Gene Summary

Gene:PRDM1; PR/SET domain 1
Aliases: BLIMP1, PRDI-BF1
Summary:This gene encodes a protein that acts as a repressor of beta-interferon gene expression. The protein binds specifically to the PRDI (positive regulatory domain I element) of the beta-IFN gene promoter. Transcription of this gene increases upon virus induction. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants that encode different isoforms have been reported. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
Databases:VEGA, OMIM, HGNC, Ensembl, GeneCard, Gene
Protein:PR domain zinc finger protein 1
Source:NCBIAccessed: 16 March, 2017


What does this gene/protein do?
Show (16)

Cancer Overview

Research Indicators

Publications Per Year (1992-2017)
Graph generated 16 March 2017 using data from PubMed using criteria.

Literature Analysis

Mouse over the terms for more detail; many indicate links which you can click for dedicated pages about the topic.

  • Western Blotting
  • Uniparental Disomy
  • B-Lymphocytes
  • Messenger RNA
  • regulatory factor X transcription factors
  • Cancer Gene Expression Regulation
  • Cell Survival
  • DNA Mutational Analysis
  • Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma
  • Promoter Regions
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Chromosome 6
  • Mutation
  • Down-Regulation
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • MicroRNAs
  • B-Cell Lymphoma
  • DNA Methylation
  • Plasma Cells
  • Translocation
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Gene Expression
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Signal Transduction
  • Base Sequence
  • Burkitt Lymphoma
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc
  • Tumor Suppressor Gene
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Multiple Myeloma
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-6
  • Antineoplastic Agents
Tag cloud generated 16 March, 2017 using data from PubMed, MeSH and CancerIndex

Specific Cancers (2)

Data table showing topics related to specific cancers and associated disorders. Scope includes mutations and abnormal protein expression.

Note: list is not exhaustive. Number of papers are based on searches of PubMed (click on topic title for arbitrary criteria used).

Latest Publications: PRDM1 (cancer-related)

Yasuma K, Yasunaga J, Takemoto K, et al.
HTLV-1 bZIP Factor Impairs Anti-viral Immunity by Inducing Co-inhibitory Molecule, T Cell Immunoglobulin and ITIM Domain (TIGIT).
PLoS Pathog. 2016; 12(1):e1005372 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects CD4+ T cells and induces proliferation of infected cells in vivo, which leads to the onset of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) in some infected individuals. The HTLV-1 bZIP factor (HBZ) gene, which is encoded in the minus strand of HTLV-1, plays critical roles in pathogenesis. In this study, RNA-seq and ChIP-seq analyses using HBZ transduced T cells revealed that HBZ upregulates the expression and promoter acetylation levels of a co-inhibitory molecule, T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), in addition to those of regulatory T cells related genes, Foxp3 and Ccr4. TIGIT was expressed on CD4+ T cells from HBZ-transgenic (HBZ-Tg) mice, and on ATL cells and HTLV-1 infected CD4+ T cells of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in vivo. Expression of Blimp1 and IL-10 was upregulated in TIGIT+CD4+ cells of HBZ-Tg mice compared with TIGIT-CD4+ T cells, suggesting the correlation between TIGIT expression and IL-10 production. When CD4+ T cells from HBZ-Tg mice were stimulated with TIGIT's ligand, CD155, their production of the inhibitory cytokine IL-10 was enhanced. Furthermore, dendritic cells from HBZ-Tg mice produced high levels of IL-10 after stimulation. These data suggest that HBZ alters immune system to suppressive state via TIGIT and IL-10. Importantly, TIGIT suppressed T-cell responses to another HTLV-1 virus protein, Tax, in vitro. Blocking of TIGIT and PD-1 slightly increased anti-Tax T-cell activity in some HAM/TSP patients. These results suggest that HBZ-induced TIGIT on HTLV-1 infected cells impairs T-cell responses to viral antigens. This study shows that HBZ-induced TIGIT plays a pivotal role in attenuating host immune responses and shaping a microenvironment favorable to HTLV-1.

Belletti D, Tosi G, Forni F, et al.
PEGylated siRNA lipoplexes for silencing of BLIMP-1 in Primary Effusion Lymphoma: In vitro evidences of antitumoral activity.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2016; 99:7-17 [PubMed] Related Publications
Silencing of the B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1), a pivotal transcriptional regulator during terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells with siRNAs is under investigation as novel therapeutic approach in Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL), a HHV-8 related and aggressive B cell Lymphoma currently lacking of an efficacious therapeutic approach. The clinical application of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in cancer therapy is limited by the lack of an efficient systemic siRNA delivery system. In this study we aim to develop pegylated siRNA lipoplexes formed using the cationic lipid DOTAP and DSPE-PEG2000, capable to effectively stabilize anti-Blimp-1 siRNA and suitable for systemic administration. Two types of pegylated lipoplexes using a classic (C-PEG Lipoplexes) or a post-pegylation method (P-PEG-Lipoplexes) were formulated and compared in their physicochemical properties (size, zeta potential, morphology and structure) and efficiency on PEL cell lines. A stable siRNAs protection was obtained with post pegylation approach (2% molar of DSPE-PEG2000 with respect to lipid) resulting in structures with diameters of 300 nm and a complexation efficiency higher that 80% (0.08 nmol/10 nmol of lipid). In vitro studies on PEL cell lines suggested that empty liposomes were characterized by a low cell toxicity also after PEG modification (cell viability and cell density over 85% after treatment with 10 μM of lipid). We demonstrated that P-PEG-Lipoplexes were able to significantly reduce the levels of BLIMP-1 protein leading to reduction of viability (less that 15% after transfection with 100 nM of complexed siRNAs) and activation of apoptosis. In vitro efficiency encourages us to further test the in vivo potential of P-PEG-Lipoplexes in PEL therapy.

Ma J, Nie K, Redmond D, et al.
EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 targets PRDM1/Blimp1: potential role in EBV lymphomagenesis.
Leukemia. 2016; 30(3):594-604 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PRDM1/Blimp1, a master regulator of B-cell terminal differentiation, has been identified as a tumor suppressor gene in aggressive lymphomas, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It has been shown in DLBCL and Hodgkin lymphoma that PRDM1 is downregulated by cellular microRNAs. In this study, we identify the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) microRNA (miRNA), EBV-miR-BHRF1-2, as a viral miRNA regulator of PRDM1. EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 repressed luciferase reporter activity by specific interaction with the seed region within the PRDM1 3' untranslated region. EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 inhibition upregulated PRDM1 protein expression in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL), supporting a role of miR-BHRF1-2 in PRDM1 downregulation in vivo. Discordance of PRDM1 messenger RNA and protein expressions is associated with high EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 levels in LCLs and primary post-transplant EBV-positive DLBCL. Enforced expression of PRDM1-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in LCL cells. Inhibition of EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 negatively regulates cell cycle and decreases expression of SCARNA20, a small nucleolar RNA that is also downregulated by PRDM1 overexpression. The interaction between EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 and PRDM1 may be one of the mechanisms by which EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 promotes EBV lymphomagenesis. Our results support the potential of EBV-miR-BHRF1-2 as a therapeutic target in EBV-associated lymphoma.

Nawandar DM, Wang A, Makielski K, et al.
Differentiation-Dependent KLF4 Expression Promotes Lytic Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Epithelial Cells.
PLoS Pathog. 2015; 11(10):e1005195 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpesvirus associated with B-cell and epithelial cell malignancies. EBV lytically infects normal differentiated oral epithelial cells, where it causes a tongue lesion known as oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) in immunosuppressed patients. However, the cellular mechanism(s) that enable EBV to establish exclusively lytic infection in normal differentiated oral epithelial cells are not currently understood. Here we show that a cellular transcription factor known to promote epithelial cell differentiation, KLF4, induces differentiation-dependent lytic EBV infection by binding to and activating the two EBV immediate-early gene (BZLF1 and BRLF1) promoters. We demonstrate that latently EBV-infected, telomerase-immortalized normal oral keratinocyte (NOKs) cells undergo lytic viral reactivation confined to the more differentiated cell layers in organotypic raft culture. Furthermore, we show that endogenous KLF4 expression is required for efficient lytic viral reactivation in response to phorbol ester and sodium butyrate treatment in several different EBV-infected epithelial cell lines, and that the combination of KLF4 and another differentiation-dependent cellular transcription factor, BLIMP1, is highly synergistic for inducing lytic EBV infection. We confirm that both KLF4 and BLIMP1 are expressed in differentiated, but not undifferentiated, epithelial cells in normal tongue tissue, and show that KLF4 and BLIMP1 are both expressed in a patient-derived OHL lesion. In contrast, KLF4 protein is not detectably expressed in B cells, where EBV normally enters latent infection, although KLF4 over-expression is sufficient to induce lytic EBV reactivation in Burkitt lymphoma cells. Thus, KLF4, together with BLIMP1, plays a critical role in mediating lytic EBV reactivation in epithelial cells.

Cai Q, Medeiros LJ, Xu X, Young KH
MYC-driven aggressive B-cell lymphomas: biology, entity, differential diagnosis and clinical management.
Oncotarget. 2015; 6(36):38591-616 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MYC, a potent oncogene located at chromosome locus 8q24.21, was identified initially by its involvement in Burkitt lymphoma with t(8;14)(q24;q32). MYC encodes a helix-loop-helix transcription factor that accentuates many cellular functions including proliferation, growth and apoptosis. MYC alterations also have been identified in other mature B-cell neoplasms and are associated with aggressive clinical behavior. There are several regulatory factors and dysregulated signaling that lead to MYC up-regulation in B-cell lymphomas. One typical example is the failure of physiological repressors such as Bcl6 or BLIMP1 to suppress MYC over-expression. In addition, MYC alterations are often developed concurrently with other genetic alterations that counteract the proapoptotic function of MYC. In this review, we discuss the physiologic function of MYC and the role that MYC likely plays in the pathogenesis of B-cell lymphomas. We also summarize the role MYC plays in the diagnosis, prognostication and various strategies to detect MYC rearrangement and expression.

Liang L, Zhang Z, Wang Y, et al.
The Genetic Deletion of 6q21 and PRDM1 and Clinical Implications in Extranodal NK/T Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type.
Biomed Res Int. 2015; 2015:435423 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
6q21 genetic deletion has been frequently detected in extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma, nasal type (EN-NK/T-NT), and PRDM1 is considered as candidate gene. However, direct detection of PRDM1 deletion has not been well documented. We investigated genetic alterations of 6q21 and PRDM1 in 43 cases of EN-NK/T-NT and cell lines by FISH. PRDM1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The correlation between genetic alteration and PRDM1 expression and the significance in clinic-pathologic were analyzed. Heterozygous deletion of 6q21 and/or PRDM1 was observed in 24 of 43 cases (55.81%) of EN-NK/T-NT including 16 cases (37.21%) for 6q21 deletion and 19 cases (44.19%) for PRDM1 deletion. Similarly, heterozygous codeletion of 6q21 and PRDM1 was identified in NK92 and NKL cells. The heterozygous deletion of 6q21 and/or PRDM1 was correlated with PRDM1 expression. However, genetic deletion of 6q21 and/or PRDM1 was not correlated with clinicopathological features of EN-NK/T-NT, while PRDM1 expression showed positive effect on the outcome of patients as those as disease site, B symptom, and clinical stage. Thus, heterozygous deletion of 6q21 and/or PRDM1 was frequently detected in EN-NK/T-NT and correlated with downregulation of PRDM1. But the prognostic role of genetic deletion needs to be further evaluated in larger cohort.

Arulanandam R, Batenchuk C, Angarita FA, et al.
VEGF-Mediated Induction of PRD1-BF1/Blimp1 Expression Sensitizes Tumor Vasculature to Oncolytic Virus Infection.
Cancer Cell. 2015; 28(2):210-24 [PubMed] Related Publications
Oncolytic viruses designed to attack malignant cells can in addition infect and destroy tumor vascular endothelial cells. We show here that this expanded tropism of oncolytic vaccinia virus to the endothelial compartment is a consequence of VEGF-mediated suppression of the intrinsic antiviral response. VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling through Erk1/2 and Stat3 leads to upregulation, nuclear localization, and activation of the transcription repressor PRD1-BF1/Blimp1. PRD1-BF1 does not contribute to the mitogenic effects of VEGF, but directly represses genes involved in type I interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral signaling. In vivo suppression of VEGF signaling diminishes PRD1-BF1/Blimp1 expression in tumor vasculature and inhibits intravenously administered oncolytic vaccinia delivery to and consequent spread within the tumor.

Hueng DY, Tsai WC, Chiou HY, et al.
DDX3X Biomarker Correlates with Poor Survival in Human Gliomas.
Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16(7):15578-91 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Primary high-grade gliomas possess invasive growth and lead to unfavorable survival outcome. The investigation of biomarkers for prediction of survival outcome in patients with gliomas is important for clinical assessment. The DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 3, X-linked (DDX3X) controls tumor migration, proliferation, and progression. However, the role of DDX3X in defining the pathological grading and survival outcome in patients with human gliomas is not yet clarified. We analyzed the DDX3X gene expression, WHO pathological grading, and overall survival from de-linked data. Further validation was done using quantitative RT-PCR of cDNA from normal brain and glioma, and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tissue microarray. Statistical analysis of GEO datasets showed that DDX3X mRNA expression demonstrated statistically higher in WHO grade IV (n = 81) than in non-tumor controls (n = 23, p = 1.13 × 10(-10)). Moreover, DDX3X level was also higher in WHO grade III (n = 19) than in non-tumor controls (p = 2.43 × 10(-5)). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed poor survival in patients with high DDX3X mRNA levels (n = 24) than in those with low DDX3X expression (n = 53) (median survival, 115 vs. 58 weeks, p = 0.0009, by log-rank test, hazard ratio: 0.3507, 95% CI: 0.1893-0.6496). Furthermore, DDX3X mRNA expression and protein production significantly increased in glioma cells compared with normal brain tissue examined by quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot. IHC staining showed highly staining of high-grade glioma in comparison with normal brain tissue. Taken together, DDX3X expression level positively correlates with WHO pathologic grading and poor survival outcome, indicating that DDX3X is a valuable biomarker in human gliomas.

Nakamura T, Tateishi K, Niwa T, et al.
Recurrent mutations of CD79B and MYD88 are the hallmark of primary central nervous system lymphomas.
Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2016; 42(3):279-90 [PubMed] Related Publications
AIMS: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) manifest aggressive clinical behaviour and have poor prognosis. Although constitutive activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway has been documented, knowledge about the genetic alterations leading to the impairment of the NF-κB pathway in PCNSLs is still limited. This study was aimed to unravel the underlying genetic profiles of PCNSL.
METHODS: We conducted the systematic sequencing of 21 genes relevant to the NF-κB signalling network for 71 PCNSLs as well as the pyrosequencing of CD79B and MYD88 mutation hotspots in a further 35 PCNSLs and 46 glioblastomas (GBMs) for validation.
RESULTS: The results showed that 68 out of 71 PCNSLs had mutations in the NF-κB gene network, most commonly affecting CD79B (83%), MYD88 (76%), TBL1XR1 (23%), PRDM1 (20%) and CREBBP1 (20%). These mutations, particularly CD79B and MYD88, frequently coincided within each tumour in various combinations, simultaneously affecting diverse pathways within the network. No GBMs had hotspot mutation of CD79B Y196 and MYD88 L265.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of CD79B and MYD88 mutations in PCNSLs was considerably higher than reported in systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. This observation could reflect the paucity of antigen stimuli from the immune system in the central nervous system (CNS) and the necessity to substitute them by the constitutive activation of CD79B and MYD88 that would initiate the signalling cascades. These hotspot mutations may serve as a genetic hallmark for PCNSL serving as a genetic marker for diagnose and potential targets for molecular therapy.

Kang HB, Lee HR, Jee da J, et al.
PRDM1, a Tumor-Suppressor Gene, is Induced by Genkwadaphnin in Human Colon Cancer SW620 Cells.
J Cell Biochem. 2016; 117(1):172-9 [PubMed] Related Publications
Genkwadaphnin (GD-1) is isolated from the flower buds of Daphne genkwa Siebold et Zuccarini (Thymelaeaceae), and it has been used as a traditional Korean and Chinese medicine. In this study, the authors observe that GD-1 inhibits the growth of the colon cancer cell line, SW620, through the up-regulation of p21 expression in a PRDM1-dependent manner. After treatment with GD-1, the transcriptional repressor PRDM1 is prominently induced in SW620 cells. Furthermore, GD-1 induce the phosphorylation of PKD1 and MEK and subsequently provide PRDM1 enhancement, resulting in the suppression of c-Myc expression and the up-regulation of p21. PKD1 knockdown using siRNA abrogates PRDM1 expression by GD-1 and subsequently disrupts the regulation of c-Myc and p21 expression. Treating SW620 cells with GD-1 inhibits cell-cycle progression and is characterized by the down-regulation of c-Myc followed by the up-regulation of p21 expression. The up-regulation of p21 by GD-1 induces the growth arrest of the SW620 colon cancer cell line. Based on these data, the authors propose that GD-1 has tumor-suppressor activity that may contribute to the anti-tumor effects of PRDM1 in colon cancer.

Braggio E, Van Wier S, Ojha J, et al.
Genome-Wide Analysis Uncovers Novel Recurrent Alterations in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphomas.
Clin Cancer Res. 2015; 21(17):3986-94 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PURPOSE: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma confined to the central nervous system. Whether there is a PCNSL-specific genomic signature and, if so, how it differs from systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is uncertain.
EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We performed a comprehensive genomic study of tumor samples from 19 immunocompetent PCNSL patients. Testing comprised array-comparative genomic hybridization and whole exome sequencing.
RESULTS: Biallelic inactivation of TOX and PRKCD was recurrently found in PCNSL but not in systemic DLBCL, suggesting a specific role in PCNSL pathogenesis. In addition, we found a high prevalence of MYD88 mutations (79%) and CDKN2A biallelic loss (60%). Several genes recurrently affected in PCNSL were common with systemic DLBCL, including loss of TNFAIP3, PRDM1, GNA13, TMEM30A, TBL1XR1, B2M, CD58, activating mutations of CD79B, CARD11, and translocations IgH-BCL6. Overall, B-cell receptor/Toll-like receptor/NF-κB pathways were altered in >90% of PNCSL, highlighting its value for targeted therapeutic approaches. Furthermore, integrated analysis showed enrichment of pathways associated with immune response, proliferation, apoptosis, and lymphocyte differentiation.
CONCLUSIONS: In summary, genome-wide analysis uncovered novel recurrent alterations, including TOX and PRKCD, helping to differentiate PCNSL from systemic DLBCL and related lymphomas.

Karube K, Campo E
MYC alterations in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.
Semin Hematol. 2015; 52(2):97-106 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYC is a transcription factor associated with numerous physiological functions, including apoptosis, and strong oncogenic potential. MYC expression is tightly regulated in normal lymphoid cells with high levels in the initial steps of the secondary lymphoid follicle formation and in a subset of centrocytes of the germinal center light zone. BCL6 and BLIMP1 repress MYC expression in normal germinal center B and plasma cells, respectively. Paradoxically, most lymphomas with MYC genetic alterations originate from cells that usually do not express MYC, suggesting that these tumors need to develop additional oncogenic events to overcome the MYC regulatory mechanisms and also its proapoptotic function. MYC rearrangements, and to a lesser extent gene amplifications, have been detected in approximately 5% to 14% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and these alterations are frequently associated with BCL2 or BCL6 rearrangements. The concurrent presence of these alterations confers a more aggressive behavior to the tumors with poor outcome of the patients. BCL2 and MYC protein may also be coexpressed in DLBCL independently of gene alterations and this double expression also confers poor prognosis, although not as dismal as that of double genetic hits. Additional factors may modulate the biological effect of the double hit lesions because tumors in which MYC is translocated to non-IGH partner or MYC and BCL2 protein that are expressed at lower levels may have a less aggressive behavior. Further studies are needed to define the clinical implications of MYC aberrations in DLBCL and determine the most appropriate diagnostic strategy to identify these tumors.

Kortüm KM, Langer C, Monge J, et al.
Longitudinal analysis of 25 sequential sample-pairs using a custom multiple myeloma mutation sequencing panel (M(3)P).
Ann Hematol. 2015; 94(7):1205-11 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Recent advances in genomic sequencing technologies now allow results from deep next-generation sequencing to be obtained within clinically meaningful timeframes, making this an attractive approach to better guide personalized treatment strategies. No multiple myeloma-specific gene panel has been established so far; we therefore designed a 47-gene-targeting gene panel, containing 39 genes known to be mutated in ≥3 % of multiple myeloma cases and eight genes in pathways therapeutically targeted in multiple myeloma (MM). We performed targeted sequencing on tumor/germline DNA of 25 MM patients in which we also had a sequential sample post treatment. Mutation analysis revealed KRAS as the most commonly mutated gene (36 % in each time point), followed by NRAS (20 and 16 %), TP53 (16 and 16 %), DIS3 (16 and 16 %), FAM46C (12 and 16 %), and SP140 (12 and 12 %). We successfully tracked clonal evolution and identified mutation acquisition and/or loss in FAM46C, FAT1, KRAS, NRAS, SPEN, PRDM1, NEB, and TP53 as well as two mutations in XBP1, a gene associated with bortezomib resistance. Thus, we present the first longitudinal analysis of a MM-specific targeted sequencing gene panel that can be used for individual tumor characterization and for tracking clonal evolution over time.

Ott G
Impact of MYC on malignant behavior.
Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2014; 2014(1):100-6 [PubMed] Related Publications
MYC, a member of the helix-loop-helix leucine zipper family of nuclear transcription factors, is a potent proto-oncogene primarily identified as the target of the t(8;14)(q24;q32) chromosome translocation in Burkitt lymphoma. Activation of the MYC gene in normal cells both results in enhanced cellular proliferation and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic pathways, reflecting the tight regulation of the molecule in the normal cellular system. In the process of transformation, these secondary inhibitory functions of the MYC molecule have to be overcome through secondary mutations of the MYC gene itself and/or by abrogating the inhibitory effects of physiological regulators and/or repressors of proliferation such as BCL2, BCL6, BLIMP1, or others. Most aggressive lymphomas, therefore, harbor additional oncogenic alterations that cooperate with MYC deregulation, with different alterations identified in human solid or hematological tumors. These alterations are likely to counteract the pro-apoptotic function of MYC. MYC gene alterations in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and in B-cell lymphomas, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma are frequently associated with BCL2 or/and BCL6 translocations conferring a very aggressive behavior. This review summarizes inherent factors of the biology and function of MYC important in the process of transformation, especially taking account the interdependence of MYC on various cellular networks that have to be co-deregulated to achieve the full malignant phenotype.

Boi M, Zucca E, Inghirami G, Bertoni F
Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of systemic anaplastic large cell lymphomas.
Br J Haematol. 2015; 168(6):771-83 [PubMed] Related Publications
The currently used 2008 World Health Organization classification recognizes two types of systemic anaplastic large T cell lymphoma according to ALK protein expression in tumour cells. First, the 'anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK positive' (ALK(+) ALCL) that is characterized by the presence of ALK gene rearrangements and consequent ALK protein expression, and, second, the 'anaplastic large cell lymphoma, ALK negative' (ALK(-) ALCL) that is a provisional entity lacking ALK protein expression but cannot be distinguished morphologically from ALK(+) ALCL. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic lesions and biological features that underlie the pathogenesis of ALK(+) and the ALK(-) ALCL and that can lead to the use of targeted anti-cancer agents.

Irie N, Weinberger L, Tang WW, et al.
SOX17 is a critical specifier of human primordial germ cell fate.
Cell. 2015; 160(1-2):253-68 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) marks the beginning of the totipotent state. However, without a tractable experimental model, the mechanism of human PGC (hPGC) specification remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate specification of hPGC-like cells (hPGCLCs) from germline competent pluripotent stem cells. The characteristics of hPGCLCs are consistent with the embryonic hPGCs and a germline seminoma that share a CD38 cell-surface marker, which collectively defines likely progression of the early human germline. Remarkably, SOX17 is the key regulator of hPGC-like fate, whereas BLIMP1 represses endodermal and other somatic genes during specification of hPGCLCs. Notable mechanistic differences between mouse and human PGC specification could be attributed to their divergent embryonic development and pluripotent states, which might affect other early cell-fate decisions. We have established a foundation for future studies on resetting of the epigenome in hPGCLCs and hPGCs for totipotency and the transmission of genetic and epigenetic information.

Abate F, Todaro M, van der Krogt JA, et al.
A novel patient-derived tumorgraft model with TRAF1-ALK anaplastic large-cell lymphoma translocation.
Leukemia. 2015; 29(6):1390-401 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
Although anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCL) carrying anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) have a relatively good prognosis, aggressive forms exist. We have identified a novel translocation, causing the fusion of the TRAF1 and ALK genes, in one patient who presented with a leukemic ALK+ ALCL (ALCL-11). To uncover the mechanisms leading to high-grade ALCL, we developed a human patient-derived tumorgraft (hPDT) line. Molecular characterization of primary and PDT cells demonstrated the activation of ALK and nuclear factor kB (NFkB) pathways. Genomic studies of ALCL-11 showed the TP53 loss and the in vivo subclonal expansion of lymphoma cells, lacking PRDM1/Blimp1 and carrying c-MYC gene amplification. The treatment with proteasome inhibitors of TRAF1-ALK cells led to the downregulation of p50/p52 and lymphoma growth inhibition. Moreover, a NFkB gene set classifier stratified ALCL in distinct subsets with different clinical outcome. Although a selective ALK inhibitor (CEP28122) resulted in a significant clinical response of hPDT mice, nevertheless the disease could not be eradicated. These data indicate that the activation of NFkB signaling contributes to the neoplastic phenotype of TRAF1-ALK ALCL. ALCL hPDTs are invaluable tools to validate the role of druggable molecules, predict therapeutic responses and implement patient specific therapies.

Zhang YW, Zhang J, Li J, et al.
Methylation contributes to imbalance of PRDM1α/PRDM1bβ expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(8):2429-38 [PubMed] Related Publications
The positive regulatory domain 1 (PRDM1) exists as two isoforms: PRDM1α and PRDM1β. The former is frequently inactivated, while the latter is overexpressed in a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To investigate the possible epigenetic alteration of PRDM1α and PRDM1β expression, the methylation of these two promoter isoforms was assessed in B lymphoma cell lines and DLBCL samples. Hypomethylation of PRDM1β CpG islands was preferentially detected in lymphoma cells. However, both high and low methylation of PRDM1α CpG islands was simultaneously observed in cases of DLBCL compared with the moderate methylation of non-tumor cases. CpG 16-21-specific high methylation was correlated with low expression of PRDM1α in PRDM1β-positive DLBCL samples. Three increased and one decreased miRNAs were significantly different between cases of DLBCL and non-tumor reactive hyperplasia. Thus, our results indicate that aberrant methylation silencing of PRDM1α and hypomethylation activation of PRDM1β are frequent events in DLBCL.

Zhang T, Ma J, Nie K, et al.
Hypermethylation of the tumor suppressor gene PRDM1/Blimp-1 supports a pathogenetic role in EBV-positive Burkitt lymphoma.
Blood Cancer J. 2014; 4:e261 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
PRDM1/Blimp-1 is a tumor suppressor gene in the activated B-cell subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. Its inactivation contributes to pathogenesis in this setting by impairing terminal B-cell differentiation induced by constitutive nuclear factor-κB activation. The role of PRDM1 in Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lymphomagenesis is not known. Here we identified hypermethylation of the promoter region and exon 1 of PRDM1 in all six Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive BL cell lines and 12 of 23 (52%) primary EBV-positive BL or BL-related cases examined, but in none of the EBV-negative BL cell lines or primary tumors that we assessed, implying a tumor suppressor role for PRDM1 specifically in EBV-associated BL. A direct induction of PRDM1 hypermethylation by EBV is unlikely, as PRDM1 hypermethylation was not observed in EBV-immortalized B lymphoblastoid cell lines. Treatment of EBV-positive BL cells with 5' azacytidine resulted in PRDM1 induction associated with PRDM1 demethylation, consistent with transcriptional silencing of PRDM1 as a result of DNA methylation. Overexpression of PRDM1 in EBV-positive BL cell lines resulted in cell cycle arrest. Our results expand the spectrum of lymphoid malignancies in which PRDM1 may have a tumor suppressor role and identify an epigenetic event that likely contributes to the pathogenesis of BL.

Testoni M, Chung EY, Priebe V, Bertoni F
The transcription factor ETS1 in lymphomas: friend or foe?
Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(7):1975-80 [PubMed] Related Publications
ETS1 is a member of the ETS family of transcription factors, which contains many cancer genes. ETS1 gene is mapped at 11q24.3, a chromosomal region that is often the site of genomic rearrangements in hematological cancers. ETS1 is expressed in a variety of cells, including B and T lymphocytes. ETS1 is important in various biological processes such as development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, migration and tissue remodeling. It acts as an oncogene controlling invasive and angiogenic behavior of malignant cells in multiple human cancers. In particular, ETS1 deregulation has been reported in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, in Burkitt lymphoma and in Hodgkin lymphoma. Here, we summarize the function of ETS1 in normal cells, with a particular emphasis on lymphocytes, and its possible role as an oncogene or tumor suppressor gene in the different mature B cell lymphomas.

Snellenberg S, Cillessen SA, Van Criekinge W, et al.
Methylation-mediated repression of PRDM14 contributes to apoptosis evasion in HPV-positive cancers.
Carcinogenesis. 2014; 35(11):2611-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
Promoter methylation of the transcription factor PRDM14 (PRDI-BF1 and RIZ domain containing 14) represents a highly frequent event in human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cervical cancers and cancer precursor lesions. Here, we aimed to assess the functional consequences of PRDM14 promoter methylation in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. PRDM14 promoter methylation, expression and consequences of ectopic PRDM14 expression were studied in HPV16-positive cervical and oral cancer cell lines (SiHa, CaSki and 93VU147T), human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293T) cells and primary human foreskin keratinocytes (HFK). PRDM14 mRNA expression was restricted to HEK293T and HFK cells, and could be upregulated in SiHa cells upon DNA methylation inhibition. Ectopic expression of PRDM14 in SiHa, CaSki and 93VU147T cells resulted in significantly more apoptotic cells, as measured by annexin V labelling, compared to HEK293T and HFK cells. MRNA profiling of 41 apoptosis regulators identified NOXA and PUMA as candidate target genes involved in PRDM14-mediated apoptosis induction. Full-length PRDM14 transactivated both NOXA and PUMA promoters. Transactivation was abolished upon deletion of the PRDM14 DNA binding domain. This suggests that NOXA and PUMA expression is directly regulated by PRDM14, which in case of NOXA was linked to a consensus PRDM14 binding motif in the promoter region. Taken together, these results suggest that PRDM14 acts as a regulator of NOXA and PUMA-mediated apoptosis induction, thereby providing evidence for a tumour suppressive role in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. The contribution of methylation-mediated gene silencing of PRDM14 to apoptosis evasion in HPV-positive cancer cells offers novel therapeutic options for HPV-induced cancers.

Vogel MJ, Xie L, Guan H, et al.
FOXO1 repression contributes to block of plasma cell differentiation in classical Hodgkin lymphoma.
Blood. 2014; 124(20):3118-29 [PubMed] Related Publications
The survival of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) cells depends on activation of NF-κB, JAK/STAT, and IRF4. Whereas these factors typically induce the master regulator of plasma cell (PC) differentiation PRDM1/BLIMP-1, levels of PRDM1 remain low in cHL. FOXO1, playing a critical role in normal B-cell development, acts as a tumor suppressor in cHL, but has never been associated with induction of PC differentiation. Here we show that FOXO1 directly upregulates the full-length isoform PRDM1α in cHL cell lines. We also observed a positive correlation between FOXO1 and PRDM1 expression levels in primary Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg cells. Further, we show that PRDM1α acts as a tumor suppressor in cHL at least partially by blocking MYC. Here we provide a link between FOXO1 repression and PRDM1α downregulation in cHL and identify PRDM1α as a tumor suppressor in cHL. The data support a potential role for FOXO transcription factors in normal PC differentiation.

Kushekhar K, van den Berg A, Nolte I, et al.
Genetic associations in classical hodgkin lymphoma: a systematic review and insights into susceptibility mechanisms.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014; 23(12):2737-47 [PubMed] Related Publications
Both targeted and genome-wide studies have revealed genetic associations for susceptibility, prognosis, and treatment-induced secondary malignancies and toxicities in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). This review gives a systematic and comprehensive overview of significant associations and places them into a biologic context. The strongest susceptibility polymorphisms have been found for the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. These associations are specific for cHL overall or for subgroups based on tumor cell Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status. These findings strongly suggest that EBV-specific immune responses influence cHL susceptibility in EBV(+) cHL and that immune responses targeting other tumor-associated antigens are important in EBV(-) cHL. Accordingly, most of the numerous other susceptibility loci map to genes that affect functionality of the immune system, underscoring the crucial role of the immune system in cHL development. The number of association studies on cHL prognosis is limited with one consistent association for the drug-metabolizing UGT1A1 gene. PRDM1 is associated with radiation-induced secondary malignancies and a small number of genes are associated with treatment-related toxicities. In conclusion, most loci showing genetic associations in cHL harbor genes with a potential functional relevance for cHL susceptibility.

Sako N, Dessirier V, Bagot M, et al.
HACE1, a potential tumor suppressor gene on 6q21, is not involved in extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma pathophysiology.
Am J Pathol. 2014; 184(11):2899-907 [PubMed] Related Publications
Extranodal natural killer-T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) of nasal type is a malignant disorder of cytotoxic lymphocytes of natural killer or more rarely T cells, associated with clonal Epstein-Barr virus infection. NKTCL is an aggressive neoplasm with very poor prognosis. Although the pathogenesis of NKTCL is little understood, some insight has been gained in the recent years, especially from genome-wide studies, which revealed a deletion on chromosome 6q21 in more than 50% of patients. Of interest, this deleted region contains four candidate tumor suppressor genes whose decreased expression has been confirmed at the mRNA level: PRDM1, ATG5, AIM1, and HACE1. Mutations and methylation in PRDM1, ATG5, and AIM1 have been reported in NKTCL cell lines. We investigated the involvement of HACE1 in NKTCL pathophysiology. Even though the hypermethylation of CpG-177 island located directly upstream of HACE1 locus led to down-regulation of HACE1 mRNA, the protein product was expressed at nearly normal levels and was functional in the NKTCL cell lines regardless of 6q21 deletion (and indeed no double deletion of 6q21 and no nonfunctional mutations have been reported). Furthermore, contrary to previous report, overexpression of HACE1 by transduction of recombinant protein did not affect proliferation or survival of NKTCL cell lines. We therefore conclude that HACE1 is not directly involved in NKTCL pathophysiology.

Boi M, Zucca E, Inghirami G, Bertoni F
PRDM1/BLIMP1: a tumor suppressor gene in B and T cell lymphomas.
Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56(5):1223-8 [PubMed] Related Publications
The gene encoding the human BLIMP1, prdm1, is located on chromosome 6q21, a locus frequently deleted in lymphoid tumors. BLIMP1 is able to silence its target genes in a context-dependent manner through different mechanisms. BLIMP1 is expressed in both B and T cells, in which it plays important functions. In B cells, BLIMP1 acts as the master regulator of plasma cell differentiation, repressed by BCL6 and repressing both BCL6 and PAX5. In T cells, BLIMP1 is a critical factor for most terminal effector cell differentiation in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. BLIMP1 is frequently inactivated in a variety of lymphomas, including diffuse large B cell lymphomas, Natural Killer cell lymphoma and anaplastic large T cell lymphoma. In this review, we will summarize the role of BLIMP1 in normal cells, focusing on lymphoid cells, and on its function as tumor suppressor gene in lymphomas.

Kharabi Masouleh B, Geng H, Hurtz C, et al.
Mechanistic rationale for targeting the unfolded protein response in pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014; 111(21):E2219-28 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
The unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway, a stress-induced signaling cascade emanating from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), regulates the expression and activity of molecules including BiP (HSPA5), IRE1 (ERN1), Blimp-1 (PRDM1), and X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1). These molecules are required for terminal differentiation of B cells into plasma cells and expressed at high levels in plasma cell-derived multiple myeloma. Although these molecules have no known role at early stages of B-cell development, here we show that their expression transiently peaks at the pre-B-cell receptor checkpoint. Inducible, Cre-mediated deletion of Hspa5, Prdm1, and Xbp1 consistently induces cellular stress and cell death in normal pre-B cells and in pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) driven by BCR-ABL1- and NRAS(G12D) oncogenes. Mechanistically, expression and activity of the UPR downstream effector XBP1 is regulated positively by STAT5 and negatively by the B-cell-specific transcriptional repressors BACH2 and BCL6. In two clinical trials for children and adults with ALL, high XBP1 mRNA levels at the time of diagnosis predicted poor outcome. A small molecule inhibitor of ERN1-mediated XBP1 activation induced selective cell death of patient-derived pre-B ALL cells in vitro and significantly prolonged survival of transplant recipient mice in vivo. Collectively, these studies reveal that pre-B ALL cells are uniquely vulnerable to ER stress and identify the UPR pathway and its downstream effector XBP1 as novel therapeutic targets to overcome drug resistance in pre-B ALL.

Zhou Y, Liu X, Xu L, et al.
Transcriptional repression of plasma cell differentiation is orchestrated by aberrant over-expression of the ETS factor SPIB in Waldenström macroglobulinaemia.
Br J Haematol. 2014; 166(5):677-89 [PubMed] Related Publications
In Waldenström macroglobulinaemia (WM), the mechanism(s) responsible for repression of B-cell differentiation remains unknown. We found that expression of SPIB and ID2 were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in WM lymphoplasmacytic cells (LPC). Ectopic expression of SPIB in healthy donor CD19(+) cells inhibited plasmacytic differentiation in conjunction with decreased transcription of IRF4 and XBP1 spliced form. In primary WM LPC, knock-down of SPIB induced plasmacytic differentiation in conjunction with increased transcription of PRDM1, XBP1 spliced form, IRF4 and ID2. Knock-down of SPIB also led to decreased BCL2 expression. Given that SPIB is a direct target of POU2AF1 (OBF1) in complex with POU2F2 or POU2F1, we next examined their expression in WM LPC. POU2F2 transcription, as well as POU2F2 and POU2AF1 protein expression was higher in WM LPC. Ectopic expression of POU2F2 in healthy donor CD19(+) cells induced transcription of SPIB and suppressed transcription of PRDM1 and IRF4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in BCWM.1 WM cells confirmed binding of POU2F2 and POU2AF1 in SPIB and ID2 promoters. These findings establish a molecular hierarchy among POU2F2, SPIB and ID2 during B-cell differentiation, and suggest that aberrant expression of these transcription factors plays an important role in arresting plasmacytic differentiation in WM.

Duckworth A, Glenn M, Slupsky JR, et al.
Variable induction of PRDM1 and differentiation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia is associated with anergy.
Blood. 2014; 123(21):3277-85 [PubMed] Related Publications
Despite antigen engagement and intact B-cell-receptor (BCR) signaling, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells fail to undergo terminal differentiation. We hypothesized that such failure may be due to anergy, as CLL cells exhibit variable levels of nonresponsiveness to surface IgM stimulation that is reversible in vitro. Moreover, anergy is associated with reduced differentiation capacity in normal B cells. We investigated responses of CLL cells to two potent differentiation-promoting agents, IL-21 and cytosine guanine dinucleotide-enriched oligo-deoxynucleotides. The induction of PR domain-containing protein 1 (PRDM1; also known as Blimp-1), a critical regulator of plasmacytic differentiation, by these agents was closely correlated but varied between individual cases, despite functionally intact IL-21 receptor- and Toll-like receptor 9-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, and nuclear factor-κB pathways. PRDM1 induction was inversely correlated with the extent of anergy as measured by the ability to mobilize intracellular Ca(2+) following BCR crosslinking. PRDM1 responsiveness was associated with other markers of differentiation and proliferation but not with differences in apoptosis. The ability to induce PRDM1 did correlate with differential transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the PRDM1 gene. These studies extend our understanding of CLL pathobiology, demonstrating that reduced differentiation capacity may be a consequence of anergy. Epigenetic drugs may offer possibilities to reactivate PRDM1 expression as part of novel differentiation therapy approaches.

Affer M, Chesi M, Chen WD, et al.
Promiscuous MYC locus rearrangements hijack enhancers but mostly super-enhancers to dysregulate MYC expression in multiple myeloma.
Leukemia. 2014; 28(8):1725-35 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
MYC locus rearrangements-often complex combinations of translocations, insertions, deletions and inversions-in multiple myeloma (MM) were thought to be a late progression event, which often did not involve immunoglobulin genes. Yet, germinal center activation of MYC expression has been reported to cause progression to MM in an MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance)-prone mouse strain. Although previously detected in 16% of MM, we find MYC rearrangements in nearly 50% of MM, including smoldering MM, and they are heterogeneous in some cases. Rearrangements reposition MYC near a limited number of genes associated with conventional enhancers, but mostly with super-enhancers (e.g., IGH, IGL, IGK, NSMCE2, TXNDC5, FAM46C, FOXO3, IGJ, PRDM1). MYC rearrangements are associated with a significant increase of MYC expression that is monoallelic, but MM tumors lacking a rearrangement have biallelic MYC expression at significantly higher levels than in MGUS. We also have shown that germinal center activation of MYC does not cause MM in a mouse strain that rarely develops spontaneous MGUS. It appears that increased MYC expression at the MGUS/MM transition usually is biallelic, but sometimes can be monoallelic if there is an MYC rearrangement. Our data suggest that MYC rearrangements, regardless of when they occur during MM pathogenesis, provide one event that contributes to tumor autonomy.

Liang L, Nong L, Zhang S, et al.
The downregulation of PRDM1/Blimp-1 is associated with aberrant expression of miR-223 in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 33:7 [PubMed] Free Access to Full Article Related Publications
BACKGROUND: The mechanism for inactivation of positive regulatory domain containing I (PRDM1), a newly identified tumour suppressor gene in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (EN-NK/T-NT) has not been well defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of PRDM1 in EN-NK/T-NT and analyse its downregulation by miRNAs.
METHODS: PRDM1 and miRNA expression were evaluated in EN-NK/T-NT samples by immunohistochemical analysis, qRT-PCR, and in situ hybridisation. Luciferase assays were performed to verify the direct binding of miR-223 to the 3'-untranslated region of PRDM1 mRNA. In addition, the effect of miR-223 on PRDM1 expression was assessed in NK/T lymphoma cell lines by transfecting a miR-223 mimic or inhibitor to increase or decrease the effective expression of miR-223. Overall survival and failure-free survival in EN-NK/T-NT patients were analysed using Kaplan-Meier single-factor analysis and the log-rank test.
RESULTS: Investigation of the downregulation of PRDM1 in EN-NK/T-NT cases revealed that PRDM1-positive staining might be a favourable predictor of overall survival and failure-free survival in EN-NK/T-NT patients. However, the negative staining of PRDM1 usually presented transcripts, suggesting a possible post-transcriptional regulation. miR-223 and its putative target gene, PRDM1, exhibited opposite patterns of expression in EN-NK/T-NT tissues and cell lines. Moreover, PRDM1 was identified as a direct target gene of miR-223 by luciferase assays. The ectopic expression of miR-223 led to the downregulation of the PRDM1 protein in the NK/T-cell lymphoma cell line, whereas a decrease in miR-223 restored the level of PRDM1 protein.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings reveal that the downregulation of the tumour suppressor PRDM1 in EN-NK/T-NT samples is mediated by miR-223 and that PRDM1-positive staining might have prognostic value for evaluating the clinical outcome of EN-NK/T-NT patients.

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