Gene Summary

Gene:PPARGC1A; PPARG coactivator 1 alpha
Aliases: LEM6, PGC1, PGC1A, PGC-1v, PPARGC1, PGC-1alpha, PGC-1(alpha)
Summary:The protein encoded by this gene is a transcriptional coactivator that regulates the genes involved in energy metabolism. This protein interacts with PPARgamma, which permits the interaction of this protein with multiple transcription factors. This protein can interact with, and regulate the activities of, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear respiratory factors (NRFs). It provides a direct link between external physiological stimuli and the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, and is a major factor that regulates muscle fiber type determination. This protein may be also involved in controlling blood pressure, regulating cellular cholesterol homoeostasis, and the development of obesity. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha
Source:NCBIAccessed: 01 September, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (42)
Pathways:What pathways are this gene/protein implicaed in?
Show (6)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

Tag cloud generated 01 September, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (7)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PPARGC1A (cancer-related)

Aras S, Maroun MC, Song Y, et al.
Mitochondrial autoimmunity and MNRR1 in breast carcinogenesis.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):411 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Autoantibodies function as markers of tumorigenesis and have been proposed to enhance early detection of malignancies. We recently reported, using immunoscreening of a T7 complementary DNA (cDNA) library of breast cancer (BC) proteins with sera from patients with BC, the presence of autoantibodies targeting several mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-encoded subunits of the electron transport chain (ETC) in complexes I, IV, and V.
METHODS: In this study, we have characterized the role of Mitochondrial-Nuclear Retrograde Regulator 1 (MNRR1, also known as CHCHD2), identified on immunoscreening, in breast carcinogenesis. We assessed the protein as well as transcript levels of MNRR1 in BC tissues and in derived cell lines representing tumors of graded aggressiveness. Mitochondrial function was also assayed and correlated with the levels of MNRR1. We studied the invasiveness of BC derived cells and the effect of MNRR1 levels on expression of genes associated with cell proliferation and migration such as Rictor and PGC-1α. Finally, we manipulated levels of MNRR1 to assess its effect on mitochondria and on some properties linked to a metastatic phenotype.
RESULTS: We identified a nuclear DNA (nDNA)-encoded mitochondrial protein, MNRR1, that was significantly associated with the diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast by autoantigen microarray analysis. In focusing on the mechanism of action of MNRR1 we found that its level was nearly twice as high in malignant versus benign breast tissue and up to 18 times as high in BC cell lines compared to MCF10A control cells, suggesting a relationship to aggressive potential. Furthermore, MNRR1 affected levels of multiple genes previously associated with cancer metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: MNRR1 regulates multiple genes that function in cell migration and cancer metastasis and is higher in cell lines derived from aggressive tumors. Since MNRR1 was identified as an autoantigen in breast carcinogenesis, the present data support our proposal that both mitochondrial autoimmunity and MNRR1 activity in particular are involved in breast carcinogenesis. Virtually all other nuclear encoded genes identified on immunoscreening of invasive BC harbor an MNRR1 binding site in their promoters, thereby placing MNRR1 upstream and potentially making it a novel marker for BC metastasis.

Du Q, Tan Z, Shi F, et al.
PGC1α/CEBPB/CPT1A axis promotes radiation resistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma through activating fatty acid oxidation.
Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(6):2050-2062 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The PPAR coactivator-1α (PGC1α) is an important transcriptional co-activator in control of fatty acid metabolism. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is the primary pathway for the degradation of fatty acids and promotes NADPH and ATP production. Our previous study demonstrated that upregulation of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 A (CPT1A), the key regulator of FAO, promotes radiation resistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). In this study, we found that high expression of PGC1α is associated with poor overall survival in NPC patients after radiation treatment. Targeting PGC1α could sensitize NPC cells to radiotherapy. Mechanically, PGC1α binds to CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (CEBPB), a member of the transcription factor family of CEBP, to promote CPT1A transcription, resulting in activation of FAO. Our results revealed that the PGC1α/CEBPB/CPT1A/FAO signaling axis promotes radiation resistance of NPC. These findings indicate that the expression of PGC1α could be a prognostic indicator of NPC, and targeting FAO in NPC with high expression of PGC1α might improve the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy.

Lynch C, Zhao J, Sakamuru S, et al.
Identification of Compounds That Inhibit Estrogen-Related Receptor Alpha Signaling Using High-Throughput Screening Assays.
Molecules. 2019; 24(5) [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The nuclear receptor, estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα; NR3B1), plays a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. Its expression fluctuates with the demands of energy production in various tissues. When paired with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), the PGC/ERR pathway regulates a host of genes that participate in metabolic signaling networks and in mitochondrial oxidative respiration. Unregulated overexpression of ERRα is found in many cancer cells, implicating a role in cancer progression and other metabolism-related diseases. Using high throughput screening assays, we screened the Tox21 10K compound library in stably transfected HEK293 cells containing either the ERRα-reporter or the reporter plus PGC-1α expression plasmid. We identified two groups of antagonists that were potent inhibitors of ERRα activity and/or the PGC/ERR pathway: nine antineoplastic agents and thirteen pesticides. Results were confirmed using gene expression studies. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of action on bioenergetics for five of the nine antineoplastic drugs. Nine of the thirteen pesticides, which have not been investigated previously for ERRα disrupting activity, were classified as such. In conclusion, we demonstrated that high-throughput screening assays can be used to reveal new biological properties of therapeutic and environmental chemicals, broadening our understanding of their modes of action.

Bruns I, Sauer B, Burger MC, et al.
Disruption of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α reverts key features of the neoplastic phenotype of glioma cells.
J Biol Chem. 2019; 294(9):3037-3050 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and controls metabolism by coordinating transcriptional events. Here, we interrogated whether PGC-1α is involved in tumor growth and the metabolic flexibility of glioblastoma cells. PGC-1α was expressed in a subset of established glioma cell lines and primary glioblastoma cell cultures. Furthermore, a higher PGC-1α expression was associated with an adverse outcome in the TCGA glioblastoma dataset. Suppression of PGC-1α expression by shRNA in the PGC-1α-positive U343MG glioblastoma line suppressed mitochondrial gene expression, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, and diminished oxygen as well as glucose consumption, and lactate production. Compatible with the known PGC-1α functions in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, glioblastoma cells deficient in PGC-1α displayed ROS accumulation, had reduced RNA levels of proteins involved in ROS detoxification, and were more susceptible to death induction by H

Huang B, Luo N, Wu X, et al.
The modulatory role of low concentrations of bisphenol A on tamoxifen-induced proliferation and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019; 26(3):2353-2362 [PubMed] Related Publications
Selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen (TAM) significantly reduce the risks of developing estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. Low concentrations (nanomolar range) of bisphenol A (BPA) shows estrogenic effects and further promotes the proliferation of hormone-dependent breast cancer cells. However, whether or not BPA can influence TAM-treatment resistance in breast cancer has not drawn much attention. In the current study, low concentrations of BPA reduced TAM-induced cytotoxicity of MCF-7 cells, which was proved by the suppression of cell apoptosis, transition of cell cycle from G1 to S phase, and upregulation of cyclin D1 and ERα. Simultaneously, the mRNA levels of estrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) and its coactivators, peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), and PGC-1β, were increased. However, the similar effects were not observed in MDA-MB-231 cells. Our results indicated that low concentrations of BPA decreased the sensitivity of TAM in MCF-7 cells rather than in MDA-MB-231 cells. These different actions likely involved the interaction of relative receptors and coactivators. This study provided a possible support that the exposure of BPA in environmental media may potentially induce TAM resistance to breast cancer treatment.

Cheng CF, Ku HC, Lin H
PGC-1α as a Pivotal Factor in Lipid and Metabolic Regulation.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(11) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Traditionally, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), a 91 kDa transcription factor, regulates lipid metabolism and long-chain fatty acid oxidation by upregulating the expression of several genes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation pathway. In addition, PGC-1α regulates the expression of mitochondrial genes to control mitochondria DNA replication and cellular oxidative metabolism. Recently, new insights showed that several myokines such as irisin and myostatin are epigenetically regulated by PGC-1α in skeletal muscles, thereby modulating systemic energy balance, with marked expansion of mitochondrial volume density and oxidative capacity in healthy or diseased myocardia. In addition, in our studies evaluating whether PGC-1α overexpression in epicardial adipose tissue can act as a paracrine organ to improve or repair cardiac function, we found that overexpression of hepatic PGC-1α increased hepatic fatty acid oxidation and decreased triacylglycerol storage and secretion in vivo and in vitro. In this review, we discuss recent studies showing that PGC-1α may regulate mitochondrial fusion⁻fission homeostasis and affect the renal function in acute or chronic kidney injury. Furthermore, PGC-1α is an emerging protein with a biphasic role in cancer, acting both as a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter and thus representing a new and unresolved topic for cancer biology studies. In summary, this review paper demonstrates that PGC-1α plays a central role in coordinating the gene expression of key components of mitochondrial biogenesis and as a critical metabolic regulator in many vital organs, including white and brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, liver, and kidney.

Lin Z, Xu HN, Wang Y, et al.
Differential Expression of PGC1α in Intratumor Redox Subpopulations of Breast Cancer.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2018; 1072:177-181 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Our previous studies indicate that the mitochondrial redox state and its intratumor heterogeneity are associated with invasiveness and metastatic potential in human breast cancer cell models and mouse xenografts. To further study the molecular basis of redox heterogeneity, we obtained the fluorescence images of Fp (oxidized flavoproteins containing flavin adenine dinucleotide, i.e., FAD), NADH (reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide), and the Fp redox ratio (FpR = Fp/(Fp + NADH)) of MDA-MB-231 xenografts by the Chance redox scanner, then isolated the intratumoral redox subpopulations by dissection according to the redox ratio image. A total of 12 subpopulations were isolated from 4 tumors (2-4 locations from each tumor). The 12 subpopulations were classified into 3 FpR groups: high FpR (HFpR, n = 4, FpR range 0.78-0.92, average 0.85), medium FpR (MFpR, n = 5, FpR range 0.39-0.68, average 0.52), and low FpR (LFpR, n = 3, FpR range 0.15-0.28, average 0.20). The RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) analysis on these redox subpopulations showed that PGC-1α is significantly upregulated in the HFpR redox group compared to the MFpR group (fold change 2.1, p = 0.008), but not significantly different between MFpR and LFpR groups, or between HFpR and LFpR groups. These results indicate that optical redox imaging (ORI)-based redox subpopulations exhibit differential expression of PGC1α gene and suggest that PGC1α might play a role in redox mediation of breast cancer progression.

Li W, Wong CC, Zhang X, et al.
CAB39L elicited an anti-Warburg effect via a LKB1-AMPK-PGC1α axis to inhibit gastric tumorigenesis.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(50):6383-6398 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Metabolic dysfunction is a hallmark of gastric cancer (GC). In this study, we reported the identification of Calcium Binding Protein 39-Like (CAB39L) as a novel regulator of tumor metabolism in GC. CAB39L mRNA was frequently silenced by promoter methylation in GC cell lines and tissues. Functional studies suggested that CAB39L functions as a tumor suppressor, as overexpression of CAB39L elicited suppression of multiple cancer phenotypes both in GC cells and an orthotopic mouse model; whilst its knockdown promoted tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, CAB39L interacted with LKB1-STRAD complex and induced LKB1, leading to the phosphorylation and activation of AMPKα/β. LKB1-AMPK activation in GC cell lines was tumor suppressive, as metformin (an AMPK activator) inhibited GC cell growth in the CAB39L-silenced cells. Moreover, knockdown of LKB1 reversed growth inhibitory effect of CAB39L, indicating that tumor suppression by CAB39L depended on LKB1-AMPK. RNAseq and gene set enrichment analysis revealed that CAB39L was closely correlated with oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis. Consistently, CAB39L-induced p-AMPK elicited PGC1α phosphorylation and increased the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial respiration complexes. Accordingly, CAB39L reversed the Warburg effect in GC, as evidenced by enhanced oxygen consumption rate and reduced extracellular acidification rate; inversely, CAB39L knockdown promoted a metabolic shift towards the Warburg phenotype. In GC patients, CAB39L promoter hypermethylation was correlated with poor prognosis. Our data demonstrate that CAB39L is a novel tumor suppressor which suppresses tumorigenesis by promoting LKB1-AMPK-PGC1α axis, thereby preventing a metabolic shift that drives carcinogenesis. CAB39L methylation is a potential prognostic biomarker for GC patients.

Huang Z, Yang Q, Huang Z
Identification of Critical Genes and Five Prognostic Biomarkers Associated with Colorectal Cancer.
Med Sci Monit. 2018; 24:4625-4633 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant tumor with high incidence and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between differentially expressed genes (DEGs), which may function as biomarkers for CRC prognosis and therapies, and the clinical outcome in patients with CRC. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 116 normal mucous tissue and 930 CRC tissue datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). After screening DEGs based on limma package in R. Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG enrichment analysis as well as the protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks were performed to predict the function of these DEGs. Meanwhile, Cox proportional hazards regression was used to build a prognostic model of these DEGs. Then, Kaplan-Meier risk analysis was used to test the model in TCGA datasets and validation datasets. RESULTS In the present study, 300 DEGs with 100 upregulated genes and 200 downregulated genes were identified. The PPI networks including 162 DEGs and 256 nodes were constructed and 2 modules with high degree were selected. Moreover, 5 genes (MMP1, ACSL6, SMPD1, PPARGC1A, and HEPACAM2) were identified using the Cox proportional hazards stepwise regression. Kaplan-Meier risk curve in the TCGA and validation cohorts showed that high-risk group had significantly poor overall survival than the low-risk group. CONCLUSIONS Our study provided insights into the mechanisms of CRC formation and found 5 prognostic genes, which could potentially inform further studies and clinical therapies.

Lissanu Deribe Y, Sun Y, Terranova C, et al.
Mutations in the SWI/SNF complex induce a targetable dependence on oxidative phosphorylation in lung cancer.
Nat Med. 2018; 24(7):1047-1057 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
Lung cancer is a devastating disease that remains a top cause of cancer mortality. Despite improvements with targeted and immunotherapies, the majority of patients with lung cancer lack effective therapies, underscoring the need for additional treatment approaches. Genomic studies have identified frequent alterations in components of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex including SMARCA4 and ARID1A. To understand the mechanisms of tumorigenesis driven by mutations in this complex, we developed a genetically engineered mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma by ablating Smarca4 in the lung epithelium. We demonstrate that Smarca4 acts as a bona fide tumor suppressor and cooperates with p53 loss and Kras activation. Gene expression analyses revealed the signature of enhanced oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in SMARCA4 mutant tumors. We further show that SMARCA4 mutant cells have enhanced oxygen consumption and increased respiratory capacity. Importantly, SMARCA4 mutant lung cancer cell lines and xenograft tumors have marked sensitivity to inhibition of OXPHOS by a novel small molecule, IACS-010759, that is under clinical development. Mechanistically, we show that SMARCA4-deficient cells have a blunted transcriptional response to energy stress creating a therapeutically exploitable synthetic lethal interaction. These findings provide the mechanistic basis for further development of OXPHOS inhibitors as therapeutics against SWI/SNF mutant tumors.

Kresovich JK, Joyce BT, Gao T, et al.
Promoter methylation of PGC1A and PGC1B predicts cancer incidence in a veteran cohort.
Epigenomics. 2018; 10(6):733-743 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/03/2020 Related Publications
AIM: Previous studies suggest telomere shortening represses PGC1A and PGC1B expression leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Methylation of CpG sites within these genes may interact with these factors to affect cancer risk.
MATERIALS & METHODS: Among 385 men, we identified 84 incidents of cancers (predominantly prostate and nonmelanoma skin). We examined associations between leukocyte DNA methylation of 41 CpGs from PGC1A and PGC1B with telomere length, mitochondrial 8-OHdG lesions, mitochondrial abundance and cancer incidence.
RESULTS: Methylation of five and eight CpG sites were significantly associated with telomere length and mitochondrial abundance at p < 0.05. Two CpG sites were independently associated with cancer risk: cg27514608 (PGC1A, TSS1500; HR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.19-2.03, FDR = 0.02), and cg15219393 (PGC1B, first exon/5'UTR; HR: 3.71, 95% CI: 1.82-7.58, FDR < 0.01). Associations with cg15219393 were observed primarily among men with shorter leukocyte telomeres.
CONCLUSION: PGC1A and PGC1B methylation may serve as early biomarkers of cancer risk.

Shen L, Sun B, Sheng J, et al.
PGC1α promotes cisplatin resistance in human ovarian carcinoma cells through upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.
Int J Oncol. 2018; 53(1):404-416 [PubMed] Related Publications
The induction of lesions in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA by cisplatin is only a small component of its cytostatic/cytotoxic activity. The signaling pathway network in the nucleus and cytoplasm may contribute to chemotherapeutic resistance. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-coactivator 1α (PGC1α)-mediated mitochondrial biogenesis regulates mitochondrial structural and the functional adaptive response against chemotherapeutic stress, and may be a therapeutic target. However, this regulatory network is complex and depends upon tumor types and environments, which require further investigation. Our previous study found that cisplatin-resistant ovarian epithelial carcinoma was more dependent on mitochondrial aerobic oxidation to support their growth, suggesting the association between mitochondrial function and chemotherapeutic resistance. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the expression of PGC1α and level of mitochondrial biogenesis were higher in cisplatin-resistant SKOV3/DDP cells compared with cisplatin-sensitive SKOV3 cells. Furthermore, SKOV3/DDP cells upregulated the expression of PGC1α and maintained mitochondrial structural and functional integrity through mitochondrial biogenesis under cisplatin stress. Inhibiting the expression of PGC1α using short hairpin RNA led to the downregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and high levels of apoptosis in the SKOV3/DDP cells, and cisplatin resistance was reversed in the PGC1α-deficient SKOV3/DDP cells. Collectively, the present study provided evidence that cisplatin stimulated the expression of PGC1α and the upregulation of mitochondrial biogenesis through PGC1α, promoting cell viability and inhibiting apoptosis in response to cisplatin treatment, thus triggering cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer cells.

Koh E, Kim YK, Shin D, Kim KS
MPC1 is essential for PGC-1α-induced mitochondrial respiration and biogenesis.
Biochem J. 2018; 475(10):1687-1699 [PubMed] Related Publications
Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC), which is essential for mitochondrial pyruvate usage, mediates the transport of cytosolic pyruvate into mitochondria. Low MPC expression is associated with various cancers, and functionally associated with glycolytic metabolism and stemness. However, the mechanism by which MPC expression is regulated is largely unknown. In this study, we showed that MPC1 is down-regulated in human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) due to strong suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma co-activator (PGC)-1 alpha (PGC-1α). We also demonstrated that overexpression of PGC-1α stimulates

Abbate F, Badal B, Mendelson K, et al.
FBXW7 regulates a mitochondrial transcription program by modulating MITF.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2018; 31(5):636-640 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
FBXW7 is well characterized as a tumor suppressor in many human cancers including melanoma; however, the mechanisms of tumor-suppressive function have not been fully elucidated. We leveraged two distinct RNA sequencing datasets: human melanoma cell lines (n = 10) with control versus silenced FBXW7 and a cohort of human melanoma tumor samples (n = 51) to define the transcriptomic fingerprint regulated by FBXW7. Here, we report that loss of FBXW7 enhances a mitochondrial gene transcriptional program that is dependent on MITF in human melanoma and confers poor patient outcomes. MITF is a lineage-specific master regulator of melanocytes and together with PGC-1alpha is a marker for melanoma subtypes with dependence for mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. We found that inactivation of FBXW7 elevates MITF protein levels in melanoma cells. In vitro studies examining loss of FBXW7 and MITF alone or in combination showed that FBXW7 is an upstream regulator for the MITF/PGC-1 signaling.

Basu S, Gnanapradeepan K, Barnoud T, et al.
Mutant p53 controls tumor metabolism and metastasis by regulating PGC-1α.
Genes Dev. 2018; 32(3-4):230-243 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Mutant forms of p53 protein often possess protumorigenic functions, conferring increased survival and migration to tumor cells via their "gain-of-function" activity. Whether and how a common polymorphism in

Frattini V, Pagnotta SM, Tala, et al.
A metabolic function of FGFR3-TACC3 gene fusions in cancer.
Nature. 2018; 553(7687):222-227 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Chromosomal translocations that generate in-frame oncogenic gene fusions are notable examples of the success of targeted cancer therapies. We have previously described gene fusions of FGFR3-TACC3 (F3-T3) in 3% of human glioblastoma cases. Subsequent studies have reported similar frequencies of F3-T3 in many other cancers, indicating that F3-T3 is a commonly occuring fusion across all tumour types. F3-T3 fusions are potent oncogenes that confer sensitivity to FGFR inhibitors, but the downstream oncogenic signalling pathways remain unknown. Here we show that human tumours with F3-T3 fusions cluster within transcriptional subgroups that are characterized by the activation of mitochondrial functions. F3-T3 activates oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial biogenesis and induces sensitivity to inhibitors of oxidative metabolism. Phosphorylation of the phosphopeptide PIN4 is an intermediate step in the signalling pathway of the activation of mitochondrial metabolism. The F3-T3-PIN4 axis triggers the biogenesis of peroxisomes and the synthesis of new proteins. The anabolic response converges on the PGC1α coactivator through the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which enables mitochondrial respiration and tumour growth. These data illustrate the oncogenic circuit engaged by F3-T3 and show that F3-T3-positive tumours rely on mitochondrial respiration, highlighting this pathway as a therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of tumours with F3-T3 fusions. We also provide insights into the genetic alterations that initiate the chain of metabolic responses that drive mitochondrial metabolism in cancer.

Yu Q, Dong L, Li Y, Liu G
SIRT1 and HIF1α signaling in metabolism and immune responses.
Cancer Lett. 2018; 418:20-26 [PubMed] Related Publications
SIRT1 and HIF1α are regarded as two key metabolic sensors in cellular metabolism pathways and play vital roles in influencing immune responses. SIRT1 and HIF1α regulate immune responses in metabolism-dependent and -independent ways. Here, we summarized the recent knowledge of SIRT1 and HIF1α signaling in metabolism and immune responses. HIF1α is a direct target of SIRT1. Sometimes, SIRT1 and HIF1α cooperate or act separately to mediate immune responses. In innate immune responses, SIRT1 can regulate the glycolytic activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and influence MDSC functional differentiation. SIRT1 can regulate monocyte function through NF-κB and PGC-1, accompanying an increased NAD

Su Y, Chen Z, Yan L, et al.
Optimizing combination of liver-enriched transcription factors and nuclear receptors simultaneously favors ammonia and drug metabolism in liver cells.
Exp Cell Res. 2018; 362(2):504-514 [PubMed] Related Publications
The HepG2 cell line is widely used in studying liver diseases because of its immortalization, but its clinical application is limited by its low expression of the urea synthesis key enzymes and cytochromes P450 (CYPs). On the basis of our previous work, we investigated the transcriptional regulation of arginase 1 (Arg1) and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) in HepG2 cells. We also screened for the optimal combination of liver enrichment transcription factors (LETFs) and xenobiotic nuclear receptors that can promote the expression of key urea synthases and five major CYPs in HepG2 cells. Thus, recombinant HepG2 cells were established. Results showed that C/EBPβ, not C/EBPα, could upregulate expression of Arg1 and PGC1α and HNF4α cooperatively regulate the expression of OTC. The two optimal combinations C/EBPβ+HNF4α+HNF6+PXR and C/EBPβ+HNF4α+HNF6+CAR were selected. Compared with the control cells, the recombinant HepG2 cells modified by the two optimal combinations exhibited enhanced ammonia metabolism and CYP enzyme activity. Moreover, the HepG2/(C/EBPβ+HNF4α+HNF6+PXR) cells more strongly reduced ammonia than any other combination tested in this study. The present work indicated that optimizing the combination of transcription factors will simultaneously promote hepatocyte ammonia metabolism and drug metabolism. The recombinant HepG2 liver cell line constructed by the optimal combination provided an improved alternative means for bioartificial liver applications and drug toxicity testing.

Cruz-Bermúdez A, Vicente-Blanco RJ, Laza-Briviesca R, et al.
PGC-1alpha levels correlate with survival in patients with stage III NSCLC and may define a new biomarker to metabolism-targeted therapy.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):16661 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, with one-third diagnosed with locally advanced (stage III) disease. Preoperative induction chemo-radiotherapy is key for the treatment of these patients, however conventional cisplatin based approaches has apparently reached a plateau of effectiveness. In the search for new therapies, the targeting of tumor metabolism is revealed as an interesting option to improve the patient's responses. Here we describe the importance of PGC-1alpha and GAPDH/MT-CO1 ratio levels as surrogates of the Warburg effect from a series of 28 stage III NSCLC patients, on PFS, OS and PET uptake. Moreover, our results show a great variability between tumors of different individuals, ranging from very glycolytic to more OXPHOS-dependent tumors, which compromises the success of therapies directed to metabolism. In this sense, using 3 different cell lines, we describe the relevance of Warburg effect on the response to metabolism-targeted therapies. Specifically, we show that the inhibitory effect of metformin on cell viability depends on cell's dependence on the OXPHOS system. The results on cell lines, together with the results of PGC-1alpha and GAPDH/MT-CO1 as biomarkers on patient's biopsies, would point out what type of patients would benefit more from the use of these drugs.

Yun SH, Shin SW, Park JI
Expression of fatty acid synthase is regulated by PGC‑1α and contributes to increased cell proliferation.
Oncol Rep. 2017; 38(6):3497-3506 [PubMed] Related Publications
We previously demonstrated that overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes increased cell proliferation and tumorigenic potential through upregulation of specificity protein 1 (Sp1) and acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is a key enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis, and its expression in various cancers is associated with survival, poor prognosis and cancer recurrence. In the present study, we evaluated whether PGC-1α regulated FASN expression in human colorectal cancer (SNU-C4 and HT-29) cells. We also examined whether cell proliferation was inhibited by shRNA‑induced FASN knockdown in SNU-C4 and HT-29 cells. In all tested cell lines, FASN-shRNA knockdown inhibited cell proliferation, decreased antioxidant enzyme expression, and increased apoptosis and production of H2O2‑induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). These findings indicated that FASN expression may enhance cell proliferation by regulating antioxidant enzyme production and resistance to ROS-induced apoptosis. We further provided evidence that FASN expression was regulated indirectly through upregulation of Sp1 and SREBP-1c by PGC-1α. Overall, our results revealed that FASN expression, mediated by PGC-1α, may play a positive role in cancer cell proliferation.

Alonso-Molero J, González-Donquiles C, Fernández-Villa T, et al.
Alterations in PGC1α expression levels are involved in colorectal cancer risk: a qualitative systematic review.
BMC Cancer. 2017; 17(1):731 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major global public health problem and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Mitochondrial dysfunction has long been suspected to be involved in this type of tumorigenesis, as supported by an accumulating body of research evidence. However, little is known about how mitochondrial alterations contribute to tumorigenesis. Mitochondrial biogenesis is a fundamental cellular process required to maintain functional mitochondria and as an adaptive mechanism in response to changing energy requirements. Mitochondrial biogenesis is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α (PPARGC1A or PGC1α). In this paper, we report a systematic review to summarize current evidence on the role of PGC1α in the initiation and progression of CRC. The aim is to provide a basis for more comprehensive research.
METHODS: The literature search, data extraction and quality assessment were performed according to the document Guidance on the Conduct of Narrative Synthesis in Systematic Reviews and the PRISMA declaration.
RESULTS: The studies included in this review aimed to evaluate whether increased or decreased PGC1α expression affects the development of CRC. Each article proposes a possible molecular mechanism of action and we create two concept maps.
CONCLUSION: Our systematic review indicates that altered expression of PGC1α modifies CRC risk. Most studies showed that overexpression of this gene increases CRC risk, while some studies indicated that lower than normal expression levels could increase CRC risk. Thus, various authors propose PGC1α as a good candidate molecular target for cancer therapy. Reducing expression of this gene could help to reduce risk or progression of CRC.

Reddy TV, Govatati S, Deenadayal M, et al.
Polymorphisms in the TFAM and PGC1-α genes and their association with polycystic ovary syndrome among South Indian women.
Gene. 2018; 641:129-136 [PubMed] Related Publications
We investigated the link between polymorphisms in genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) and further studied the role of these genes on the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This case-control study was carried out in 118 PCOS cases and 110 controls. In the present study we genotyped three polymorphisms of PGC1-α gene (rs8192678-Gly482Ser, rs13131226 and rs2970856) and polymorphism of TFAM gene (rs1937-+35G/C) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. In addition, to better understand genetic contributions to the pathophysiology of PCOS, mtDNA copy number (MCN) was quantified using a qRT-PCR assay in the subjects. The results revealed that the distribution of genotypes and allele frequency of the PGC-1α Gly482Ser polymorphism in PCOS patients was statistically significant from those of the control group respectively (OR-2.488; 95% CI-1.0673 to 5.7998; P=0.047), (OR-1.6091; 95% CI-1.0955 to 2.3634; P=0.015) indicating that the presence of 'A' allele might confer risk to PCOS. Patients with the 'AA' genotype showed significantly lower levels of MCN compared with patients with other genotypes. In addition, patients carrying CT genotype of PGC1-α rs2970856 demonstrated significantly higher levels of LH (P=0.030) than TT and CC genotypes. In conclusion, our study indicates that carriers of the PGC-1α rs8192678 'Ser' allele have increased risk of developing PCOS.

Gelato KA, Schöckel L, Klingbeil O, et al.
Super-enhancers define a proliferative PGC-1α-expressing melanoma subgroup sensitive to BET inhibition.
Oncogene. 2018; 37(4):512-521 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Metabolic changes are linked to epigenetic reprogramming and play important roles in several tumor types. PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator controlling mitochondrial biogenesis and is linked to oxidative phosphorylation. We provide evidence that melanoma models with elevated PGC-1α levels are characteristic of the proliferative phenotype and are sensitive to bromodomain and extra-terminal domain (BET) inhibitor treatment. A super-enhancer region highly occupied by the BET family member BRD4 was identified for the PGC-1α gene. BET inhibitor treatment prevented this interaction, leading to a dramatic reduction of PGC-1α expression. Accordingly, BET inhibition diminished respiration and mitochondrial function in cells. In vivo, melanoma models with high PGC-1α expression strongly responded to BET inhibition by reduction of PGC-1α and impaired tumor growth. Altogether, our findings identify epigenetic regulatory elements that define a subset of melanomas with high sensitivity to BET inhibition, which opens up the opportunity to define melanoma patients most likely to respond to this treatment, depending on their tumor characteristics.

Egashira S, Jinnin M, Ajino M, et al.
Chronic sun exposure-related fusion oncogenes EGFR-PPARGC1A in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):12654 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) differs from SCC of other organs in its strong association with chronic sun exposure. However, the specific driver mutations in cSCC remain unknown. Fusion genes in established cSCC cell lines (A431 and DJM-1) were predicted by transcriptome sequence, and validated by Sanger sequence, fluorescence in situ hybridization and G-banding. By transcriptome sequencing, we identified fusion gene EGFR-PPARGC1A in A431, which were expressed in 31 of 102 cSCCs. The lesions harboring the fusion gene tended to be located in sun-exposed areas. In vivo cutaneous implantation of EGFR-PPARGC1A-expressing NIH3T3 induced tumors resembling human cSCC, indicating its potent tumorigenicity. NIH3T3 transfected with EGFR-PPARGC1A as well as A431 showed increased cell proliferation activity. With regard to underlying mechanism, EGFR-PPARGC1A protein causes constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation, and induces the phosphorylation of wild-type full-length epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) by dimerization. Conversely, the RNAi-mediated attenuation of EGFR or CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockdown of the fusion gene in A431 led to a decrease in the cell number, and may have therapeutic value. Our findings advance the knowledge concerning genetic causes of cSCC and the function of EGFR, with potential implications for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

Li JD, Feng QC, Qi Y, et al.
PPARGC1A is upregulated and facilitates lung cancer metastasis.
Exp Cell Res. 2017; 359(2):356-360 [PubMed] Related Publications
Lung cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with metastatic progression remaining the single largest cause of lung cancer mortality. Hence it is imperative to determine reliable biomarkers for lung cancer prognosis. We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis to explore epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inducers that regulate EMT process in three patients with advanced lung cancer disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARGC1A) was uniformly the topmost overexpressed gene in all three human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patient samples. Further evaluation in human normal lung and metastatic lung cancer cell lines revealed that the expression of PPARGC1A was upregulated in metastatic lung cancer cell lines. Metagenomic analysis revealed direct correlation among PPARGC1A, zinc-finger transcription factor snail homolog 1 (SNAI1), and metastatic lung disease. Upregulation of PPARGC1A transcript expression was independent of a differential upregulation of the upstream AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activation or steady state expression of the silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1). Xenograft tail vein colonization assays proved that the high expression of PPARGC1A was a prerequisite for metastatic progression of lung cancer to brain. Our results indicate that PPARGC1A might be a potential biomarker for lung cancer prognosis.

Triki M, Lapierre M, Cavailles V, Mokdad-Gargouri R
Expression and role of nuclear receptor coregulators in colorectal cancer.
World J Gastroenterol. 2017; 23(25):4480-4490 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common human cancers and the cause of about 700000 deaths per year worldwide. Deregulation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway is a key event in CRC initiation. This pathway interacts with other nuclear signaling pathways, including members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and their transcription coregulators. In this review, we provide an overview of the literature dealing with the main coactivators (NCoA-1 to 3, NCoA-6, PGC1-α, p300, CREBBP and MED1) and corepressors (N-CoR1 and 2, NRIP1 and MTA1) of nuclear receptors and summarize their links with the WNT/β-catenin signaling cascade, their expression in CRC and their role in intestinal physiopathology.

Hu Y, Shin DJ, Pan H, et al.
YAP suppresses gluconeogenic gene expression through PGC1α.
Hepatology. 2017; 66(6):2029-2041 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Cell growth and proliferation are tightly coupled to metabolism, and dissecting the signaling molecules which link these processes is an important step toward understanding development, regeneration, and cancer. The transcriptional regulator Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP) is a key regulator of liver size, development, and function. We now show that YAP can also suppress gluconeogenic gene expression. Yap deletion in primary hepatocytes potentiates the gluconeogenic gene response to glucagon and dexamethasone, whereas constitutively active YAP suppresses it. The effects of YAP are mediated by the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1. YAP inhibits its ability to bind to and activate transcription from the promoters of its gluconeogenic targets, and the effects of YAP are blunted upon its knockdown. In vivo, constitutively active YAP lowers plasma glucose levels and increases liver size.
CONCLUSION: YAP appears to reprogram cellular metabolism, diverting substrates away from the energy-consuming process of gluconeogenesis and toward the anabolic process of growth. (Hepatology 2017;66:2029-2041).

Ha BG, Jung SS, Shon YH
Effects of proton beam irradiation on mitochondrial biogenesis in a human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line.
Int J Oncol. 2017; 51(3):859-866 [PubMed] Related Publications
Proton beam therapy has recently been used to improve local control of tumor growth and reduce side-effects by decreasing the global dose to normal tissue. However, the regulatory mechanisms underlying the physiological role of proton beam radiation are not well understood, and many studies are still being conducted regarding these mechanisms. To determine the effects of proton beams on mitochondrial biogenesis, we investigated: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mass; the gene expression of mitochondrial transcription factors, functional regulators, and dynamic-related regulators; and the phosphorylation of the signaling molecules that participate in mitochondrial biogenesis. Both the mtDNA/nuclear DNA (nDNA) ratio and the mitochondria staining assays showed that proton beam irradiation increases mitochondrial biogenesis in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced aggressive HT-29 cells. Simultaneously, proton beam irradiation increases the gene expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors PGC-1α, NRF1, ERRα, and mtTFA, the dynamic regulators DRP1, OPA1, TIMM44, and TOM40, and the functional regulators CytC, ATP5B and CPT1-α. Furthermore, proton beam irradiation increases the phosphorylation of AMPK, an important molecule involved in mitochondrial biogenesis that is an energy sensor and is regulated by the AMP/ATP ratio. Based on these findings, we suggest that proton beam irradiation inhibits metastatic potential by increasing mitochondrial biogenesis and function in TPA-induced aggressive HT-29 cells.

Cheng L, Zhu Y, Han H, et al.
MicroRNA-148a deficiency promotes hepatic lipid metabolism and hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.
Cell Death Dis. 2017; 8(7):e2916 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
miRNAs are involved in many physiologic and disease processes by virtue of degrading specific mRNAs or inhibiting their translation. miR-148a has been implicated in the control of tumor growth and cholesterol and triglyceride homeostasis using in vitro or in vivo gene expression- and silencing-based approaches. Here miR-148a knockout (KO) mice were used to investigate the intrinsic role of miR-148a in liver physiology and hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. miR-148a downregulation was found to be correlated with poor clinical outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. Under regular chow diet (RCD) or high fat diet (HFD), miR-148a deletion significantly accelerated DEN-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Mechanistically, miR-148a deletion promotes lipid metabolic disorders in mice. Moreover, restoration of miR-148a reversed these defects. Finally, miR-148a was found to directly inhibit several key regulators of hepatocarcinogenesis and lipid metabolism. These findings reveal crucial roles for miR-148a in the hepatic lipid metabolism and hepatocarcinogenesis. They further identify miR-148a as a potential therapeutic target for certain liver diseases, including cancer.

Canto P, Granados JB, Feria-Bernal G, et al.
PPARGC1A and ADIPOQ polymorphisms are associated with aggressive prostate cancer in Mexican-Mestizo men with overweight or obesity.
Cancer Biomark. 2017; 19(3):297-303 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Obesity constitutes a risk factor for the development of aggressive forms of prostate cancer. It has been proposed, that prostate cancer has a genetic predisposition and that PPARGC1A and ADIPOQ polymorphisms play a role in the development of this condition.
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the association of two PPARGC1A and ADIPOQ polymorphisms as well as their haplotypes, with the development of aggressive prostate cancer in Mexican-Mestizo men with overweight or obesity.
SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two hundred fifty seven men with prostate cancer of Mexican-Mestizo origin were included. Body mass index (BMI) was determined and the degree of prostate cancer aggressiveness by the D'Amico classification. DNA was obtained. Rs7665116 and rs2970870 of PPARGC1A, and rs266729 and rs1501299 of ADIPOQ were studied by real-time PCR allelic discrimination. Pairwise linkage disequilibrium, between single nucleotide polymorphisms was calculated and haplotype analysis was performed.
RESULTS: A higher-risk (D'Amico classification) was observed in 21.8% of patients. An association of cancer aggressiveness with rs2970870 of PPARGC1A, and rs501299 of ADIPOQ, as well as with one haplotype of ADIPOQ was documented.
CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study regarding the relationship of PPARGC1A and ADIPOQ polymorphisms, and the aggressiveness of prostate cancer in men with overweight or obesity.

Disclaimer: This site is for educational purposes only; it can not be used in diagnosis or treatment.

Cite this page: Cotterill SJ. PPARGC1A, Cancer Genetics Web: http://www.cancer-genetics.org/PPARGC1A.htm Accessed:

Creative Commons License
This page in Cancer Genetics Web by Simon Cotterill is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
Note: content of abstracts copyright of respective publishers - seek permission where appropriate.

 [Home]    Page last revised: 01 September, 2019     Cancer Genetics Web, Established 1999