Gene Summary

Gene:PRDM1; PR/SET domain 1
Aliases: BLIMP1, PRDI-BF1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that acts as a repressor of beta-interferon gene expression. The protein binds specifically to the PRDI (positive regulatory domain I element) of the beta-IFN gene promoter. Transcription of this gene increases upon virus induction. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:PR domain zinc finger protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 31 August, 2019


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1994-2019)
Graph generated 01 September 2019 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Transcription
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Transduction
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Survival Rate
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • MicroRNAs
  • Virus Latency
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Transcriptional Elongation Factors
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Zinc Fingers
  • Up-Regulation
  • p53 Protein
  • Western Blotting
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Viral Proteins
  • X-Box Binding Protein 1
  • Promoter Regions
  • Chromosome 6
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Repressor Proteins
  • ras Proteins
  • TFAP2A
  • Transfection
  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Mutation
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Wnt Proteins
  • Positive Regulatory Domain I-Binding Factor 1
  • Plasma Cells
  • Transcription Factors
  • Young Adult
  • Sequence Deletion
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha-Induced Protein 3
Tag cloud generated 31 August, 2019 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (3)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PRDM1 (cancer-related)

Liu J, Liang L, Li D, et al.
JAK3/STAT3 oncogenic pathway and PRDM1 expression stratify clinicopathologic features of extranodal NK/T‑cell lymphoma, nasal type.
Oncol Rep. 2019; 41(6):3219-3232 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The inactivation of tumor suppressor gene positive regulatory domain containing I (PRDM1) and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) have been detected in the majority of extranodal NK/T‑cell lymphoma, nasal type (EN‑NK/T‑NT) cases. In the present study, their association with and effects on the clinicopathologic features of EN‑NK/T‑NT are described. PRDM1 was revealed to be expressed in 19 out of 58 patients (32.8%) with EN‑NK/T‑NT, and phosphorylated STAT3 was overexpressed in 42 out of 58 (72.4%). Oncogenic pathways were investigated by NanoString encounter technology in 5 PRDM1(+) and 5 PRDM1(‑) EN‑NK/T‑NT specimens. Multiple oncogenic pathways involved in cell apoptosis, cellcycle (CC) and angiogenesis were discriminately activated in EN‑NK/T‑NT cases, and in PRDM1(+) cases in particular. The sustained activation of the Janus kinase 3 (JAK)/STAT3 pathway was more pronounced. In addition, missense mutations in the SRC homology 2 domain of STAT3 were detected in 7 out of 37 EN‑NK/T‑NT cases (18.92%), and the acquired mutation was related to the activation of the JAK3/STAT3 pathway. The downregulation of PRDM1 and upregulation of phospho‑STAT3 (Tyr705) were associated with angiocentric infiltration of EN‑NK/T‑NT (P=0.039). Notably, the prognosis of patients in the PRDM1(+)/STAT3 [mutated (mut‑)] group was considerably improved than that of patients in the STAT3(mut+)/PRDM(‑) group (P=0.037). In addition, the inhibition of NK/T cell lymphoma cell lines by Stattic and tofacitinib could suppress cell proliferation by inducing cell apoptosis or arresting the CC. The present results revealed that the JAK3/STAT3 oncogenic pathway and PRDM1 expression could stratify clinicopathologic features of EN‑NK/T‑NT. The inhibition of the JAK3/STAT3 pathway may serve as a treatment option for EN‑NK/T‑NT.

Sawant DV, Yano H, Chikina M, et al.
Adaptive plasticity of IL-10
Nat Immunol. 2019; 20(6):724-735 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Regulatory T cells (T

Nagai LAE, Park SJ, Nakai K
Analyzing the 3D chromatin organization coordinating with gene expression regulation in B-cell lymphoma.
BMC Med Genomics. 2019; 11(Suppl 7):127 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotes compact chromosomes densely and non-randomly, forming three-dimensional structures. Alterations of the chromatin structures are often associated with diseases. In particular, aggressive cancer development from the disruption of the humoral immune system presents abnormal gene regulation which is accompanied by chromatin reorganizations. How the chromatin structures orchestrate the gene expression regulation is still poorly understood. Herein, we focus on chromatin dynamics in normal and abnormal B cell lymphocytes, and investigate its functional impact on the regulation of gene expression.
METHODS: We conducted an integrative analysis using publicly available multi-omics data that include Hi-C, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq experiments with normal B cells, lymphoma and ES cells. We processed and re-analyzed the data exhaustively and combined different scales of genome structures with transcriptomic and epigenetic features.
RESULTS: We found that the chromatin organizations are highly preserved among the cells. 5.2% of genes at the specific repressive compartment in normal pro-B cells were switched to the permissive compartment in lymphoma along with increased gene expression. The genes are involved in B-cell related biological processes. Remarkably, the boundaries of topologically associating domains were not enriched by CTCF motif, but significantly enriched with Prdm1 motif that is known to be the key factor of B-cell dysfunction in aggressive lymphoma.
CONCLUSIONS: This study shows evidence of a complex relationship between chromatin reorganization and gene regulation. However, an unknown mechanism may exist to restrict the structural and functional changes of genomic regions and cognate genes in a specific manner. Our findings suggest the presence of an intricate crosstalk between the higher-order chromatin structure and cancer development.

Chi VLD, Garaud S, De Silva P, et al.
Age-related changes in the BACH2 and PRDM1 genes in lymphocytes from healthy donors and chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients.
BMC Cancer. 2019; 19(1):81 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Age-related genetic changes in lymphocyte subsets are not currently well documented. BACH2 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in immune-mediated homeostasis by tightly regulating PRDM1 expression in both B-cells and T-cells. BACH2 gene expression is highly sensitive to DNA damage in aged mice. This concept led us to investigate the variation in BACH2 and also PRDM1 expression in major lymphocyte subsets with age.
METHODS: Lymphocyte subsets from 60 healthy donors, aged from 20 to 90 years, and 41 untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients were studied. BACH2 and PRDM1 gene expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. BACH2 gene expression was correlated with its protein expression. Lymphocyte apoptosis was evaluated after intracellular oxidative stress-inducing etoposide treatment of T and B cells.
RESULTS: Our analysis shows BACH2 mRNA downregulation with age in healthy donor CD4+, CD8+ T-cells and CD19+ B-cells. Decreased BACH2 expression was also correlated with an age-related reduction in CD8 + CD28+ T-cells. We found a strong correlation between age-related BACH2 downregulation and decreased CD4+ T-cell and CD19+ B-cell apoptosis. PRDM1, as expected, was significantly upregulated in CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells and CD19+ B-cells, and inversely correlated with BACH2. A comparison of untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients with age-matched healthy donors reveals that BACH2 mRNA expression was further reduced in CD4+ T-cells, CD8+ T-cells and leukemic-B cells. PRDM1 gene expression was consequently significantly upregulated in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients but not in their leukemic B-cells.
CONCLUSION: Overall, our data suggest that BACH2 and PRDM1 genes are significantly correlated with age in human immune cells and may be involved in immunosenescence.

Ouyang W, Zhao X, Lu S, Wang Z
Prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance in chronic myeloid leukemia: A case report.
Medicine (Baltimore). 2018; 97(44):e13103 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
RATIONALE: The abnormal cell types in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain (MGUS) are quite different, being myeloid and plasma cells, respectively. The coexistence of CML and MGUS is an uncommon event, which is seldom reported in literature.
PATIENT CONCERNS: A 52-year-old female was diagnosed with CML in April 2001. From November 2006, the patient started on imatinib mesylate and kept a complete hematologic and cytogenetic response for nearly 11 years. During her follow-up on July 7, 2017, thrombocytopenia (35*109/L) was found. Bone marrow aspiration revealed 6% plasma cell infiltration. Serum immunoelectrophoresis revealed 1.24 g/dL of serum monoclonal (M) protein of IgG-κ type.
DIAGNOSIS: MGUS was diagnosed because of absence of anemia, hypercalcemia, lytic bone lesions, or renal failure. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was also diagnosed in this patient following the detection of antiplatelet autoantibodies. Complex karyotype and missense mutation in PRDM1 were identified.
INTERVENTIONS: Because of her obvious decrease of platelets, she started treatment with thalidomide and prednisone.
OUTCOMES: Three months later, bone marrow aspirate showed disappearance of plasma cells. There developed an abrupt decrease in IgG and the absence of M-spike in serum immunoelectrophoresis. The platelet count kept normal during 1 year follow-up.
LESSONS: Karyotypic event and gene mutation found in this case may be the initiation of disease transformation. Administration of thalidomide and prednisone proved effective in this patient.

Taniguchi H, Imai K
PRDM14, a Zinc Finger Protein, Regulates Cancer Stemness.
Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1867:3-13 [PubMed] Related Publications
PRDI-BF1 and RIZ homology (PR) domain zinc finger protein 14 (PRDM14) contains a PR domain related to the SET methyltransferase domain and zinc finger motifs. PRDM14 maintains stemness in embryonic stem cells and primordial germ cells via epigenetic mechanisms. PRDM14, however, is not expressed in normal differentiated tissues. We and other groups previously reported that PRDM14 expression is markedly higher in some types of cancers compared to the corresponding normal tissues. PRDM14 confers stem cell-like characteristics upon cancer cells, such as sphere formation, dye efflux, chemotherapy resistance, proliferation, and distant metastasis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, drug and radiation resistance, invasive growth, metastasis, and tumor relapse, which are the primary causes of cancer-related deaths. Because CSCs are also thought to be resistant to conventional therapies, an effective and novel therapeutic approach for CSCs is imperative.RNAi silencing of PRDM14 expressed by breast and pancreatic cancer cells reduced tumor size and distant metastasis of these cells in nude mice. Inhibition of PRDM14 expression by cancer cells may be an effective and radical therapy for solid cancers. In this chapter, we discuss methods for studying CSC-like properties in cancer cells and describe the use of siRNA with a drug delivery system by systemic injection in vivo.

de Mel S, Soon GS, Mok Y, et al.
The Genomics and Molecular Biology of Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphoma: Opportunities for Translation.
Int J Mol Sci. 2018; 19(7) [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL), is an aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis. While the introduction of L-asparaginase in the treatment of this disease has significantly improved the prognosis, the outcome of patients relapsing after asparaginase-based chemotherapy, which occurs in up to 50% of patients with disseminated disease, remains dismal. There is hence an urgent need for effective targeted therapy especially in the relapsed/refractory setting. Gene expression profiling studies have provided new perspectives on the molecular biology, ontogeny and classification of ENKTL and further identified dysregulated signaling pathways such as Janus associated kinase (/Signal Transducer and activation of transcription (JAK/STAT), Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), Aurora Kinase and NF-κB, which are under evaluation as therapeutic targets. Copy number analyses have highlighted potential tumor suppressor genes such as PR Domain Zinc Finger Protein 1 (PRDM1) and protein tyrosine phosphatase kappa (PTPRK) while next generation sequencing studies have identified recurrently mutated genes in pro-survival and anti-apoptotic pathways. The discovery of epigenetic dysregulation and aberrant microRNA activity has broadened our understanding of the biology of ENKTL. Importantly, immunotherapy via Programmed Cell Death -1 (PD-1) and Programmed Cell Death Ligand1 (PD-L1) checkpoint signaling inhibition is emerging as an attractive therapeutic strategy in ENKTL. Herein, we present an overview of the molecular biology and genomic landscape of ENKTL with a focus on the most promising translational opportunities.

Hiemcke-Jiwa LS, Leguit RJ, Snijders TJ, et al.
Molecular analysis in liquid biopsies for diagnostics of primary central nervous system lymphoma: Review of literature and future opportunities.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2018; 127:56-65 [PubMed] Related Publications
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive lymphoma with a poor prognosis, for which accurate and timely diagnosis is of utmost importance. Unfortunately, diagnosis of PCNSL can be challenging and a brain biopsy (gold standard for diagnosis) is an invasive procedure with the risk of major complications. Thus, there is an urgent need for an alternative strategy to diagnose and monitor these lymphomas. Currently, liquid biopsies from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are used for cytomorphologic and flow cytometric analysis. Recently, new biomarkers such as genetic mutations and interleukins have been identified in these liquid biopsies, further expanding the diagnostic armamentarium. In this review we present an overview of genetic aberrations (>70) reported in this unique lymphoma. Of these genes, we have selected those that are reported in ≥3 studies. Half of the selected genes are implicated in the NFκB pathway (CARD11, CD79B, MYD88, TBL1XR1 and TNFAIP3), while the other half are not related to this pathway (CDKN2A, ETV6, PIM1, PRDM1 and TOX). Although this underlines the crucial role of the NFκB pathway in PCNSL, CD79B and MYD88 are at present the only genes mentioned in liquid biopsy analysis. Finally, a stepwise approach is proposed for minimally invasive liquid biopsy analysis and work-up of PCNSL, incorporating molecular analysis. Prioritization and refinements of this approach can be constructed based upon multidisciplinary collaboration as well as novel scientific insights.

Bolli N, Biancon G, Moarii M, et al.
Analysis of the genomic landscape of multiple myeloma highlights novel prognostic markers and disease subgroups.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(12):2604-2616 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
In multiple myeloma, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has expanded our knowledge of genomic lesions, and highlighted a dynamic and heterogeneous composition of the tumor. Here we used NGS to characterize the genomic landscape of 418 multiple myeloma cases at diagnosis and correlate this with prognosis and classification. Translocations and copy number abnormalities (CNAs) had a preponderant contribution over gene mutations in defining the genotype and prognosis of each case. Known and novel independent prognostic markers were identified in our cohort of proteasome inhibitor and immunomodulatory drug-treated patients with long follow-up, including events with context-specific prognostic value, such as deletions of the PRDM1 gene. Taking advantage of the comprehensive genomic annotation of each case, we used innovative statistical approaches to identify potential novel myeloma subgroups. We observed clusters of patients stratified based on the overall number of mutations and number/type of CNAs, with distinct effects on survival, suggesting that extended genotype of multiple myeloma at diagnosis may lead to improved disease classification and prognostication.

Liu C, Banister CE, Weige CC, et al.
PRDM1 silences stem cell-related genes and inhibits proliferation of human colon tumor organoids.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018; 115(22):E5066-E5075 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
PRDM1 is a tumor suppressor that plays an important role in B and T cell lymphomas. Our previous studies demonstrated that PRDM1β is a p53-response gene in human colorectal cancer cells. However, the function of PRDM1β in colorectal cancer cells and colon tumor organoids is not clear. Here we show that PRDM1β is a p53-response gene in human colon organoids and that low PRDM1 expression predicts poor survival in colon cancer patients. We engineered PRDM1 knockouts and overexpression clones in RKO cells and characterized the PRDM1-dependent transcript landscapes, revealing that both the α and β transcript isoforms repress MYC-response genes and stem cell-related genes. Finally, we show that forced expression of PRDM1 in human colon cancer organoids prevents the formation and growth of colon tumor organoids in vitro. These results suggest that p53 may exert tumor-suppressive effects in part through a PRDM1-dependent silencing of stem cell genes, depleting the size of the normal intestinal stem cell compartment in response to DNA damage.

Hoang PH, Dobbins SE, Cornish AJ, et al.
Whole-genome sequencing of multiple myeloma reveals oncogenic pathways are targeted somatically through multiple mechanisms.
Leukemia. 2018; 32(11):2459-2470 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a biologically heterogeneous malignancy, however, the mechanisms underlying this complexity are incompletely understood. We report an analysis of the whole-genome sequencing of 765 MM patients from CoMMpass. By employing promoter capture Hi-C in naïve B-cells, we identify cis-regulatory elements (CREs) that represent a highly enriched subset of the non-coding genome in which to search for driver mutations. We identify regulatory regions whose mutation significantly alters the expression of genes as candidate non-coding drivers, including copy number variation (CNV) at CREs of MYC and single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in a PAX5 enhancer. To better inform the interplay between non-coding driver mutations with other driver mechanisms, and their respective roles in oncogenic pathways, we extended our analysis identifying coding drivers in 40 genes, including 11 novel candidates. We demonstrate the same pathways can be targeted by coding and non-coding mutations; exemplified by IRF4 and PRDM1, along with BCL6 and PAX5, genes that are central to plasma cell differentiation. This study reveals new insights into the complex genetic alterations driving MM development and an enhanced understanding of oncogenic pathways.

Gordiienko I, Shlapatska L, Kholodniuk VM, et al.
CD150 and CD180 are involved in regulation of transcription factors expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells.
Exp Oncol. 2017; 39(4):291-298 [PubMed] Related Publications
BACKGROUND: Sequential stages of B-cell development is stringently coordinated by transcription factors (TFs) network that include B-lineage commitment TFs (Ikaros, Runx1/Cbfb, E2A, and FOXO1), B-lineage maintenance TFs (EBF1 and PAX5) and stage specific set of TFs (IRF4, IRF8, BCL6, BLIMP1). Deregulation of TFs expression and activity is often occurs in malignant B cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate TFs expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells taking into consideration CD150 cell surface expression. From other side we attempted to regulate TFs expression via CD150 and CD180 cell surface receptors.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Studies were performed on normal peripheral blood B-cell subpopulations and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells isolated from peripheral blood of 67 primary untreated patients with CLL. Evaluation of TFs expression was performed on mRNA level using qRT-PCR and on protein level by western blot analysis.
RESULTS: Median of PAX5 and EBF1 mRNA expression was higher in cell surface CD150 positive (csCD150
CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of TFs expression profile revealed upregulated SPIB mRNA level and downregulated PU.1 in CLL cells. CD150 and CD180 receptors may modulate transcriptional program in CLL cells by regulating the TFs expression levels.

Varettoni M, Zibellini S, Defrancesco I, et al.
Pattern of somatic mutations in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia or IgM monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.
Haematologica. 2017; 102(12):2077-2085 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
We analyzed

Goudot C, Coillard A, Villani AC, et al.
Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Controls Monocyte Differentiation into Dendritic Cells versus Macrophages.
Immunity. 2017; 47(3):582-596.e6 [PubMed] Related Publications
After entering tissues, monocytes differentiate into cells that share functional features with either macrophages or dendritic cells (DCs). How monocyte fate is directed toward monocyte-derived macrophages (mo-Macs) or monocyte-derived DCs (mo-DCs) and which transcription factors control these differentiation pathways remains unknown. Using an in vitro culture model yielding human mo-DCs and mo-Macs closely resembling those found in vivo in ascites, we show that IRF4 and MAFB were critical regulators of monocyte differentiation into mo-DCs and mo-Macs, respectively. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) promoted mo-DC differentiation through the induction of BLIMP-1, while impairing differentiation into mo-Macs. AhR deficiency also impaired the in vivo differentiation of mouse mo-DCs. Finally, AHR activation correlated with mo-DC infiltration in leprosy lesions. These results establish that mo-DCs and mo-Macs are controlled by distinct transcription factors and show that AHR acts as a molecular switch for monocyte fate specification in response to micro-environmental factors.

Poe JC, Jia W, Su H, et al.
An aberrant NOTCH2-BCR signaling axis in B cells from patients with chronic GVHD.
Blood. 2017; 130(19):2131-2145 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
B-cell receptor (BCR)-activated B cells contribute to pathogenesis in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), a condition manifested by both B-cell autoreactivity and immune deficiency. We hypothesized that constitutive BCR activation precluded functional B-cell maturation in cGVHD. To address this, we examined BCR-NOTCH2 synergy because NOTCH has been shown to increase BCR responsiveness in normal mouse B cells. We conducted ex vivo activation and signaling assays of 30 primary samples from hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients with and without cGVHD. Consistent with a molecular link between pathways, we found that BCR-NOTCH activation significantly increased the proximal BCR adapter protein BLNK. BCR-NOTCH activation also enabled persistent NOTCH2 surface expression, suggesting a positive feedback loop. Specific NOTCH2 blockade eliminated NOTCH-BCR activation and significantly altered NOTCH downstream targets and B-cell maturation/effector molecules. Examination of the molecular underpinnings of this "NOTCH2-BCR axis" in cGVHD revealed imbalanced expression of the transcription factors

Ma M, Yang X, Zhao L, et al.
Mda‑7/IL‑24 induces the differentiation of B cell lymphoma via activation of the P38 mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway.
Mol Med Rep. 2017; 16(4):5633-5642 [PubMed] Related Publications
Interleukin 24 (IL‑24) is a unique cytokine encoded by the melanoma differentiation associated gene‑7 (Mda‑7), and was first discovered inhuman melanoma cells. Exogenous Mda‑7/IL‑24 has been shown to inhibit the proliferation and invasion of a broad spectrum of human cancer cells, but its effect on the differentiation of B cell lymphoma is not yet clear. To the best of our knowledge, the present study demonstrated for the first time that overexpressing Mda‑7/IL‑24 can induce differentiation in human B cell lymphomacells, and the underlying mechanism was investigated. The proliferation of stable Mda‑7/IL‑24 overexpressing Raji and Daudi cells was assessed by the MTS method. The immunophenotype, apoptosis level and cell cycle distribution of Raji and Daudi cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of PR domain zinc finger protein 1 (Blimp1) and B‑cell lymphoma 6 (Bcl6) were analyzed by western blotting. Additionally, western blotting assay was also performed to study the effect of Mda‑7/IL‑24 on the activity of the P38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in Raji and Daudi cells. Proliferation of Raji and Daudi cells overexpressing Mda‑7/IL‑24 was inhibited significantly, compared with those of parent cells and cells transfected with the empty vector alone. Apoptosis was not involved in the proliferation inhibition, while the cell cycle was arrested in G1 phase in the Raji and Daudi cells overexpressing Mda‑7/IL‑24. Overexpressing Mda‑7/IL‑24 resulted in a significantly decreased expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)10, and increased expression of CD45 and CD138 in the cell surface of Raji and Daudi cells. The expression of Blimp1 was upregulated, while the levels of Bcl6 protein was downregulated, in Raji and Daudi cells overexpressing Mda‑7/IL‑24. Furthermore, the activities of the P38 MAPK signaling pathway in lymphoma cells were upregulated. These results indicated that Mda‑7/IL‑24 could induce terminal differentiation of B lymphoma cells by regulating the expression of Blimp1 and Bcl6 via altering the P38 MAPK signaling pathway, suggesting that Mda‑7/IL‑24 may therefore be a potential differentiation therapeutic agent to be applied in clinical treatment of B cell lymphoma.

Brach D, Johnston-Blackwell D, Drew A, et al.
EZH2 Inhibition by Tazemetostat Results in Altered Dependency on B-cell Activation Signaling in DLBCL.
Mol Cancer Ther. 2017; 16(11):2586-2597 [PubMed] Related Publications
The EZH2 small-molecule inhibitor tazemetostat (EPZ-6438) is currently being evaluated in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We have previously shown that EZH2 inhibitors display an antiproliferative effect in multiple preclinical models of NHL, and that models bearing gain-of-function mutations in

Chiou SH, Risca VI, Wang GX, et al.
BLIMP1 Induces Transient Metastatic Heterogeneity in Pancreatic Cancer.
Cancer Discov. 2017; 7(10):1184-1199 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most metastatic and deadly cancers. Despite the clinical significance of metastatic spread, our understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive PDAC metastatic ability remains limited. By generating a genetically engineered mouse model of human PDAC, we uncover a transient subpopulation of cancer cells with exceptionally high metastatic ability. Global gene expression profiling and functional analyses uncovered the transcription factor BLIMP1 as a driver of PDAC metastasis. The highly metastatic PDAC subpopulation is enriched for hypoxia-induced genes, and hypoxia-mediated induction of BLIMP1 contributes to the regulation of a subset of hypoxia-associated gene expression programs. These findings support a model in which upregulation of BLIMP1 links microenvironmental cues to a metastatic stem cell character.

Slattery ML, Herrick JS, Mullany LE, et al.
The co-regulatory networks of tumor suppressor genes, oncogenes, and miRNAs in colorectal cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2017; 56(11):769-787 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and oncogenes (OG) are involved in carcinogenesis. MiRNAs also contribute to cellular pathways leading to cancer. We use data from 217 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases to evaluate differences in TSGs and OGs expression between paired CRC and normal mucosa and evaluate how TSGs and OGs are associated with miRNAs. Gene expression data from RNA-Seq and miRNA expression data from Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V19.0 were used. We focus on genes most strongly associated with CRC (fold change (FC) of ≥1.5 or ≤0.67) that were statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Of the 74 TSGs evaluated, 22 were associated with carcinoma/normal mucosa differential expression. Ten TSGs were up-regulated (FAM123B, RB1, TP53, RUNX1, MSH2, BRCA1, BRCA2, SOX9, NPM1, and RNF43); six TSGs were down-regulated (PAX5, IZKF1, GATA3, PRDM1, TET2, and CYLD); four were associated with MSI tumors (MLH1, PTCH1, and CEBPA down-regulated and MSH6 up-regulated); and two were associated with MSS tumors (PHF6 and ASXL1 up-regulated). Thirteen of these TSGs were associated with 44 miRNAs. Twenty-seven of the 59 OGs evaluated were dysregulated: 14 down-regulated (KLF4, BCL2, SSETBP1, FGFR2, TSHR, MPL, KIT, PDGFRA, GNA11, GATA2, FGFR3, AR, CSF1R, and JAK3), seven up-regulated (DNMT1, EZH2, PTPN11, SKP2, CCND1, MET, and MYC); three down-regulated for MSI (FLT3, CARD11, and ALK); two up-regulated for MSI (IDH2 and HRAS); and one up-regulated with MSS tumors (CTNNB1). These findings suggest possible co-regulatory function between TSGs, OGs, and miRNAs, involving both direct and indirect associations that operate through feedback and feedforward loops.

Zhu L, Kong Y, Zhang J, et al.
Blimp-1 impairs T cell function via upregulation of TIGIT and PD-1 in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
J Hematol Oncol. 2017; 10(1):124 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
BACKGROUND: T cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domain (TIGIT) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) are important inhibitory receptors that associate with T cell exhaustion in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study, we aimed to determine the underlying transcriptional mechanisms regulating these inhibitory pathways. Specifically, we investigated the role of transcription factor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) in T cell response and transcriptional regulation of TIGIT and PD-1 in AML.
METHODS: Peripheral blood samples collected from patients with AML were used in this study. Blimp-1 expression was examined by flow cytometry. The correlation of Blimp-1 expression to clinical characteristics of AML patients was analyzed. Phenotypic and functional studies of Blimp-1-expressing T cells were performed using flow cytometry-based assays. Luciferase reporter assays and ChIP assays were applied to assess direct binding and transcription activity of Blimp-1. Using siRNA to silence Blimp-1, we further elucidated the regulatory role of Blimp-1 in the TIGIT and PD-1 expression and T cell immune response.
RESULTS: Blimp-1 expression is elevated in T cells from AML patients. Consistent with exhaustion, Blimp-1
CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates an important inhibitory effect of Blimp-1 on T cell response in AML; thus, targeting Blimp-1 and its regulated molecules to improve the immune response may provide effective leukemia therapeutics.

Wada N, Ikeda JI, Tanaka H, et al.
Effect of plasma-activated medium on the decrease of tumorigenic population in lymphoma.
Pathol Res Pract. 2017; 213(7):773-777 [PubMed] Related Publications
Nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) is a novel approach for blood coagulation, wound healing, and tumor elimination. NEAPP not only directly but also indirectly affects living cells via the medium exposed to NEAPP-yielding devises, called plasma-activated medium (PAM). The conservable and portable PAM serves as an alternative and advantageous approach over direct NEAPP. Here we examined the effect of PAM on lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) cell lines. We found that PAM induced plasma cell differentiation and reduced tumorigenic population. PAM increased the expression level of PRDM1α, which is a transcription factor promoting plasma cell differentiation, suggesting that plasma cell differentiation of LPL might be mediated by PRDM1α. We previously reported that plasma cell component of LPL is vulnerable to apoptosis and less tumorigenic. These findings suggested that PAM treatment might become a novel therapy against LPL by inducing the transition from tumorigenic to non-tumorigenic population.

Ma Y, Walsh MJ, Bernhardt K, et al.
CRISPR/Cas9 Screens Reveal Epstein-Barr Virus-Transformed B Cell Host Dependency Factors.
Cell Host Microbe. 2017; 21(5):580-591.e7 [PubMed] Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and immunosuppression-related lymphomas. These B cell malignancies arise by distinct transformation pathways and have divergent viral and host expression programs. To identify host dependency factors resulting from these EBV+, B cell-transformed cell states, we performed parallel genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 loss-of-function screens in BL and lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). These highlighted 57 BL and 87 LCL genes uniquely important for their growth and survival. LCL hits were enriched for EBV-induced genes, including viral super-enhancer targets. Our systematic approach uncovered key mechanisms by which EBV oncoproteins activate the PI3K/AKT pathway and evade tumor suppressor responses. LMP1-induced cFLIP was found to be critical for LCL defense against TNFα-mediated programmed cell death, whereas EBV-induced BATF/IRF4 were critical for BIM suppression and MYC induction in LCLs. Finally, EBV super-enhancer-targeted IRF2 protected LCLs against Blimp1-mediated tumor suppression. Our results identify viral transformation-driven synthetic lethal targets for therapeutic intervention.

Mareschal S, Pham-Ledard A, Viailly PJ, et al.
Identification of Somatic Mutations in Primary Cutaneous Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma, Leg Type by Massive Parallel Sequencing.
J Invest Dermatol. 2017; 137(9):1984-1994 [PubMed] Related Publications
To determine whether the mutational profile of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCLBCL-LT) is unique by comparison with other diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtypes, we analyzed a total cohort of 20 PCLBCL-LT patients by using next-generation sequencing with a lymphoma panel designed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. We also analyzed 12 pairs of tumor and control DNA samples by whole-exome sequencing, which led us to perform resequencing of three selected genes not included in the lymphoma panel: TBL1XR1, KLHL6, and IKZF3. Our study clearly identifies an original mutational landscape of PCLBCL-LT with a very restricted set of highly recurrent mutations (>40%) involving MYD88 (p.L265P variant), PIM1, and CD79B. Other genes involved in B-cell signaling, NF-κB activation, or DNA modeling were found altered, notably TBL1XR1 (33%), MYC (26%) CREBBP (26%), and IRF4 (21%) or HIST1H1E (41%). MYD88

Sacco A, Kawano Y, Moschetta M, et al.
A novel in vivo model for studying conditional dual loss of BLIMP-1 and p53 in B-cells, leading to tumor transformation.
Am J Hematol. 2017; 92(8):E138-E145 [PubMed] Related Publications
The tumor suppressors B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (BLIMP-1) and p53 play a crucial role in B-cell lymphomas, and their inactivation contributes to the pathogenesis of a wide spectrum of lymphoid malignancies, including diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs). Patients with activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL may present with loss of BLIMP-1, c-Myc over-expression, decreased p53, and poor prognosis. Nevertheless, there is a lack of in vivo models recapitulating the biology of high-grade ABC DLBCL. We therefore aimed to develop an in vivo model aiming to recapitulate the phenotype observed in this cohort of patients. A Cre-Lox approach was used to achieve inactivation of both p53 and BLIMP-1 in murine B-cells. Contextual ablation of BLIMP-1 and p53 led to development of IgM-positive B-cell lymphoma with an aggressive phenotype, supported by c-Myc up-regulation, and accumulation of somatic mutations, as demonstrated by whole exome sequencing. Sensitivity of B-tumor cells to BTK inhibition was demonstrated. This model mirrors what reported in patients with ABC DLBLC, and therefore represents a novel model for studying the biology of ABC-DLBCL harboring the dual loss of BLIMP-1/p53 and c-Myc over-expression.

Baytak E, Gong Q, Akman B, et al.
Whole transcriptome analysis reveals dysregulated oncogenic lncRNAs in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma and establishes MIR155HG as a target of PRDM1.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(5):1010428317701648 [PubMed] Related Publications
Natural killer/T-cell lymphoma is a rare but aggressive neoplasm with poor prognosis. Despite previous reports that showed potential tumor suppressors, such as PRDM1 or oncogenes associated with the etiology of this malignancy, the role of long non-coding RNAs in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma pathobiology has not been addressed to date. Here, we aim to identify cancer-associated dysregulated long non-coding RNAs and signaling pathways or biological processes associated with these long non-coding RNAs in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma cases and to identify the long non-coding RNAs transcriptionally regulated by PRDM1. RNA-Seq analysis revealed 166 and 66 long non-coding RNAs to be significantly overexpressed or underexpressed, respectively, in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma cases compared with resting or activated normal natural killer cells. Novel long non-coding RNAs as well as the cancer-associated ones such as SNHG5, ZFAS1, or MIR155HG were dysregulated. Interestingly, antisense transcripts of many growth-regulating genes appeared to be transcriptionally deregulated. Expression of ZFAS1, which is upregulated in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma cases, showed association with growth-regulating pathways such as stabilization of P53, regulation of apoptosis, cell cycle, or nuclear factor-kappa B signaling in normal and neoplastic natural killer cell samples. Consistent with the tumor suppressive role of PRDM1, we identified MIR155HG and TERC to be transcriptionally downregulated by PRDM1 in two PRDM1-null NK-cell lines when it is ectopically expressed. In conclusion, this is the first study that identified long non-coding RNAs whose expression is dysregulated in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma cases. These findings suggest that ZFAS1 and other dysregulated long non-coding RNAs may be involved in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma pathobiology through regulation of cancer-related genes, and loss-of-PRDM1 expression in natural killer/T-cell lymphomas may contribute to overexpression of MIR155HG; thereby promoting tumorigenesis.

Kassambara A, Jourdan M, Bruyer A, et al.
Global miRNA expression analysis identifies novel key regulators of plasma cell differentiation and malignant plasma cell.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2017; 45(10):5639-5652 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that attenuate expression of their mRNA targets. Here, we developed a new method and an R package, to easily infer candidate miRNA-mRNA target interactions that could be functional during a given biological process. Using this method, we described, for the first time, a comprehensive integrated analysis of miRNAs and mRNAs during human normal plasma cell differentiation (PCD). Our results reveal 63 miRNAs with significant temporal changes in their expression during normal PCD. We derived a high-confidence network of 295 target relationships comprising 47 miRNAs and 141 targets. These relationships include new examples of miRNAs that appear to coordinately regulate multiple members of critical pathways associated with PCD. Consistent with this, we have experimentally validated a role for the miRNA-30b/c/d-mediated regulation of key PCD factors (IRF4, PRDM1, ELL2 and ARID3A). Furthermore, we found that 24 PCD stage-specific miRNAs are aberrantly overexpressed in multiple myeloma (MM) tumor plasma cells compared to their normal counterpart, suggesting that MM cells frequently acquired expression changes in miRNAs already undergoing dynamic expression modulation during normal PCD. Altogether, our analysis identifies candidate novel key miRNAs regulating networks of significance for normal PCD and malignant plasma cell biology.

Sciortino M, Camacho-Leal MDP, Orso F, et al.
Dysregulation of Blimp1 transcriptional repressor unleashes p130Cas/ErbB2 breast cancer invasion.
Sci Rep. 2017; 7(1):1145 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
ErbB2 overexpression is detected in approximately 20% of breast cancers and is correlated with poor survival. It was previously shown that the adaptor protein p130Cas/BCAR1 is a crucial mediator of ErbB2 transformation and that its overexpression confers invasive properties to ErbB2-positive human mammary epithelial cells. We herein prove, for the first time, that the transcriptional repressor Blimp1 is a novel mediator of p130Cas/ErbB2-mediated invasiveness. Indeed, high Blimp1 expression levels are detected in invasive p130Cas/ErbB2 cells and correlate with metastatic status in human breast cancer patients. The present study, by using 2D and 3D breast cancer models, shows that the increased Blimp1 expression depends on both MAPK activation and miR-23b downmodulation. Moreover, we demonstrate that Blimp1 triggers cell invasion and metastasis formation via its effects on focal adhesion and survival signaling. These findings unravel the previously unidentified role that transcriptional repressor Blimp1 plays in the control of breast cancer invasiveness.

Zhu Z, Wang H, Wei Y, et al.
Downregulation of PRDM1 promotes cellular invasion and lung cancer metastasis.
Tumour Biol. 2017; 39(4):1010428317695929 [PubMed] Related Publications
The zinc-finger transcription factor PRDM1 (PR domain containing 1) plays key roles in the development of malignant lymphoma, leukaemia and some non-haematopoietic cancers, including breast cancer, colorectal cancer and glioma. However, little is known regarding the function of PRDM1 in the progression of lung cancer. Here, we found that PRDM1 is expressed in normal human lung epithelium but is downregulated in lung cancer cells. Decreased expression of PRDM1 correlates with poor prognosis in lung cancer. Depletion of PRDM1 in lung cancer cells promotes cellular invasion and anoikis resistance in vitro and lung metastasis in vivo. PRDM1 is silenced by an ectopically expressed lymphocyte-specific transcription factor Aiolos. The transcription of these two genes is negatively correlated in 206 lung epithelial cell lines. Our results indicate that PRDM1 functions as a tumour suppressor in lung cancer.

Alzrigat M, Párraga AA, Agarwal P, et al.
EZH2 inhibition in multiple myeloma downregulates myeloma associated oncogenes and upregulates microRNAs with potential tumor suppressor functions.
Oncotarget. 2017; 8(6):10213-10224 [PubMed] Article available free on PMC after 01/10/2019 Related Publications
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell tumor localized to the bone marrow (BM). Despite the fact that current treatment strategies have improved patients' median survival time, MM remains incurable. Epigenetic aberrations are emerging as important players in tumorigenesis making them attractive targets for therapy in cancer including MM. Recently, we suggested the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) as a common denominator of gene silencing in MM and presented the PRC2 enzymatic subunit enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) as a potential therapeutic target in MM. Here we further dissect the anti-myeloma mechanisms mediated by EZH2 inhibition and show that pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 reduces the expression of MM-associated oncogenes; IRF-4, XBP-1, PRDM1/BLIMP-1 and c-MYC. We show that EZH2 inhibition reactivates the expression of microRNAs with tumor suppressor functions predicted to target MM-associated oncogenes; primarily miR-125a-3p and miR-320c. ChIP analysis reveals that miR-125a-3p and miR-320c are targets of EZH2 and H3K27me3 in MM cell lines and primary cells. Our results further highlight that polycomb-mediated silencing in MM includes microRNAs with tumor suppressor activity. This novel role strengthens the oncogenic features of EZH2 and its potential as a therapeutic target in MM.

Lu Z, Xie J, Wu G, et al.
Fasting selectively blocks development of acute lymphoblastic leukemia via leptin-receptor upregulation.
Nat Med. 2017; 23(1):79-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
New therapeutic approaches are needed to treat leukemia effectively. Dietary restriction regimens, including fasting, have been considered for the prevention and treatment of certain solid tumor types. However, whether and how dietary restriction affects hematopoietic malignancies is unknown. Here we report that fasting alone robustly inhibits the initiation and reverses the leukemic progression of both B cell and T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL and T-ALL, respectively), but not acute myeloid leukemia (AML), in mouse models of these tumors. Mechanistically, we found that attenuated leptin-receptor (LEPR) expression is essential for the development and maintenance of ALL, and that fasting inhibits ALL development by upregulation of LEPR and its downstream signaling through the protein PR/SET domain 1 (PRDM1). The expression of LEPR signaling-related genes correlated with the prognosis of pediatric patients with pre-B-ALL, and fasting effectively inhibited B-ALL growth in a human xenograft model. Our results indicate that the effects of fasting on tumor growth are cancer-type dependent, and they suggest new avenues for the development of treatment strategies for leukemia.

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