taken together, our data suggested that miR-874-3p plays a tumour suppressive role in HCC through down-regulation of PIN1.

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